‫تعلم واتقن‬

‫‪ ..‬النجليزية ‪..‬‬
‫بسهولة‬

‫‪.. English ..‬‬

‫‪Easily , learn and be excellent at ,‬‬

‫‪............‬الشامل ‪. . Levels . .‬‬
‫‪..‬‬
‫‪.‬‬

‫هذا الكتاب يشمل الجزءين معا واضافات أخرى ومقسم ل ‪levels‬‬
‫حسب مستوى الدارس ‪ ،‬وفيه كل ما تحتاجه لتتعلم وتتقن اللغة النجليزية من‬
‫الحروف البجدية )‪ (Alphabet‬إلي المحادثات )‪ ، (Conversations‬شامل كل‬
‫قواعد اللغة النجليزية )‪ (Grammar‬الضرورية والهامة للحياة العامة والتي تفيد‬
‫كل انسان مهما كان مستواه أو عمره ‪ ،‬ولكي يتمكن من تكوين المحادثات الخاصة به‬
‫بما يناسب ظروفه ‪ ،‬بالضافة للمحادثات الموجودة في هذا الكتاب ‪.‬‬

‫‪..‬‬

‫اعداد ‪ :‬حشمت كمال‬
‫‪By : Heshmat Kamal‬‬

‫‪...................................‬‬
‫‪.....................................................‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

6373468 :‫ت‬

2003 / 19286
977-17-1151-2

///
///

‫حشمت كمال‬
: ‫اعداد‬
‫حشمت كمال‬
: ‫الناشر‬
‫ حشمت كمال‬: ‫الجمع التصويري‬
: ‫المطبعة‬
‫الولى‬
: ‫الطبعة‬
2003 / 18867 : ‫رقم اليداع‬
977-17-1140-7 : ‫الترقيم الدولي‬

Author :
Heshmat Kamal Tel : 6373468
Publisher :
Heshmat Kamal
Type setting :
Heshmat Kamal
Press :
Edition :
First
Legal deposit # : 18867 /2003
///
19286 / 2003
I.S.B.N. :977-17-1140-7
///
977-17-1151-2

2

‫الفهرست ‪Contents‬‬
‫‪level‬‬

‫الموضوع‬
‫الحروف البجدية النجليزية ‪the English Alphabet‬‬
‫قواعد نطق بعض الحروف ‪pronunciation of some letters‬‬
‫كلمات هامة ومعانيها ‪important words and their meanings‬‬
‫كلمات هامة ومعانيها ‪important words and their meanings‬‬
‫كلمات متشابهة ومترادفات ‪Homonyms and synonyms‬‬
‫السوابق واللواحق ‪prefixes and suffixes‬‬
‫الوقت ‪time‬‬
‫حروف الجر ‪prepositions‬‬
‫جمع السماء ‪plural of nouns‬‬
‫‪Verb do‬‬
‫كلمات مع حروف جر‬
‫استخدام حروف الجر مع الوقت ‪prepositions with time‬‬
‫بعض قواعد الكتابة‬
‫‪A, An and The‬‬
‫‪"Verbs "be" and "have‬‬
‫استخدام حروف الجر مع المكان ‪prepositions with place‬‬
‫أفغال ‪verbs‬‬
‫كلمات وحروف جر‬
‫متنوعات هامة‬
‫أسئلة ‪questions‬‬
‫علمات الوقف ‪punctuation‬‬
‫علمة الملكية للسماء ‪the apostrophe‬‬
‫السماء التي تعد والتي لتعد ‪countable and uncountable nouns‬‬
‫الصمائر ‪pronouns‬‬
‫‪gerund‬‬
‫متنوعات‬
‫الظروف والصفات ‪adjectives and adverbs‬‬
‫الظروف والصفات ‪adjectives and adverbs‬‬
‫جدول لسماء مع صفاتها‬
‫مقدمة عن الزمنة ‪Tenses‬‬
‫مقدمة عن المبني للمعلوم والمبني للمجهول ‪active and passive‬‬
‫الزمنة ‪Tenses‬‬
‫تصريف الفعال ‪conjugation of verbs‬‬
‫المبني للمعلوم والمبني للمجهول ‪active and passive‬‬
‫جداول أفعال واسماء وصفات‬
‫لو )الشرطية( ‪conditional if‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪9‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬

‫الصفحة‬

‫‪6‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪11‬‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫‪14‬‬
‫‪16‬‬
‫‪17‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪21‬‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫‪23‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫‪28‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪31‬‬
‫‪32‬‬
‫‪33‬‬
‫‪34‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪37‬‬
‫‪38‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪43‬‬
‫‪44‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪47‬‬
‫‪51‬‬
‫‪55‬‬
‫‪59‬‬
‫‪62‬‬

64
65
66
67
68
70
72

12

wishes ‫التمني‬
letters ‫خطابات‬
Resume
Comprehension
direct and indirect speech ‫الكلم المباشر والغير مباشر‬
‫كلمات متشابهة ومتنوعات‬
Comprehension
level 3 ‫ ابتداء من‬conversation ‫ يوجد‬level ‫ولحظ انه في نهاية كل‬

‫مقدمة‬
4

‫أشكر ال على مساعدته لي في اتمام هذا الكتاب على أحسن وجه ‪ ،‬وهو شامل‬
‫للجزءين السابقين معا ‪ ،‬مع بعض الضافات الخرى ‪ ،‬ثم تقسيم كله ل ‪.levels‬‬
‫وأقدم هذا الكتاب اهداء لكل من يهتم بدراسة النجليزي في مصر والمهجر وكل‬
‫مكان ‪ ،‬لكي يفيده في كل حياته ‪ ،‬وقد راعيت فيه أن يكون مبسطا وسهل وفي نفس الوقت‬
‫شامل لينقصه شئ هام ‪ ،‬ولكن بالطبع ليوجد كتاب كامل في أي مجال ‪ ،‬وباذن ال سيكون‬
‫هذا الكتاب نافعا جدا لكل دارس في عمله وكل حياته العامة سواء كان الدارس طالب علم‬
‫في مدرسة أو كلية أو معهد أو موظف في أي مجال عمل أو حتى ان كان مدرس ‪ ،‬فهذا‬
‫الكتاب نافع للكل في كل المستويات ‪ ،‬فهو خلصة دراستي للغة النجليزية على مدى‬
‫عشرات السنوات ‪.‬‬
‫وأتمنى من القارئ العزيز أن يدقق في كل كلمة ويراعي عند دراسة اي فصل )أو‬
‫باب أو جزء( في هذا الكتاب أن يقرأه من أوله وبالترتيب ‪ ،‬فربما كلمة أو جملة واحدة‬
‫تسهل له دراسة الفصل كله ‪ ،‬بل وفصول أخرى مبنية عليه ‪ ،‬هذه نقطة أخرى وهي أنه‬
‫يجب معرفة أن اللغة النجليزي ‪ ،‬مثل أي لغة أخرى ‪ ،‬كلها مبنية على بعض ‪ ،‬فهم فصل‬
‫أو جزء معين جيدا ‪ ،‬سيفيد في فهم أجزاء أخرى كثيرة ‪ .‬وإذا كان الدارس يحب أن يكون‬
‫ممتازا في المحادثة ‪ ، conversation‬فليعلم أن المحادثة هي عبارة عن النجليزي كله‪،‬‬
‫فحفظ الكلمات والجمل وال ‪ grammar‬الموجودين في هذا الكتاب من أوله لخره لهم‬
‫أهمية في المحادثات ‪ .‬ويجب أيضا التمرين على نطق الكلمات مع المعارف والصدقاء ‪،‬‬
‫ومن قاموس ‪ Longman‬أو ‪ Oxford‬لن فيهما طريقة لنطق الكلمات بسهولة ‪.‬‬
‫أرجو من ال أن يساعد جميع الدارسين لهذا الكتاب بحسب مايرى ان فيه الخير ‪،‬‬
‫وان يكون هذا الكتاب لفائدة وخير شعب مصر الحبيب بل وكل الناس في كل العالم ‪.‬‬

‫)‪Level 1 [Meena] (H.K.‬‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫‪The English Alphabet‬‬
‫الحروف البجدية النجليزية‬
‫‪ ,‬آي ‪ , Ii‬اتش ‪ , Hh‬جي ‪ , Gg‬اف ‪ , Ff‬إي ‪ , Ee‬دي ‪ , Dd‬سي ‪ , Cc‬بي ‪ , Bb‬ايه ‪Aa‬‬
‫‪ , Ss‬آر ‪ , Rr‬كيو ‪ , Qq‬بي ‪ , Pp‬أوه ‪ , Oo‬ان ‪ , Nn‬ام ‪ , Mm‬إل ‪ , Ll‬كيه ‪ , Kk‬جيه ‪Jj‬‬
‫زد ‪ , Zz‬واي ‪ , Yy‬اكس ‪ , Xx‬دابليو ‪ , Ww‬في ‪ , Vv‬يوو ‪ , Uu‬تي ‪ , Tt‬اس‬
‫أما بقية الحروف فهي ساكنة )‪. (consonants‬‬
‫الحروف المتحركة )‪ (vowels‬هم ‪، a e i o u :‬‬
‫ومن الضروري حفظ هذه الحروف بالترتيب لستخدام أي قاموس ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (H.W 1‬اكتب الحروف البجدية كلها غيبا وبالترتيب بالحروف الكبيرة والصغيرة )في كراس الواجب(‬
‫‪ (2‬اتمرن على اخراج معاني الكلمات التالية من القاموس ‪,_____box____, play____, escape :‬‬
‫)‪[H.K.) [Meena‬‬

‫الضمائر الشخصية ]‪Personal Pronouns [Meena‬‬
‫‪(.Singular (H.K‬‬

‫أنا‬

‫‪I‬‬

‫‪You‬‬
‫)‪He (he, she, it = third singular‬‬
‫‪She‬‬
‫‪It‬‬

‫انت‪ ،‬أنت‬

‫هو‬
‫هي‬
‫هوأو هي لغير العاقل )الجماد أو الحيوان(‬
‫‪Plural‬‬

‫‪We‬‬
‫‪You‬‬
‫‪They‬‬

‫نحن‬
‫انتما‪ ،‬انتم‪ ،‬أنتن‬
‫هم )جمع المذكر و‪ /‬أو المؤنث و‪ /‬أو غير العاقل(‬

‫?‪H.W. What are the personal pronouns‬‬

‫ماهم الضمائر الشخصية؟ اكتبهم مع معانيهم في كراس الواجب‬

‫دايما احفظ كل كلمات تصادفك ‪ ،‬اكتبها مرة والكتاب مفتوح ثم مرة غيبا لتحفظ ال ‪spelling‬‬
‫)الستهجاء( وحسن خطك وأذكر النطق جيدا‪.‬‬

‫]‪Pronunciation of Some Letters [Meena‬‬
‫قواعد نطق بعض الحروف‬
‫‪ B‬أحيانا ل تنطق )تكون صامتة( كما في ‪ lamb‬لم )حمل( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (C 1‬تنطق س لو أتى بعدها ‪ e , i , y‬سواء كانت في أول الكلمة أو في وسطها ‪ ،‬وذلك‬
‫مثل ‪ nice :‬نايس )حسن( ‪ centre ،‬سنتر )مركز( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬وتنطق ك لو جاء بعدها أي حرف آخر ماعدا ‪ ، h‬مثل ‪ cycle‬سايكل )دورة( ‪ cat ،‬كات‬
‫)قطة( ‪ crime ،‬كرايم )جريمة( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬أما لو جاءت مزدوجة )‪ ، (cc‬تنطق الولى ك والثانية حسب القواعد السابقة ‪ ،‬مثل ‪accept :‬‬
‫أكسبت )يقبل( ‪ accuse ،‬أكيوز )يتهم( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (4‬أما لو جاء بعدها ‪ : h‬أ( تنطق تش مثل ‪ chalk :‬تشوك )طباشير( ‪ .‬ب( وتنطق ك مثل‪:‬‬
‫‪ chemistry‬كمستري )كيمياء( ‪ .‬ج( وتنطق ش مثل‪ machine :‬ماشين )ماكينة( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (5‬وأحيانا تنطق ش مثل ‪ ocean:‬أوشن )محيط(‬
‫وأحيانا ل تنطق وتكون صامتة مثل ‪ muscles :‬ماصلز )عضلت( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (G 1‬بصفة عامة تنطق ج كما في ‪ gold‬جولد )ذهب( ‪ ،‬لكنها تنطق ‪ j‬لو أتى بعدها‬
‫‪ e , i , y‬مثل ‪. Egyptian ، edge‬‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫‪ (2‬أما لو أتى بعدها ‪ n , th‬في نهاية الكلمة فتكون صامتة )لتنطق( ‪ ،‬مثل ‪ sign‬ساين )علمة‬
‫أو اشارة( ‪ length ،‬لنث )طول(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬أما لو أتى بعدها ‪ : h‬أ( تنطق ف مثل ‪ enough‬اناف )يكفي( ‪ .‬ب( أو ل تنطق مثل‬
‫‪ high‬هاي )عالي( ‪ straight ،‬إستريت )مستقيم( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ H‬أحيانا ل ينطق كما في ‪ hour‬أور )ساعة( ‪ honest ،‬أونست )أمين(‪.‬‬
‫‪ K‬ل تنطق إذا جاء بعدها ‪ n‬في أول الكلمة مثل ‪ knife‬نايف )سكينة( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ L‬ل تنطق في بعض الكلمات التي فيها التركيبات ‪ alk , alf , ould‬مثل ‪ chalk‬تشوك‬
‫)طباشير(‪ half ،‬هاف )نصف( ‪ could ،‬كود )ممكن( ‪[Meena] .‬‬
‫‪ N‬ل تنطق إذا جاءت بعد ‪ m‬مثل ‪ column‬كولم )عمود( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ P‬أحيانا ل تنطق كما في ‪ psychology‬سايكولوجي ‪ ،‬أما لو جاء بعدها ‪ h‬فتنطق ف مثل‬
‫‪ phosphor‬فسفور ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (S 1‬تنطق ز لو جاءت بين حرفين متحركين مثل ‪ rose‬روز )وردة( ‪ disease ،‬ديزيز‬
‫)مرض(‪ ،‬ولكن يستثنى من هذه القاعدة ‪ dis‬لما تأتي في بداية كلمة مثل ‪ disappear‬ديس أبير‬
‫)يختفي( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬وأحيانا تنطق ‪ j‬مثل ‪. usually‬‬
‫‪ (3‬وأحيانا تنطق ش مثل ‪ sugar‬شوجر )سكر(‪ ،‬وخاصة لو أتى بعده ‪ h‬مثل ‪ fish‬فيش )سمك(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (4‬وأحيانا ل تنطق كما في ‪ island‬آيلند )جزيرة( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (T 1‬تنطق ش إذا أتى بعدها ‪ ion‬مثل ‪ action‬أكشن )حركة( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬وأحيانا تنطق تش مثل ‪ nature‬نيتشر )طبيعة( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬وأحيانا ل تنطق كما في ‪ often‬أوفن )مرارا( و ‪ listen‬ليسن )يستمع( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (4‬وإذا جاء بعدها ‪ h‬تنطق ث أو ذ مثل ‪ mouth‬ماوس )فم( و ‪ father‬فازر )أب( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ W‬ل ينطق إذا جاء في أول الكلمة وبعده ‪ r‬أو ‪ h‬مثل ‪ write‬رايت )يكتب( ‪ who ،‬هوو‬
‫)من(‪.‬‬
‫‪ X‬ينطق جز لو أتى بعده حرف متحرك مثل ‪ exactly‬اجزاكتلي )بالضبط( ‪.‬‬

‫كلمات هامة ومعانيها‬
‫]‪Important words and their meanings [Meena‬‬
‫والن نأخذ كلمات كثيرة الستخدام في الحياة عامة ومبوبة أو مجمعة معا ‪:‬‬
‫‪) .H.W‬ضروري حفظهم جيدا جدا ‪ ،‬النطق مع المعاني مع الستهجاء(‬
‫‪It is very important to study them by heart, their pronunciation, meanings‬‬
‫)‪and their spelling. (H.K.‬‬
‫]‪[Meena‬‬

‫شروق ‪ , sunrise‬الفجر )‪ : dawn (day-break‬أوقات اليوم ‪Times of the day‬‬

‫‪ , sunset‬بعد الظهر ‪ , afternoon‬الظهر ‪ , noon‬الصباح ‪ , morning‬الشمس‬
‫‪ //‬نصف الليل ‪ , midnight‬الليل ‪ , night‬المساء ‪ , evening‬غروب الشمس‬
‫‪ , tomorrow night‬غدا ‪ , tomorrow‬هذه الليلة ‪) , tonight‬اليوم )انهاردة ‪today‬‬
‫غدا ليل‬

‫‪ ,‬الثلثاء ‪ , Tuesday‬الثنين ‪ : Monday‬أيام السبوع ]‪Week days [Meena‬‬

‫‪ ,‬السبت ‪ , Saturday‬الجمعة ‪ , Friday‬الخميس ‪ , Thursday‬الربع ‪Wednesday‬‬
‫الحد ‪Sunday‬‬
‫‪7‬‬

Months ‫ الشهور‬:

January ‫ يناير‬, February ‫ فبراير‬, March ‫ مارس‬,
April ‫ أبريل‬, May ‫ مايو‬, June ‫ يونية‬, July ‫ يولية‬, August ‫ أغسطس‬,
September ‫ سبتمبر‬, October ‫ أكتوبر‬, November ‫ نوفمبر‬, December ‫ديسمبر‬
. (H.K.)
. ‫ مهما كان موقعهم في الجملة‬Capital ‫لحظ أن كل أيام السبوع وكل الشهور دايما يكتبوا ب‬

Seasons [Meena] ‫ )المواسم )الفصول‬: spring ‫ الربيع‬, summer ‫ الصيف‬,
autumn (fall) ‫ الخريف‬, winter ‫الشتاء‬

Cardinal Numbers ‫ العداد الصلية‬:

One 1 , two 2 , three 3 , four
4 , five 5 , six 6 , seven 7, eight 8 , nine 9 , ten 10 , eleven 11 ,
twelve 12 , thirteen 13 , fourteen 14 , fifteen 15 , sixteen 16 ,
seventeen 17 , eighteen 18 , nineteen 19 , twenty 20 , twenty-one 21 ,
twenty- two 22 .. .. twenty nine 29 , thirty 30 , forty 40 , fifty 50 ,
sixty 60 , seventy 70 , eighty 80 , ninety 90 , one hundred 100 ,
one
hundred and one 101 , one hundred and two 102 , two hundred and
one 201 , one thousand 1000 , one thousand and one 1001 , one
million (A million) 1000000 , two millions , one billion (A billion) .

Ordinal numbers [Meena] ‫ العداد الترتيبية‬:

. ‫ أول‬the ‫ ولحظ أننا لبد دائما أن نضع‬، ‫وهنا سنكتب بنفس ترتيب العداد السابقة‬
The first ‫ الول‬, the second ‫ الثاني‬, --- third ‫ الثالث‬, --fourth ‫ الرابع‬, --- fifth ‫ الخامس‬, sixth ‫ السادس‬, seventh ‫ السابع‬, eightth ,
ninth , tenth , eleventh , twelfth , thirteenth , fourteenth , fifteenth ,
sixteenth , seventeenth , eighteenth , nineteenth , twentieth , twentyfirst , twenty-second , twenty-ninth , thirtieth , fortieth , fiftieth ,
sixtieth , seventieth , eightieth , ninetieth , hundredth , hundred and
first , hundred and second , two hundred and first , thousandth ,
thousand and first , the millionth , the two millionth , the billionth ,
the last ‫ الخير‬, the last but one ‫ قبل الخير‬.
Once ‫ مرة‬, twice = two times ‫ مرتين‬, thrice = three times ‫ ثلث مرات‬,
four times ‫ أربع مرات‬, hundred times ‫ مئة مرة‬.
Double ‫ الضعف‬, triple 3 ‫ أضعاف‬, quadruple 4 ‫ أضعاف‬, five fold 5
‫أضعاف‬, the centuple ‫ مئة ضعف‬.
A quarter = one fourth ‫ ربع‬, one third ‫ ثلث‬, half ‫ نصف‬.
[Meena] (H.K.)

Father
Daughter
Husband
Child

‫أب‬
‫ابنة‬
‫زوج‬
‫طفل‬

Mother
Brother
Wife
Aunt

Family and kindred ‫العائلة والقارب‬
‫أم‬
‫أخ‬
‫زوجة‬
‫ خالة‬، ‫عمة‬

[Meena]

Meals
Grains
Supper

‫ وجبات‬Oil
‫ حبوب‬Breakfast
‫ عشاء‬Bread

Son
Sister
Baby
Uncle

Food

‫الكل‬

‫ زيت‬Fruits
‫ فطار‬Lunch
‫ خبز‬Wheat

8

‫ابن‬
‫أخت‬
‫رضيع‬
‫ خال‬، ‫عم‬

Girl
Boy
Man
Woman

‫ فواكه‬Barley
‫ غداء‬Potato
‫ قمح‬Flour

‫بنت‬
‫ولد‬
‫رجل‬
‫امرأة‬
‫شعير‬
‫بطاطس‬
‫دقيق‬

‫سلطة‬
‫مخلل‬

‫‪ Salad‬عنب‬
‫‪ Pickles‬ماء‬

‫‪ Grapes‬زيتون‬
‫‪ Water‬أرز‬

‫‪Olive‬‬
‫‪Rice‬‬

‫عسل أبيض‬

‫لبن‬

‫‪Honey‬‬
‫‪Milk‬‬

‫‪H.W. Translation : Write the English meaning of the following words‬‬

‫اكتب المعنى النجليزي للكلمات التية‬
‫ربع‬
‫اتنين‬
‫زوجة‬
‫الرابع‬
‫الثلثاء‬
‫زيتون‬
‫الصباح‬
‫الضعف‬
‫اخ‬
‫أب‬

‫يناير‬
‫أربع مرات‬
‫أم‬
‫زوج‬
‫أخت‬

‫‪Write the Arabic meaning of the following words‬‬
‫اكتب المعنى العربي للكلمات التية‬
‫‪Honey‬‬
‫‪Child‬‬
‫‪Twelve‬‬
‫‪The fifth‬‬
‫‪Baby‬‬
‫‪Wednesday‬‬
‫‪Aunt‬‬
‫‪Five fold‬‬
‫‪Summer‬‬
‫‪Pickles‬‬
‫‪Twice‬‬
‫‪August‬‬
‫‪One third‬‬
‫‪rice‬‬
‫‪Autumn‬‬
‫‪ --‬في كشكول الواجب ‪ (1 :‬اكتب قواعد نطق الحروف ‪G, L, S, T :‬‬‫‪ (2‬اكتب أيام السبوع وشهور السنة والمواسم ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(H.K.‬‬

‫]‪Level 2 [Meena‬‬

‫الن نأخذ كلمات كثيرة الستخدام في الحياة عامة ومبوبة أو مجمعة معا ‪:‬‬
‫‪9‬‬

(.H.K)

(‫ النطق مع المعاني مع الستهجاء‬، ‫ )ضروري حفظهم جيدا جدا‬.H.W

It is very important to study them by heart, pronunciation, meanings and spelling.

Head
Eye
Hand
Face
Soul
Airplane
Ticket
Direction
Customs
Teacher
Judge

‫الرأس‬
‫عين‬
‫يد‬
‫وجه‬
‫نفس‬
‫طائرة‬
‫تذكرة‬
‫اتجاه‬
‫الجمرك‬

The human body (H.K.)

Hair
Ear
Leg
Skin
Blood

‫الشعر‬
‫أذن‬
‫رجل‬
‫جلد‬
‫دم‬

Traveling

Train
Arrival
Class
Inquiries

‫أفريقيا‬
‫أستراليا‬

Egypt
Palestine
Jordan
France
Germany

‫مصر‬
‫فلسطين‬
‫الردن‬
‫فرنسا‬
‫ألمانيا‬

‫جسم النسان‬

Passport
Departure
Speed
Office

Occupations [Meena]
Continents (H.K.)

Countries and nationalities
Egyptian
Palestinian
Jordanian
French
German

‫مصري‬
‫فلسطيني‬
‫أردني‬
‫فرنسي‬
‫ألماني‬

‫خالي‬
‫فرامل‬
‫كاوتش‬
‫سفينة‬

‫ دكتور‬Soldier
‫ محامي‬Driver

‫عسكري‬
‫سائق‬

‫الدول والجنسيات‬

Post office ‫مكتب البريد‬

Letter
Fee

‫ جواب‬Stamp
‫ اجرة‬Envelope

Cheque
Client
Interest

‫ شيك‬Account
‫ عميل‬Loss
‫ فائدة‬Capital

Patience
Fear

‫ صبر‬Wisdom
‫ خوف‬Lying

‫ حكمة‬Faith
‫ كذب‬Envy

House
Column

‫ منزل‬Room
‫ عمود‬Steel

‫ غرفة‬Bricks
‫ صلب‬Concrete

Coarse
Pray (H.K.)
Lesson
Quiet
To sail
Lightning

Vacant
‫ الرحيل‬Brake
‫ سرعة‬Tyre
‫ مكتب‬Ship

‫أوروبا‬

America
Syria
England
China
Greece

‫ طابع‬Postage
‫ ظرف‬Sender

Banking (H.K.)

‫لحية‬
‫أسنان‬
‫لسان‬
‫فك‬
‫شفايف‬

‫جواز سفر‬

‫القارات‬

‫ أمريكا‬Europe
‫آسيا‬

Beard
Teeth
Tongue
Jaw
Lips

‫وظائف‬

‫ مهندس‬Doctor
‫ ممثل‬Lawyer

America
Asia

‫النف‬
‫فم‬
‫ظهر‬
‫أصابع‬
‫روح‬

‫السفر‬

‫قطار‬
‫الوصول‬
‫درجة‬
‫استعلمات‬

‫ مدرس‬Engineer
‫ قاضي‬Actor

Africa
Australia

Nose
Mouth
Back
Fingers
Spirit

‫أعمال البنوك‬

‫أمريكا‬
‫سوريا‬
‫انجلترا‬
‫الصين‬
‫اليونان‬

American
Syrian
English
Chinese
Greek

‫أجرة‬
‫الراسل‬

Sample
Form

‫عينة‬
‫استمارة‬

‫ وديعة‬Rate
‫ مكسب‬Loan
‫ يسحب‬Broker

‫معدل‬
‫سلفة‬
‫سمسار‬

‫ ايمان‬Wise
‫ حسد‬Fool

‫حكيم‬
‫جاهل‬

‫ حساب‬Deposit
‫ خسارة‬Profit
‫ رأسمال‬Withdraw

Virtues and vices

‫الفضائل والرذائل‬

Architecture ‫( )معمار )عمارة‬H.K.)

‫ طوب‬Design
‫ خرسانة‬Building

‫أمريكاني‬
‫سوري‬
‫انجليزي‬
‫صيني‬
‫يوناني‬

‫تصميم‬
‫مبنى‬

. ‫ وهي كلمات متشابهة في النطق والهجاء ولكنها مختلفة في المعنى‬: Homonyms
‫خشن‬
‫يصلي‬
‫درس‬
‫ ساكت‬، ‫هادئ‬
‫يبحر‬
‫ اضاءة‬، ‫برق‬

Course [Meena]
Prey
Lessen
Quite
For sale
Lightening

10

‫ مقرر‬، ‫دراسات‬
‫ غنيمة‬، ‫فريسة‬
‫ يخفض‬، ‫يقلل‬
‫ نهائيا‬، ‫تماما‬
‫للبيع‬
‫تخفيف‬

‫عثة‬
‫يخرج من ‪ ،‬ينبثق‬
‫سقف‬
‫سلمة‬
‫مبدأ ‪ ،‬رأي‬
‫منظر ‪ ،‬مشهد‬
‫قصة‬

‫‪Mite‬‬
‫‪Proceed‬‬
‫‪Ceiling‬‬
‫‪Stair‬‬
‫‪Principle‬‬
‫‪Sight‬‬
‫‪Tale‬‬

‫‪Might‬‬
‫‪Precede‬‬
‫‪Sealing‬‬
‫‪Stare‬‬
‫‪Principal‬‬
‫‪Site‬‬
‫‪Tail‬‬

‫قدرة ‪ ،‬قوة‬
‫يسبق‬
‫ختم‬
‫يبحلق‬
‫رئيس ‪ ،‬ناظر‬
‫موقع ‪ ،‬موضع‬
‫ذيل‬

‫‪ : Synonyms‬وهي كلمات مختلفة في النطق والهجاء لكنها لها معنى متقارب ‪.‬‬
‫تيار هواء‬
‫أصابع القدم‬
‫عادة جماعية‬
‫ظل ‪ ،‬خيال‬
‫يكشط )تفاحة(‬
‫متحرك‬
‫بسيط زي الطفال‬
‫يعمل‬

‫‪Draught‬‬
‫‪Toes‬‬
‫‪Custom‬‬
‫‪Shadow‬‬
‫‪Pare‬‬
‫‪Movable‬‬
‫‪Childlike‬‬
‫)‪Do (H.K.‬‬

‫]‪Current [Meena‬‬
‫‪Fingers‬‬
‫‪Habit‬‬
‫‪Shade‬‬
‫‪Peel‬‬
‫‪Mobile‬‬
‫‪Childish‬‬
‫‪Make‬‬

‫تيار ماء أو كهرباء‬
‫أصابع اليد‬
‫عادة فردية‬
‫ظل )الشجرمثل(‬
‫يقشر )برتقالة(‬
‫متنقل‬
‫صبياني ‪ ،‬تافه‬
‫يعمل ‪ ،‬يصنع‬

‫‪ --‬وجيد هنا أن نذكر بعض الكلمات التي يأتي قبلها ‪ make‬وبعض الكلمات التي يأتي قبلها ‪. do‬‬‫‪.‬خطط ‪, - plans‬دوشة ‪, - noise‬بيتزا ‪, - a pizza‬قرار ‪, - a decision‬خطأ ‪Make : - a mistake‬‬
‫‪Do :‬‬
‫‪.‬معروف ‪, - me a favor‬شراء ‪, - some shopping‬واجب ‪- your homework‬‬

‫السوابق واللواحق ‪Prefixes and suffixes‬‬

‫وكثير من الكلمات يضاف إليها جزء في البداية يسمى ‪ prefix‬أو جزء في النهاية يسمى ‪.suffix‬‬
‫‪ --- Prefixes‬أي السوابق مثل ‪[Meena] :‬‬
‫يرجع ‪) ex: return‬رجوع‪ ،‬ظهر ‪, back‬تاني ‪. / Re (again‬دراجة ‪Bi (two) ex: bicycle‬‬
‫‪.‬تلغراف ‪ , telegraph‬تليفزيون ‪ ) ex: television‬من بعيد ‪Tele (from far away‬‬
‫‪.‬يغذي أقل ‪ , underfed‬يدفع أقل ‪) ex: underpay‬غير كافي ‪Under (insufficient‬‬
‫الوقت الضافي ‪, overtime‬حمل أكثر من ‪) ex: overload‬أكثر من ‪Over (more than‬‬
‫‪.‬يخبر بالشئ قبل حدوثه ‪) ex: foretell‬قبل ‪Fore (before‬‬
‫‪:‬بعض السوابق تعطي النفي مثل ‪-- Some prefixes give the meaning of negation, like:‬‬
‫‪ /‬يفصل‪ ،‬يفك وصلة ‪ / Dis ex: disconnect‬غير ممكن‪ ،‬مستحيل ‪Im ex: impossible‬‬
‫‪. /‬يسئ فهم ‪ / Mis ex: misunderstand‬ل يمكن تصديقه ‪Un ex: unbelievable‬‬
‫غير شرعي ‪ / Il ex: illegal‬غير نشيط ‪ / In ex: inactive‬ل يمكن مقاومته ‪Ir ex: irresistible‬‬
‫وذلك مثل كل اللواحق التي تستخدم في تكوين اسماء وصفات‬
‫‪ --- Suffixes‬أي اللواحق ‪:‬‬
‫وظروف وسوف ندرسهم أيضا في هذا الكتاب‪ ،‬وذلك مثل ‪:‬‬
‫)يمكن قرائته( ‪) / -able ex: readable‬أمريكي‪ ،‬مصري( ‪-an, ian ex: Egyptian, American‬‬
‫‪ ,‬طفولة )‪ , -hood (childhood‬صداقة )‪ , -ship (friendship‬طيبة )‪-ness (kindness‬‬
‫‪ ,‬خباز )‪-ry (bakery‬‬
‫‪) ,‬اشتراكية )اجنماعية )‪-ism (socialism‬‬
‫‪ ,‬عالم )‪-ist (scientist‬‬
‫‪ ,‬جهل )‪ , -ance (ignorance‬معلومات )‪ , -ation (information‬اختراع )‪-ion (invention‬‬
‫‪ .‬ممثل )‪ , -er / -ar / -or (actor‬صانع )‪ , -r (maker‬رئاسة )‪-ency (presidency‬‬

‫‪H.W. Translation : Write the English meaning of the following words‬‬

‫اكتب المعنى النجليزي للكلمات التية‬
‫مصري‬
‫طابع‬
‫شعر‬
‫فرامل‬
‫سلفة‬

‫مهندس‬
‫معمار‬
‫يد‬
‫وجه‬
‫دراجة‬

‫أمريكا‬
‫فايدة‬
‫للبيع‬
‫يمكن قرائته‬
‫طيبة‬
‫‪11‬‬

Write the Arabic meaning of the following words
‫اكتب المعنى العربي للكلمات التية‬
House
Profit
Wisdom
Unbelievable

lesson

Tele
Blood
Direction
Form
letter

African
China
Lawyer
Fee
Europe

Time ‫)الساعة )الوقت‬

‫ في مثال وليكن من الساعة السابعة إلي الساعة الثامنة ونذكرها‬،‫سنأخذ طريقة ذكر الساعة‬
. ‫كل خمس دقائق وذلك بالطريقتين البريطانية والمريكية‬
British [Meena]
American (H.K.)
In #s
‫بالمصري‬
Seven o'clock
Seven o'clock
7:00
‫السابعة‬
Five past seven
Seven five
7:05
‫سابعة وخمسة‬
Ten past seven
Seven ten
7:10
‫سابعة وعشرة‬
Fifteen past seven
Seven fifteen
7:15
‫سابعة وربع‬
Twenty past seven
Seven twenty
7:20
‫سابعة وتلت‬
Twenty five past seven
Seven twenty five
7:25
‫سابعة ونص إل خمسة‬
Half past seven
Seven thirty
7:30
‫سابعة ونص‬
Thirty five past seven
Seven thirty five
7:35
‫سابعة ونص وخمسة‬
Twenty to eight
Seven forty (H.K.)
7:40
‫تمانية إل تلت‬
Fifteen to eight
Seven forty five
7:45
‫تمانية إل ربع‬
Ten to eight
Seven fifty
7:50
‫تمانية إل عشرة‬
Five to eight
Seven fifty five
7:55
‫تمانية إل خمسة‬
Eight o'clock
Eight o'clock
8:00
‫تمانية‬
So If someone asks: ‫لو حد سأل‬
What time is it? ‫ ما الوقت‬/ Or ‫ أو‬/ What is the time now? ‫ما هو الوقت الن‬
We answer saying: [Meena] ‫نجاوب قائلين‬
It is .. ‫ الوقت هو‬/ Or / The time is .. ‫ الوقت هو‬/Or / The time now is ..‫الوقت الن هو‬

‫ دقائق من‬5 ‫ اكتب بالنجليزي بالحروف وبالرقام أوقات الساعة كل‬، ‫ في كراس الواجب‬.H.W
6:00 ‫ إلي‬5:35 ‫ ومن‬12:30 ‫ إلي‬12 ‫الساعة‬
Write the time every 5 minutes from 12 to 12:30 and from 5:35 to 6:00

Prepositions [Meena] ‫حروف الجر‬
، ‫ ثم بعض المثلة في جمل‬، ‫سنأخذ بعض حروف الجر في اصطلحات ثابتة بها مع معانيها‬
. ‫ثم سنأخذ كلمات تأتي مع حروف جر مختلفة فيتغير المعنى وأيضا أمثلة عليها في جمل‬
.so ‫ سيكون‬someone ‫وبرجاء ان نذكر )ولتنسى( أن اختصار‬
.sth ‫ سيكون‬something ‫واختصار‬
At (H.K.)
At present

‫ في الوقت الحاضر‬At the moment

12

‫في هذه اللحظة‬

‫في الخر‬
‫على الكثر‬
‫في متناول اليد‬
‫يبحلق في‬
‫صدم ب‬
‫تعجب ‪ ،‬اندهش‬
‫وحش في‬
‫لمع في‬
‫بطئ في‬
‫لرجاء فيه في‬
‫غضبان من‬
‫يبتسم ل‬

‫‪- last‬‬
‫‪- most‬‬
‫‪- hand‬‬
‫‪Gaze (stare) at‬‬
‫ ‪Shocked‬‬‫ ‪Astonished‬‬‫ ‪Bad‬‬‫ ‪Brilliant‬‬‫ ‪Slow‬‬‫ ‪Hopeless‬‬‫ ‪Angry‬‬‫‪Smile -‬‬

‫في الول‬
‫على القل‬
‫في التو ‪ ،‬حال‬
‫ينظر إلى‬
‫اندهش من‬
‫تعجب من‬
‫كويس في‬
‫ممتاز في‬
‫ذكي في‬
‫سريع في‬
‫سعيد ب‬
‫يضحك على‬

‫‪At first‬‬
‫‪- least‬‬
‫‪- once‬‬
‫‪Look at‬‬
‫‪Surprised at‬‬
‫ ‪Amazed‬‬‫ ‪Good‬‬‫)‪Excellent - (H.K.‬‬
‫ ‪Clever‬‬‫ ‪Quick‬‬‫ ‪Pleased‬‬‫‪Laugh -‬‬

‫فمثل لوضع هذه الصطلحات في جمل نقول ‪:‬‬
‫أنظر إلي هذا ]‪Look at this [Meena‬‬
‫انها مشغولة في هذه اللحظة ‪She is busy at the moment‬‬
‫هو كويس في النجليزي ‪He is good (excellent, bad, .. ..) at English‬‬
‫‪ ---‬ثم يوجد كلمات مثل "‪ "shout, throw‬يكون معناهم مع ‪ at‬مختلف عن معناهم مع ‪، to‬‬

‫)‪(H.K.‬‬
‫فنقول مثل ‪shout at so. (when being angry) / shout to so. (to hear) :‬‬
‫وكذلك نقول ‪(throw sth. at so. or sth.(to hit) / throw sth. to so. (to give it to him :‬‬

‫فمثل لو قلنا ‪ ، He shouted at them‬يكون معناها ‪ :‬هو زعق لهم‬
‫ولو قلنا ‪ she threw it to him‬يمون معناها ‪ :‬هي حدفتها له ‪.‬‬
‫اسماء الشارة هم ‪ This (1 :‬للمفرد القريب ‪.‬‬
‫‪ These (3‬للجمع القريب ‪.‬‬

‫‪ That (2‬للمفرد البعيد‬
‫‪ Those (4‬للجمع البعيد‬

‫‪ .H.W‬في كراس الواجب ‪ ،‬اكتب سبع سوابق ‪ prefixes‬يعطوا معنى النفي ‪ ،‬ثم كلمة كمثال‬
‫لكل منهم ‪[Meena] .‬‬
‫ترجم إلي العربية ‪Translate into Arabic :‬‬
‫____________________________________________ ‪Look at this rice‬‬
‫__________________________________________ ‪He got at least two‬‬

‫)‪(H.K.‬‬

‫]‪Level 3 [Meena‬‬

‫حروف الجر ‪Prepositions‬‬
‫في هذا الباب سنأخذ حروف الجر في اصطلحات ثابتة بها مع معانيها ‪ ،‬ثم بعض المثلة في‬
‫جمل ‪ ،‬ثم سنأخذ كلمات تأتي مع حروف جر مختلفة فيتغير المعنى وأيضا أمثلة عليها في جمل ‪.‬‬
‫وبرجاء ان نذكر )ولننسي( أن اختصار ‪ someone‬سيكون ‪.so‬‬
‫واختصار ‪ something‬سيكون ‪.sth‬‬
‫دايما احفظ كل كلمات تصادفك ‪ ،‬اكتبها مرة والكتاب مفتوح ثم مرة غيبا لتحفظ ال ‪spelling‬‬
‫‪13‬‬

.‫)الستهجاء( وحسن خطك وأذكر النطق جيدا‬

About [Meena]
Excited about
Troubled Annoyed -

‫ مثار حول‬Worried ‫ مضطرب بسبب‬Upset ‫ متضايق ل‬Sorry about

‫قلق بشأن‬
‫غضب من أجل‬
‫آسف بسبب‬

: ‫ مثل‬،‫ عن معناها مع حروف جر أخرى‬about ‫وهنا أيضا يوجد كلمات يختلف معناها مع‬
Care about so. or sth. ‫ يهتم ب‬/ care for ‫يحب‬
Ask about ‫يسأل عن‬
/ ask for ‫يطلب‬
Dream about (details ‫ )تفاصيل‬/ dream of (being sth. or doing sth.)
Hear about (details) / hear of (know that) / hear from (receive a letter
or a phone call)
Think about (details) (concentrate the mind on) / think of (remember)
By (H.K.)

Pass by
Stopped by
- mistake
A play - all means
One - one

‫يمر ب‬
‫وقف عند‬
‫بالخطأ‬
.. ‫مسرحية كتبها‬
‫بكل الطرق‬
‫واحد واحد‬

Walk by
Drove - chance
A book - no means
- the way (H.K.)

‫يمر ماشيا‬
‫مر وهو يقود‬
‫بالصدفة‬
.. ‫كتاب كتبه‬
‫بل أي وسيلة‬
‫بالمناسبة‬

Pay by cheque ‫ يدفع بشيك‬/ pay in cash = pay cash ‫يدفع كاش‬
For
For ever
- life
Need - a walk
Famous -

‫للبد‬
‫لطول العمر‬
‫احتياج ل‬
‫اذهب اتمشى‬
‫مشهور ب‬

- God's sake
- a while
Reason - breakfast
- lunch

‫من أجل ال‬
‫إلى حين‬
‫سبب‬
‫للفطار‬
‫للغذاء‬

--- [Meena] Blame so. or sth. for sth. / blame sth. on so. or sth. /
ex: everybody blamed him for the accident ‫ الكل لموه على الحادثة‬/
everybody blamed the accident on him ‫ الكل نسبوا الحادثة له‬/ (H.K.)
everybody said he was to blame for the accident ‫الكل قال انه يجب ان يلم على‬
‫الحادثة‬

--- It's time for school / he is going to school / now he is at school.
In
Increase Rise Believe - a moment
- person

‫زيادة في‬
‫ارتفاع في‬
‫يؤمن ب‬
‫في لحظة‬
‫شخصيا‬

Look (see) Run -

‫يفحص‬
‫اصطدم ب‬

Decrease Fall- health
- English
- full

‫نقصان في‬
‫ نقص في‬، ‫سقوط‬
‫بصحة‬
‫بالنجليزي‬
‫بالكامل‬

Into (H.K.)
Break Run - debt

Of
14

‫يقتحم مكان‬
‫استدان‬

A cause Afraid Jealous Careful Healed - course
A lot -

‫سبب‬
‫خايف من‬
‫غيور من‬
‫حذر من‬
‫تم شفاؤه من‬
‫بالطبع‬
‫كثير من‬

Photograph Proud Capable Tired Repent Instead A piece -

‫صورة‬
‫فخور ب‬
‫قادر على‬
‫تعبان من‬
‫يتوب عن‬
‫بدل من‬
‫قطعة من‬

It was nice of you (kind of you , good - , silly - , stupid -, ..)‫كانت كويسة منك‬
To accuse so. of doing sth. /
Man of his word , man of courage .
A matter of fact ‫ في الواقع‬, a matter of opinion ‫موضوع رأي‬
On [Meena]

- foot
Congratulate -

‫ سيرا على القدام‬- occasion
‫ يهنئ علي‬From now -

- of kindness
- of print
- of doubt

‫ من باب الطيبة‬- of sight
‫ نفدت الطبعة‬- doors
‫ بدون شك‬Have it -

‫في مناسبة‬
‫من الن فصاعدا‬

I have spoken to her on the phone ‫لقد تكلمت معها على التليفون‬
I'm (I am) not on the phone yet , I haven't got a phone yet
To watch sth. on T.V.
‫يتفرج على حاجة في التليفزيون‬
To listen to sth. on the radio [Meena] ‫يستمع لشئ في الراديو‬
On leave ‫ في أجازة‬/ on holiday ‫في عطلة‬/on business trip ‫ في رحلة عمل‬/ on a
trip / on a tour ‫في جولة سياحية‬. (H.K.)
To live on money (or food) ‫ )يغيش علة الفلوس )الخبز‬/
To spend money on sth. ‫يصرف فلوس على شئ‬
Keep on / go on / carry on ‫يستمر في‬
Out

‫اختفى عن النظار‬
‫في الخلء‬
‫انهوا الموضوع‬

To (H.K.)
- an end
Look Married -

‫ لنهاية‬- no end
‫ يعتمد على‬،‫ يهتم ب‬According ‫ متزوج من‬Engaged -

‫بل نهاية‬
‫بناء على‬
‫مخطوب ل‬

Damage to a car ‫ تكسير للعربية‬/ Invitation to a party (or a wedding) ‫عزومة لحفلة‬
Solution to a problem ‫ حل للمشكلة‬/ answer to a question ‫ اجابة للسؤال‬/
reply to a letter ‫ رد على الجواب‬/ key to a door ‫مفتاح للباب‬
Complain to so. about sth. ‫ يشتكي لشخص عن شئ‬/ (H.K.)
Prefer so. or sth. to so. or sth. ‫يفضل شئ عن شئ أو يفضل شخص عن شخص‬
Up [Meena]

Speak Use Wake Give -

‫تكلم بصوت عالي‬
‫ ينهك‬، ‫يستنفذ‬
‫يصحى‬
‫يستسلم‬

- to
Bring Get Keep - with

‫لغاية‬
‫يربي‬
‫ انتصب‬، ‫قم‬
‫ يجاري‬، ‫يساير‬

With
Satisfied -

‫ مكتفي ب‬Crowded -

15

‫مزدحم ب‬

Our relationship with God must be perfect. ‫ علقتنا بال لبد ان تكون كاملة‬/
Pleased with so. ‫( مسرور مع شخص أو بشخص‬pleased at sth. ‫)مسرور بشئ‬
Charge so. with an offence (with a crime) / Provide so. with sth. (H.K.)
H.W. Translate into Arabic ‫ترجم إلي العربية‬
They care about her _______________________________________
He replied to the letter _____________________________________
Write the preposition used after these words: worry _______ a lot ____

Plural of nouns ‫جمع السماء‬

. book , books ‫ مثل‬، ‫ في نهاية الكلمة‬s ‫ عند جمع السماء نضع‬، ‫( بصفة عامة‬1
‫ مثل‬s ss sh ch x z
: ‫أ( اذا انتهى السم بأحد الحروف التية‬
: es ‫( ولكن نضع‬2
hero , heroes ‫ قبله حرف ساكن مثل‬o ‫ ب( اذا انتهى السم بحرف‬. box , boxes
y ‫ وذلك بعد حذف ال‬، ‫ قبله حرف ساكن‬y ‫ في السماء التي تنتهى بحرف‬ies ‫( ونضع‬3
. ‫ فقط‬s ‫ قبلها حرف متحرك تظل كما هي ونضع‬y ‫[ ولكن لو ال‬story , stories [Meena ‫مثل‬
‫ وذلك مثل‬f, fe ‫ بعد حذف ال‬ves ‫ تأخذ‬fe ‫ أو‬f ‫( وبعض السماء التي تنتهي ب‬4
(.half , halves / life , lives . (H.K
foot , feet / man , men / ‫( ثم يوجد أسماء ل يخضع جمعها لقواعد ثابتة وذلك مثل‬5
. son-in-law , sons-in-law
. Japanese ‫( بعض السماء ل تتغير عند جمعها مثل‬6
brothers،‫ أخ‬brother ‫( وقد يوجد قليل اسماء لهم أكثر من جمع مع اختلف المعنى مثل‬7
. (‫ أخوة )في جماعة معينة‬brethren، (‫أخوة )أشقاء‬
. hope , happiness : ‫( بعض السماء ليس لهم جمع مثل‬8
.contents , trousers ‫( والبعض يكون دائما في صيغة الجمع مثل‬9
. news , mathematics ‫ لكنه دائما مفرد مثل‬s ‫( والبعض يكون آخره‬10
means / ‫ سئ‬، ‫ وحش‬mean ‫( وهناك اسماء يتغير معنى الجمع فيها عن المفرد مثل‬11
.‫ بضائع‬goods / ‫ حسن‬، ‫ خير‬good / ‫ وسائل‬، ‫طرق‬
H.W. write the plural of the following words : (H.K.) ‫اكتب جمع الكلمات التية‬
Pen _____, dish _______, factory _________, shoe ______, knife _______,
Woman ___________, Chinese ___________, sister-in-law_____________,

Verb "Do"[Meena]

(past) ‫( والماضي‬present) ‫في الحاضر‬
(verb do (to do ‫ مايلي هو تصريف‬--‫ والجابة‬present ‫ وكيفية عمل أسئلة به في ال‬pronouns ‫ مع ال‬، (future) ‫والمستقبل‬
: (‫عليها )وهو حينما يستعمل في عمل أسئلة يعتبر كفعل مساعد‬
Pronouns

Pres.

Past Future

(‫)كفعل مساعد فقط أي بمعنى هل وفي النفي فقط‬

verb "Do"
Verb "Do" in the present (H.K.)
Questions
Yes,
No,

I
You
He
She

Do
Do
Does
Does

Did
Did
Did
Did

Do I eat?
Do you eat?
Does he eat?
Does she eat?

Shall do
Will do
Will do
Will do

16

Yes, you eat
Yes, I eat
Yes, he eats
Yes, she eats

No, you don't eat
No, I don't eat
No, he doesn't eat
No, she doesn't eat

It
We
You
They

Does
Do
Do
Do

Did
Did
Did
Did

Will do
Shall do
Will do
Will do

Does it eat?
Do we eat?
Do you eat?
Do they eat?

Yes, it eats
Yes, you eat
Yes, we eat
Yes, they eat

No, it doesn't eat
No, you don't eat
No, we don't eat
No, they don't eat

(‫ هل أنا آكل؟ )في الحاضر‬: ‫ومعنى السؤال الول هو‬
. present ‫ في ال‬s, es, ies ‫ دائما مثل بعض يأخذوا‬he, she , it ‫( أول أن‬1 : ‫ونلحظ التي‬
. will ‫ فقط أما بقية الضمائر تأخذ‬I, we ‫ تكون مع‬Shall (2
‫ في السؤال‬we ‫ وكذلك‬، ‫ والعكس بالعكس‬، ‫ في الجابة‬you ‫ في السؤال تتحول إلي‬I (3
. ‫ والعكس بالعكس‬، ‫ )الجمع( في الجابة‬you ‫تتحول إلي‬
does ‫ هي اختصار‬doesn't ‫ و‬، contraction of) ، do not) ‫ هي اختصار‬don't (4
[did not . [Meena ‫ اختصار‬didn't ‫و‬
، not
.‫ سواء في السؤال أو في الجابة بالنفي‬infinitive ‫ يأتي الفعل ال‬، does ‫( دايما بعد‬5
"do" ‫ وفيما يلي أمثلة أخرى على استخدام‬--Ex.: I do my homework. ‫_____ أنا أعمل الواجب‬
She does what is right . ‫هي تعمل الصح‬
He did what is right.
‫هو عمل الصح‬
They will do it.
‫هم سيعملونها‬
H.W. Answer the following questions one time with Yes, another with No
(.H.K) : ‫أجب على السئلة التالية مرة بنعم ومرة بل‬
Does he drink tea? Yes, ______________ No, ____________________
Do I need it? Yes, ________________ No, ______________________
I, he, ‫ وسنكتفي بالتطبيق على‬، ‫ فنتبع نفس الخطوات‬، past ‫وبالنسبة لعمل أسئلة وأجوبة في ال‬
: ‫ فمثل نقول‬، they
Pronouns
I
He
They

Questions
Did I eat bread?
Did he eat bread?
Did they eat bread?

Verb "do" in the past
Yes (H.K.)
Yes, you ate bread
Yes, he ate bread
Yes, they ate bread

No

No, you didn't eat bread
No, he didn't eat bread
No, they didn't eat bread

(‫ هل أنا كنت آكل خبز؟ )في الماضي‬: ‫ومعنى السؤال الول هو‬
‫ لنهم يأخذوا‬، ‫ تماما‬pronouns ‫ مثل بقية ال‬past ‫ في ال‬he, she, it ‫( ان‬1 : ‫ونلحظ التي‬
. future ‫ ول في ال‬past ‫ فقط وليس في ال‬present ‫ في ال‬s, es, ies ‫ال‬
no ‫ سواء في السؤال أو في الجابة ب‬infinitive ‫ بيأتي في ال‬did ‫ بعد‬verb ‫( دايما ال‬2
H.W. Answer the following questions with Yes and No :
Did she work? Yes, _____________ No, ________________________
Did they see you? Yes, _____________ No, ______________________
verb ‫ لكن مايلي هو شرح ل‬، ‫" كفعل مساعد فقط‬verb "Do ‫ونلحظ ان كل ماسبق هو شرح ل‬
: (‫ فقط‬past ‫ وفي ال‬present ‫"" كفعل مساعد وكفعل معناه "يفعل أو يعمل" )وذلك في ال‬Do
(‫ وكفعل بمعنى يعمل‬/ ‫)كفعل مساعد‬
17

Verb "Do"

Pronouns

Questions

Yes (H.K.)
In the present

I
He
They

Do I do my work?
Does he do his -Do they do their --

Yes, you do your work
Yes, he does his -Yes, they do their --

I
He
They

Did I do my work
Did he do his -Did they do their --

Yes, you did your -Yes, he did his -Yes, they did their --

No
No, you don't do your -No, he doesn't do his -No, they don't do their --

In the past
No, you didn't do your -No, he didn't do his -No, they didn't do their --

‫ مرتين في كل جملة )في السؤال وفي النفي فقط‬do, does, did ‫( استخدامات‬1 : ‫ونلحظ التي‬
.‫ مرة كفعل مساعد ومرة كفعل بمعنى يعمل‬،(yes ‫وليس مع‬
. (pronouns) ‫( ونفس السلوب نطبقه مع بقية الضمائر‬2
H.W. Answer the questions with Yes and No
Does he do it? Yes, _______________ No, _____________________
Did she do it? Yes, _______________ No, _____________________
:‫ كما يتضح من الجدول التي‬، ‫" يأتي كفعل بمعنى "يعمل" فقط‬verb "Do ‫ فان‬future ‫أما في ال‬

(‫)كفعل بمعنى يعمل فقط‬
Verb "Do"
In the future (H.K.)
I
He
They

Shall I do my -Will he do his -Will they do their --

Yes, you will do your -Yes, he'll do his -Yes, they'll do their --

No, you'll not do your -No, he'll not do his -No, they'll not do their --

. ‫" كفعل بمعنى يعمل فقط‬Do" ‫( استخدام‬1 : ‫ونلحظ هنا‬
. will ‫ و‬shall ‫ في النفي بتأتي بعد‬not ‫( دايما‬2
H.W. Answer the questions with Yes and No (H.K.)
Will you do them? Yes,__________________ No, ___________________
Shall we do them? Yes, _________________ No, ___________________
‫ ثم لحظ أيضا ملحوظة هامة وهي أننا دائما بعد الكلمات التية نأتي بالفعل في‬: ‫هام‬
: (infinitive) ‫المصدر‬
Shall , should , will , would , may , might , can , could , to .

Conversations [Meena] ‫محادثات‬
Introducing : Hi , I'm Ahmed / hi Ahmed I'm Magdy (hi Ahmed my
name is Magdy) .
18

--- George , this is Aly , Aly this is George / nice to meet you Aly / nice
to meet u too , what do you do George ? / I'm a writer, and you? (what
about you?) (and what do you do?) / I'm an accountant . / Haven't we met
before? / yes, I think we have. (H.K.)
H.W. (C.W.) Pair practice : Each 2 introduce yourselves to each other
(.H.K)‫كل اثنين يقدموا أنفسهم لبعض‬
Then each 3 , 3 ‫وبعد ذلك كل‬

Level 4 [Meena]

(H.K.)

: ‫ فتعطي معنى مختلف‬،‫بعض الكلمات تأتي مع حروف الجر والعطف أو مع كلمات أخرى‬
Get back
Hold back
Put out the Set on -

Back [Meena]

‫ ارجع‬Give back
‫ احجز‬Throw -

Fire

‫ يطفئ النار‬Set - to sth.
‫ أشعل نارا‬The - is out

Get
19

‫رجع‬
‫ارمي للخلف‬
‫أشعل النار في‬
‫النار اطفأت‬

Get in
- off
- through
- advantage of
- after
- beyond
- before
- down
- hand on
- at
- into
- over
- out for
- off
- down upon
Of To – up
He is used to

‫ادخل‬
‫ اخلع‬، ‫اهرب‬
‫يجتاز من خلل‬
‫يتفوق على‬

- out
- on with
- hold of
- home

Go (H.K.)

‫ يتبع‬- ahead
‫ يتجاوز‬- astray

Lay

‫ يعرض على‬- up
‫ يضع‬- out
‫ يقبض على‬- hold of

Look

‫ينظر إلي‬
‫يفحص‬
‫يتصفح بسرعة‬
‫يترقب‬
‫يودع‬
‫ يتعالى علي‬، ‫يحنقر‬

- to
- out
- for
- up
- about
- after

Use

‫ مفيد‬، ‫ نافع‬Out of ‫ ينهك‬، ‫ يستنفذ‬he used to
‫متعود على‬

‫أخرج‬
‫يجاري‬
‫يقبض على‬
‫روح البيت‬
‫كمل ماتفعله‬
‫يضل‬
‫يدخر‬
‫يرتب‬
‫يمسك‬
‫يهتم ب‬
‫احترس‬
‫يبحث عن‬
‫يفتش على‬
‫ينظر حوله‬
‫يعتني ب‬
‫بطل استعمال‬
‫كان متعود على‬

I used to get up early when I was a child, but now I don't.
‫أنا كنت متعود ان استيقظ مبكرا لما كنت طفل ولكن الن ل‬
I am used to getting (to get) up early in the morning because I've done this for
so long. ‫أنا متعود أستيقظ مبكرالني أفعل هذا منذ فترة طويلة‬

Drop [Meena]

Drop off

‫ يسطح‬، ‫ينام‬

Drop in

‫ يأتي‬، ‫يزور‬

I dropped the cup and it broke. ‫الكأس سقط مني وانكسر‬
We couldn't take him all the way , so we dropped him off at the station.
.‫لم نستطع ان نوصله كل الطريق فنزلناه عند المحطة‬
My husband always drops off a few minutes in the afternoon. (H.K.)
.‫زوجي دائما ينام )يسطح( دقائق قليلة بعد الظهر‬
Why don't you drop in and see us sometimes. ‫لماذا لتأتي هنا أحيانا لترانا‬

At / on / in (time) [Meena] ‫استخدام حروف جر مع الوقت‬
At : At 5:00 o'clock / at 11:45 / at midnight ‫ في منتصف الليل‬/ at night ‫بالليل‬
/ at lunch time ‫ في وقت الغذاء‬/ at the week-end ‫ في نهاية السبوع‬/ at week-ends
‫ في نهايات السوع‬/ at Christmas ‫ عند الكريسماس‬/ at public holiday seasons
‫ في فترات العطلت الرسمية‬/at the moment ‫ في هذه اللحظة‬/ at present ‫في الوقت‬
‫ الحاضر‬/ at the same time ‫ في نفس الوقت‬/ at the proper time ‫ في الوقت السليم‬/ at
the age of ‫في عمر‬
Ex.: We shall meet at 11:45 11:45 ‫سنتقابل الساعة‬
On : (Simply we use "on" when we mean a specific day ‫نستخدمها عندما‬
‫)نتكلم عن يوم محدد‬: On 12 March ‫ مارس‬12 ‫ في‬/ on Friday(s) ‫)يوم الجمعة )أيام الجمع‬
/ on Friday morning(s) / on Sunday afternoon(s) / on Christmas day / on
any public holiday / on the third day (‫)في اليوم الثالث‬. (H.K.)
20

‫دايما عندهم مقابلت في أيام الجمعة ‪Ex.: They always have meetings on Fridays.‬‬
‫‪In : (Simply we use "in" with months , years , seasons or any long‬‬
‫‪period) : in the morning(s) / in the afternoon(s) / in the evening(s) / In the‬‬
‫‪ /‬في القرن ‪days of .. / In April/ in 1960 / in the winter / in the 18th century 18‬‬
‫‪ /‬في العصور الوسطى ‪ / in the Middle Ages‬من ‪ 1970‬إلي ‪in the 1970s 1980‬‬
‫]‪In a few minutes = few minutes from now [Meena‬‬
‫‪In a week = in a week's time = a week from now‬‬
‫سأنهيه في دقائق قليلة ‪Ex.: I'll finish it in a few minutes.‬‬
‫‪ .H.W‬أدخل ‪ 3‬من الكلمات السابقة في جمل ‪Put 3 of these words in sentences:‬‬
‫)‪Ex.: I went there on Monday morning. (H.K.‬‬
‫_________________________________________________ )‪1‬‬
‫_________________________________________________ )‪2‬‬
‫_________________________________________________ )‪3‬‬

‫بعض قواعد الكتابة‬
‫]‪Some Rules of Writing [Meena‬‬
‫‪ --‬وجيد أن نذكر بعض قواعد الكتابة البسيطة التي تساعدنا كثيرا ‪:‬‬‫‪ (1‬الكلمة المنتهية بحرف ساكن قبله حرف متحرك ‪ ،‬يتم تكرار الحرف الساكن الخير إذا‬
‫أضيف في آخر الكلمة مقطع أوله حرف متحرك ‪ ،‬مثل ‪. drop – dropped , big – bigger‬‬
‫‪ (2‬الكلمة المنتهية بحرف ‪ e‬لينطق ‪ ،‬يتم إلغاءه إذا أضيف في آخر الكلمة مقطع أول‬
‫حرف فيه متحرك ‪ ،‬مثل ‪، write – writing‬‬
‫ولكن يثتسنى من هذه القاعدة الكلمات المنتهية ب ‪ ce , ge‬مثل‬
‫]‪Peace – peaceable , courage – courageous [Meena‬‬
‫‪ (3‬الكلمة المنتهية بالحرفين ‪ ، ie‬ينقلبان إلي ‪ y‬إذا أضيف إليها ‪ ، ing‬مثل ‪:‬‬
‫‪، lie – lying , die – dying , tie – tying‬‬
‫والكلمة المنتهية بحرف ‪ y‬قبله حرف ساكن‪ ،‬ينقلب إلي ‪ I‬إذا أضيف إليها أي مقطع غير‬
‫‪ ، ing‬مثل ‪. Beauty – beautiful , easy – easily , carry – carrier :‬‬
‫‪A , An , and The‬‬
‫‪ A , An‬يستخدمان للنكرة ‪indefinite‬‬
‫أما ‪ The‬تستخدم للمعرفة ‪. definite‬‬
‫تستخدم قبل الكلمات التي تبدأ بحرف متحرك )‪ (vowel‬وهم ‪، a e i o u‬‬
‫‪An --‬‬‫وأيضا قبل حرف ‪ h‬إذا كان ل ينطق مثل ‪ ، an hour‬أما ‪ A‬تستخدم مع بقية الكلمات ‪.‬‬
‫‪ A , An --‬لهما معنى ‪ ، one‬وبالتالي يستخدمان مع المفرد فقط )ولكن ليس مع كل‬‫المفرد وخاصة كثير من ال ‪ ، ( uncountable nouns‬إل إذا أضفنا كلمة أخرى ‪ ،‬فل نقول‬
‫‪ a bread‬بل نقول ‪ a loave of bread‬أو ‪. a piece of bread‬‬
‫‪ A --‬بتأتي مع بعض كلمات تشير إلي كمية ‪ ،‬مثل ‪:‬‬‫‪a few weeks, a lot of people , a couple of sandwiches‬‬
‫‪ --‬كذلك نستخدم ‪ A , The‬قبل ال ‪ singular countable nouns‬مثل‬‫‪21‬‬

I've got a headache. Be careful of the dog.
. ‫ حينما نتكلم عن أشياء معروفة لنا وللسامع‬، ‫ باختصار‬، ‫[ وهي تستخدم‬The [Meena
‫ اذا كنا نتكلم عن شئ معروف للكل مثل‬، ‫ فمثل‬--The police , the sky , the sun , the sea . (H.K.)
‫ وأيضا اذا كنا في غرفة أو منزل أو فصل أو مدرسة أو حديقة أو أي مكان ونتكلم عن شئ‬--. ‫معين في هذا المكان‬
The Egyptian man , The American woman
: ‫ وايضا مع الجنسيات مثل‬--‫ مثل‬The ‫ أما حينما نتكلم بصفة عامة عن اسماء في الجمع ل نستخدم‬--I love bananas. He likes flowers.
: ‫ فمثل الجملة‬، ‫ قد توضح لنا أحيانا مااذا كنا نتكلم عن شخص أو أكثر‬the ‫ أيضا‬--The owner and manager has come
: ‫ أما الجملة‬، ‫يكون المقصود فيها شخص واحد‬
The owner and the manager have come
. ‫يكون المقصود فيها شخصين‬
‫ دائما تأتي مع كلمات معينة مثل‬the ‫نجد‬
: ‫ وفي الستخدام في الحياة بصفة عامة‬--The cinema , the theatre , the radio
‫في حين ل نجدها تتواجد مع كلمات أخرى مثل‬
Television / (all meals like) : breakfast , lunch , dinner , supper.
H.W.: Put the right article and /or word in the blanks, or leave it blank :
[Meena] :‫ أو اترك الفراغ كما هو‬، ‫أو الكلمة المناسبة مكان الفراغات‬/‫ضع الداة و‬
We ate _____ breakfast together. ‫أكلنا الفطار معا‬
They like _____grapes.
‫هم يحبون العنب‬
We went to _____cinema.
‫ذهبنا للسينما‬
His father and _____teacher will go together. ‫أبوه والمدرس سيذهبون معا‬
____lot of trees. ‫كثير من الشجار‬
(H.K.)
Be careful of _____ bad cat in this garden. ‫احذر القطة الشرسة في هذه الحديقة‬

Verbs "Be" and "Have"

present ‫ في الحاضر البسيط‬be , have ‫ ما يلي هو جدول فيه تصريف الفعال المساعدة‬--simple future ‫ والمستقبل البسيط‬، past simple ‫ والماضي البسيط‬، simple
Pronouns

Present

I (H.K.)
You
He, she, it
We
You
They

Am
Are
Is
Are
Are
Are

Be [Meena]
Past
Future
Was
Were
Was
Were
Were
Were

Shall be
Will be
Will be
Shall be
Will be
Will be

22

Present

Have
Past Future

Have
Have
Has
Have
Have
Have

Had
Had
Had
Had
Had
Had

Shall have
Will have
Will have
Shall have
Will have
Will have

: ‫( لما يحتويه هذا الجدول السايق وهي‬contractions) ‫وتوجد اختصارات‬
Pronouns
I
You
He (H.K.)
She
It
We
You
They

Present
I'm
You're
He's
She's
It's
We're
You're
They're

Be
Past

Future

Present

-----------------

I'll be
You'll be
He'll be
She'll be
It'll be
We'll be
You'll be
They'll be

I've
You've
He's
She's
It's
We've
You've
They've

Have [Meena]
Past
Future
I'd
You'd
He'd
She'd
We'd
You'd
They'd

I'll have
You'll have
He'll have
She'll have
It'll have
We'll have
You'll have
They'll have

‫ ويتم التمييز بينهم‬،(she, it ‫ )وكذلك‬he has ‫ هو نفسه اختصار‬he is ‫لحظ هنا ان اختصار‬
: ‫ نعطي بعض المثلة‬، ‫ولفهم هذان الجدولن والتمرين عليهما‬
. ‫بسهولة حسب سياق الكلم‬
I am a teacher
‫)أنا أكون مدرس )أنا مدرس‬
I was a teacher ‫أنا كنت مدرس‬
I shall be a teacher
‫أنا سأكون مدرس‬
They were students ‫هم كانوا تلميذ‬
She will be a doctor
‫هي ستكون دكتورة‬
He has a car [Meena]
‫هو عنده عربية‬
He had a car
‫هو كان عنده عربية‬
He will have a car ‫هو سيكون عنده عربية‬
We had books
‫نحن كان عندنا كتب‬
You will have books ‫أنتم )أنت( سيكون عندكم كتب‬
[Translate into English [Meena : ‫ ترجم إلي النجليزية‬.H.W
___________________________________________ ‫( هي تكون سكرتيرة‬1
_________________________________________________ ‫( هي طبيبة‬2
_________________________________________ (.H.K) ‫( هم كانوا مهندسين‬3
_____________________________________________ ‫( أنت ستكتب الكتاب‬4
________________________________________________ ‫( هو عنده عربة‬5
________________________________________ ‫( هم سيكون عندهم كتب غدا‬6
________________________________________________ ‫( أنتم كنتم طلبة‬7
‫ ونتبع نفس السلوب كما فعلنا في جداول‬، pronoun ‫ قبل ال‬verb ‫ نأتي بال‬، ‫ولعمل أسئلة‬
: ‫" فنقول‬verb "Do
1) Am I a teacher ? / Yes, you are a teacher. / No, you aren't a teacher.
2) Were they students ? / Yes, they were . / No, they weren't students.
3) Will she be a doctor ? / Yes, she will / No, she will not .
4) Has he a car? (Does he have a car ?) / Yes, he has a car / yes, he does /
no, he hasn't a car / no, he doesn't have a car. (H.K.)
5) Had we books ? (Did we have books ?) / yes you had books / Yes, you
did / no, you didn't have books / No, you hadn't .
6) Will you have books ? / Yes, we shall have books / No, we shall not .
‫ يمكن أن نسأل السؤال‬، verb have ‫لحظ أننا في السؤالين الرابع والخامس أي في السئلة ب‬
. verb do ‫ حيث في الثانية استخدمنا‬، ‫بطريقتين‬
23

(.H.K) :

‫ جاوب على السئلة التالية مرة بنعم ومرة بل‬.H.W
Answer the following questions , one time with Yes, another with No :
Are you a doctor? Yes, ______________ , No, _____________________
Are you doctors? Yes, _______________, No, _____________________
Will they be drivers? Yes, _______________, No, ___________________
Shall I do it? Yes, _________________, No, _______________________

Conversation [Meena]

Meeting : Formal : Good morning (good ..) / good morning (good ..) /
How are you ? / I'm fine , thank you .
Informal : Hi , how are you today ? / fine thanks , what about you / ok.
(not bad) (feel tired) (H.K.)
--- Hi Sheriff / Hi Zaki / where is Roushdy / he is at home, he has some
things to do and won't be able to meet us / ok. let us go and help him / that
is a good idea .
--- Hello John / oh , hi Ann / how is it going ? (how are you ?) (how are
you doing ?) / great (fine thanks) (ok.) , John , this is Sue my sister / hi
Sue / hi / and this is Mona her friend / hi Mona / hi John .
H.W. (C.W.) : Pair practice (each 2) / then each 3 (the last paragraph)
(‫ )للجزء الخير‬3 ‫ ثم كل‬، ‫كل اتنين يتمرنوا معا‬

Level 5 [Meena]

(H.K.)

In / At / on (position / place) [Meena] ‫استخدام حروف الجر مع المكان‬
In : In a (in the) : room ‫غرفة‬, building ‫ مبنى‬, shop ‫ محل‬, garden ‫حديقة‬, park
‫مركن‬, town ‫ قرية‬-‫ مدينة‬, country ‫ دولة‬, water ‫ ماء‬, sea ‫ بحر‬, river ‫ نهر‬, row ‫صف‬,
line ‫ خط‬-‫طابور‬, armchair ‫كرسي بذراع‬, mirror ‫ مرآة‬, photograph ‫صورة فوتوغرافية‬,
picture ‫صورة‬, street ‫شارع‬, sky ‫سماء‬, book ‫كتاب‬. (H.K.)
Ex: there is no one in the room. / I prefer to sit in the front row.
In : bed ‫سرير‬, prison ‫ سجن‬, the hospital ‫مستشفى‬.
At : at a (at the) : bus stop(s) ‫محطة اتوبيس‬, traffic light ‫اشارة مرور‬, door
‫باب‬, window ‫شباك‬, top of the page ‫أعلى الصفحة‬, bottom of the page ‫أسفل‬
‫ الصفحة‬, end of the street ‫ نهاية الشارع‬, beginning of the street ‫ بداية الشارع‬,
24

back (front) of a group of people (of a building) ‫مقدمة أو مؤخرة مجموعة من‬
‫ الناس أو مبنى‬// party ‫حفلة‬, concert ‫حفلة موسيقية‬, conference ‫مؤتمر‬, meeting
‫مقابلة‬, football match ‫[ ماتش كورة‬Meena]
Ex: Were there many people at the meeting?
at : home (the house) ‫منزل‬, work ‫شغل‬, school ‫مدرسة‬, university ‫جامعة‬,
a station ‫محطة‬, an airport ‫مطار‬.
Ex.: He is at home ‫هو في البيت‬
On : on a (on the) : ceiling ‫سقف‬, wall ‫حائط‬, floor ‫ أرضية‬, notice board
‫لوحة العلنات‬, grass ‫نجيلة‬, top shelf ‫الرف العلوي‬, table ‫ترابيزة‬, chair ‫كرسي‬, left
‫يسار‬, right ‫ يمين‬, left (right) hand side ‫ )الجانب اليسر )اليمن‬/ on her nose ‫على‬
‫أنفها‬/ on a page ‫ على صفحة‬//
--- A place is : on the coast ‫( على الساحل‬on a river ‫ على نهر‬, on a road ‫على‬
‫ )الشارع‬, or ‫ أو‬, on the way to another place ‫ على الطريق لمكان آخر‬//
His house is on the river. ‫بيته يقع على النهر‬
--- Corner : 1) In the corner of a room
‫في ركن من غرفة‬
2) At / on the corner of a street
‫ على ناصية شارع‬.
--- front / back : 1) In the front / back of a car (or taxi)
2) At the front / back of a group of people (building ‫ مبنى‬/ cinema ‫)سينما‬
3) On the front / back of a letter (piece of paper) ‫ظهر جواب )ورقة‬/‫)على وش‬
--- Arrive : 1) In a country or town.
2) At other places (school , work , the hotel , the party)
3) Arrive home. ‫( يوصل للمنزل‬H.K.)
--- The end (the beginning) : 1) At the end of (at the beginning of) a
place or sth. .
Ex: At the end of the street / At the beginning of a book.
2) In the end (in the beginning) so. did sth. , or , sth. was done ,
Ex: In the end we decided to do it ‫في الخر قررنا نعمله‬/
In the beginning I thought I would be able to do it , but I couldn't.
[Meena] ‫ لكني لم أتمكن‬، ‫في الول افتكرت اني ساتمكن من عمله‬
--- To (places) : Go to Egypt , travel to America , go to the bank ,
return to Europe , fly to Moscow , walk to work , drive to the airport , sent
to prison , taken to the hospital , go to bed , go to a meeting.
--- Home : go home , at home , come home , get home , arrive home .
--- Go : on foot ‫ على قدميك‬/ by: car ‫عربة‬, taxi ‫تاكسي‬, train ‫ قطار‬, plane ‫طائرة‬,
boat ‫مركب‬, ship ‫باخرة‬, bus ‫أوتوبيس‬, bicycle ‫دراجة‬, underground ‫ مترو النفاق‬.
--- Get : get in (get out of) a car , taxi . [Meena]
Get on (get off) a train , plane , boat , ship , bus , bicycle , underground.
H.W. Put 4 of the previous words in sentences. Ex.: He got in her car.
1) ________________________ 2) _________________________
3) ________________________ 4) _________________________

Verbs [Meena] ‫الفعال‬
‫بالطبع الفعال هي أي شئ فيه حركة أو عمل يتم مثل‬
25

. walk , run , speak , eat , write , drink
‫ في حين ان‬verb ‫أو باسلوب آخر نقول ان أي كلمة معناها "عمل أو فعل شئ معين" تكون‬
. .. .. ‫السم كان مجرد اسم لي شخص أو دولة أو أي شئ محسوس أو مادي‬
He drank :‫ مثل‬، ‫ وهو الذي له مفعول به‬: ‫ متعدي‬transitive (1 :‫والفعال نوعان‬
.water
.The water drops :‫ مثل‬، ‫ وهو الذي ليس له مفعول به‬: ‫ لزم‬intransitive (2
(2 .‫( عمل أسئلة‬1 : ‫ وهي التي تساعدنا في‬، Auxiliary verbs ‫ ويوجد أفعال مساعدة‬--‫( وفي تصريف‬tenses). 4) ‫( وفي تكوين أزمنة‬3 .‫الجابة على أسئلة خاصة في النفي‬
: ‫ وهي‬، ‫الفعال‬
Be, have, do, can (could), may (might), shall (should), will (would), must
.‫( وكفعل مساعد ليس له معنى خاص‬2 .‫( بمعناها كفعل مستقل‬1 : ‫وهي تستخدم‬
Let us take verb "Work" , with the pronouns, in the present, past and future
Pronouns
Present
Past [Meena]
Future
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

Work
Work
Works
Works
Works
Work
Work
Work

Worked
Worked
Worked
Worked
Worked
Worked
Worked
Worked

Shall work
Will work
Will work
Will work
Will work
Shall work
Will work
Will work

H.W. fill the following table in a similar way to this table with verb "eat"
(.H.K) "‫امل الجدول التالي بتفس اسلوب الجدول السابق مستخدما الفعل "يأكل‬
Pronouns
Present
Past
Future
I (H.K.)
You
He, She, It
We

Eat

Ate

‫ مع‬، (‫ومايلي هو كثير من الكلمات المتنوعة مع حروف جر متنوعة )اصطلحات ثابتة‬
: ‫ وادخالها في جمل‬،‫معانيها‬
‫الصطلح‬
‫المعنى بالعربي‬
(.H.K) ‫مثال في جملة‬
Back up
Blow up
Break down
Break in
Break out
Break up
Bring up
Close down
Come in
Come down

‫ يأيد‬،‫يسند‬
‫يفجر‬
‫ يعطل‬،‫يبوظ‬
‫ يدخل بقوة‬،‫يقتحم‬
‫يهرب بقوة‬
‫يكسر أو يوقف بشدة‬
‫يربي‬
‫ يتوقف‬،‫يقفل خالص‬
‫يدخل‬
‫ينزل‬

I backed up him (him up) in what he said
They want to blow up the car
The car broke down yesterday
A gang broke in the bank this morning
A prisoner tried to break out of jail
They broke up all what he had
She brought up her children well
His factory closed down
May I come in? [Meena]
After he had come down of the mountain, he went
home

26

Come up
Count on
Cry out
Cross off
Cut down
Cut off
Drive off
Figure out
Fill in
Find out
Get in
Get out
Get back
Get through
Go by
Get up
Give away
Give up
Grow up
Hang up
Hold on
Lay before
Lay up
Let down
Look at
Look to
Look into
Look out
Look for
Look up
Look off
Look about
Look after
Pass away
Put off (put
out)
Send for
Speak up
Take upon
oneself
Wait at
Wait for
Wait on

‫ يطلع‬،‫يصعد‬
(‫ب)فكرة‬
‫يعتمد على‬
‫ يصيح‬،‫يصرخ‬
‫بصوت عالي‬
‫ يمحو‬،‫يشطب‬
‫يقلل‬
‫يقطع ويفصل‬
‫يسوق لبعيد‬
‫ يتخيل‬،‫يفهم‬
‫يمل‬
‫ يعرف‬،‫يكتشف‬
‫أدخل‬
‫أخرج‬
‫ارجع‬
‫ يمر خلل‬،‫يجتاز‬
‫يمر ب‬
‫ يقوم‬،‫ينهض‬
‫ يتخلص من‬،‫يعطي‬
‫ يتوقف‬،‫يستسلم‬
‫ينمو‬
‫يقفل السكة‬
‫ينتظر‬
‫يعرض أمام‬
‫يدخر‬
‫يخجل‬
‫ينظر إلي‬
‫يهتم ب‬
‫يفحص‬
‫ يراقب‬،‫يحترس‬
‫يبحث عن‬
‫ يجد‬،‫يفتش على‬
‫يودع‬
‫ينظر حوله‬
‫يهتم ب‬
‫يموت‬
‫يطفئ‬

I count on your promise
He cried out saying "help us"
They crossed off his name
She tried to cut down swimming
He cut off the book into pieces
Drive off this place quickly
Try to figure out what she means
Fill in this form please (H.K.)
I can't find out what the cause is
Get in the house and bring it to me
Get out of my house
Get back home and do your homework
Can you get through this narrow door?
When you go him, see what he does
Sometimes I get up before 6:00 o'clock
It is good to give away your old clothes to the poor
You must have hope , don't give up
I grew up in the country
He hung up on me
Hold on I'll call him
Lay it before him
lay up treasures in heaven
He let her down in front of her friends
Look at me
He looked to the reward
He looked into family matters
Look out , it's dangerous
look for my pen , I can't find it
Loop up this word in the dictionary
I want to look him off before he leaves
Look about try to find something
She looked after her father when he was sick
They passed away in a bad accident
Put off the fire [Meena]

‫ يرسل في طلب‬We send for a doctor right after he had fainted
‫ يتكلم بصوت عالي‬Speak up that we may hear
‫ يأخذ على عاتقه‬He takes upon himself to save her
‫ يخدم‬She waits at that table (H.K.)
‫ ينتظر‬I've been waiting for you for 2 hours
‫ يخدم‬He waits on the Lord

Phrasal verbs with two Particles

‫الصطلح‬

He came up with a good idea

(‫ثم أفعال وكلمات مع أكثر من حرف جر )أو أكثر من أداة‬

‫المعنى بالعربي‬

[Meena]

27

‫مثال في جملة‬

Come up with
Keep up with
Look down upon (on)
Cut down on

(‫يطلع ب)فكرة‬
‫ يجاري‬،‫يلحق‬
‫ يتعالى علي‬،‫يحتقر‬
‫يقلل‬

He came up with a good idea
She couldn't keep up with him when he
was running fast
He looks down on some poor people
She cut down on smoking

H.W. Write the Arabic meanings of any 6 of the previous sentences :
___________________________ (2 __________________________ (1
___________________________ (4 __________________________ (3
___________________________ (6 __________________________ (5

‫متنوعات هامة‬

___

: ‫ والعكس في حالت معينة هي‬will ‫ بدل‬shall ‫( يمكن استخدام‬1
--- We put shall instead of will when : (H.K.)
Promise ‫ وعد‬: You shall have the money very soon.‫ستأخذ النقود قريبا جدا‬
Threat ‫تهديد‬: If you do that again you shall be punished ‫اذا فعلت هذا ثانيا‬
‫ستعاقب‬
Order (command) ‫ وصية‬،‫ أمر‬: You shall not steal ‫ل تسرق‬
Determination ‫ تحديد‬: The enemy shall not pass. ‫العدو ل يجب ان يمر‬
--- We put will instead of shall when :
Promise : We will send them a present. ‫سنرسل لهم هدية‬
Willingness ‫ مشيئة‬،‫ تمني‬: I will pay at the rate you ask.‫سأدفع بالمعدل الذي تريده‬
--- Shall I? (Shall we?) , has often the meaning of "Would you like me
to ..?" ex: Shall I open the window?
--- Will you? , has often the meaning of "Would you like to .. ?"
ex : Will you help me to carry this bag?
: ‫( هي‬do (does , did ‫( استخدامات‬2
? questions :
do you like it ‫ا( لعمل اسئلة‬
negative [Meena] :
no, I do not like it ‫ب( للنفي‬
for emphasis :
yes, I do like it ‫ج( للتأكيد‬
to avoid repetition :
he likes it and so do I ‫د( لتجنب التكرار‬
for politeness :
please do come ‫ه( كنوع من الدب والذوق‬
‫ والجابة العادية عنهم ثم‬do , does , did ‫ولشرح النقطة )ج( أكثر نأتي بثلث أسئلة فيهم‬
(.H.K) : ‫الجابة التي فيها تأكيد‬
[Meena] ‫السؤال‬

Do you like it?
Does he like it?
Did they like it?

‫الجابة العادية‬
‫الجابة التي فيها تأكيد‬
Yes, I like it
Yes, I do like it (Yes, I do. )
Yes, he likes it (H.K.) Yes, he does like it
Yes, they liked it
Yes, they did like it

28

Level 6 [Meena]

(H.K.)

Questions ‫السئلة‬
.‫ وهذا شرحناه‬be, have, do ‫( نستخدم الفعال‬1 : ‫لعمل أسئلة‬
: ‫( ونستخدم كثير من الكلمات وهي‬2
‫الكلمة‬
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Why
How
Who (H.K.)
What
Where
When
Whose
Whom [Meena]
How much

‫معناها‬

[Meena] ‫مثال‬

‫لماذا‬
‫كيف‬
‫من للعاقل‬
‫ماذا لغير العاقل‬
‫أين للمكان‬
‫متى للزمان‬
‫لمن هذا‬
‫لمن للعاقل المفعول‬
‫كم للشياء التى ل تعد‬

29

Why did you do this?
How can this be?
Who are you?
What is this?
Where is my book?
When is he coming?
Whose pen is this?
Whom did you give it to?
How much does it cost?

10)
11)
12)
13)
14)

How many
How long
Can
May
Should

‫كم للشياء التي تعد‬
‫كم من الوقت‬
‫هل أقدر‬
‫هل ممكن‬
‫هل من المفروض‬

How many pens do we have?
How long will it take to do it?
Can I lift this up?
May I go out? (H.K.)
Should we wait for him?

: (‫والجابات ستكون كالتي )بنفس ترتيب السئلة‬
1) We did this to save his life (because we had to)
2) That is what happened .
3) I'm Medhat , the manager .
4) This is the report . (H.K.)
5) It is on the desk .
6) He is coming next Friday .
7) It is yours (It is your pen) .
8) I gave it to her .
9) It costs three dollars .
10) We have seven pens .
11) It takes two days to be done .
12) Yes, you can if you are strong enough . / No, you can't .
13) Yes, you may if you have finished your homework . / No, you may not
14) Yes, I think we better wait for him . / No, I think we better go.
H.W. [ 1] Answer the following questions:
1) How many books does she have? ______________________________
2) What time is it now? _______________________________________
3) Whom are you talking about? ________________________________
4) What is in your hand? ______________________________________
5) Where are the bags? _______________________________________
[2] In your h.w. copy book , write 14 questions, using each question word
in each one of them and answer them with every possible answer. (H.K.)
‫ وجاوب‬، ‫ سؤال مستخدما كل كلمة في الجدول في سؤال مختلف‬14 ‫في كراسة الواجب اكتب‬
. ‫عليهم بكل اجابة ممكنة‬

Punctuation [Meena] ‫علمات الوقف‬
‫ ومن أهم‬، capital letters ‫ أي متى نستعمل‬capitalization ‫( ونأخذ معها ال‬1
: capitals ‫الكلمات والحالت التي نستخدم فيها ال‬
‫ ثم‬، ‫كل أيام السبوع وكل الشهور وكل العياد وكل اسماء الشخاص وكل الدول والجنسيات‬
‫( وفي بداية الكلم الذي‬Full stop) ‫دايما كل أول حرف في الفقرة وفي الجملة الجديدة بعد النقطة‬
. ‫بين أقواس صغيرة‬
‫ ثم اسماء الشوارع والفنادق والنوادي والهيئات والجامعات واللقاب والرتب اذا ذكرت مع‬--: ‫ مثل‬، ‫اسم صاحبها أو مع المسمى‬
The Sheraton Hotel / but / we went to the hotel
‫ بالضافة‬capital ‫ يكون أول حرف فيها‬، ‫ حروف‬3 ‫ أي كلمة أكثر من‬، ‫ ثم في العناوين‬--."The Plural of Nouns" ‫ مثل‬، ‫لول كلمة‬
‫ وتوضع أساسا لتفصل بين كلمات أو جمل قصيرة متوافقة أو‬، [Comma] (،) ‫( الفصلة‬2
‫متسلسلة أو يصلها حرف عطف مثل‬
I bought bread , milk , honey and grapes. (H.K.)
If you are right , I'm wrong . [Meena]
30

‫‪ (3‬النقطة )‪ [Full stop , or , Period] ( .‬وتستعمل أساسا في نهاية الجمل أو عند‬
‫انتهاء معنى معين ‪ ،‬و تستعمل أيضا مع ال ‪) initials‬أي أول حرف من اسم أو بعض الكلمات‬
‫الخرى( وال ‪ ، abbreviations‬مثل ‪.The Y.M.C.A. is a good association :‬‬
‫‪ (4‬علمة الستفهام )؟ ( ]‪[Question mark , or , Interrogation mark‬‬
‫وتستخدم بعد السئلة ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (5‬النداء والتعجب )! ( ]‪ [Exclamation mark‬وتستخدم في حالة النداء أو التعجب ‪،‬‬
‫وهي في حالة التعجب تجعلنا نميز المقصود من الكلم ‪ ،‬عنه في السئلة لن صيغة الكلم تكون‬
‫أصل شبيهة بالسئلة ‪ ،‬مثل‬
‫! ‪What a beautiful watch‬‬
‫‪ (6‬قوسان )) (( ]‪ [Brackets , or , Parantheses‬ويستخدمان لتحديد أو حصر‬
‫الكلم المقصود ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (7‬النقطتان )‪ [The Colon] ( :‬ويوضعان قبل سرد لقائمة معينة أو قبل شرح أو قبل‬
‫اعطاء أمثلة لتوضيح شئ ‪.‬‬
‫‪H.W. In your h.w. copy book, write a paragraph of at least 3 lines using‬‬
‫‪all possible punctuation.‬‬
‫في كراس الواجب اكتب فقرة من ‪3‬سطور أو أكثر مستخدما كل علمات وقف ممكنة‪.‬‬

‫علمة الملكية للسماء ‪The Apostrophe‬‬

‫أي استخدام علمة ال ‪ apostrophe‬لملكية شئ لشخص أو اشخاص مثل ‪the boy's‬‬
‫‪ book‬أي "كتاب الولد" ‪[Meena] .‬‬
‫في حالة الجمع الذي آخره ‪ s‬نضع علمة ال ‪ apostrophe‬بعد ال ‪ s‬مثل '‪the girls‬‬
‫‪ food‬أي "أكل البنات" ‪.‬‬
‫‪ --‬لو شئ ملك شخصين أو أكتر مع بعض ‪ ،‬نضع العلمة مرة واحدة في الخر ‪ ،‬مثل‬‫‪ . Mary and Magdy's car‬أما لو مجموعة أشياء متشابهة ملك عدة أشخاص ‪ ،‬نضع‬
‫العلمة بعد كل واحد مثل ‪. Mary's and Magdy's cars‬‬
‫‪ --‬ولكن لو شئ تابع لشئ ل نستخدم علمة ال ‪ apostrophe‬بل نستخدم ‪of‬‬‫مثل‪ the leg of the chair :‬أي رجل الكرسي ‪ ،‬ولكن هناك استثناءات قليلة مثل ‪:‬‬
‫‪(a) Some places. (b) some expressions of time , take 's‬‬
‫‪ex : (a) Egypt's largest city is Cairo. / The city's old cinema was renewed last‬‬
‫‪month. (b) A night's rest. / Three hour's travel. / a week's vacation.‬‬

‫‪N.B.: With some common nouns like "class , school , farm .. " , we don't‬‬
‫]‪use 's nor "of" (H.K.) [Meena‬‬
‫‪ex : The class teacher / A farm girl.‬‬

‫‪31‬‬

‫‪ --‬ويوجد أيضا استخدامات أخرى لعلمة ال ‪ apostrophe‬غير الملكية ‪ ،‬وذلك مثل‬‫استخدامها في اختصارات ‪ verb be‬مع ال ‪) pronouns‬هذه الختصارات تسمى بالنجليزي‬
‫‪ ( contractions‬وذلك مثل ‪ I'm‬اختصار ‪. I am‬‬
‫‪ .H.W‬ترجم إلي النجليزية ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (1‬هذه كتب مريم _______________________________________________‬
‫‪ (2‬هذا بيت ذكي ومنى ____________________________________________‬
‫‪ (3‬رجل الترابيزة _______________________________________________‬

‫ب( والمفرد الغائب للفعل‬
‫حرف ال ‪ S‬ونطقه ‪ ،‬في حالت ‪ :‬أ( الجمع ‪. plural‬‬
‫المضارع ‪ . third singular‬ج( وصيغة الملكية ‪ : apostrophe‬تنطق س مع الكلمات‬
‫ب(‬
‫أ( ‪ cats‬كاتس )قطط( ‪.‬‬
‫التي آخر حرف فيها ‪ P T K F H S‬مثل ‪:‬‬
‫ج( ‪ Medhat's book‬مدحتس بووك )كتاب‬
‫‪ he works‬هي ووركس )هو يعمل( ‪.‬‬
‫مدحت( ‪ .‬وتنطق ز مع أي كلمة تنتهي بأي حرف غير الحروف السابقة مثل ‪ :‬أ( ‪ beds‬بدز‬
‫)سراير( ‪ .‬ب( ‪ he says‬هي سييز )هو يقول( ‪ .‬ج( ‪ Magdy's pen‬ماجديز بن )قلم مجدي( ‪.‬‬

‫السماء التي تعد والتي لتعد ‪Countable and Uncountable Nouns‬‬
‫‪Uncountable nouns‬‬
‫فضة‬
‫موسيقى‬
‫هواء‬
‫دخان‬
‫خبز‬
‫ماء‬

‫‪Silver‬‬
‫‪Music‬‬
‫‪Air‬‬
‫‪Smoke‬‬
‫‪Bread‬‬
‫‪Water‬‬

‫دم‬
‫ذهب‬
‫هندسة‬
‫معلومات‬
‫نصيحة‬
‫لبن‬

‫]‪Countable nouns [Meena‬‬

‫‪Blood‬‬
‫)‪Gold (H.K.‬‬
‫‪Engineering‬‬
‫‪Information‬‬
‫‪Advice‬‬
‫‪Milk‬‬

‫بنت‬
‫حيوان‬
‫شركة‬
‫مشروع‬
‫كتاب‬
‫زجاجة‬

‫‪Girl‬‬
‫‪Animal‬‬
‫‪Company‬‬
‫‪Project‬‬
‫‪Book‬‬
‫‪Bottle‬‬

‫وظيفة‬
‫بيت‬
‫مجموعة‬
‫كمبيوتر‬
‫تفاحة‬
‫برتقالة‬

‫‪Job‬‬
‫‪House‬‬
‫‪Group‬‬
‫‪Computer‬‬
‫‪Apple‬‬
‫‪Orange‬‬

‫استخداماتهم في جمل مع ‪ there is , there are‬ومع ‪: here is , here are‬‬
‫‪There is an apple (orange).‬‬
‫‪There is some milk (water).‬‬
‫‪There are some apples (oranges). There are some bottles of milk (of‬‬
‫‪water).‬‬
‫نلحظ هنا ان السماء التي تعد تأخذ ‪ there is‬في المفرد وتأخذ ‪ there are‬مع الجمع ‪ ،‬أما‬
‫السماء التي لتعد دائما تأخذ ‪ there is‬إل لو أضفنا اسم يعدها مثل ‪.bottles‬‬
‫أما بالنسبة للشياء التي تأتي مع كلمة ‪ pair‬مثل ‪ glasses‬فتكون الجمل كالتي‪:‬‬
‫‪32‬‬

There is a pair of glasses (trousers , shoes , socks).
There are some
pairs of glasses (trousers , shoes , socks). [Meena]
‫ بدل‬here are ‫ ونضع‬، there is ‫ بدل‬here is ‫ومن الممكن في كل ماسبق أن نضع‬
. ‫ ويكون كل شئ كما هو‬there are
H.W. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: ‫امل مكان الفراغات بكلمات مناسبة‬
1) ______________ some pens. 2) _____________ a ruler. (H.K.)
3) There is ____________socks. 4) Here are _______________trousers.
‫ وذلك مثل‬uncountable ‫ وأيضا‬countable ‫ ويوجد بعض السماء التي قد تستخدم‬--. beautiful hair ‫ أو مثل‬a hair ‫ فيمكن أن نقول‬،hair
‫ في النجليزي ولكنها تعد في بعض‬uncountable ‫ ويوجد بعض السماء التي لتعد‬--: ‫ مثل‬، ‫اللغات الخرى‬
Advice , furniture , news , bread , behavior , trouble , traffic , work ,
luggage , baggage, weather , information , permission
‫أي أنه يمكن اضافة هذه الكلمات السابقة في هذا الجدول الموجود أعلى هذه الصفحة في الجزء‬
‫ أو‬advice ‫ عند جمع‬، ‫ وعلى سبيل المثال‬، uncountable nouns ‫اليمين منه الخاص بال‬
. loaves of bread ‫ أو نقول‬pieces of advice ‫ نقول‬bread
Saying good bye : Formal : Good bye / good bye , it was nice to meet
(see) you .
--- I wish you the best of luck . / same for you .
Informal : Bye (bye bye) (see you) / bye (see you) .
--- Keep in touch . / I will . (H.K.)
--- Have a good day (have a nice one) / you too .
At work : Excuse me , are you busy / oh, hi Mary I'm not working right
now , I'm just reading the newspaper , come in .

Pronouns ‫الضمائر‬
:‫أفضل وأسهل أسلوب لحفظ الضمائر المهمة أن نضعهم في جدول واحد وهو‬
Personal pronouns
‫الضمائر الشخصية‬
Before the
After the verb
verb [Meena]
I
‫أنا‬
Me
You ‫أنت‬
You
He ‫هو‬
Him
She ‫هي‬
Her
It ‫لغير العاقل‬
It
We ‫نحن‬
Us
You ‫انتم‬
You
They ‫هم‬
Them

Possessive pronouns
‫ضمائر الملكية‬
With nouns Without a
noun
My
Mine
Your
Yours
His (H.K.)
His
Her
Hers
Its
Our
Ours
Your
Yours
Their
Theirs

33

Reflexive and
intensive
pronouns
‫النعكاس والتأكيد‬
Myself
Yourself
Himself
Herself
Itself
Ourselves
Yourselves
Themselves

) ‫أول جزء هو الضمائر الشخصية التي تأتي قبل الفعل‬
: ‫ونفهم من الجدول ما يأتي‬
) ‫ثم يليها الضمائر الشخصية التي تأتي بعد الفعل‬
، I write ‫( مثل‬before the verb
) ‫ثم ضمائر الملكية التي تأتي مع السماء‬
، they gave me ‫( مثل‬after the verb
‫ثم ضمائر الملكية التي تأتي بدون ارتباط باسم‬
، this is my book ‫( مثل‬with nouns
‫ ثم ضمائر النعكاس والتأكيد التي تأتي في صورة‬، It is mine ‫( مثل‬without a noun)
. I myself saw him ‫ أوتأتي في صورة التأكيد مثل‬، I struck myself ‫النعكاس مثل‬
[Meena] : ‫ولفهم استخدامات ما في الجدول أكثر نقول مثل‬
I have a book , my father gave it to me , he himself gave it to me on
my birthday , it was his book but now it is mine. (H.K.)
‫ كان كتابه‬، ‫ هو بنفسه أعطاه لي في عيد ميلدي‬، ‫ أبي أعطاه لي‬، ‫ أنا عندي كتاب‬: ‫والمعنى هو‬
. ‫ولكن الن أصبح كتابي‬
: ‫ ترجم إلي النجليزية‬.H.W
‫ وانت يمكن أيضا أن تعطيها نفس‬، ‫ كان كتابه ولكن الن اصبح كتابك‬، ‫هو أعطاك كتابه بنفسه‬
‫ الكتاب بنفسك‬. ________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
[Meena]

‫ بنوعيه ممكن استخدامهما مكان السماء‬personal pronouns ‫ومن الضروري معرفة ان ال‬
‫ فمثل يمكن ان نقول‬، (‫)وهذا المفروض ان يكون معروف أصل‬
Ahmed is a teacher.
Ahmed and George are teachers.
.He is a teacher.
They are teachers
‫ويمكن أن نقول‬
.The girl is beautiful.
The cat is young ‫وأيضا يمكن أن نقول‬
.She is beautiful. (H.K.)
It is young ‫أو نقول‬
.She gave the book to Magdy. They asked Mary ‫و‬
.She gave the book to him.
They asked her ‫أو‬
. ‫من المهم أن نذكر كل هذا لن استخداماتهم كثيرة جدا‬

Level 7 [Meena]

(H.K.)

Gerund (its pronunciation is djerend) :
A gerund is used : [Meena]
1) After certain prepositions (‫ )بعد حروف الجر‬:

- He is interested in learning English . / - I'm accustomed to getting up early.
- We're looking forward to seeing you . / - She went on crying all the time .
- They talked about solving the problems.

2) After certain expressions (‫( )بعد بعض اصطلحات‬go on , carry on , keep
on , be used to , got used to , no use , worth , give up , would you mind) :

- He kept on interrupting us. / - I'm used to getting up early.
- I got used to getting up early. (H.K.)
‫ ثم بعد‬got ‫ أي أن في بداية التعود نستخدم‬، got used to ‫ أكثر في التعود من‬am used to ‫لحظ ان‬
. verb be ‫ أو يعني‬am ‫التعود تماما نستخدم‬
- This car is nice , it's worth buying. / - There is no use trying this again.
34

- I don't feel like eating lunch. / - will you give up smoking.
- Would you mind giving it to me. [Meena]

3) Gerund is also used as a subject of a sentence (‫ )في البداية أو كمبتدأ‬:

- Learning English is very important. / - Driving quickly can be dangerous.
- Swimming and walking are good exercises.

4) And as an object of a sentence when it (the gerund) comes after the
following verbs (‫ )بعد أفعال‬: (enjoy , like , dislike , love , hate , begin , stop
, finish , avoid , appreciate , mind, consider , discuss , delay , go , hear ,
imagine , keep, give up , prevent).
- I'll go when I've finished doing my work. / - They enjoy praying.
- I can't imagine Magdy driving a truck. / - Stop talking.
- She likes walking. / - It started raining last night.
- Would you mind giving it to me. (H.K.)

: ‫ ترجم إلي النجليزية‬.H.W
___________________________________ ‫( هم مهتمين بدراسة النجليزية‬1
__________________________________________ ‫( هو يحب التمشية‬2
_____________________________________ ‫( هذا البيت يستحق الشراء‬3
‫ إذا أردت تأجيله يكون أفضل ولكنه يتعلق بنفس الموضوع‬، ‫ الجزء القادم قد يكون صعب‬--.‫لذلك كتبناه هنا‬
‫ وهو أصل‬infinitive ‫ وبين استعمال ال‬gerund ‫وهنا يفضل توضيح الفرق بين استعمال ال‬
) ‫ أو‬gerund ‫ فيوجد بعض الفعال التي يمكن أن نضع بعدها‬، ( verb) ‫أو مصدر الفعل‬
‫ ويوجد بعض أفعال أخرى يتغير المعنى إذا‬، ‫ ( بدون تغيير معنى الجملة‬+ infinitive to
. to + infinitive)) ‫ عن إذا وضعنا بعدها‬gerund ‫وضعنا بعدها‬
: ‫( مايلي هي أفعال ممكن نضع بعدها أي من الثنين بدون تغيير في المعنى‬1
Like , hate , start , begin , prefer
-

She likes walking = She likes to walk
It started raining last night = It started to rain last night.

) ‫ عن إذا وضعنا بعدها‬gerund ‫( ومايلي هي أفعال يتغير بعدها المعنى إذا وضعنا بعدها‬2
. (to + infinitive
Stop , try
-

He stopped playing . He stopped to play .
Try swimming . Try to swim . [Meena]
: ‫ مثل‬: ‫ نوع من التجربة أو الختبار أو التغيير‬: ‫ ( يكون المقصود بها‬ing ‫حيث الجملة الولى )باضافة‬
I have had a headache for 2 hours now, I tried taking an aspirin but it didn't help.
: ‫ مثل‬،‫ لمرة واحدة أو في أي وقت أو بصفة عامة‬: ‫( يكون المقصود بها‬to + infinitive) ‫والثانية‬
Try to be quiet when you come home late , everyone will be asleep. (H.K.)

‫ هكذا أيضا يمكن عمل اسماء‬، ‫ في الخر‬ing ‫ باضافة‬gerund ‫ وكما عملنا اسماء في ال‬--: ‫بالضافات التالية في نهاية الكلمات‬
To form nouns : we add suffixes (see page 11) , some of which are :
35

-ness (kindness) , -ship (friendship) , -hood (childhood) , -ry (bakery) ,
-ism (socialism) , -ist (scientist) , -ion (invention) , -ation (information) ,
-ance (ignorance) , -ency (presidency) , -r (maker) , -er / -ar / -or (actor) .

H.W. Write the noun form of each of the following words :
Verb
Make
Build

Noun

Verb
Inform
Do

Noun

Translate into Arabic:
I don't feel like doing it _______________________________________
They hate playing football ______________________________________
Jv[l
‫ترجم إلي النجليزية‬
____________________________________________ ‫أنا متعود أستيقظ مبكرا‬
___________________________________________ ‫هذه الشقة تستحق الشراء‬

The Arabic Alphabet ‫الحروف البجدية العربية‬
‫ انجليزي‬-‫ أي عند استخدام قاموس عربي‬، ‫وهي ضرورية في حالة الترجمة من عربي لنجليزي‬
‫أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر زس ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل م ن ه و ي‬
، ‫ نرجع الكلمة لصلها ثم نبحث عنها في القاموس‬، ‫وعندما نحتاج معرفة معنى كلمة عربي بالنجليزي‬
‫ وكذلك مثل كلمة "يلعبون" نجدها هي‬، "‫ كلمة "يشتغل" نجدها هي وكل مشتقاتها في "شغل‬: ‫مثال‬
" ‫ وترجمة يلعبون هي‬، "He works" ‫ وبالتالي تكون ترجمة يشتغل هي‬. "‫وكل مشتقاتها في "لعب‬
. "They play
(.H.K) : ‫ ترجم إلي النجليزية‬.H.W
_______________________________________ ‫( الطلبة يصغون )يستمعون( للمدرس‬1
__________________________________________________ ‫( المشي مفيد للجسم‬2

Things to Know [Meena] : Subjects : A subject tells who or what is

doing the main verb . It can be a regular noun, pronoun or a gerund.
Appositives : An appositive is simply a noun phrase that defines the
subject. It must be identical to the subject and provide additional
information. A comma must immediately precede and follow the
appositive.
Ex.: Aids, a highly infectious disease, causes death.
Modifiers : They describe or give more information about the subject,
verb, or other modifiers.
Ex.: Canada, which has a small population, covers slightly more territory
than the United States does. [Meena]
N.B. Adjectives are modifiers for nouns, and adverbs are modify verbs,
adjectives or other adverbs.

36

Subordinations (modifying clauses) : They combine two or more
sentences into one sentence. The subordinate clause usually contains a
relative pronoun.
Relative pronouns are :
Who / which / that / when / whose / where
Ex.: He plays with a ball. The ball is blue / He plays with a ball that is blue.
Conjunctions : They express a relationship between ideas.
There are two basic types of conjunctions :
1) those that show agreement between ideas, like : because / also / in
addition to / such as / as well as / as
2) Those that show disagreement between ideas, like : Although / but /
however / despite / in spite of / whereas
Conjuncion Patterns : like : either … or / neither … nor / both … and /
such … as / not only … but also
Joining words ‫كلمات الوصل‬
And / so / as well / both .. and / as well as / either .. or / neither.. nor / but /
not only .. but also (but.. also) / when / as soon as / because / as / since / to
/ in order to / so as to / so that (so.. that) / in order that / such a (an).. that
Ex : We may go either to Cairo or to Alexandria, we haven't decided yet.
Neither Ahmed nor George did the homework.
Mary is studying hard so that she may get high grades.
It was such an interesting book that I read it several times.
Other expressions followed by a gerund : Responsible for doing
something / punish someone for doing something / capable of doing .. /
believe in … / known for … / accuse someone of … / committed to … /
succeed in … / excited about … / participate in … / take part in … / admit
to … / confess to … / blame someone for … / keep someone from … /
prohibit someone from … / forgive someone for something .
H.W.: In your h.w. copy book : 1) Put each of the following words in a
sentence : capable / either / although / because / when / who / but also .
2) Write a sentence with a gerund as a subject.

Adverbs ‫الظروف‬
. (‫نقول باختصار عن الظروف أنها هي التي تدل علي كيفية حدوث الفعل أو مكانه أو زمانه )وقته‬
Adverbs are related to verbs , they tell : 1) how , 2) where , and , 3) when ,
the verbs are done.
1) How : like : fast , quickly
Ex: He runs fast.‫ هو بيجري بسرعة‬/ He did it very quickly.‫هو عملها بسرعة جدا‬
2) When : like : next , now , yesterday (H.K.)
Ex: Next thing you should do is this./ She went there yesterday. Do it now.
3) Where : like : nowhere , anywhere , here , there , out
Ex: I couldn't find it anywhere. / Come here. [Meena]
He ran slowly : ‫ مثل‬ly ‫ ومعظم الظروف في النجليزي تنتهي ب‬--A friendly person
: ‫ مثل‬ly ‫ولكن يوجد صفات تنتهي أيضا ب‬
37

Adjectives ‫الصفات أو النعوت‬
‫ أي الصفات أو النعوت التي تصف أسماء وهي ل تتأثر‬descriptive ‫أهمها والمعروفة دائما هي‬
(.red, young . (H.K ‫بعدد أو نوع الموصوف مثل‬
‫_كما قلنا تصف‬، (adverbs) ‫ أما الظروف‬،‫( تصف اسماء‬adjectives) ‫ لحظ أن الصفات‬--: ‫ مثال‬، ‫أفعال‬
H.W. Write 6 adverbs that say how a verb is done _________________
__________________________________________________________
Write 6 descriptive adjectives __________________________________
__________________________________________________________
_______ ‫ يصفوا‬adjectives ‫ أما ال‬، _______ ‫ يصفوا‬adverbs ‫ ال‬: ‫أكمل الجملة التية‬

Conversations :

Making suggestions : Shall we go swimming ? (let us go swimming)
(why don't we eat dinner there ?) (How about doing this ?) / Yes, sure
(that is a good idea) (it sounds great) (ok.) . (H.K.)
--- There is a football game at the stadium tomorrow , do you want to go ?
(would you like to go ?) (how about going ?) / yes, sure (I'd like to) (may
be) (I don't know) , what time is it? / at 7:30 / ok. see you there .
Asking for permission :
Asking for permission

Giving the permission

Refusing the permission

May I [Meena]
(can I)
(could I)
drink some water
Do you mind if I borrow
your book?

Yes , sure (certainly)
(of course)
(here you are) (help
yourself)
No, of course I don't mind.
(no problem)

I'm sorry
(sorry I need it myself)

Yes, I 'm using it right now.
(Yes , I need it)

Giving thanks : Thank you (thanks) (thanks a lot) (I appreciate your
help) / you're welcome (you are very welcome any time) (my pleasure)
To agree or disagree : Do you agree with me ? (what do you think ?) (Is
that right ?) / I agree with you (I agree with all what you've just said
except ..) (yes, that's right) (exactly) (you are absolutely right) or Sorry I
don't agree (I disagree with you) (I don't think so) ( that is not right
because .. ..) [Meena]
To ask for help : Could you help me ? (may you do me a favor ?) / yes,
sure (of course)
--- Would you mind doing this for me ? / no, I don't mind (yes , I'm sorry
I can't) (H.K.)
38

H.W. Practice all these conversations with any of your friends

Level 8 [Meena]

(H.K.)

Adjectives and adverbs
Adverbs ‫الظروف‬
. (‫نقول باختصار عن الظروف أنها هي التي تدل علي كيفية حدوث الفعل أو مكانه أو زمانه )وقته‬
Adverbs are related to verbs , they tell : 1) how , 2) where , and , 3) when ,
the verbs are done.
1) How : like : fast , quickly
Ex: He runs fast. He did it very quickly.
2) When : like : next , now , yesterday (H.K.)
Ex: Next thing you should do is this. She went there yesterday. Do it now.
39

3) Where : like : nowhere , anywhere , here , there , out
Ex: I couldn't find it anywhere. Come here.
He ran slowly
: ‫ مثل‬ly ‫ ومعظم الظروف في النجليزي تنتهي ب‬--A friendly person]
: ‫ مثل‬ly ‫ولكن يوجد صفات تنتهي أيضا ب‬

Meena]

: (adverbs) ‫ والكلمات التية تعتبر ظروف‬--Where , when , how , why , before , after , while , since , there , rarely ,
seldom , should , had , little , not only , nowhere , no sooner , never
Examples : Rarely has he done a good job.
Seldom do I eat butter.
Should they come , we wouldn't go out.
Had he prayed , he would have succeeded.
Not only did he succeed but he also got the best grade.
Never will I do that again.
Nowhere could they find her.

Adjectives ‫الصفات أو النعوت‬
‫ أي الصفات أو النعوت التي تصف أسماء وهي ل‬descriptive ‫أهمها والمعروفة دائما هي‬
(1
. red, young ‫تتأثر بعدد أو نوع الموصوف مثل‬
much , little , ‫ صفة تبين كمية ويكون لموصوف بعدها دائما مفرد مثل‬Quantitative
(2
. some , enough
many , few , ‫ صفة تبين العدد وبالتالي سيكون الموصوف بعدها في الجمع مثل‬Numeral
(3
. three , no
. each , every ‫ مثل‬Distributive
(4
‫ أي صفات الملكية وهم‬Possessive
(5
My , your , his , her , its , our , your , their , whose .
، ‫ للمفرد البعيد‬that ، ‫ للمفرد القريب‬this
: ‫ صفات الشارة وهم‬Demonstrative (6
‫ للجمع البعيد‬those ، ‫ للجمع القريب‬these
what, which, whatever, whichever ex : I had to ‫ الصفات الموصولة وهم‬Relative (7
‫ صفات‬wait for 4 hours , during which I watched a movie.
8) Interrogative
. what , which ‫الستفهام وهم‬

(‫صيغة التفضيل في الظروف والنعوت )الصفات‬
The Comparison of adjectives and adverbs [Meena]

: (‫عند وضع الظروف والصفات في صيغة التفضيل )المقارنة‬
: ‫ فمثل نقول‬est ‫ أو‬er ‫ في الكلمات الصغيرة )مقطع أو اثنين( نستخدم‬--Rich , richer , the richest
‫ لو واحد أغنى من الكل‬est ‫ لو واحد أغنى من آخر أو آخرين واضافة‬er ‫لحظ اضافة‬
: ‫ مثل‬most ‫ و‬more ‫ أما في الكلمات التي تزيد عن مقطعين نستخدم‬--Wonderful , more wonderful , the most wonderful
‫ مع الفضل‬the ‫ولحظ اننا دائما نضع‬
‫ والثالثة تسمى‬comparative ‫ والثانية تسمى‬positive (‫ وتسمى الكلمة الصلية )المجردة‬--. superlative
(‫ ومايلي هو جدول لبعض الظروف المنتظمة في تفضيلها )في مقارنتها‬--The following is a table of comparison of some regular adverbs :
40

Positive [Meena]

Comparative

Superlative

Fast
Early
Quickly
Hard
High

Faster
Earlier
More quickly
Harder
Higher

Fastest
Earliest
Most quickly
Hardest
Highest (H.K.)

(‫ ومايلي هو جدول لبعض الظروف الغير منتظمة في تفضيلها )في مقارنتها‬---

The following is a table of comparison of some irregular adverbs :
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Well
Badly
Late
Little
Much (many)

Better
Worse
Later
Less (lesser)
More

Best
Worst
Latest (last)
Least
Most

Completely, immediately ‫ مثل‬،‫ ويوجد بعض الظروف التي ل تأتي في صيغة التفضيل‬---

:‫ مثل‬، ‫ ويوجد بعض الكلمات التي يمكن أن تستخدم كظروف ويمكن أن تستخدم أيضا كصفات‬--Fast , cheap , high , short , fine , straight , bright , flat , free , sharp ,
hard , late , loud , real
Ex: A fast car runs fast.
: adjectives ‫ وال‬adverbs ‫ ونلحظ أن في حالتي ال‬--‫ أما إذا كان‬، ‫ كبقية الكلمات‬est ‫ أو‬er ‫ قبله حرف متحرك تأخذ‬Y ‫( إذا كانت الكلمة تنتهي ب‬1
: ‫ مثل‬I ‫ ونضع مكانها‬y ‫ نحذف ال‬y ‫هناك حرف ساكن قبل ال‬
Grey , greyer , greyest / busy , busier , busiest
‫ نضاعف الحرف‬، ‫ وقبله حرف متحرك‬y ‫( أما إذا كانت الكلمة تنتهي بحرف ساكن غير ال‬2
big , bigger , biggest / hot , hotter , hottest: ‫ مثل‬، ‫الخير‬
: ‫ وذلك مثل الكلمات‬، ‫( يمكن استخدام الكلمات التي تعني كمية قبل مقارنة الظروف والصفات‬3
a bit / a little / much / a lot / far (H.K.)
ex : He is much (a lot) richer than her / this watch is much more expensive
than the other one / may you walk a bit (a little) more slowly / the
discovery was far more dangerous than we thought at first.
adjectives ‫وبالنسبة للصفات‬

‫_كما قلنا‬، (adverbs) ‫ أما الظروف‬، ‫( تصف اسماء‬adjectives ) ‫ أذكر أن الصفات‬--.Ex : He speaks perfect Arabic. He speaks Arabic perfectly
: ‫ مثال‬، ‫تصف أفعال‬
‫ وسنكتب بعض المثلة وستكون اللواحق‬، (suffixes) ‫ يمكن عمل صفات بكثير من اللواحق‬--[bold : [Meena ‫بال‬

wonderful, patient, bored, blackened, reddish, tiresome, metallic, natural, active,
friendly, Egyptian, American, Chinese , secondary , partial, interesting.

: ‫ ومايلي هو جدول ببعض الصفات المنتظمة في تفضيلها‬---

The following is a table of comparison of some regular adjectives :
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Fast
Young
Friendly

Faster [Meena]
Younger
More friendly

41

Fastest
Youngest
Most friendly

Beautiful
Interesting

More beautiful
More interesting

Most beautiful
Most interesting (H.K.)

: ‫ ومايلي هو جدول ببعض الصفات الغير منتظمة في تفضيلها‬---

The following is a table of comparison of some irregular adjectives:
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Good
Bad (ill)
Little (uncountable)
Few (countable)
Near
Much (many)
Far
Late
Old
Out
Up
In [Meena]

Better
Worse
Less (lesser)
Fewer
Nearer
More
Farther (further)
Later
Older (elder)
Outer (utter)
Upper
Inner

Best (H.K.)
Worst
Least
Least
Nearest (next)
Most
Farthest (furthest)
Latest (last)
Oldest (eldest)
Outmost (utmost)
Upmost
Inmost (innermost)

Rectangular , correct: ‫ ويوجد بعض الصفات التي ل توضع في صيغة التفضيل مثل‬----- Sometimes we use two or more adjectives together , ex : Roushdy lives
in a nice new house .
‫ حسب الكلم المستخدم‬، ing– ‫ أو‬ed– ‫ بعض الصفات تنتهي ب‬--Some adjectives end in –ed or –ing like , bored and boring , for we say:
someone is –ed if something (or someone) is –ing , or , if something (or
someone) is –ing it makes you –ed , (H.K.)
ex : Zaki is bored with his job . / Zaki's job is boring .
Are you interested in buying a nice house ?
Did you meet anyone interesting at the club ?
Other adjectives that can end in –ed or –ing are : satisfied , worried ,
excited , confused , annoyed , astonished , amazed , amused , terrified ,
depressed , shocked .
ied ‫ قبله حرف ساكن تتحول إلي‬Y ‫وهنا أيضا نلحظ أن الصفات التي تنتهي ب‬
‫ قبله حرف متحرك تبقى كما هي‬y ‫ أما الصفات التي تنتهي ب‬، worried, terrified ‫مثل‬
. annoyed ‫ مثل‬ed ‫ونضيف لها‬
--- Sometimes we use adjectives after some verbs , especially be and get ,
ex : be patient , be careful , I'm getting hungry . [Meena]
__________________________ ‫( هو أطول منها‬1 : ‫ ترجم إلي النجليزية‬.H.W
______________________________________ ‫( هم يتكلمون انجليزي بسهولة‬2
_________________________________________ ‫( هذا قميص أبيض جميل‬3
_____________________________________ ‫( هذا الفستان الصفر مريح جدا‬4
____________________________________________ ‫( هي أكثر صبرا منه‬5
(H.K.)

H.W. Complete the following table : ‫أكمل الجدول التالي‬
42

Positive

Comparative [Meena]

Superlative

Fast
Better
Most
Quickly

The following is a table of some nouns and their adjectives :
Nouns
‫ المعنى‬Adjectives Nouns
‫ المعنى‬Adjectives
Accuracy
Aggression
Anger
Anxiety
Ascetic,
asceticism
Bigot, bigotry
Boredom
Bravery
Cleverness
Confidence
Creation
Death
Discipline
Energy
Equality
Faithfulness
Fluency
Friendliness /
friendship
Happiness
Hard-work
Heat
Height

‫دقة‬
‫عدوان‬
‫غضب‬
‫قلق‬
‫ زهد‬،‫تقشف‬
(‫متعصب )في الرأي‬

‫ملل‬
‫شجاعة‬
‫ذكاء‬
‫ثقة‬
‫خليقة‬
‫موت‬
‫ تهذيب‬، ‫نظام‬
‫طاقة‬
‫مساواة‬
‫ثقة‬
‫طلقة لسان‬
‫صداقة‬
‫سعادة‬
‫شغل بهمة‬
‫حرارة‬
‫ارتفاع‬

Accurate
Aggressive
Angry
Anxious
Ascetic

Honesty
Hunger
Joy (H.K.)
Kindness
Length

Bigoted

Loneliness
Loyalty
Maturity
Necessity
Nervousness
Outgo
Patience
Popularity
Probability
Rarity
Reality

Bored / boring

Brave
Clever
Confident
Creative
Dead
Disciplined
Energetic
Equal
Faithful
Fluent
Friendly
Happy
Hard-working

Hot
High

Responsibility

Selfishness
Shyness
Stupidity
Thirst
Wisdom

‫أمانة‬
‫جوع‬
‫فرح‬
‫طيبة‬
‫طول‬
‫ وحدانية‬، ‫وحدة‬
‫وفاء‬
‫نضج‬
‫أهمية‬
‫عصبية‬
‫الخروج‬
‫صبر‬
‫ شهرة‬، ‫شعبية‬
‫احتمال‬
‫ندرة‬
‫ واقع‬، ‫حقيقة‬
‫مسئولية‬
‫أنانية‬
‫خجل‬
‫بلهة‬
‫عطش‬
‫حكمة‬

Honest
Hungry
Joyful
Kind
Long
Lonely
Loyal
Mature
Necessary
Nervous
Outgoing
Patient
Popular
Probable
Rare
Real
Responsible
Selfish
Shy
Stupid
Thirsty
Wise

Tenses [Meena] ‫الزمنة‬
simple ‫ بالنسبة لل‬--Present
I eat
You eat
He (she , it) eats
We eat
You eat
They eat

Simple (Simple Tense)
Past

Future

I ate
You ate
He (she , it) ate
We ate (H.K.)
You ate
They ate

I shall eat
You will eat
He (she , it) will eat
We shall eat
You will eat
They will eat
. ‫ فقط‬present ‫ في ال‬he, she, it ‫ بتأتي فقط مع‬s ‫ونلحظ )كما قلنا من قبل( ان ال‬

H.W. Complete the following table like the previous one using verb
"Drink". ‫"أكمل الجدول التالي مثل السابق مستخدما الفعل "يشرب‬
Simple (Simple Tense)
43

‫‪Future‬‬

‫]‪Past [Meena‬‬

‫‪I shall drink‬‬

‫‪Present‬‬
‫‪I drank‬‬

‫‪I drink‬‬
‫‪You drink‬‬
‫‪He, she, it‬‬
‫‪We‬‬

‫‪ --‬وهنا ملحوظة هامة يجب معرفتها وهي انه هناك فرق بين‬‫ال ‪ s, es, ies‬الذين يأتوا مع ال ‪ verbs‬مع ‪ he, she, it‬في ال ‪ ، present‬وبين‬
‫ال ‪ s, es, ies‬الذين يأتوا عند جمع السماء ‪ ، nouns‬فمثل ‪:‬‬
‫‪He (she, it) : eats, enjoys, / goes, does, / carries, tries‬‬
‫‪Pen-pens, toy-toys, / dish-dishes, box-boxes, / factory-factories‬‬
‫ولحظ في السطرين السابقين ان ال ‪ Y‬تتحول ل ‪ ies‬إذا كان قبلها حرف ساكن فقط ‪ ،‬أما اذا كان‬
‫قبلها حرف متحرك تبقى كما هي ونضيف لها ‪ s‬فقط‬
‫‪ --‬ولتوضيح استخدامات ال ‪ simple tense‬أكثر نأخذ أمثلة ‪) :‬لحظ ال ‪( Key words‬‬‫‪He always writes letters to his friends.‬‬
‫‪Last week she wrote many letters to her friends.‬‬
‫)‪I'll write a letter to him tomorrow. (H.K.‬‬
‫‪ --‬ولعمل أسئلة )وأجوبة( لهذه الجمل السابقة ‪ ،‬تكون بنفس السلوب الذي درسناه من قبل‬‫‪1) Does he always write letters to his friends? / yes, he always writes‬‬
‫‪letters to his friends / yes, he does / no, he doesn't always write -‬‬‫‪2) Did she write any letters to her friends? / yes, she wrote some letters to‬‬
‫‪her friends / yes, she did / no, she didn't write any -‬‬‫‪3) Will you write a letter to him tomorrow? / yes, I shall / no, I shan't‬‬
‫‪ --‬وبالنسبة لل ‪ present simple‬فهو يتكلم أيضا عن حقائق ‪ facts‬مثل ‪the sun rises‬‬‫‪ --‬وبالنسبة لعمل الفعل في الماضي ‪ ،‬نجد أن الفعل الذي ينتهي ب ‪ y‬وقبلها ‪ vowel‬يأخذ ‪ed‬‬‫مثل ‪ ، play - played‬والفعل الذي ينتهي ب ‪ y‬وقبلها حرف ساكن نلغي ال ‪ y‬ونضع ‪ied‬‬
‫مثل ‪ ، carry – carried‬وذلك يشبه تماما ماقلناعن ال ‪ Y‬التي تأتي في نهاية ال ‪ verbs‬و ال‬
‫‪ nouns‬وال ‪.adjectives‬‬
‫‪ --‬وبالنسبة لل ‪ simple future‬يمكن عمله باسلوب آخر )بدون استخدام ‪ (shall, will‬وهو‬‫يتم ب ‪ v.be + going to‬فنقول مثل ‪ I am going to eat‬والمقصود بها ‪. I'll eat‬‬
‫ومن الممكن استخدام الثنين بدل بعض ‪ ،‬ولكن أحيانا ‪ going to‬تستخدم في حالت المستقبل‬
‫القريب وأحيانا تستخدم في اثبات النية في عمل شئ في المستقبل أو التخطيط للمستقبل أو في‬
‫‪[It is going to be hot today [Meena‬‬
‫الكلم عن شئ على وشك الحدوث مثل ‪:‬‬
‫وبالطبع الفرق واضح بين ‪ going to‬وبين ال ‪) continuous‬الذي سنشرحه في ال ‪level‬‬
‫القادم( ‪ ،‬وهو ان ال ‪ ing‬في ‪ going to‬تكون دائما في ‪ ، going‬أما ال ‪ ing‬في ال ‪.cont‬‬
‫تكون دائما في ال ‪ verb‬نفسه ‪ ،‬فنقول مثل‪:‬‬
‫)أنا سآكل( ‪I am going to eat‬‬
‫‪ ,‬أو ‪, or‬‬
‫)أنا آكل الن( ‪I am eating now‬‬
‫)أنا كنت بآكل( ‪) , or , I was eating‬أنا كنت هآكل( ‪I was going to eat‬‬

‫المبني للمعلوم والمبني للمجهول ‪Active and passive‬‬
‫لحظ ان ال ‪ active and passive‬ليسوا ‪ tenses‬ولكنهم اسلوب كلم وفيهم ‪. tenses‬‬
‫‪44‬‬

‫ وخاصة الجزء الول فيه‬personal pronouns ‫نحتاج أن نتذكر هنا الجدول الخاص بال‬
. ‫ وهكذا‬him ‫" تتحول ل‬he"‫ و‬، me ‫" تتحول ل‬I" ‫حيث نجد مثل أن‬
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
they

Me (H.K.)
You
Him
Her
It
Us
You
Them

Tenses
Sim.

Pr
Pa
Fu

Active

Passive

He eats apples
I ate an apple
They will eat apples (H.K.)

Apples are eaten by him
An apple was eaten by me
Apples will be eaten by them

"Y " ‫الحرف‬
Words (verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs) end in "a consonant + y" ,
we change the Y to I , to add es or ed or er or est or ly / but the Y
remains the same when we add ing :
Ex : country – countries / study – studies / apply – applied / easy – easier –
easiest / heavy – heavily // but study – studying .

Conversation
At home : Where is dad ? / he is in the kitchen / what's he doing ? / he
is reading / why is he reading in the kitchen ? / because Ahmed is
watching TV. in the living room .
On the phone : Hello Omar / yes / this is Medhat / oh , hi Medhat / is
Ahmed there / no, he is not , he is at the supermarket / ok. I'll call him back
later . (H.K.)
--- Hello / hi Ann / is Mary there / sure , hold on she is listening to the
radio , Mary , it is for you .
--- Hello John , are you busy? / well I'm eating lunch right now , can I call
you back later / sure no problem .
About a trip : Hi Aly , how was your trip , I just talked to George and he
said it was really nice / nice ! I thought it was awful , the weather wasn't
very good , the people weren't friendly , and the hotel wasn't good at all /
was the food any good ? / Ya it was delicious . (H.K.)
45

‫‪At the airlines office : I'd like to go to New York on Tuesday flight / ok.‬‬
‫? ‪Madam / what are the departure and arrival times please‬‬

‫)‪(H.K.‬‬

‫]‪Level 9 [Meena‬‬

‫الزمنة ]‪Tenses [Meena‬‬
‫بالنسبة للزمنة سنكتبهم كلهم مع بعض ثم نشرحهم كلهم مع بعض ‪ ،‬وذلك للسهولة ولمقارنة‬
‫كله ببعض وبالتالي اتقانهم أكثر ‪ .‬وللسهولة أكثر سنأخذ من ال ‪ pronouns‬معهم كلهم في هذا‬
‫الجدول التالي "‪ "I‬فقط ‪ ،‬ثم نستخدم بقية ال ‪ pronouns‬مع بعض التطبيقات ‪.‬‬
‫وبرجاء الهتمام بفهم وحفظ هذا الباب )الفصل( تماما ‪ ،‬لنه هام جدا في المحادثات )‬
‫‪ (conversations‬ولنه مبني عليه كل البواب التي تليه في هذا الكتاب‪.‬‬
‫ولننسى )بل دايما نذكر( أننا دائما سنختصر بعض الكلمات كالتي ‪:‬‬
‫‪Present = pr. / past = pa. / future = fu. / past participle = p.p. / simple‬‬
‫)‪= s. / continuous = cont. / perfect = perf. / verb = v. (H.K.‬‬
‫ملحوظة ‪ :‬ستجد جداول فيها ال ‪ (.past participle (p.p‬ابتداء من صفحة ‪52‬‬
‫]‪Tenses [Meena‬‬
‫)‪I eat ( everyday , sometimes , always , usually , often‬‬

‫‪46‬‬

‫‪Pr.‬‬

‫)‪Simple (H.K.‬‬

Pa.
Fu.
Continuous
Pr.
‫ مستمر‬Pa.
V. be + --ing
Fu.
Perfect
Pr.
‫تام‬
V. have + p.p.
Pa.
Fu.
Perfect continuous Pr.
V.have + been +
Pa.
--ing
Fu.
‫بسيط‬

I ate (yesterday , last night , in the past , ago)
I shall eat (tomorrow , next week , later) (H.K.)
I am eating (now , nowadays, today)
I was eating (while , as , when)
I shall be eating (tomorrow , at that time)
I have eaten (already , just , almost , nearly , since , yet , not
yet , ever , never , now , today)
I had eaten (before , after , when , until)
I shall have eaten (by) (H.K.)
I have been eating (for , since)
I had been eating (for , since , before)
I shall have been eating (for , on , after)

. ‫من الضروري جدا حفظ هذا الجدول لنه سيفيد كثيرا جدا‬
‫ وكل واحد من‬.tenses) ، s. , cont. , perf. , perf. cont 12) ‫ زمن‬12 ‫ونلحظ اننا عندنا‬
key ‫ وبجوار كل واحد بعض كلمات بين قوسين تسمى ال‬. .pr. , pa. , fu ‫هؤلء الربعة فيه‬
. ‫ وهي الكلمات التي تساعد في تكوين هذا الزمن‬words
. ‫ ليس فيه اي تعقيدات ول أي شروط لتركيبه ولذلك سمى بسيط‬، ‫ هو بسيط‬.s ‫ ال‬-.pa ‫ أو كان مستمر في ال‬، .pr ‫ أي أنه فعل مستمر ألن في ال‬، ‫ وهو المستمر‬.cont ‫ ال‬-‫ أثناء حدوث فعل آخر أو‬.fu ‫ أو سيكون مستمر في ال‬، ‫أثناء حدوث فعل آخر أو أثناء وقت معين‬
.(am eating ‫ )مثل‬verb ‫ في نهاية ال‬ing ‫ ثم‬verb be ‫ ويكون تركيبه ب‬، ‫أثناء وقت معين‬
(‫ أو تم )انتهى‬، ‫ بيتم )بينتهي( أو علي وشك النتهاء الن‬، ‫ وهو فعل‬، ‫ وهو التام‬.perf ‫ ال‬-‫ أو سيتم )سينتهي( أو‬، ‫أو كان علي وشك النتهاء في الماضي بالمقارنة بفعل آخر أو وقت معين‬
‫ ويكون تركيبه ب‬.‫سيكون علي وشك النتهاء في المستقبل بالمقارنة بفعل آخر أو وقت معين‬
. ( have eaten ‫ )مثل‬.p.p ‫ ثم ال‬verb have
‫ وفيه نعرف طول مدة استمرار الفعل وبداية أو نهاية‬، ‫ وهو التام المستمر‬.perf. Cont ‫ ال‬-‫ مدة‬.fu ‫ و ال‬.pa ‫ وفي ال‬، ‫ ما هي مدة استمراره إلي الن أو متى بدأ‬.pr ‫ في ال‬. ‫هذه المدة‬
verb have + been ‫ ويكون تركيبه ب‬. ‫استمراره من أو إلي حدوث فعل آخر أو وقت معين‬
. ( have been eating ‫ في نهاية الفعل )مثل‬ing ‫ثم‬
H.W. Complete the table using "drink" and one key word in each sentence
Tenses
Simple

Pr.
‫ بسيط‬Pa.
Fu.
Continuous
Pr.
‫ مستمر‬Pa.
V. be + --ing
Fu.
Perfect
Pr.
‫ تام‬Pa.
V. have + p.p.
Fu.
Perfect continuous Pr.
V.have + been +
Pa.
--ing [Meena]
Fu.

They always drink water (H.K.)
It
We
She
He
You
You
They
It
We
He
You

47

‫ أو علي‬pronouns ‫( في جداول أخرى مع بقية ال‬tense) ‫ والن سنأخذ أمثلة عن كل زمن‬--. ‫ تم شرحه‬simple ‫بالنسبة لل‬
:‫هيئة أسئلة وأجوبة لتوضيح كل التفاصيل بقدر المكان‬
: continuous ‫ وبالنسبة لل‬--Present
I am eating
You are eating
He is eating
She is eating
It is eating
We are eating
You are eating
They are eating

Continuous
Past
I was eating
You were eating
He was eating (H.K.)
She was eating
It was eating
We were eating
You were eating
They were eating

Future
I shall be eating
You will be eating
He will be eating
She will be eating
It will be eating
We shall be eating
You will be eating
They will be eating

: ‫ونقول مثل‬
I'm praying now.‫أنا أصلي الن‬
They were playing yesterday when I met them. ‫هم كانوا يصلون بالمس حينما قابلتهم‬
She will be walking tomorrow when you come. ‫هي ستكون بتتمشى حينما تأتي غدا‬
: ‫ولعمل أسئلة وأجوبة‬
Are you praying now? / Yes, I'm praying now / No, I'm not -Were they playing yesterday when you met them? / Yes, they were playing
yesterday when I met them / No, they were not playing --.
Will she be walking tomorrow when I come? / Yes, she will be walking
tomorrow when you come / No, she'll not be walking --.
‫ هو‬.cont ‫( وهو أن ال‬47) ‫ نكرر ماقلناه في الصفحة السابقة‬، ‫ولفهم المستمر أكثر‬
‫ أثناء حدوث فعل‬.pa ‫ أو كان مستمر في ال‬، ( .pr ‫ أي أنه فعل مستمر الن ) في ال‬، ‫المستمر‬
‫ أثناء حدوث فعل آخر أو أثناء وقت‬، .fu ‫ أو سيكون مستمر في ال‬، ‫آخر أو أثناء وقت معين‬
. ( am eating ‫ )مثل‬verb ‫ في نهاية ال‬ing ‫ ثم‬verb be ‫ ويكون تركيبه ب‬،‫معين‬
H.W. complete the following table like the previous one using verb "play"
"‫أكمل الجدول القادم مثل السابق مستخدما الفعل "يلعب‬
Continuous
Past

Present
I am playing (H.K.)
You

Future

He was
She
It will be playing [Meena]
We
You
They

--- N.B. : The present continuous is also used for the near future (like
going to), specially with verbs of movement like "go, come, leave"
Ex: Ahmed is coming here next week. / They are leaving for U.S.A. on Friday.
48

‫ أي‬continuous ‫التي ل تأتي في ال‬

(verbs)‫ ويجب ملحظة أنه توجد بعض الفعال‬--[Meena] : ‫ ومنها‬ing ‫لنضيف لها‬
Like , love , believe , hate , see , hear , understand , consist , contain ,
possess , belong , resemble , recognize , want .
‫ مثل‬e ‫ نحذف ال‬e ‫ لفعل ينتهي ب‬ing ‫ ولبد أن نذكر ما قلناه من قبل وهو انه عند اضافة‬--‫ نضاعف الحرف‬، vowel ‫ لفعل ينتهي بحرف ساكن قبله‬ing ‫ وعند اضافة‬، write - writing
. get - getting ‫ مثل‬، ‫الساكن‬
continuous tense ‫ ممكن يكون الفعلين في ال‬، past continuous ‫ في ال‬--Ex: While he was reading , the children were playing . (H.K.)
: perfect ‫ وبالنسبة لل‬--Present
I have eaten
You have eaten
He has eaten
She's eaten (H.K.)
It's eaten
We've eaten
You've eaten
they've eaten

Perfect
Past [Meena]
I had eaten
You had eaten
He had eaten
She had eaten
It had eaten
We had eaten
You had eaten
They had eaten

Future
I shall have eaten
You will have eaten
He will have eaten
She will have eaten
It will have eaten
We shall have eaten
You will have eaten
They will have eaten

H.W. complete the following table like the previous one using verb "walk"
"‫أكمل الجدول القادم مثل السابق مستخدما الفعل "يمشي‬
Present

Perfect
Past

Future

I have walked (H.K.)

: ‫ولعمل أسئلة وأجوبة‬
Have you prayed yet? / Yes I've already prayed. / No, I haven't prayed yet.
Had she written the report before he came? / Yes, she had written it before
he came. / No, she hadn't written it before he came. (H.K.)
Shall we have done the homework by 6:00 o'clock? / Yes, we shall have
done it by 6:00 o'clock. / No, we shall not have done it by 6:00 o'clock.
‫ بيتم )بينتهي( أو‬، ‫ وهو فعل‬، ‫ هو التام‬.perf ‫ وهو أن ال‬47 ‫ونكرر هنا أيضا ماقلناه في صفحة‬
‫ أو تم )انتهى( أو كان علي وشك النتهاء في الماضي بالمقارنة بفعل آخر‬، ‫علي وشك النتهاء الن‬
49

.

‫ أو سيتم )سينتهي( أو سيكون علي وشك النتهاء في المستقبل بالمقارنة بفعل آخر‬، ‫أو وقت معين‬
[have eaten ) [Meena ‫ )مثل‬.p.p ‫ ثم ال‬verb have ‫ويكون تركيبه ب‬
.‫أو وقت معين‬
: perfect continuous ‫ بالنسبة لل‬--Present

I've been eating
You've been eating
He's been eating
She's been eating
It's been eating
We've been eating
You've been eating
They've been eating

Perfect continuous
Past
I had been eating
You had been eating
He had been eating
She had been eating
It had been eating (H.K.)
We had been eating
You had been eating
They had been eating

Future

I shall have been eating
You will have been eating
He will have been eating
She will have been eating
It will have been eating
We shall have been eating
You will have been eating
They will have been eating

H.W. complete the following table like the previous one using verb "talk"
"‫أكمل الجدول القادم مثل السابق مستخدما الفعل "يتكلم‬
Present

Perfect continuous
Past

Future

I've been talking (H.K.)

: ‫ولعمل أسئلة وأجوبة‬
Have you been playing here since 5:00 o'clock? / Yes. I have been playing
here since 5:00 o'clock. / No, I haven't been playing here since 5:00 , I've
been playing just for half an hour. (H.K.)
Had they been praying for 3 hours before we went there? / Yes, they had
been praying for 3 hours before we went there / No, they had not been ----.
Will you have been studying here for 5 hours by 10:00 o'clock? / yes, we
shall have been studying here for 5 hours by 10:00 o'clock / No, we shall
not have been studying ----. [Meena]
‫ هو التام‬.perf. Cont ‫ وهو أن ال‬47 ‫ في صفحة‬.perfect cont ‫ونكرر أيضا ما قلناه عن ال‬
‫نعرف ما‬.pr ‫ في ال‬. ‫ وفيه نعرف طول مدة استمرار الفعل وبداية أو نهاية هذه المدة‬، ‫المستمر‬
‫ نعرف مدة استمراره من أو إلي‬.fu ‫ و ال‬.pa ‫ وفي ال‬، ‫هي مدة استمراره إلي الن أو متى بدأ‬
‫ في نهاية‬ing ‫ ثم‬verb have + been ‫ ويكون تركيبه ب‬. ‫حدوث فعل آخر أو وقت معين‬
. ( have been eating ‫الفعل )مثل‬
H.W. Answer the questions with Yes and No: [Meena]
Is he drinking water now? Yes, _________________ No, __________________
Has she already eaten? Yes, __________________ No,____________________
50

Have they been praying for an hour now? Yes, ___________________________
(H.K.) No, _______________________________________________________
Were you talking when I called her? Yes, _______________________________
No, ___________________________________________________________
Will they have eaten when I come? Yes, ________________________________
No, ___________________________________________________________
Will you have finished eating when we come? Yes, _______________________
No, ___________________________________________________________
Do you always drink tea in the morning? Yes, ___________________________
No, ___________________________________________________________
Will she have been studying for an hour when we go to her?
Yes, __________________________________________________________
No, ___________________________________________________________

Conjugation of verbs ‫تصريف الفعال‬
‫( أو‬past participle) ‫( وإلي اسم المفعول‬past) ‫ إلي الماضي‬، ‫وهو تحويل الفعل‬
[pronouns
. [Meena ‫تصريفهم مع ال‬
ed ‫ أو‬d ‫( وهي التي تأخذ‬regular verbs) (‫وهنا نجد الفعال المنتظمة )القياسية‬
: ‫ مثل‬past participle ‫ وفي ال‬past ‫ في التصريف الثاني والثالث أ ي في ال‬ied ‫أو‬
‫( وليس‬irregular verbs) (‫ ويوجد الفعال الغير منتظمة )الشاذة‬، pray prayed prayed
. eat ate eaten : ‫لهم قواعد في تصريفهم مثل‬
The following is a table of conjugation of some regular verbs(that take d) :
Regular verbs (that take "d")
Regular verbs (that take "d")
Present
‫ المعنى‬Past
Past
Present
‫ المعنى‬Past
Past
(infinitive)

Advise
Agree
Arrange
Care
Continue
Decide
Deserve
Hate
Hesitate

‫ينصح‬
‫يوافق‬
‫يرتب‬
‫ يهتم‬،‫يعتني‬
‫يستمر‬
‫يقرر‬
‫يستحق‬
‫يكره‬
‫يتردد‬

Advised
Agreed
---d
Cared
---d
Decided
---d
---d
---d

participle

(infinitive)

Advised
Agreed
---d
Cared
---d
Decided
---d
---d
---d

Hope
Like
Love
Manage
Prepare
Promise
Refuse
Struggle
(H.K.)

participle

‫يرجو‬
‫ يفضل‬،‫يحب‬
‫يحب‬
‫يدير‬
‫ يعد‬،‫يحضر‬
‫يوعد‬
‫يرفض‬
‫يصارع‬

Hoped
Liked
Loved
---d
---d
---d
---d
---d

Hoped
Liked
Loved
---d
---d
---d
---d
---d
[Meena]

The following is a table of conjugation of some regular verbs(that take ed) :
Regular verbs (that take "ed")
Regular verbs (that take "ed")
Present
(infinitive)

‫المعنى‬

Past

Past
participle

Present
(infinitive)

51

‫المعنى‬

Past

Past
participle

Affect

‫يؤثر‬

Affected

Affected

Afford
Appear
Arrest
Ask
Attack
Avoid
Beg
Blink
Claim
Climb
Control
[Meena]
Demand

‫ يقدر‬، ‫يمد‬
‫يظهر‬
‫يقبض على‬
‫يسأل‬
‫يهاجم‬
‫يتجنب‬
‫يتوسل‬
‫يرمش‬
‫يطالب ب‬
‫يتسلق‬
‫يتحكم‬

Afforded
---ed
Arrested
Asked
Attacked
Avoided
Begged
Blinked
Claimed
Climbed
---ed

Afforded
---ed
Arrested
Asked
Attacked
Avoided
Begged
Blinked
Claimed
Climbed
---ed

‫يطلب‬

---ed

Discuss
Drop
End
Expect
Fail
Float
Guess
Harvest
Heat
Intend

‫يناقش‬
‫يسقط‬
‫ينتهي‬
‫يتوقع‬

---ed
Dropped
Ended
Expected
Failed
Floated
---ed
---ed
---ed
---ed

---ed
(H.K.)
---ed
Dropped
Ended
Expected
Failed
Floated
---ed
---ed
---ed
---ed

‫ يرسب‬،‫يسقط‬

‫يطفو‬
‫يخمن‬
‫يحصد‬
‫يسخن‬
‫ينوي‬

Learn
[Meena]
Need
Offend
Offer
Plan
Pretend
Regret
Resist
Seem
Shop
Slow
Smell
Spell
Start
Step
Stop
Switch
Threaten
Travel
Wait
Want
Water
Wish

‫يتعلم‬
‫يحتاج‬
‫يعثر‬
‫ يعرض‬،‫يقدم‬

‫يخطط‬
‫يتظاهر‬
‫يندم‬
‫يقاوم‬
‫يبدو‬
‫يتسوق‬
‫يبطئ‬
‫يشم‬
‫يتهجى‬
‫يبدأ‬
‫يخطو‬
‫يقف‬
‫ يشغل‬،‫ينقل‬
‫يهدد‬
‫يسافر‬
‫ينتظر‬
‫يريد‬
‫يسقي‬
‫يتمنى‬

Learned
(learnt)
Needed
Offended
Offered
Planed
---ed
---ed
Resisted
Seemed
Shopped
Slowed
Smelled
(smelt)
Spelled
(spelt)
Started
Stepped
Stopped

Learned
(learnt)
Needed
Offended
Offered
Planed
---ed
---ed
Resisted
Seemed
Shopped
Slowed
Smelled
(smelt)
Spelled
(spelt)
Started
Stepped
Stopped

---ed

---ed

---ed
Waited
Wanted
---ed
Wished

---ed
Waited
Wanted
---ed
Wished

---ed

---ed

The following is a table of conjugation of some regular verbs (that take ied) :
Regular verbs (that take "ied")
Regular verbs (that take "ied")
Present
‫ المعنى‬Past
Past
Present
‫ المعنى‬Past
Past
(infinitive)

Bury
Carry
Marry

‫يدفن‬
‫يحمل‬
‫يتزوج‬

[Meena]
Buried
Carried
Married

participle

(infinitive)

Buried
Carried
Married

Reply
Worry
[Meena]

‫يجاوب‬
‫يقلق‬

(H.K.)
Replied
Worried

participle

Replied
Worried

The following is a table of conjugation of some irregular verbs :
Irregular verbs
Irregular verbs
Present
(infinitive)

Am , is
(be)
Are (be)
Bear
Beat
Become
Begin

‫المعنى‬

Past

‫ يكون‬Was

Past
participle

Present

Been

Leave

(infinitive)

‫المعنى‬

Past

Past
Participle

‫يترك‬

Left

Left

Lent
Let
Lay
Lied
‫ يفقد‬،‫ يخسر‬Lost

Lent
Let
Lain
Lied
Lost

[Meena]

‫يحتمل‬
‫يضرب‬
‫يصبح‬
‫يبدأ‬

Were
Bore
Beat
Became
Began

Been
Borne
Beat
Become
Begun

Lend
Let
Lie
Lie
Lose

52

‫يقرض‬
‫يجعل‬
‫يتمدد‬
‫يكذب‬

Bend
Bet
Bid
Bid
Bind
Bite
Bleed
Blow
Break
Breed
Bring
Build
Burst
Buy
Cast
Catch
Chide
Choose
Cling
[Meena]

Come
Cost
Creep
Cut
Deal
Dig
Do
Draw
(H.K.)

Dream
Drink
Drive
Dwell
Eat
Fall
Feed
Feel
Fight
Find
Flee
Fly
Forbear
Forbid
Forget
Forgive
Freeze
Get

‫يثتي‬
‫يراهن‬
‫يأمر‬
‫يزيد‬
‫يربط‬
‫يعض‬
‫ينزف‬
‫ينفخ‬
‫يكسر‬
‫يربي‬
‫يحضر‬
‫يبني‬
‫يفجر‬
‫يشتري‬
‫يلقي‬
‫يمسك‬
‫يوبخ‬
‫يختار‬
،‫يتعلق‬
‫يلتصق‬
‫يأتي‬
‫يتكلف‬
‫يزحف‬
‫يقطع‬
‫يتعامل‬
‫يحفر‬
‫يعمل‬
،‫يرسم‬
‫يسحب‬
‫يحلم‬
‫يشرب‬
‫يسوق‬
‫يسكن‬
‫يأكل‬
‫يقع‬
‫يغذي‬
‫يشعر‬
‫يتشاجر‬
‫يجد‬
‫يهرب‬
‫يطير‬
/‫يرفض‬
‫يترفق‬
‫يمنع‬
‫ينسى‬
‫يسامح‬
‫يجمد‬
‫يحضر‬

Bent
Bet
Bade
Bid
Bound
Bit
Bled
Blew
Broke
Bred
Brought
Built
Burst
Bought
Cast
Caught
Chided
Chose
Clung

Bent
Bet
Bidden
Bid
Bound
Bitten
Bled
Blown
Broken
Bred
Brought
Built
Burst
Bought
Cast
Caught
Chidden
Chosen
Clung

Make
Mean
Meet
Pay
Put
Read
Rebuild
Ride
Ring
Rise
Run
Saw
Say
See
Seek
Sell
Send
Set
Sew

Came
Cost
Crept
Cut
Dealt
Dug
Did
Drew

Come
Cost
Crept
Cut
Dealt
Dug
Done
Drawn

Shake
Shine
Show
Shrink
Shut
Sing
Sink
Sit

Dreamt
Drank
Drove
Dwelt
Ate
Fell
Fed
Felt
Fought
Found
Fled
Flew
Forbore

Dreamt
Drunk
Driven
Dwelt
Eaten
Fallen
Fed
Felt
Fought
Found
Fled
Flown
Forborne

Slay
Sleep
Slide
Smell
Sow
Speak
Speed
Spell
Spend
Spill
Split
Spread
Spring

Forbade
Forgot
Forgave
Froze
Got

Forbidden
Forgotten
Forgiven
Frozen

‫يصنع‬
‫يعني‬
‫يقابل‬
‫يدفع‬
‫يضع‬
‫يقرأ‬
‫يعيد بناء‬
‫يركب‬
‫يرن‬
‫ يقوم‬،‫يرتفع‬

‫يجري‬
‫ينشر‬
‫يقول‬
‫يرى‬
‫يبحث‬
‫يبيع‬
‫يرسل‬
‫ يثبت‬،‫ينظم‬
‫يخيط‬

Made
Meant
Met
Paid
Put
Read
Rebuilt
Rode
Rang
Rose
Ran
Sawed
Said
Saw
Sought
Sold
Sent
Set
Sewed

Made
Meant
Met
Paid
Put
Read
Rebuilt
Ridden
Rung
Risen
Run
Sawn
Said
Seen
Sought
Sold
Sent
Set
Sewn

Shook
Shone
Showed
Shrank
Shut
Sang
Sank
Sat

Shaken
Shone
Shown
Shrunk
Shut
Sung
Sunk
Sat

(H.K.)

‫يهز‬
‫يلمع‬
‫ يفرج‬،‫يظهر‬

‫ينكمش‬
‫يغلق‬
‫يغني‬
‫يغطس‬
‫يجلس‬

[Meena]

‫يذبح‬
‫ينام‬
‫يتزحلق‬
‫يشم‬
‫يبذر‬
‫يتكلم‬
‫يسرع‬
‫يتهجى‬
‫يصرف‬
‫يدلق‬

Slew
Slept
Slid
Smelt
Sowed
Spoke
Sped
Spelt
Spent
Spilt
‫ يشق‬،‫ يفصل‬Split
‫ ينشر‬Spread
‫ يقفزلعلى‬Sprang

Slain
Slept
Slid
Smelt
Sown
Spoken
Sped
Spelt
Spent
Spilt
Split
Spread
Sprung

[Meena]

Got / gotten

Stand
Steal
Stick
Sting
Strike

53

‫يقف‬
‫يسرق‬
‫يلصق‬
‫يلذغ‬
‫يضرب‬

Stood
Stole
Stuck
Stung
Struck

Stood
Stolen
Stuck
Stung
Struck

Give
Go
Grind
Grow
Hang
Hang
Have

‫يعطي‬
‫يذهب‬
‫يطحن‬
‫ينمو‬
‫يشنق‬
‫يعلق‬
، ‫يملك‬
‫عنده‬
‫يسمع‬
‫يخبي‬
‫يخبط‬
‫يمسك‬
،‫يضر‬
‫يجرح‬
،‫يحفظ‬
‫يخلي‬
‫يركع‬
‫يعرف‬
‫يضع‬
‫يقود‬

Hear
Hide
Hit
Hold
Hurt
Keep
Kneel
Know
Lay
Lead

Gave
Went
Ground
Grew
Hanged
Hung
Had

Given
Gone
Ground
Grown
Hanged
Hung
Had

Strive
Swear
Sweep
Swim
Swing
Take
Teach

‫يجاهد‬
‫يحلف‬
‫يكنس‬
‫يسبح‬
‫يتأرجح‬
‫يأخذ‬
‫يعلم‬

Strove
Swore
Swept
Swam
Swung
Took
Taught

Heard
Hid
Hit
Held
Hurt

Heard
Hidden
Hit
Held
Hurt

Tear
Tell
Think
Throw
Wear

‫يمزق‬
‫يقول‬
‫يفكر‬
‫يرمي‬
‫يلبس‬

Tore
Told
Thought
Threw
Wore

Torn
Told
Thought
Thrown
Worn

Kept

Kept

Weep

‫يبكي‬

Wept

Wept

Knelt
Known
Laid
Led

Win
Write

‫يكسب‬
‫يكتب‬

Won
Wrote

Won
Written

[Meena]

Striven
Sworn
Swept
Swum
Swung
Taken
Taught
(H.K.)

(H.K.)

Knelt
Knew
Laid
Led

‫ اقرأ هذا الباب مرة أخرى حتى لتنساه أبدا لكي‬، ‫ قبل النتقال للباب التالي‬، ‫ والن برجاء‬--.‫يسهل عليك فهم كثير مما سيأتي‬

Level 10 [Meena]

(H.K.)

Active and passive ‫المبني للمعلوم والمبني للمجهول‬
، tenses ‫ ولكنهم اسلوب كلم وفيهم‬tenses ‫ ليسوا‬active and passive ‫لحظ ان ال‬
. ‫ او ان يكون الفاعل مجهول‬، ‫أي ان الكلم يكون الفاعل معلوما من هو‬
‫ هي أن نعمل جدول‬active and passive voices ‫أحسن وأسهل طريقة لفهم واتقان ال‬
‫ ومع تكميل‬pronouns ‫ مع تغيير شوية في ال‬47 ‫ الموجود في صفحة‬tenses ‫من جدول ال‬
‫ وخاصة‬personal pronouns ‫ ونحتاج أن نتذكر أيضا الجدول الخاص بال‬. ‫جزء في الجملة‬
. ‫ وهكذا‬him ‫" تتحول ل‬he"‫ و‬، me ‫" تتحول ل‬I" ‫الجزء الول فيه حيث نجد مثل أن‬
I [Meena]
You
He
She
It
We
You
they

Tenses
Sim.

Pr
Pa
Fu

Me
You
Him
Her
It
Us
You
Them

Active

Passive [Meena]

He eats apples
I ate an apple
They will eat apples

Apples are eaten by him
An apple was eaten by me
Apples will be eaten by them

54

Con.
Per.
p.c.

Pr
Pa
Fu
Pr
Pa
Fu
Pr
Pa
fu

He is eating apples
I was eating an apple (H.K.)
They will be eating apples
He has eaten apples
I had eaten an apple
They will have eaten apples
He has been eating apples
I had been eating an apple
They will have been eating
apples

Apples are being eaten by him
An apple was being eaten by me
Apples will be being eaten by them
Apples have been eaten by him
An apple had been eaten by me (H.K.)
Apples will have been eaten by them
Apples have been being eaten by him
An apple had been being eaten by me
Apples will have been being eaten by
them

‫ في‬،( past ‫ في ال‬was ‫ )أي تأخذ‬it ‫ مفرد فنتعامل معها كأنها‬An apple (1 : ‫لحظ التي‬
‫ وتأخذ‬present ‫ في ال‬have ‫ و‬are ‫ )أي تأخذ‬they ‫ جمع فنتعامل معها كانها‬apples ‫حين‬
.( future ‫ في‬will
verb ‫( بتاع ال‬.past participle (p.p ‫ يكون دائما فيه ال‬passive voice ‫( تكوين ال‬2
: ‫فنجد أنه‬
. (.verb be + past participle (p.p ‫ من‬passive ‫ يتكون ال‬simple ‫في ال‬
.verb be + being + p.p ‫ يتكون من‬continuous ‫وفي ال‬
.verb have + been + p.p ‫ يتكون من‬Perfect ‫وفي ال‬
.verb have + been + being + p.p ‫ يتكون من‬.perf. Cont ‫وفي ال‬
. ‫ وهكذا‬by me ‫ نستبدلها ب‬I ‫ و‬by him ‫ يكون بدلها‬he ‫( دايما‬3
H.W.Complete the following table like the previous one using verb "drink"
Tenses
Sim.

Con.

Per.

p.c.

Pr
Pa
Fu
Pr
Pa
Fu
Pr
Pa
Fu
Pr
Pa
fu

Active

Passive [Meena]

You drink milk
She drank milk (H.K.)
We shall drink milk
You
She
We
You

Milk is drunk by you
Milk was drunk by her

‫ في كل‬، ‫ بنفس اسلوب الجدول السابق‬، two objects ‫ والن لنأخذ جملة أطول فيها مفعولين‬--passive ‫ وسنجد طريقتين لعمل ال‬، ‫الزمنة‬
Active (H.K.)

She tells me stories
I told them a story
They will tell us stories

Passive

Stories are told to me by her
I am told stories by her
A story was told to them by me
They were told a story by me
Stories will be told to us by them

55

She is telling me stories
I was telling them a story
They will be telling us stories
She has told me stories [Meena]
I had told them a story (H.K.)
They will have told us stories
She has been telling me stories
I had been telling them a story
They will have been telling us stories

We shall be told stories by them
Stories are being told to me by her
I am being told stories by her (H.K.)
A story was being told to them by me
They were being told a story by me
Stories will be being told to us by them
We shall be being told stories by them
Stories have been told to me by her
I have been told stories by her
A story had been told to them by me
They had been told a story by me
Stories will have been told to us by them
We shall have been told stories by them
Stories have been being told to me by her
I have been being told stories by her (H.K.)
A story had been being told to them by me
They had been being told a story by me
Stories will have been being told to us by them
We shall have been being told stories by them

to ‫ أو‬to me ‫ ولكن فقط أضفنا فيه‬، ‫ونلحظ ان هذا الجدول هو نفسه الجدول السابق له‬
. .. ‫ أو‬them
‫ ومنهم‬، ‫ يوجد أيضا أفعال أخرى مثله‬، two objects ‫ يأخذ‬tell ‫ وكما أن الفعل‬--give, ask, send, show, teach, pay
Ex: The men were paid 500$ by him to do the job. [Meena]
I was given two hours by him to make my decision.
" ‫ ل نكتب‬passive ‫ كما نلحظ اننا من الممكن في كل الزمنة في الجملة الثانية في ال‬--‫" وهذا لن عدم كتابتها لن يغير شئ في الموضوع طالما انه مفهوم من هو الفاعل أو طالما‬-- by
. ‫انه لن يهمنا من هو الفاعل‬
H.W.Complete the following table like the previous one using verb "teach"
Active [Meena]
He teaches you English
We taught them Eng.

Passive
English is taught to you by him.
You are taught Eng. by him (H.K.)
Eng. was taught to them by us

You will teach her Eng.
He is teaching you Eng.

Eng. is being taught to you by him

We were teaching them Eng.
You
He has taught you Eng.

56

.‫ وهذه بعض أمثلة أخرى‬---

The room looks nice, somebody has cleaned it
The room looks nice, it has been cleaned (by somebody)
The room looked nice, somebody had cleaned it
The room looked nice, it had been cleaned (by somebody)

key words ‫والن لنأخذ بعض أمثلة من الجداول السابقة مع استخدام‬
--- Every Sunday she tells them some short stories =
Every Sunday some short stories are told to them by her
--- While he was writing the letter , they came =
They came while the letter was being written by him
--- By 6:00 o'clock , I'll have told them a story =
By 6:00 o'clock a story will have been told to them by me
--- He has been writing the report to his manager for an hour now =
The report to the manager has been being written by him for an hour now .
--- The new hotel will be opened next month (H.K.)
--- That house is going to be painted after a week
--- leave him , he wants to be left alone
:active and passive ‫مع الزمنة وال‬should, must, ought to ‫ أحيانا نستخدم الكلمات‬----- Someone should have cleaned the house last Friday
The house should have been cleaned last Friday
--- Somebody must have stolen her car
Her car must have been stolen [Meena]
--- They ought to have cancelled the meeting
The meeting ought to have been cancelled
، passive ‫ دايما تأتي في ال‬born ‫ كلمة‬--Where were you born? I was born in Cairo
How many babies are born in this hospital everyday?
: active and passive ‫ في ال‬ing ‫ استخدام‬--I don't like people telling me what to do
I don't like being told what to do
It is said / He is said to : ‫الفرق بين‬
It is said that he is 90 years old / He is said to be 90 years old.
57

It is believed that Noha eats one meal a day / Noha is believed to eat one
meal a day. (H.K.)
It is expected that the strike will begin tomorrow / The strike is expected
to begin tomorrow.
It is reported that two people were killed / Two people are reported to
have been killed.
: ‫عند عمل شئ‬
Magdy repaired the roof yesterday (he did it himself)
Magdy had the roof repaired .. (he got someone else to do it)
: ‫ يمكن ان نكتب الجمل التالية‬، ‫وبنفس اسلوب الجملة الثانية‬
We are
Where did you
Roushdy has just
I want to

Have
having
have
had
have

Object
the house
your hair (H.K.)
a telephone
my photograph

Past part.
painted
done?
installed
taken

at the moment
in his flat

Coversation : When will she fix her car ? / It can't be fixed by just one
person / Will you help her? / she will be helped by her brother.
The following is a table of some verbs with their meanings , nouns and
their adjectives :
Present
‫ المعنى‬Nouns [Meena]
Adjectives
(infinitive
)
Act
Affect
Amaze
Apostate
Bear
Beat
Blacken
Bleed
Blow
Bow
Break
Build
Care
Choose
Come
Compete
Correct
Differ
Do
Eat
Encourage
Entertain

‫ يمثل‬،‫يعمل‬
‫يؤثر‬
‫يدهش‬

Action, actor,
Effect
Amazement
‫ يرتد عن العقيدة‬Apostasy
‫ يحتمل‬Bearing (H.K.)
‫ يضرب‬Beat / beating
‫ يسود‬Black
‫ ينزف‬Bleeding
‫ ينفخ‬Blow / blowing
‫ ينحني‬،‫ يحني‬Bow / bowing
‫ يكسر‬Break / breakage
‫ يبني‬Builder / building
‫ يعتم‬Care
‫ يختار‬Choice / choiceness
‫ يأتي‬Coming
‫ ينافس‬Competition
‫ يصحح‬Correction, corrector
‫ يختلف‬Difference
‫ يعمل‬Doing
‫ يأكل‬Eater
‫ يشجع‬Encouragement / courage
‫ يسلي‬Entertainment

58

Acting, active
Effective
Amazed / amazing
Apostate
Bearable
Beaten
Black
Bleeding
Blown
Bowing
Broken
Built / built-up
Careful
Choice / chosen
Coming [Meena]
Competitive
Correct
Different (H.K.)
Done
Eatable / uneatable
Encouraging / courageous
Entertaining

Exchange
Excite
Fly (H.K.)
Forgive

‫يبدل‬
‫يثير‬
‫يطير‬
‫يسامح‬

Infect
Inform
Lose
Make
Marry
Organize
Perfect
Practice
Pride
Read
Redden
Regulate
Rise
Save
Write

‫يعدي‬
‫يبلغ‬
‫يخسر‬
‫يصنع‬
‫يتزوج‬
‫ينظم‬
‫يجعله كامل‬
‫ يتمرن‬،‫يمارس‬
‫يفتخر‬
‫يقرأ‬
‫يحمر‬
‫ينظم‬
‫يقوم‬
(.H.K) ‫ينقذ‬
‫يكتب‬

Grow

Exchange
Excitement
Fly / flying
Forgiver / forgiveness

Exchangeable
Excited / exciting
Flying
Forgiving

Infection
Information
Loser / loss

Infectious
Informative
Lost
Made / made-up
Married
Organized
Perfect
Practical
Proud
Readable / Unreadable
Red
Regular
Risen
Safe
Written

‫ ينمو‬Growth / grower

Make / make-up / maker / making

Marriage
Organization
Perfection / perfectionist
Practice
Pride
Read / reader / reading
Red
Regulation / regularity
Rise / rising
Safety
Writer / writing

Grown / grown-up

The following is a table of some verbs with their meanings , past, past
participle, nouns and their adjectives :

Verb

‫ المعنى‬Past
Accused
Adapted
Adopted

participle
Accused
Adapted
Adopted

Committed

Committed

adultery
Advised

adultery
Advised

‫ يحامي‬،‫يشفع‬
‫ يؤذي‬،‫يصيب‬
‫يدهش‬
‫ يدهن‬،‫يمسح‬
‫ يرسم‬،‫يعين‬
‫ تحبل‬/‫يحتمل‬
‫يطوب‬
،(‫يولد )للذكور‬
‫ينجب‬
‫يؤمن‬
‫ يمنح‬،‫يوهب‬
‫يخون‬
‫يخطب‬
‫يربط‬
‫ يؤنب‬،‫يلوم‬

---d
---ed
---d
---ed
---ed
Bore
---ied
Begot

---d
---ed
---d
---ed
---ed
Borne
---ied
Begotten

---d
---ed

---d
---ed

---ed
---ed
Bound
---ed

---ed
---ed
bound
---ed

‫يجدف‬
‫يبارك‬

---ed
---ed

---ed
---ed

Accuse
Adapt
Adopt
Adultery
(commit)
Advise

(.H.K) ‫يتهم‬
‫يتكيف‬
‫يتبنى‬
‫ يفسق‬،‫يزني‬

Advocate
Afflict
Amaze
Anoint
Appoint
Bear
Beatify
Beget
[Meena]
Believe
Bestow
Betray
Betroth
Bind
Blame
Blaspheme
Bless

Past

‫ينصح‬

Noun

Adjective

Accusation, accuser
Adaptation, adapter
Adoption, adoptionism
Adultery, adulteration
Adulterer, adulteress
Advice, adviser, advisor,
advisability
advocate
Affliction
Amazement
Anointing, anointment
Appointment
Bearing
Beatification
Begetting

Accusing
Adaptable
Adaptive
Adulterous

Believer, belief
Bestowal
Betrayal, betrayer
Betrothal

Believable

Blame

Blameful,
blameless,
blameworthy

Blasphemy, blasphemer
Blessedness, blessing

59

Advisable,
advisory
[Meena]
Afflicted
Amazing
Anointed
Bearable
Beatified
(H.K.)

Blessed,

Bound
Breathe
Cast
Catechize
(H.K.)
Celebrate
Chasten,
chastise
Chase
Circumcise

Comfort
Command
Confess
Consecrate
Contribute
Corrupt

‫يحدد )يعطي‬
(‫حدود‬
‫ يتنسم‬،‫يتنفس‬
‫ يطرد‬،‫يلقي‬
‫يعلم بالسؤال‬
‫والجواب‬
‫يحتفل‬
‫يؤدب‬
‫يطارد‬
‫يختن‬
‫ يريح‬،‫يعزي‬

---ed

Boundary, boundlessness

---d
Cast

---d
Cast
---d

Breath, breather
Cast, casting
Catechism, catechist

Breathless
Cast

---d
---ed,
---d
---d
---d
---ed
---ed

Celebration, celebrity
Chastening, chastisement

Celebrated
Chaste

Chase
Circumcision
Comfort, comforter

Circumcised

Confessant, Confessor,
Confession
Consecration

Confessed
(H.K.)
Consecrated
Contributory
Corrupt

---d
---d

---ed,
---d
---d
---d
---ed

‫ يأمر‬،‫يوصي‬

---ed

‫ يقر‬،‫يعترف‬

---ed
[Meena]
---d

---ed

---d
---ed

،‫يكرس‬
‫يخصص‬
‫ عطاء‬،‫مساهمة‬
‫يفسد‬

Command, Commandment,
Commander, Commandant

---d

Create
Do
Darken
Deafen
Die
Deepen
Defile
Deliver
(H.K.)
Descend
Divorce
Donate
Elect
Enchant

‫يخلق‬
‫يعمل‬
‫ يظلم‬،‫يغمق‬
‫يجعله أصم‬
‫يموت‬
‫يعمق‬
‫ينجس‬
‫ يسلم‬/ ‫ينقذ‬

---d
Did
---ed
---ed
---d
---ed
---d
---ed

---d
---ed
[Meena]
---d
Done
---ed
---ed
---d
---ed
---d
---ed

‫ يهبط‬،‫ينزل‬
‫يطلق‬
‫ يتبرع‬،‫يهب‬
‫يختار‬
‫ يشعوز‬،‫يسحر‬

---ed
---d
---d
---ed
---ed

---ed
---d
---d
---ed
---ed

Fast
Forgive

‫يصوم‬
‫ يسامح‬،‫يغفر‬

---ed
Forgave

---ed
Forgiven

Free
Guide
Leaven
Legalize

‫يحرر‬
‫يرشد‬
‫يخمر‬
‫ يحعله‬،‫يقنن‬
‫شرعي‬
‫ يعيش‬،‫يحيا‬

---d
---d
---ed
---d

---d
---d
---ed
---d

---d

---d

Contribution, contributor
Corruption, corrupter,
corruptness
Creator, creation, creature
Doer
Darkness, dark
Deafness
Death
Depth, deepness
Defilement
Deliverer, delivery,
deliverance
Descendents, descent
Divorce, divorcee
Donator, donation
Elector, election
Enchanter, enchantress,
enchantment
Fast, fasting
Forgiveness
(H.K.)
Freedom
Guide, guidance
Leaven
Legality, legalism,
legalization
life, living

‫يحب‬
‫يتأمل‬
‫يخدم‬
‫ يضايق‬،‫يعثر‬

---d
---d
---ed
---ed

---d
---d
---ed
---ed

Love, lover
Meditation
Minister, ministry
Offence, offense, offender

Live
Love
Meditate
Minister
Offend

blessing
Boundless

---ed

60

Comfortable
Commanding

Creative
Done
Dark
Deaf
Dead
Deep
Defiled
Delivered
Divorced
Elect, electoral
Enchanting,
enchanted
Forgiven,
forgiving
Free
Leavened
Legal
Living, live,
alive
Loving, lovely
Meditative
Ministerial
Offencless,
offensive

Oppress
Praise

‫يظلم‬
‫يسبح‬

---ed
---d

---ed
---d

Oppression, oppressor
Praise

Pray
Proceed
Prophesy

‫يصلي‬
‫ يتقدم‬،‫ينبثق‬
‫يتنبأ‬

---ed
---ed
---ied

---ed
---ed
---ied

Reform
Represent

‫يصلح‬
‫ ينوب‬،‫يمثل‬

---ed
---ed

---ed
---ed

‫يعلن‬
(.H.K)
‫ينهض‬
‫يراجع‬
‫يرمز‬

---ed

---ed

Prayer
Procession, proceedings
Prophecy, prophet,
prophetess
Reformist, reformation
Representation,
representative
Revelation

---d
---d
---d

---d
---d
---d

---d
---d

---d
---d

Reveal
Revive
Revise
Symbolize
(H.K.)
Terrorize
Vote

‫ يفزع‬،‫يرهب‬
‫ينتخب‬

Revival
Revision
Symbol, symbolism,
symbolization
Terror, terrorism, terrorist
Vote, voter, voting

Level 11 [Meena]

Oppressive
Praiseworthy
praising
Prayerful
Processional
Prophetic,
prophetical
Reformed
Representative
Revealing,
revealed
Revived
Revised
Symbolic,
symbolical
Terrorist
Voting, votive

(H.K.)

Conditional If ‫)لو )الشرطية‬
‫ يكون النصف الثاني ب‬present ‫ كان في ال‬if ‫( انه لو جزء الجملة بعد‬1 : ‫ببساطة جدا نقول‬
‫ مثل‬، (‫ ويكون المقصود كلم عن المستقبل )وليس الحاضر‬، will
If he prays , you will succeed.
‫ ويكون‬، would ‫ يكون النصف الخر ب‬past ‫ كان في ال‬if ‫( ولو نصف الجملة بعد‬2
‫ مثل‬، (‫المقصود كلم عن الحاضر )وليس الماضي‬
If he prayed , you would succeed.
‫( يكون النصف‬.past perf. (or / past perf. cont ‫ في ال‬if ‫( ولو نصف الجملة بعد‬3
‫ مثل‬، ‫ ويكون الزمن المقصود هو الماضي‬، would have + past participle ‫الخر ب‬
If he had prayed , you would have succeeded.
If he had been praying , you would have succeeded.
H.W. Complete the sentences: [Meena]
If she eats, they __________________________________________
If we bought the house, he __________________________________
If you had done it, he ______________________________________
If he had been working, she __________________________________
‫ أما خلف ذلك فيمكن التكلم بحسب سياق الكلم وبحسب‬، ‫ هذه هي القواعد الثلثة الرئيسية‬--‫ أو كلم مفتوح في حرية‬open condition ‫ أو ممكن القول ان خلف ذلك يسمى‬، ‫مايفهم السامع‬
: ‫ وذلك مثل‬، ‫ حقائق ثابتة‬open condition ‫ وفي ال‬، ‫التكلم بحسب مايفهم السامع‬
If you are right , I'm wrong
: ‫ ومايلي أمثلة أخرى على القواعد الثلثة الرئيسية‬--If he goes to the club tomorrow , I'll meet him.
61

If I were you , I would pray every time. (H.K.)
If he had informed the police , he would not have been killed.
‫ يمكن أن نأتي بالجزء الخير من الجملة أول‬if ‫ أي دائما مع‬، ‫ونلحظ أن في كل هذه الجمل‬
‫ مثل‬، ‫ في الجزء الخير‬if ‫وتكون‬
I'll meet him if he goes to the club tomorrow.
‫ مع‬were ‫ يمكن أن نستخدم‬if ‫ فمع‬، I ‫ مع‬were ‫ونلحظ اننا في الجملة الثانية استخدمنا‬
‫ ولكن ممكن أيضا نستخدم‬، verb be ‫( بدل التصريف العادي ل‬pronouns) ‫كل الضمائر‬
‫ فمثل‬، ‫التصريف العادي‬
.If he were at home , he would help her
‫يمكن أن نقول‬
.If he was at home , he would help her
‫وأيضا يمكن أن نقول‬
: ‫ تكون كالتي‬if ‫ولعمل أسئلة ب‬
--- 1) What will you do if you have a lot of money? I'll buy a car.
2) What would you do if you had a lot of money? I'd buy a car. (H.K.)
3) What would you have done if you had had a lot of money? I would have
bought a car.
--- 1) If you have a lot of money , will you buy a car?
Yes, I will buy a car.
No, I won't buy a car.
2) If you had a lot of money , would you buy a car?
Yes, I would. No, I wouldn't. [Meena]
3) If you had had a lot of money , would you have bought a car? Yes, I'd
have bought a car. No, I wouldn't have bought a car.
‫( هو الحاضر‬2) ‫( هو المستقبل وفي نمرة‬1) ‫ الزمن المقصود في نمرة‬، ‫ وكما قلنا من قبل‬--. ‫( هو الماضي‬3) ‫وفي نمرة‬
: ‫ وأذكر الختصارات التي تكلمنا عنها من قبل وهي‬--I would ‫ اختصار‬I will not . 3) I'd ‫ اختصار‬I shall . 2) I won't ‫ اختصار‬I'll(1
. I had ‫واختصار‬
H.W. Answer the questions with Yes and No:
If he has good health, will he help her?
Yes, _________________________ No, _________________________
If they prayed a lot, would she give you some help?
Yes, _________________________ No, _________________________
If we had prayed, would they have succeeded? [Meena]
Yes, _________________________ No, _________________________
‫ نفس القواعد ونفس‬، ‫فيكون كل شئ كما هو‬

"if not" ‫بدل‬

unless ‫وممكن استخدام‬
: ‫ أمثلة‬، ‫المعنى‬

If he doesn't work hard , they won't pay him.
Unless he works hard , they won't pay him.
If he didn't go out , we would visit him. (H.K.)
Unless he went out, we would visit him.
If I hadn't visited your brother , I wouldn't have seen you.
62

Unless I had visited your brother , I wouldn't have seen him.
Sheriff can't hear unless you shout :‫" مثل‬except if" ‫ تعني‬unless ‫ وأحيانا‬--: would ‫ بدل من‬if ‫ مع‬could , might ‫ ويمكن أيضا استخدام‬--We could go out if it stopped raining.
She could get a job more easily if she could type.
We might have won if we'd played better. (we'd = we had)
If the weather hadn't been so bad , we could have gone out.
‫ ولكن يكون المقصود هو التمني )تمني‬، ‫ يظل كل شئ كما هو‬if ‫ بعد‬only ‫ واذا أضفنا‬--: ‫ ولكن كمثال‬، ‫ في الصفحة القادمة‬wish ‫ وهذا سندرسه مع‬، (‫حدوث الشئ‬
If only he was at home , he would help her.

Wishes [Meena] (and if only)

[1] If the wish is in the future, we use present simple tense after
"wish" . Ex.: It will rain tomorrow, I wish it doesn't rain.
[2] If the wish is in the present simple (or present continuous), we use
past tense after "wish" (H.K.)
Ex: 1) I am short , I wish (if only) I was tall (I wish I wasn't short)
2) I don't have a nice watch , if only I had this watch .
3) He always comes late , if only he would come early .
4) Omar and Aly are shouting, their father wishes they would stop arguing.
5) It is raining hard , I wish it would stop raining.
--- 6) If the wish is fulfilled , there would be a consequence .
ex: We live far away from the beach , I wish we lived near the beach all
the time , then I could swim everyday .
[3] If the wish is in the past, we use past perfect tense after "wish"
Ex: 1) He ate too much , he wishes he hadn't eaten too much .
2) She came late , I wish she would've come early . [Meena]
--- 3) If the wish was fulfilled , there would have been a consequence.
Ex: I didn't know that Mary was ill , I wish I'd (I had) known that she was
ill , then I'd (I would) have gone to see her. (H.K.)
--- [4] love to / like to (would --) (‫)بمعنى التمني وليس بمعنى محبة‬
1) I'd love to get a car . 2) I'd like to apply to work as .. .. .
3) She would like to buy a house .
‫ أو‬wish ‫ شبيهة ب‬، conditional if ‫ مع ال‬tenses ‫ ان ال‬، ‫لحظنا من كل ماسبق‬
: ‫ هام‬---

‫( في الحاضر يكون الزمن الذي‬if only : 1 ‫ أو‬wish ‫ أو‬if ‫ اي عندما يكون الفعل بعد‬، if only
‫( وعندما يكون الفعل في الماضي يكون الزمن الذي يقصده المتكلم هو‬2 .‫يقصده المتكلم في المستقبل‬
‫ يكون الزمن الذي يقصده المتكلم هو‬past perfect ‫( وعندما يكون الفعل بعدهم في ال‬3 .‫الحاضر‬
: ‫ وهذه أمثلة أخرى للتوضيح‬، ‫الماضي‬

I didn't know that you were ill. If I'd known that you were ill, I'd have
gone to see you.
I didn't know that you were ill. I wish (if only) I'd known that you were
ill, then I'd have gone to see you.
63

: ‫ولتجميع كله في أمثلة واحدة متشابهة‬
1) If he goes to the club tomorrow, I'll meet him.
Unless he goes to the club tomorrow, I'll not meet him.
I wish (if only) he goes to the club tomorrow, then I'll meet him.
2) If I were you, I would pray every time. (H.K.)
Unless I were you, I would not pray every time.
I wish (if only) I were you, then I would pray every time.
3) If he had informed the police, he would not have been killed.
Unless he had informed the police, he would have been killed.
I wish (if only) he had told the police, then he would not have been killed.
H.W. complete the following
If they went home, she would see them
Unless ___________________________________________________
I wish (if only) _____________________________________________
‫ التي تعني‬only if ‫ وبين‬، wish ‫ التي تعني‬if only ‫ يجب التمييز بين‬: ‫ ملحوظة‬--: ‫ مثال‬، as long as , or , provided that , or , providing that
You may use my car as long as (but only if) you drive carefully.
[

Letters

[Meena

‫خطابات‬

" ‫ وهو بالطبع يكون مرفق لل "السيرة الذاتية" أي ال‬، ‫وسنكتب جواب تقديم على عمل‬
: ‫ وقد تختلف الصيغة قليل ولكن الكثر استخداما هو‬، (".C. V" ‫" )أو ال‬resume
Dear sir or Madam,
I would like to apply for (to work
for) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Sincerely yours
Magdy Youssef
(.Dear

Sir (Dear Madam),
(H.K ‫ ممكن نبدأ ب‬--: ‫ بأي واحدة مما يأتي‬sincerely yours ‫ وممكن نختم بدل‬--Yours sincerely / yours respectfully / respectfully yours.
(‫ عنوان المستلم )المرسل إليه‬، Dear sir ‫ وممكن أن نضع على الشمال فوق‬--. Dear sir ‫ وممكن أيضا نضع التاريخ على اليمين أعلى من‬، ‫والتاريخ‬
‫ ونضع تحتهم الوظيفة‬،‫ على اليسار‬،‫ أو بدائلها‬sincerely yours ‫ وممكن أن نضع‬--. Job title ‫أو الرتبة الحالية‬
.‫ نكمل بكتابة الوظيفة المطلوبة ورقم اعلنها‬Dear sir ‫ وممكن في أول سطر تحت‬--:‫نلخص كل ما فات بانه من الممكن أن يكون الجواب كالتي‬

……………….
12 Rameses St.
Cairo , Egypt

November 13, 2003
64

Dear Sir or Madam,
I would like to apply to work for (‫ )جهة العمل‬, as a
"Construction Engineer", Job announcement # 1234. … …. ………

……… ………………………... …… ………… …………
…………… .
Respectfully yours
Magdy Youssef
Project manager

‫السيرة الذاتية‬
Resume (C.V.) [Meena]
. resume ‫" في العنوان بدل‬.C. V" ‫لحظ انه يمكن كتابة‬
: ‫وعادة تكون السيرة الذاتية كالتي‬

Name :
Telephone # :
E-mail address :
Mailing address :
Objective :
Education :
Experience : (start with the most recent job or the current job , and write the
date , for instance :) (H.K.)

From: November 2001- To: Now (or may 2003)
(then describe your job)

…………. ……. …………. …..
…………..
………....
From: June 2000 – To: November 2001 [Meena]
……….. …………. ……..
……. ………. … ……………
Interests and skills :
H.W. There is a job vacancy for an accountant , and you want to apply ,
write your C.V. and the attached letter.
Street directions : Excuse me , how can I get to ABC club? / go straight
ahead , make left at this coming square , then turn right on the second
street , it'll be on your left hand side .
65

Eating : I'll have big breakfast this morning / what will you have for
breakfast ? / bread and butter and fried eggs with sausages / tea or
coffee ? / tea with milk please . (H.K.)
Everyday life : Have the children left for school , honey ? / yes , they
have , darling . I'm going to make the beds and clean the living room . /
and I'll help some before going to work / oh yes , you must hurry , the
traffic is very heavy today .
-- How about going out for a walk after dinner ? / that is fine and
tomorrow we'll go to see some friends .
-- It's bedtime / not yet dad / ok. , come , take off your clothes and put on
your pajamas .
-- Where is he ? / At the bank / where is the bank ? / on 33 Ramses st.
-- That is a nice watch, where is it from, Japan? / No, from Italy .
-- Good morning mother / good morning son / where are my sandwiches ?
/ come and have breakfast at the table , it is better for your health .
-- Are you going downtown tomorrow ? / Yes, I am / may you get a train
ticket for I'll be working many hours all this week. / ok.
-- Now that the school year has come to an end, how will you spend the
summer vacation? / I'll go to U.S.A / who are you going to visit there? /
my family.
-- Do you want me to bring you anything for lunch? / No, thanks I had
eaten a sandwich before I left home.
-- Have you ever been to London? / Yes, I went there once and I have
travelled to U.S. many times.
-- Are Ahmed and George doing their homeworks? / no, they aren't /
what are they doing? / they are playing on the computer / since when? /
they have been doing this since six o'clock (for 3 hours now).
Comprehension: The concept of love
The best thing in the world is to love God and love everyone
through or within our love for God.
It is great to love our parents, life partener, children, friends, and
everyone, and even our enemies. We should love them as we said ,
through and within our love to God. Therefore, love should be wise and
spiritual, for there are kinds of false love that may cause harm and may
destroy a lot of things. True love wants always to give as to receive.
What may false love cause? _____________________________________
__________________________________________________________
What is the greatest thing? ______________________________________
__________________________________________________________
About the following topic: Virtues and vices with other concepts.
66

1) Write a dialogue between you and one or more of your friends (at least
5 lines).
2) Write an essay (at least 7 lines).

Level 12 [Meena]

(H.K.)

Direct and Indirect Speech
Statements 2) Questions 3) Commands (1 : ‫سندرسه في الثلث حالت‬
: ‫ يكون حسب الجدول التي‬indirect ‫ لل‬direct ‫وببساطة نقول ان التحويل من ال‬
Direct [Meena]
1
2
3
4
5

Indirect

Present (simple, continuous)
Will (H.K.)
Past simple or present perfect
Would + infinitive(‫)المصدر‬
Fact (‫)حقيقة أو واقع‬

Past (simple, continuous)
Would
Past perfect
Would have + past participle
Stays the same (‫)تبقى كما هي‬

: ‫ كالتي‬indirect ‫ لل‬direct ‫وبعض الكلمات يتم تغييرها أيضا من ال‬
+ This – that / these – those / here – there / now – then ( at that time ) /
come – go, go – go, came-went, went-went / ago – before / today – that
day / tomorrow – the next day, the day after , the following day / yesterday
– the day before, the previous day / may – might . [Meena]
: ‫وبالنسبة للكلمات التية تظل كما هي‬
Must , might , could , would , should , ought
: (‫والمثلة التالية توضح هذه القواعد )المثلة التالية مرتبة حسب ترتيب القواعد في الجدول السابق‬
1) Statements (said to -- / told -- that)
1) Mark said to me, "I am learning French" - direct
He told me that he was learning French
- indirect (reported)
2) He said to Mary, "I will come tomorrow"
He told Mary that he would go the next day .
3) He said to me, "I finished my work"
He told me that he had finished his work .
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4) He said, "If I had the money , I would buy a house" .
He said that if he had had the money he would have bought a house .
5) When what is said is a fact, it remains the same.
He said, "The triangle has 3 sides" (H.K.)
He said that the triangle has 3 sides .
2) Questions (said to -- / asked – if, asked --, wanted to know )
--- Roushdy said, "What time do the banks close?"
He wanted to know what time the banks closed.
--- John said to me, "Are you playing now?"
He asked me if I was (were) playing at that time.
--- The policeman said to us, "Where are you going?"
He asked us where we were going
--- "Did you speak French?" He said to me.
He asked me if I had spoken French.
3) Commands (said to -- / ordered -- to , requested --to , asked -- to)
--- He said to me, "Go away"
He ordered me to go away [Meena]
--- He said to him, "Play the piano, please"
He requested him to play the piano.
--- He said to them, "Don’t shut the door"
He asked them not to shut the door.
All the previous examples are when what was said , was in the past
(said to), but if the act is in the present (say) or in the future (will say) , the
sentence does not change .
Ex: 1) He says , "This work is too difficult"
He says that this work is too difficult. (H.K.)
2) He will say, "This work is too difficult"
He will say that this work is too difficult.
H.W. rewrite the following sentences in the indirect form: [Meena]
1) They said "We are students" / They __________________________
2) He said "I'll be playing football tomorrow" _____________________
_______________________________________________________
3) She said "I've just finished" _________________________________
4) we say "she is beautiful" ___________________________________
5) you will say "He is smart" __________________________________
6) They said to me "Are you the English teacher?" __________________
________________________________________________________
7) I said to him "Go away" ____________________________________

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N.B .: 1) It is always better to use the direct speech, than the indirect
speech.
2) It's not always necessary to change the verb when we change the
direct into the indirect speech (the reported speech) especially if we are
reporting (saying) something and we feel that it is still true or still
happening : (H.K.)
Ex: Ahmed said "I want to go to Egypt"
Ahmed said (that) he wants (or wanted) to go to Egypt.
Zaki said "I woke up feeling ill and so I stayed in bed"
Zaki said (that) he woke (or had woken) up feeling ill and so he stayed (or
had stayed) in bed.

: ‫كلمات متشابهة وتوضيح الفروق بينها في جمل‬

(‫ )ضروري محاولة وضع كل منهم في جملة أخرى‬.H.W
Above / over : who live in the flat above you? / the lamp is over the desk
Near / beside / next to : our house is near the sea / we sit beside each
others / our house is next to the bank. [Meena]
Below / under (underneath) : the temperature is below freezing point / put
it under the table (H.K.) [Meena]
In front of / opposite / before : behave in a better way before the children /
our house is opposite the bank / put matters before God in prayers
Too / enough (too comes before the adjective but enough comes after it) :
Magdy is too young to go to school
Magdy can't go to school this year because he is not old enough.
May / might : might is the past of may , and sometimes it is used when
there is less possibility , and also for politeness .
Ex : Where is your brother today? he may be at work.
What is he doing now? He might be watching TV.
Should (ought to) / must : [Meena]
You should (ought to) do it ‫المفروض )يستحسن( تعملها‬
You must do it ‫لزم تعملها‬
Deed / work / job / occupation /
career (‫ )مهنة الحياة العملية للنسان‬/profession (‫مهنة النسان التي درسهاأو‬
‫)تدرب عليها‬:
Ex : repent of your evil deeds / he wants to finish his work now / he wants
to get a good fulltime job / what is your occupation? I'm a doctor / he
started his career 3 years ago / teaching is a profession.
Leave / stop / forsake (leave forever) / quit (stop and leave) :
Ex : she left her book on the desk / you must stop this loud noise / they
all forsook him after he had become poor / he quit smoking
Speak / talk :
69

Ex : do you speak English / speak good things / it is I who speak /
I'll not talk much with you because I have something to do / this is he
whom you need to talk to .
Like / as : (like is followed by a noun or a pronoun / as is followed by
subject + verb)
Ex : It is like the other one / like me (you, him, her, it, us, them) / like this
(that, these, those) / like someone (or something)
Write it as it is / just as I told you / stay as you are / as usual / as you
know.
NB. Sometimes we also put a noun after as : 1) when we talk about
someone's job, or 2) how we use something
Ex : 1) He worked as a bus driver. 2) This hotel was used as a hospital.
"A few" , "many" and "a lot of" are used with countable plural nouns ,
ex: she bought a few pens
"A little" , "much" and "a lot of" are used with uncountable nouns
ex : please , I need a little rest.

Things to know

‫ في حالة‬in case of / ‫ علشان لو‬in case

After "in case" comes "subject + verb" , but after "in case of" comes "noun"

--- He wears two watches in case one of them stops.
We bought more food in case they came.
We rang the bell again in case they hadn't heard the first time.
--- In case of emergency , telephone this number.
during ‫ وبين‬while ‫الفرق بين‬
After while comes "subject + verb" , but after during comes "noun"

Ex: He ate while he was watching TV.
He ate during the film [Meena]

: ‫استخدامات بعض الكلمات‬
"need" ‫استخدامات كلمة‬
I need to rest. / I needed to rest / the house needs cleaning
I don't need to rest / I didn't need to rest / the house doesn't need
cleaning [Meena]
I needn't rest / I needn't have rested (it wasn't necessary but I rested) / the
house needn't cleaning.
: "mind" ‫استخدامات كلمة‬
Keep (bear, have) in mind to do it tomorrow
Keep (set) your mind on your work.
Turn (put) your mind to it.
She took her mind off her sorrow
Have you made up your mind yet? No, I'm still in two minds about it
He is out of his mind (he's mad)
I'm sorry , I broke the bottle . Never (don't) mind, we'll get another one.

Conversations:
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At the airport : I'd like to check in for flight number 758 that is going to
London / ok., may I have your ticket and passport? / sure , here you are /
thanks , the boarding time is ten fifteen , and here is your boarding pass /
thank you .
The customs : Which is your luggage ? / this is my luggage , two
suitcases and a handbag / have you anything to declare ? / yes I have a
mobile phone and some presents .
Ordering goods from a supermarket : Yes, please , I'd like some goods
to be sent to my home / sure sir , can I take your home address / yea, I live
in 33 Rameses St. , second floor appartment # 4 / good , and what would
you like? / I need a bottle of milk , three kilos of rice , one coffee creamer
medium size and a bag of sugar .
Tourism : Where are you from ? / I'm from Cairo, Egypt / oh, that's great,
I'd love to visit Egypt sometime / you're very welcome, and you'll find
good hospitality from all Egyptians there
At the railway station : Can I help you? / yes please, I'd like a ticket to
Aswan / what day and time ? / next Monday at 7:00 am. (in the morning) /
first or second class? / first class / ok. here you are / thank you / you're
very welcome. (H.K.)
At the doctor's clinic : Doctor , my eyes hurt me much / how long have
you had this? / for about a week now / don't worry , let me see / they get
red especially when I use the computer / I'll give you eye drops , you
should use it two times a day and everything will be ok. / Thank you.
Comprehension : How to spend leisure time :
Leisure time can be useful or harmful. Among the useful things that suits
leisure time , to those who can read and like reading , is to read. It is
important to choose such a reading that is useful for building your
personality intellectually, spiritually and socially … .
Another method is listening, listen to your father and mother, to friends, to
cassette tapes and to the T.V., but in all this you should choose useful
things for you.
No objection at all to getting some entertainment , amusement, rest or
relaxation, for all these things are also useful and no one can continuously
concentrate, be serious, or be in tension all the time.
To summarize the whole matter , everything can be useful to me if I do it
the right way, in the right place and in the best time.
Is there a problem of getting some rest? ___________________________
__________________________________________________________
What is useful for us? _________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Is reading useful to everyone? ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________
71

About:
How can we, easily, learn and be excellent at English
1) Write a dialogue between you and one or more of your friends (at least
7 lines).
2) Write an essay (at least 10 lines).
Speaking English : [Meena] Now , after you have studied this book by
heart and have memorized everything in it , can you speak , read and write
English good? / yes, sure , not only good but very good , now I'm
excellent and brilliant at English / could you make up your own
conversations as you need in your daily life? / of course / will you help
others learning English? / sure, I will / will you do this honestly / Yes,
I promise to do it honestly , so that God may also help me when I'm in
need / very good , you are a good person , may God be with you / and also
with you sir / thank you / thank you sir very much .

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