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Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !

)" #$

Simulation of High Speed and Long-Haul Optical Communication Systems


Muhammed Faleh Hassan, Electrical Engineering Department of Kufa University

Abstract
In high speed optical transmission system, three primary effects limit its speed and transmission distance. These effects are the fiber dispersion, fiber nonlinearities and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, the last one is introduce in optical amplification process along fiber length. Management of these fiber effects is the key for high bit rate and long haul transmission distance. In this ork, methodologies of creating optical communication system is presented, an optical communication link is constructed and simulated, this includes! optical transmitter, the transmitter characteristics of fiber and optical recei"er. The interplay effects among "arious fibers transmissions characteristic is studied and analy#e. $esults sho that and in term of optical amplifier spacing, and for %&'bps system speed, the system performance degrade ob"iously at (&km amplifier spacing, this results from that the interaction bet een amplifier noise and fiber nonlinearity along (&km is enough to degrade system performance. Any increasing of amplifier spacing abo"e )&km, the system performance degrades gradually and the dominant limiting factor is the ASE noise. *sing post+compensation dispersion map, non+return to #ero (,$-) signal format and setting optical system parameters to optimal "alues, makes the optical system capable of transmitting %&'bps o"er .&/&km of standard single mode fiber length, ith ..( .&+.( bit error rate. Keywords0 Modeling of optical communication systems, dispersion and non+linear effect of fiber optic channel, dispersion managements.

%"#$ ! %2 2, 2 256 2 24 12 23 ' 0 &./" $- $ " #$%%+,& ' *)( %<)GH%+(2 2 *)2 2( 2 2F D2 2E 2 2 >= C3? B?@ A >=< '? : ;9 7#8 %N2 2 M?2 2 J #$ K%+<L J & '? .?I $ " #$ %<2 2AQ 12 26 2 2 J2 2 B2 2? ?2 2 '2 2" &#2 2$ <2 28 !K OP%+ ;C #A %@2 2?A%+2 2 02 2) &G' JE! K< 8" !#$ (6 B%%+ KE? R#8 (*) %V2 2I3A 2 2" &#2 2$ :G UH D2 2H%%%&'bps L CA >= TQ?) 6 13L' ) S %T2 2Q%(&km 2 2 UH N=2 2L M2 2I3 #$%+(&km B >= TQ< G Y L X!E J>WL % '?0 &56 4 13 T >=< : ;BL J6?E 8 5>= %) [2 2 C2 2A :G B2 2 J2 2E/ 02 2%)&km 2 2 2 2L >= TQ< G Y Z%+CA :G B G! %2^$' 2 2 'J>2WL .]2 2/?)< GH D2E 2 ?K C3?L%+<]I! : ;$ (I' =\ %L%.&/&km DH ( _K%%+CA 4? KQ J?) 6 'I DH < 4)< S* +`a c`+a `b ")/= E 56 ( A%%&'bps L J/

I. Introduction

The key for high speed optical communication system can be met by denser 12M channels and faster T2M channels. 3n this basis, there is al ays interest in ma4imi#ing speeds of single channel system for long haul transmission distance. In this contest se"eral phenomena limit the transmission performance of long+haul optical transmission systems including fiber nonlinearities, dispersion, and noise 5'o"ind, (&&.6 and 5I"an, (&&76. 8or long+haul systems the nonlinear refracti"e inde4 can couple the signal ith noise. In single channel system fiber Self+9hase Modulation (S9M) is dominant nonlinear fiber effect. This effect limits transmitter output po er. :ecause of the degradation of recei"er sensiti"ity due to the noise band idth in high speed systems, the po er le"el margin is insufficient for long distance fiber loss. The introduction of optical fiber amplifier repeaters and optical po er management along the fibers has dramatically

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Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

increased the transmission distance. 3n the other hand fiber chromatic dispersion causes se"er transmission a"eform distortion in high speed systems and as a results puts limits on the transmission speed and distance. The limits depend on the installed fiber constant, transmission distance and system speed. Management of fiber dispersion can achie"e by choosing optimal dispersion map. The techni;ue (kno n as dispersion mapping 5'o"ind, (&&76) has been used in both single channel systems to reduce nonlinear interaction bet een signal and noise, as ell as in 12M systems. There is a trend in most of the ne long+haul systems to be loss+limited. This limitation can be drastically reduced by the use of in+line optical amplifiers, specially erbium doped fiber amplifiers (E28A<s), allo ing long+haul systems to increase their capacity. In other ord, optical amplifiers also introduce noise in the system 5E. 2esur"ire, .))%6. The main source of noise in these de"ices is the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. ,oise accumulation in long amplifier chains reduces the optical signal+to+noise ratio (S,$) and can cause serious impairments to system performance 5=. $. 'iles, .)).6 and 52ietrich, .)))6. It is necessary, then, to in"estigate the effecti"eness of the use of E28A chains to reduce the loss limitation of system capacity. As system comple4ity increases, careful design becomes a difficult issue. *sing simulation tools can make the design process more efficient, as ell as faster and cheaper. In this ork, the performance assessment of %&'bps system is in"estigated. An optical communication system is simulated including optical transmitter, transmission characteristics of fiber channel and optical recei"er. The interplay effects of fiber dispersion and transmission nonlinearities, as ell as the accumulation effects of ASE noise are studied. :y setting optical system parameters to optimal "alue and proper managed fiber effects, an in"estigation is made to reach longer transmission distance at %&'bps bit rate ith reliable bit error rate.

II. Modeling of Optical Communication ystem


=omputer modeling of the physical optical communication system is a difficult task, due to the large number of system components 5I"an, (&&>6. In addition, for the e"aluation of the end+to+end system performance, it is necessary to take into account the impact of se"eral transmission impairments, e.g., chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise accumulation, crosstalk, polari#ation+ dependent loss, polari#ation+mode dispersion (9M2), signal distortion due to filtering, reflections, and so forth. :ecause of the comple4ity of the problem, the choice of an ade;uate computer representation of optical signals and system components is essential. A block diagram of the light a"e system considered is illustrated in 8ig. .. The generated se;uence denotes the data "alues, hich are considered independent and identically distributed. The system is represented by models suitable for computer aided analysis.

..?

8igure (.) 0 3ptical communication system model

To increase computational efficiency it can assume the a"eform o"er the modeled inter"al ( ithin a block) is representati"e of a periodic a"eform identical to repeating the inter"al o"er and o"er again. This is called stationary analysis, and allo s efficient fast 8ourier transform techni;ues to be used. It also means that data delayed to outside the modeled inter"al is not lost, but is rapped around to the beginning of the block. This section presents models, used to describe the optical transmitter, the transmission characteristics of the fiber and the recei"er. The detailed of the modeling blocks is e4plained briefly in this section as follo s0 1- Pseudo random binary sequence Generator: A pseudo random binary se;uence (9$:S) is usually re;uired hen modeling the information source in simulations of digital communication systems. The binary se;uence can be generated ith the use of a random generator, or, alternati"ely, can be directly specified or read from a specified file. The 9$:S module produces a se;uence of , bits (Time 1indo @:it $ate) ith the numbers m and n of #ero bits (spaces) preceding and succeeding the generated bit se;uence of length N-m-n .The number m and n are used to make the total number of samples al ays of form !, here k is positi"e integer, this can reduce the efforts in calculation of 8ast 8ourier Transform (88T). The generated bits is encode ith an electrical ,on $eturn to -ero (,$-) coded signal. A ,$- pulse has a single "alue o"er the entire bit length, i.e., the A.B is coded by a high le"el ith non+#ero amplitude and the A&B by a lo le"el ith #ero amplitude. - "ransmitter #ilter: This module is used to generate pulses ith a pre+defined rise time,suitable for transmission along fiber channel. An electrical rectangular ,$-@$preshaped input pulse ith pulse duration " is filtered by a linear time+in"ariant filter ith a normali#ed 'aussian shaped transfer function0

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Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

D. ' & % = "o e "$ % 1here "o denotes the 1(e pulse duration and is the angular fre;uency 5Eirtual 9hotonic, .)))6. )- *ontinuous +ave ,aser 0 The module produces a time dependent field Eb&t%, hich is normali#ed to the user specified po er Pave. The laser model contains a 'aussian hite noise ith a "ariance of (f corresponding to the optical laser Fine idth f. The output is multiplied ith a comple4 "ector considering the state of polari#ation (S39). The baseband signal of the optical output =1+ a"e is therefore determined by
.K Eb & t % = P D( K e . - e/p& . & %d -% 1here & % is a 'aussian hite noise ith "ariance (f .The S39 is gi"en by the

po er splitting parameter K &01K11% and an additional phase G 5Eirtual 9hotonic, .)))6.. 2- $ptical 3odulator: The purposed of the optical modulator is to con"ert time dependent signal from electrical domain to optical domain ith carrier fre;uency specified by =1+laser source. The optical po er Pout at the output of Mach+-ehnder Modulator (M-M! is one types of e4ternal optical modulators), depends on the phase difference bet een the t o modulator branches
Pout & t % = Pin & t % d(t) = 9in & t % cos ( 5 & t %4

D
% arctan& . (& %%%

>
=

. . e/t - data& t % ( ( (

ith e4t = . +

D% & t % is 1here d&t% is the po er transfer function, is the po er e4tinction ratio and the phase difference on the electrical input data signal data&t% caused by the applied modulation signal data. The electrical field of the output signal can be finally ritten as 5'erhard, .))/60
Eout & t % = E in & t % d(t) . e H(t)

D7

6- #iber $ptic *7annel: The module sol"es the nonlinear SchrIdinger (,FS) e;uation describing the propagation of linearly polari#ed optical a"es in fiber using the split+step 8ourier method. The model take into account stimulated $aman scattering (S$S), four+ a"e mi4ing (81M), self+phase modulation (S9M), cross+phase modulation (J9M), first order group+"elocity dispersion ('E2), second order 'E2 and attenuation of the fiber. Assuming a propagation of optical signals in 89 direction and a symmetrical split step algorithm, the mathematical formalism of the procedure can be described according to 5'o"ind, (&&.6 as follo s0
D D E& 9 & + 9 :t % = e/p 9 - 5e/p& 9N %E& 9 & :t %%4 e/p 9 - ( (

D/
here 2 = .

( ( > ( + + ( t ( / t > (

ith ( =

( ( D and > = & ( ; + (D % ( (c & (c %

..)

N = . E & 9 : t %

ith =

(n( f ref c<eff

1here D is the dispersion operator, N is the nonlinearty operator, ( describes the first order 'roup Eelocity 2ispersion ('E2), > is the second order 'E2 , is the attenuation constant, D is dispersion parameter , ; is the dispersion slope, n( is the nonlinear inde4, <eff is the effecti"e core area , f fre is the reference fre;uency and c is "elocity of light in "acuum. The step si#e in the symmetrical split step algorithm, 9 = D? E& 9 % p! (
ith peak "alue of optical is determined by a ma4imum acceptable phase shift ( po er E& 9 % p! =- Dispersion 3ap: There are three possible schemes for managing dispersion in long+ haul fiber links. In each case, the accumulated dispersion is balance using special fiber type ha"e negati"e dispersion "alue called 2ispersion =ompensation 8iber (2=8). In the first configuration, kno n as precompensation, the dispersion accumulated o"er the entire link is compensated at the transmitter end. In the second configuration, kno n as postcompensation, a 2=8 of appropriate length is placed at the recei"er end. In the third configuration, kno n as symmetrical dispersion compensation, dispersion is compensated using pre+ and post+ dispersion compensation in a periodic fashion all along the link. Each of these configurations is referred to as a dispersion map, as it pro"ides a "isual map of dispersion "ariations along the link length. 3ne can construct a "ariety of dispersion maps by combining se"eral different fibers. >- $ptical <mplifier: In this module the signal is amplified by a gain and then the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise is added. Sometimes an ideal optical filter is placed after each amplifier in order to reduce ASE effect, and the optical isolator a"oids the effect of ASE back propagation. As long as only single channel systems are considered, gain and ASE spectra are assumed to be uniform inside the optical filter band idth. The ASE po er after the optical filter is 5$odolfo, .))?60 P<;E =sp & G . %7vs ?o DC = #G . ( & G . % v 1here sp is the amplifier spontaneous emission factor, s is the optical fre;uency of the signal carrier, G is the gain of optical amplifier, h is the :lank constant and ?o is the optical filter band idth. The time domain optical field en"elope can computed as! Eout & t % = G Ein & t % + G <;E & t % D ) 1here G <;E & t % is 'aussian distribution random "ariable ith #ero mean "alue and P<;E "ariance. @- PAN P7otodiode: The module con"erts the incident optical field into an electrical signal. The combined optical field E& t % is then con"erted into an optical po er Ps&t% by taking its modulus s;uared, and con"erting to an electrical signal, the process of con"erting the optical intensity into an electrical current is described by 5'erd, (&&(6 i& t % = is & t % + ns7 & t % + nt7 & t % + id D.&

.(&

Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

1here is&t% is the output current is directly related to the absorbed optical po er Ps&t% by is&t% B r- Ps&t%, here r is responsi"ely of photo+diode. ns7&t% denotes the generated Shot ,oise current ith the one sided spectral noise density Ns7 in < ( '9 - The spectral density is determined by N s7 = (q& is + id % , nt7&t% represents the thermal noise caused by the (usually high) photo+detector<s internal resistance. The associated one+sided spectral noise density ,th has to be specified in < ( '9 and id denotes the 9I, dark current. C- Deceiver #ilter : An analog fourth order :essel filter reali#es the minimal phase system (linear phase). Therefore, preser"ation of a"e shape of the filtered signal in the passband can be achie"ed. The transfer function of the filter is described by 5Eirtual 9hotonic, .)))6.0
'& p % = & .&7 + .&7 p + %7 p ( + .& p > + p % % .&7

ith

p=

.f f >d?

D..

1here f)d? is the >d: =utoff 8re;uency. This filter is also used to implement in line optical filter ith optical filter band idth ?o . The function of the optical filter is to remo"e out of band ASE noise. 10- *loc! Decovery: This block synchroni#es the incoming electrical signal ith the original transmitted signal. The original signal is regenerated from the specified logical information channel attached to the physical signal. 8rom logical information, like the digital bit stream, pulse shape, coding type, modulation type, and bit rate, a copy of the initially sent signal is built. The time delay is calculated from the cross correlation of the incoming electrical signal and the internally regenerated original signal. The incoming signal is then shifted in time, so that the electrical output signal is a time delayed copy of the incoming signal. 11- Eisuali9ers: Eisuali#ers are used to display, measure and processing optical and electrical signal by taped a small ;uantity of the transmitted signal at any point a long optical communication system such as signal time domain "isuali#ation, eye diagram e"olution, and bit error rate estimation. Most numerical models in"estigate a short bit stream in order to a"oid e4cessi"e computational time. 1ith a fe bits it essential to make some assumption about the noise distribution. A bit error estimation assuming a 'aussian noise distribution on both the one and #ero le"els can compute as follo 5Eirtual 9hotonic, .)))6.0 t7 t7 p& p. + ?ED = erfc . erfc & D.( ( (& p + p % ( ((p & + p. ) & . . & 1here t7 is the decision threshold, p1 and p0 are the source digital probabilities of #eros and ones, respecti"ely, and erfc&/% denotes the complementary error function. 1: 0 are the mean "alues for the ones and #eros, respecti"ely and 1: 0 are the standard de"iation of the ones and #eros, respecti"ely. The optimum "alue of the decision threshold minimi#ing the bit error rate is calculated according to ( & t7 & % . . = e/p & t7 . % e/p D ( ( & ( & ( . . .>

.(.

figure (() sho s the flo chart of the optical communication system simulation, in this ork MatlabK?.% language is used to implement this algorithm. ;tart a Anitiali9e optical system parameters Gtable 1H Generate a PDP; NDI binary sequence of ) bits Fit7 leading one bit padding 9ero

#iltered t7e received optical received Faveform using optical filter Geq-11 H Detect t7e input optical field and convert it into electrical current using PAN p7oto diode-

<d.ust rise time sequence Faveform using eq- 1 ;imulate t7e *+-,aser source using eq3odulate t7e electrical signal Faveform Fit7 t7e optical carrier frequency of 1C)-> "'9 using optical modulator eq-6

Generate receiving noise signal using eq-10 and add it to t7e signal Faveform

#iltered t7e received electrical received Faveform using eq-11 ;ync7roni9e t7e incoming received signal using reference generated replica PN sequence Decoding t7e received symbols by t7res7old detector using eq-1)

Passes t7e symbols t7roug7 single mode fiber of lengt7 ,;3# using eq-= Passes t7e symbols t7roug7 dispersion compensation fiber of lengt7 ,D*# using eq-= eq-= *ompensate t7e loss by using optical amplifier using eq-C-

Estimate ?ED of t7e received Faveform using eq- 1

No

Propagation *omplete

Jes a

End

.((
8igure (() 8lo =hart of the 3ptical =ommunication System simulation

Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

I!. "esults
In this section, %&'bps optical system is assist in term of computer simulation, the steps of generating and recei"ing bit se;uence as ell as typical system parameter "alues Ltable (.)M are summari#ed as follo ing. The input to the optical transmitter is a pseudo+ random se;uence of electrical pulses, representing . and & bits. The length , of the pseudo+random bit se;uence determines the computing time and should be chosen Hudiciously. Typically, N B !<, here ! is in the range of 7 to .&, in this ork e choose NB) . A different set of e;uations go"erning the dynamics of an e4ternal modulator is used to con"ert the =1 laser light into an optical bit stream. 2eformation of the optical bit stream during its transmission through the optical fiber is calculated by sol"ing the ,on+Finear SchrIdinger (,FS) e;uation. The method most commonly used for sol"ing this e;uation is kno n as the spit+step 8ourier method. ASE noise added to the signal at the location of each amplifier through. After adding noise at each amplifier, the ,FS e;uation is sol"ed in the follo ing fiber section, and the procedure is repeated until the last amplifier is reached. A suitable recei"er model con"erts optical signal into the electric domain and filters it using a filter hose band idth ?e is close to but smaller than the bit rate ? (typically ?e (? N &./+&.C). The resulting electric bit stream is used to find the instantaneous "alues of currents, for & and . bits, respecti"ely, by sampling it at the center of each bit slot. An eye diagram is also constructed using the filtered bit stream. The system performance is ;uantified through the :E$. The calculation of the :E$ re;uires that the ,FS e;uation be sol"ed a large number of times ith different seeds for the amplifier noise. Such an approach can be used to in"estigate trade+offs that ould optimi#e o"erall system performance. The simulation of the transmission is characteri#ed by a large number of different parameters, most of hich did not change from simulation to other. 8or competence a list of typical parameters set belo , and mention de"iations from these unless hene"er they occur.
Table .0 Simulation 3ptical System 9arameter

System parameter ?it rate Number of bit per Ford Favelengt7 ;ample rate $ptical laser poFer ,aser line Fidt7 PoFer splitting parameter <dditional p7ase s7ift E/tinction ratio #iber attenuation Dispersion coefficient Dispersion slope

symbol ?
!

"alue 20 ) &!B6% 1-660 ) 1 10 0-6 0 )0 0- e-) 1=e-= 0-0@e) .(>

fs P
!

a
D

&;3#%

unit Gbps: NDI bits Km Per bit m+ 3'9 --rad d? d?m s(m s(m)

&;3#%
;

Nonlinear refractive inde/ Effective core area #iber attenuation Dispersion coefficient Dispersion slope Nonlinear refractive inde/ Effective core area <mplifier noise figure $ptical ?essel filter bandFidt7 $rder of in line optical filter Desponsively of PAN p7oto diode "7ermal noise ;7ot noise Dar! current electrical ?essel filter bandFidt7 $rder of receiver electrical filter

&;3#% n &;3#% <eff &;3# % a &D*#%


D

-=e- 0 @0e-1 0-=e-) -C0e-= 0- 1e) 2e- 0 )0e-1 2 1 bit rate 2 1 10e-1 0 0-@ bit rate 2

m (+ m d?m s(m s(m) m (+ m d? '9 --<(+


<( '9 '9

&D*#%
;

&D*#% n &D*#%
<eff

&D*#% N# ?o --r Nt7


N s7

N s7 = (q& is + id % < (

id ?e ---

< '9 ---

T o standard assessment methodologies are used in this ork. The first is the eye opening of the recei"ed a"eform and the second is the bit error rate, hich gi"e us an e"olution of satisfactory operation of the system. The bit error rate calculation is based on 'aussian appro4imation of the recei"ed ord, here the decision threshold is set to optimum "alue. Another figure of merit is the O+factor, hich is defined as the differences bet een the a"erage le"els of the pulses and spaces di"ided by the sum of their standard de"iations. Po e"er the information gained from O+factor is less important than bit error rate "alue, hence it not used in this ork. 8igure (>) sho s the e"olution performance of %&'bps in term of fiber length in km as a function of bit error rate is studied. It clearly that, the performance .i.e. bit error rate degrade se"erely as fiber length increase abo"e 7km (:E$N..>(e+.. at 7km). This results from accumulation effects of chromatic dispersion and fiber non+linearities along fiber length, especially at .& km length. The detailed recei"ed signal a"eform and eye diagram as ell as bit error rate is sho n in figure (%) and figure (7) for fiber length of 7km and .&km respecti"ely. It noted that from figure (7) that the eye diagram is destroyed completely and the signal a"eform is disperse se"erely due to fiber nonlinear effect, hich become more deleterious effect at high system Q%&'bps. It noted from figure (7a) that some pulses in the transmitted a"eform remain unchanged, hile other spread out. The reason behind this effect is that these unaltered pulses ith high peak amplitude satisfy the condition of soliton pulses shape. This type of pulse can tra"el o"er long distance ithout altering its shape. .(%

Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

10

10

-20

10 Bit erorr rate

-40

10

-60

10

-80

10

-100

10

-120

5 6 Fiber length in Km

10

8igure (>)0 Single Mode 8iber length in km against bit error rate for %&'bps bit rate.
1.4

1.2

(a)
Current in mA
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 1.4

0 x 10-3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Time in ns

1.2

1 Current in A

0.8

(b)

0.6

0.4

0.2

.(7
-0.02 -0.015 -0.01 -0.005 0 Time in ns 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025

0 -0.025

8igure (%)0 a) $ecei"ed se;uence, b) eye diagram . 8or 7km fiber length, the measured bit error rate is ..>( .&+..
1.4

1.2

1 Current in mA

(a)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 x 10
-3

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Time in ns

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Eye Diagram 40Gbps L=10km BER=0.1515

1.4 1.2

(b)

Current in A

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 -0.025

-0.02

-0.015

-0.01

-0.005

0 Time in ns

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

8igure (7)0 a) $ecei"ed se;uence, b) eye diagram. 8or .&km fiber length, the measured bit error rate is &..7.7

8rom the pre"ious discussion, the transmitted optical pulses at %&'bps are spread out after fe kilometer of fiber length. Pence some form of dispersion compensation must

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Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

apply to increase transmission distance. 1e first apply the dispersion map for .&km fiber length, to in"estage the impro"ement of using dispersion compensation fiber in dispersion management of optical system. 8igure (/) sho s the transmitted a"eform and eye diagram of .&km dispersion managed single mode fiber. The bit error rate is minimi#ing from &..7.7 in SM8 alone to =-C 10-=0 in case of dispersion managed section.

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0


-4

(a)

Current in mA

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Time in ns

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

8 7 6 5

x 10

(b)

Current in A

4 3 2 1

0 -0.025

-0.02

-0.015

-0.01

-0.005

0 Time in ns

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

8igure (/)0 a) $ecei"ed se;uence, b) eye diagram. 8or .&km fiber length, dispersion managed using 2=8, the measured bit error rate is /.)(C .&+/&

In optimi#ation of %&'bps optical system, many system parameters must be set carefully. Among these parameter is the modulation format, adHustment of rise time signal, optimum lunched optical signal po er, designing optimal dispersion map including setting optimum amplifier spacing using in line optical filter ith appropriate band idth. This filter is used to remo"e out of band ASE optical amplifier noise. At recei"er side, setting band idth of the electrical recei"er filter is an important parameter

.(?

in optimi#ing system performance that is help in remo"ing out of band recei"er noise (shot and thermal noises). The most key parameters that can be used in optimi#ing long haul %&'bps optical system, is the optimum lunching optical po er and choosing the optical amplifier spacing. In this section, the effect of these t o parameters is studied in term of computer simulation. Amplifiers not only added ASE noise to the signal but also allo the dispersi"e and nonlinear effects to accumulate o"er long lengths. Moreo"er, amplifier noise re;uired to increase the channel po er to be e;ual or more than .m1 in order to maintain a high S,$ (and a high S@, consistent ith the :E$ re;uirements). Since noise limits the :E$ at lo po er le"els hereas nonlinear effects limit it at high po er le"els, it is already kno n that a light a"e system ould ha"e the smallest "alue of :E$ at an optimum "alue of the a"erage po er launched into the fiber at the input end. So the interplay effects of optimum optical lunched po er and optical amplifier spacing length is displayed in figure (?). 1here the bit error rate is plotted as a function of optical amplifier (.&km+>&km) spacing for reaching distance of .(&km fiber length, the lunched optical signal po er is .m1 and post+dispersion compensation map design is used. It ob"ious that the performance of the system degrade as amplifier spacing increase. 1ith the amplifier spacing of .&km, the measured bit error rate is "ery small "alue of . .&+ ..& . As amplifier spacing increase the system performance decrease until reach (&km, here the system performance saturated at specified :E$ "alue until reaching )&km, since the interaction bet een ASE noise and fiber non+linearity take place o"er long transmission distance ((&km). Any increasing abo"e this "alue, ASE noise ill become the limiting factor and destroyed the signal completely, this results from that the po er le"el of the optical signal reach the le"el of ASE noise that degrade system performance se"erely

10

10

-20

10 Bit erorr rate

-40

10

-60

10

-80

10

-100

10

-120

10

12

14

16

18 20 22 Amplifer spacing in km

24

26

28

30

8igure (?)0 Amplifier spacing against bit error rate for reaching distance of .(& km.

.(C

Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

8igure (C) sho s the recei"ed bit se;uence and eye diagram for single channel %&'bps system bit rate at transmission distance of .&/&km, here the post+dispersion compensation map design is used. The dispersion map consists of single mode fiber of length )& km follo ed by 2=8 of length ./km for dispersion compensation. =hoosing this length of fibers ill diminished the residual dispersion effects. 8or each transmission section of fiber span, the o"erall attenuation is compensated at each section end, .i.e. the optical amplifier is placed at dispersion map end. This ill pre"ent the interaction bet een amplifier noise and fiber dispersion. :essel in line optical filter is used at fiber transmission end to remo"e out of band accumulated ASE noise. This procedure makes the optical system capable of transmitting %&'bps ,$- data o"er .&/&km of standard single mode fiber length, ith 1- 10-1 bit error rate. The summari#ed performance of optical system in term of fiber length as a function of bit error rate is sho n in figure ()), again the reaching transmission distance is .&/&km (compare ith figure(>)). It clearly that the interaction bet een ASE noise and fiber nonlinearity that accumulate in long transmission distance, is the maHor limiting factor in long haul transmission optical system.
1.4

1.2

1 Current in mA

(a)

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-3

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0.4 Time in ns

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Amplitude

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-0.005

0 Time in ns

0.005

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0.015

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0.025

.()

8igure (C)0 a) $ecei"ed se;uence, b) eye diagram . 8or .&/&km fiber length, dispersion managed using post+dispersion compensation map, the measured bit error rate is ...( .&+.(

10 10

-10

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10 Bit error rate

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-70

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-80

200

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600 700 Fiber length in Km

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8igure ())0 8iber length in km against bit error rate for long haul optical system

!. Conclusions
In this paper, the beha"ior of single channel long+haul %&'bps optical system is estimated using stationary analysis. A >( bit non+return to #ero pseudo random se;uence is generated using 9$9S module. The generated se;uence is transmitted and checked at the output port of each element used along optical simulation link. An o"er"ie of simulation of optical link is described, includes configuration of optical transmitter, simulate signal propagation in fiber channel as ell as optical recei"er. Three optical transmission effects that limit system speed and transmission distance are studied, hich are group "elocity dispersion, fiber nonlinearity and the accumulation effects of ASE noise o"er long chain of optical amplifier. ,umerical results sho that for %&'bps system speed, the interaction bet een amplifier noise and fiber nonlinearity along (&km is enough to degrade system performance. Any increasing of amplifier spacing abo"e )&km, the system performance degrades gradually and the dominant limiting factor becomes the ASE noise. *sing pre+compensation dispersion map, non+return to #ero signal format and in line optical filter, the reaching transmission distance is .&/&km at %& 'bps, and the calculated bit error rate is 1- 10-1 .

!I. "eferences

.>&

Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/ No.(3)/ Vol.( !)" #$

'iles =. $. and 2esur"ire, E. .)).. A9ropagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium+doped fiber optical amplifiers,B R. Fight a"e Technol., "ol. ), pp. .%?S.7%, 8eb., 2ietrich Marcuse and =uitis $. Menyuk, .))). ASimulation of single+=hannel 3ptical Systems at .&&'bpsB, Hournal of Fight a"e Technology, "ol..?, no. %, 99.7/%+7/C, April, E. 2esur"ire, , .))%. Erbium+2oped 8iber AmplifiersT9rinciples and Applications. ,e Uork0 1iley. 'erd Veiser, (&&(. A3ptical 8iber =ommunicationB, third edition, 'erhard 1enke, Markus Vimmek , A =onsideration of a factor of ,onideal, E4ternal 3ptical Mach+-ehnder Modulation A, Rournal of 3ptical =ommunication "ol..?, pp.(, .))/. 'o"ind 9. Agra al, (&&.. AApplications of ,onlinear 8iber 3ptics W, Academic press, 'o"ind 9. Agra al, (&&7WFight a"e TechnologyW, 1illey+Interscience. I"an :. 2HordHe"ic, A. Sta"das, =. Skoufis, S. Sygletos, and =. MatraHidis, (&&> AAnalytical Modeling of 8iber ,onlinearity in Amplified 2ispersion =ompensated 12M SystemsB, International Rournal of modeling and simulation, "ol.(>, ,o. %, pp.((/+(>(, I"an :. 2HordHe"ic, :ane Easic, Milos I"ko"ic, and Ildar 'abito", (&&7 AAchie"able Information $ates for Pigh+Speed Fong+Paul 3ptical TransmissionB, Hournal of light a"e Technology, "ol.(>, no..., pp.>?77+>?/., ,o"ember. 9hotonic Transmission 2esign Suite, A*ser<s ManualB, 53nline6.A"ailable0 http0@@ ."irtualphotonics.com@ . $odolfo A. A. Fima, Maria =ristina $. =ar"alho, and Fui# 8ernando M. =onrado, .))?. A3n the Simulation of 2igital 3ptical Finks ith E28A<s0 An Accurate Method for Estimating :E$ Through 'aussian Appro4imationB, IEEE Rouranal of selected topics in Ouantum Electronic, Eol. >, ,o. %, pp..&>?+.&%%, Augest.

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