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ABSTRACT

With the immense loss of life and property witnessed in the last couple of decades alone in India, due to failure of structures caused by earthquakes, attention is now being given to the evaluation of the adequacy of strength in framed RC structures to resist strong ground motions. Inelastic static analysis, or pushover analysis, has been the preferred method for seismic performance evaluation due to its simplicity. It is a static analysis that directly incorporates nonlinear material characteristics. The structure has been evaluated using Pushover Analysis, a non-linear static procedure, which may be considered as a series of static analysis carried out to develop a pushover curve for the building

Review
A. Kadid and A. Boumrkik considered three structures representing low, medium and high rise reinforced concrete framed buildings. the number of stories chosen was 5, 8 and 12 stories respectively. Material properties are assumed to be 25 MPa for the concrete compressive strength and 400 MPa for the yield strength of the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. The three buildings are 24 m by 12 m. Floor to floor height is 3.06m. The dynamic characteristics of the three buildings are symmetrical in the x and y directions respectively Since the mass participating factor in the first mode is approximately equal to 70% which means that the dynamic response will be dominated by the first mode, it was expected that the pushover analysis will yield realistic results.

They used general finite element package SAP 2000 for the analyses. A three dimensional model of each structure was created to undertake the non linear analysis. Beams and columns were modeled as nonlinear frame elements with lumped plasticity at the start and the end of each element.

Kadid and Boumrkik gave following conclusions based on their study on building models they considered The pushover analysis is a relatively simple way to explore the non linear behaviour of buildings The behaviour of properly detailed reinforced concrete frame building is adequate as indicated by the intersection of the demand and capacity curves and the distribution of hinges in the beams and the columns. Most of the hinges developed in the beams and few in the columns but with limited damage The causes of failure of reinforced concrete during the Boumerdes earthquake may be attributed to the quality of the materials of the used and also to the fact

that most of buildings constructed in Algeria are of strong beam and weak column type and not to the intrinsic behaviour of framed structures. The results obtained in terms of demand, capacity and plastic hinges gave an insight into the real behaviour of structures. It would be desirable to study more cases before reaching definite conclusions about the behaviour of reinforced concrete frame buildings

Prathibha S and A Meher Prasad considered a representative residential in Indian seismic zones. A symmetric floor plan and floor levels of equal height were used to avoid any irregular behaviour that might lead to complexities in the interpretation of the response.

The building was designed for gravity loads (1.5 (DL+LL)) and no lateral loads are considered in accordance with code requirements prescribed in IS456:1978 . Proportioning of structural elements is performed as per SP34 (S&T):1987 , which are meant for gravity load design. The grade of concrete considered is M20 and that of reinforcement steel is Fe415. Dead loads are computed considering the unit weight of concrete as 25 kN/m3 and the live load on the floors are taken as 2.5 kN/m2 and for roof as 1.5 kN/m2 from IS 875 (Part 2): 1987 [5].The reinforcement patterns were arrived on the basis of gravity load design as per IS 456-1978 The computer program SAP2000NL is used for pushover analysis. The nonlinear static procedure of ATC 40 is implemented in SAP2000 NL which feature is in the present analysis. The unique capability of the program is the definition of plastic hinge properties and the nonlinear static analysis tool. It allows for the direct input of moment rotation properties characteristic of sections. SAP2000 NL uses the moment rotation backbone curve from ATC40.