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MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF AN OIL FILLED DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER ON 16KVA

ABSTRACT The philosophy of FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) is to use power electronic controlled devices to control power flow in transmission network to utilize to its full capacity FACTS are one of the best ways to reduce the need for construction of new over head transmission lines is to increase power flow over existin! lines

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#ue to hi!h capital cost of erection of new transmission line we have improved this technolo!y called FACTS $y usin! this technolo!y we can improve the power transfer capability of the transmission line and these devices have hi!h switchin! capacity even at hi!h fre%uencies as these devices have no movin! parts we can achieve hi!h sensitivity and better control There are many type !" FACTS #!ntr!$$er %e&'#e !(t !" them TCSC )Thyr' t!r C!ntr!$ Ser'e Capa#'t!r* ha m!re a%&anta+e than !ther type

INTRODUCTION, &ithout electricity' modern society would cease to function As the volume of power transmitted and distributed increases' so do the re%uirements for a hi!h %uality and reliable supply At the same time' risin! costs and !rowin! environmental concerns make the process of buildin! new power transmission and distribution lines increasin!ly complicated and time(consumin! )akin! excitin! lines as well as new ones more efficient and economical then become a compellin! alternative The purpose of the transmission network is to pool power plants and load centers in order to minimize the total power !eneration capacity and fuel cost The power systems of today' by and lar!e' are mechanically controlled There is a wide spread use of microelectronics' computers and hi!h(speed communications for control and protection of present transmission

systems+ however' when operatin! si!nals are sent to the power circuits' where the final power control action is taken' the switchin! devices are mechanical and there is little hi!h( speed control Another problem with mechanical devices is that control cannot be initiated fre%uently' because these mechanical devices tend to wear out very %uickly compared to static devices ,n ,ndia' for example there has been a fourfold increase in the value of wholesale transactions durin! the last decade At the same time' however' addition of new transmission capacity to handle this !rowth has become increasin!ly difficult Fortunately' a new !eneration of technolo!ies promises to solve the !rowth(capacity dilemma by offerin! unconventional ways to increase transmission capacity with much less need for buildin! new overhead lines Today' one such technolo!ical area that has the potential to revolutionize utility transmission system is F-./,$-. AC T0A1S),SS,21 FACTS devices are static e%uipment used for effective transmission ,t means to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability ,t was introduced by #r 1 3 4in!orani in "566 from the .lectric 7ower 0esearch ,nstitute (.70,) in the 8SA

DEFINITION,
FACTS is defined by 9,...: as power electronic based system and other static e%uipment that provide control of one or more AC transmission system parameters to enhance controllability and power transfer capability

Sym-!$ "!r FACTS %e&'#e

Fa#t P!rt"!$'!

BASICS OF FACTS,
The main idea of FACTS can be explained by the basic e%uation of power transmission is shown in the below fi!ure 7ower transmitted between two nodes of the system depends on volta!es at both ends of the interconnection #ifferent FAC TS devices can actively influence one or more of these parameters for power flow control and improvement of volta!e stability at node of interconnection #ependin! on the system confi!uration' the tasks of FACTS can be summarized as follows< )eshed systems = bulk power transmission can cause power flow control 0adial systems =parallel lines can cause impedance control &eak systems can cause volta!e control

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P!.er F$!. D'a+ram

GENARATIONS OF CONTROLLERS,
F,0ST 3.1.0AT,21<This uses a simple lo!ic of capacitance of manually based upon a rou!hly pre(manipulated data S.C21# 3.1.0AT,21< The electronics makes its doubt here' formin! a more smooth operation usin! relays and semi(conductor switches This even did not eradicate the demerit of manual presence T4,0# 3.1.0AT,21< This uses FACTS devices to control the flow of power in the transmission line' and also increase the stability in transient conditions

FACTS CONTROLLERS,
The power that can be transmitted over a line depends on three factors " * ; " * ; Series reactance of the line $us volta!es Transmission an!le ?olta!e alon! the line can be controlled by reactance shunt compensation Series line inductance can be controlled by series capacitive compensation Transmission an!le can be varied by phase shiftin! FACTS can be connected ,n series with the power system ,n shunt with the power system $oth in series and shunt with the power system

SERIES COMPENSATION, @

,n series compensation FACTS are connected in series with power system ,t works as a controllable volta!e source

Sym-!$ F!r Ser'e C!ntr!$$er

MET/ODS OF SERIES COMPENSATION,


Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) Thyristor switched series capacitor (TSSC)

Stat'# yn#hr!n!(

er'e #!mpen at!r )SSSC*

As mentioned' Stat'# Syn#hr!n!( Ser'e C!mpen at!r )SSSC* ' placed in the !roup of series connected FACTS devices SSSC #!n ' t !" a &!$ta+e !(r#e 'n&erter #!nne#te% 'n er'e thr!(+h a couplin! transformer to the transmission line

A source of ener!y is re%uired for providin! and maintainin! the #C volta!e across the #C capacitor and compensation of SSSC $! e 0 F'+0 1 h!. the m!%e$ !" SSSC .h'#h #!n ' t !" a er'e #!nne#te% &!$ta+e !(r#e 'n er'e .'th an impedance This impedance represents the impedance of couplin! transformer

T/2RISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR ,) TCSC* The basic thyristor controlled series capacitor scheme proposed in "56A by ?ithayathil with others as a method of rapid adCustment of network impedance is shown in fi! ,t consists of the series compensatin! capacitor shunted by a thyristor(controlled reactor ,n a practical TCSC implementation several such basic compensators may be connected in series to obtain the desired volta!e ratin! and operatin! characteristic TCSC is a capacitive reactance compensator which consists of a series capacitive bank shunted by a thyristor controlled reactor inorder to provide smoothly variable capacitive reactance

S,13-. -,1. #,A30A) 2F TCSC

Ba '# Thyr' t!r #!ntr!$$e% er'e #apa#'t!r #heme,


The basic idea behind the TCSC scheme is to provide a continuously variable capacitor by means of partially cancelin! the effective compensatin! capacitance by the TC0 The

TC0 at the fundamental fre%uency is continuously variable reactive impedance controlled by delay an!le ,n a T7SC the thyristor valve is self cooled (by the surroundin! air)'but in TCSC the thyristor valve can be cooled by closed Dloop water coolin! system ,n the TCSC scheme the TC0 is connected in shunt with a capacitor 'instead of a fixed volta!e source The dynamic interaction between the capacitor and reactor chan!es the operatin! volta!e from that of the basic sine wave established by the constant line current A deeper insi!ht into this interaction is essential to the understandin! of the actual physical operation and dynamic behavior of the TCSC' particularly re!ardin! its impedance characteristic at sub synchronous fre%uencies Assume that the thyristor valve is initially open and the prevailin! line current , produces volta!e ?co across the fixed series compensatin! capacitor Suppose that the TC0 is to be turned on at ' measured from the ne!ative peak of the capacitor volta!e As seen' at this instance of turn(on' the capacitor volta!e is ne!ative+ the line current is positive and thus char!in! the capacitor in the positive direction #urin! this first half cycle and all similar subse%uent half(cycles of the TC0 operation' the thyristor valve can be viewed as an ideal switch' closin! at 'in series with a diode of appropriate polarity to stop the conduction as the current crosses zero The impedance of the TC0 reactor does not si!nificantly alter the physical operation of the TCSC' provided that is sufficiently small in relation to the impedance of the capacitor to facilitate the desired control of the series compensation 4owever' the desi!n of the reactor for an actual compensator re%uires careful considerations to reconcile contradictory re%uirements 2n the one hand' small / - is advanta!es in providin! well( defined char!e reversal and control of the period time of the compensatin! volta!e A small reactor is also advanta!es to facilitate an effective protective bypass for lar!e sur!e current encountered durin! system faults The mechanism of controllin! the dc offset by char!e reversal is illustrated for the increase and decrease of the capacitor volta!e TCSC can increase the compensatin! volta!e over that produced by the capacitor bank alone at a !iven line current ,n other words' the TCSC can increase the effective impedance of the series compensatin! capacitor

&ith a practical TC0 the volta!e reversals would take place over a finite conduction period (E) and this period would vary with the applied phase advancement or retard' and the circuit would behave as if a conventional delay an!le control was applied The process of transition from one capacitor volta!e to another therefore would be more complex than the theoretical case illustrated' it would be a function of the prevailin! line current' and !enerally there would be transitional period before a steady state condition would be reached 4owever the end result would be substantially the same The effective capacitive impedance of the TCSC can be increased above the actual reactance of the capacitor bank by increase in the conduction an!le of the TC0 This increase of the effective impedance is due to the additional volta!e the TC0 produces across the capacitor by repetitive char!e reversals From the %ualitative circuit analysis provided' this process can be summarized in the followin! way &hen the thyristor valve of the TC0 is !ated on prior to a ne!ative to positive zero crossin! of the capacitor volta!e' the prevailin! capacitor volta!e will drive a current in the TC0 that will self commutate when the inte!rated volt(sec over the conduction interval becomes to zero (since at the end of the conduction interval the current in the thyristor valve also decreases to zero) the current in the reactor is supplied from the parallel capacitor BENEFITS OF TCSC, Study state control of power flow Transient stability improvement $alancin! power flow in parallel lines To control line impedance 0educe transmission losses

S/UNT COMPENSATION, ,n shunt compensation power system is connected in shunt with the FACTS device ,t works as a controllable current source

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Sym-!$ "!r h(nt C!ntr!$$er

MET/ODS OF S/UNT COMPENSATION,


Static Synchronous compensator (STATC2)) Static ?A0 Compensator (S?C) Thyristor Controlled 0eactor (TC0) Thyristor Switched 0eactor (TS0) Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) )echanically Switched Capacitor ()SC)

Stat'# Syn#hr!n!( #!mpen at!r )STATCOM*


The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATC2)) is a shunt device of the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) family usin! power electronics to control power flow and improve transient stability on power !rids G"H The STATC2) re!ulates volta!e at its terminal by controllin! the amount of reactive power inCected into or absorbed from the power system &hen system volta!e is low' the STATC2) !enerates reactive power (STATC2) capacitive) &hen system volta!e is hi!h' it absorbs reactive power (STATC2) inductive) The variation of reactive power is performed by means of a ?olta!e(Sourced Converter (?SC) connected on the secondary side of a couplin! transformer The ?SC uses forced( commutated power electronic devices (3T2s' ,3$Ts or ,3CTs) to synthesize a volta!e ?* from a #C volta!e source The principle of operation of the STATC2) is explained

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on the fi!ure below showin! the active and reactive power transfer between a source ?" and a source ?* ,n this fi!ure' ?" represents the system volta!e to be controlled and ?* is the volta!e !enerated by the ?SC Operat'n+ Pr'n#'p$e !" the STATCOM

7 I (?"?*) sinJ K / ' L I ?"(?" D ?*cosJ) K / Sym-!$ Mean'n+ V" V* X -ine to line volta!e of source " -ine to line volta!e of source * 0eactance of interconnection transformer and filters 7hase an!le of V" with respect to V* ,n steady state operation' the volta!e ?* !enerated by the ?SC is in phase with ?" (JIF)' so that only reactive power is flowin! (7IF) ,f ?* is lower than ?"' L is flowin! from ?" to ?* (STATC2) is absorbin! reactive power) 2n the reverse' if ?* is hi!her than ?"' L is flowin! from ?* to ?" (STATC2) is !eneratin! reactive power) The amount of reactive power is !iven by Q I (V" (V" D V* )) K X A capacitor connected on the #C side of the ?SC acts as a #C volta!e source ,n steady state the volta!e ?* has to be phase shifted sli!htly behind ?" in order to compensate for transformer and ?SC losses and to keep the capacitor char!ed Two ?SC technolo!ies can be used for the ?SC<

?SC usin! 3T2(based s%uare(wave inverters and special interconnection

transformers Typically four three(level inverters are used to build a >6(step volta!e

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waveform Special interconnection transformers are used to neutralize harmonics contained in the s%uare waves !enerated by individual inverters ,n this type of ?SC' the fundamental component of volta!e ?* is proportional to the volta!e ?dc Therefore ?dc has to be varied for controllin! the reactive power

?SC usin! ,3$T(based 7&) inverters This type of inverter uses 7ulse(&idth

)odulation (7&)) techni%ue to synthesize a sinusoidal waveform from a #C volta!e source with a typical choppin! fre%uency of a few kilohertz 4armonic volta!es are cancelled by connectin! filters at the AC side of the ?SC This type of ?SC uses a fixed #C volta!e ?dc ?olta!e ?* is varied by chan!in! the modulation index of the 7&) modulator The STATC2) (7hasor Type) block models an ,3$T(based STATC2) (fixed #C volta!e) 4owever' as details of the inverter and harmonics are not represented' it can be also used to model a 3T2(based STATC2) in transient stability studies A detailed model of a 3T2(based STATC2) is provided in the FACTS demo library (powerMstatcomM!to>6p demo) The fi!ure below shows a sin!le(line dia!ram of the STATC2) and a simplified block dia!ram of its control system

S'n+$e3$'ne D'a+ram !" a STATCOM an% It C!ntr!$ Sy tem B$!#4 D'a+ram

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The control system consists of<

A phase(locked loop (7--) which synchronizes on the positive(se%uence

component of the three(phase primary volta!e ?" The output of the 7-- (an!le NIOt) is used to compute the direct(axis and %uadrature(axis components of the AC three(phase volta!e and currents (labeled as ?d' ?% or ,d' ,% on the dia!ram)

)easurement systems measurin! the d and % components of AC positive(se%uence

volta!e and currents to be controlled as well as the #C volta!e ?dc

An outer re!ulation loop consistin! of an AC volta!e re!ulator and a #C volta!e

re!ulator The output of the AC volta!e re!ulator is the reference current ,%ref for the current re!ulator (,% I current in %uadrature with volta!e which controls reactive power flow) The output of the #C volta!e re!ulator is the reference current ,dref for the current re!ulator (,d I current in phase with volta!e which controls active power flow)

An inner current re!ulation loop consistin! of a current re!ulator The current

re!ulator controls the ma!nitude and phase of the volta!e !enerated by the 7&) converter (?*d ?*%) from the ,dref and ,%ref reference currents produced respectively by the #C volta!e re!ulator and the AC volta!e re!ulator (in volta!e control mode) The current re!ulator is assisted by a feed forward type re!ulator which predicts the ?*

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volta!e output (?*d ?*%) from the ?" measurement (?"d ?"%) and the transformer leaka!e reactance The STAC2) block is a phasor model which does not include detailed representations of the power electronics Pou must use it with the phasor simulation method' activated with the 7ower!ui block ,t can be used in three(phase power systems to!ether with synchronous !enerators' motors' dynamic loads and other FACTS and #0 systems to perform transient stability studies and observe impact of the STATC2) on electromechanical oscillations and transmission capacity at fundamental fre%uency STATCOM V3I Chara#ter' t'# The STATC2) can be operated in two different modes<

,n volta!e re!ulation mode (the volta!e is re!ulated within limits as explained

below)

,n var control mode (the STATC2) reactive power output is kept constant)

&hen the STATC2) is operated in volta!e re!ulation mode' it implements the followin! ?(, characteristic STATCOM V3I #hara#ter' t'#

As lon! as the reactive current stays within the minimum and minimum current values (( ,max' ,max) imposed by the converter ratin!' the volta!e is re!ulated at the reference volta!e ?ref 4owever' a volta!e droop is normally used (usually between "Q and >Q at maximum reactive power output)' and the ?(, characteristic has the slope indicated in the

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fi!ure ,n the volta!e re!ulation mode' the ?(, characteristic is described by the followin! e%uation< V I Vref R Xs I &here ? 7ositive se%uence volta!e (pu) , 0eactive current (puK7nom) (, S F indicates an inductive current)

/s Slope or droop reactance (puK7nom) 7nom Three(phase nominal power of the converter specified in the block dialo! box STATCOM & SVC The STATC2) performs the same function as the S?C 4owever at volta!es lower than the normal volta!e re!ulation ran!e' the STATC2) can !enerate more reactive power than the S?C This is due to the fact that the maximum capacitive power !enerated by a S?C is proportional to the s%uare of the system volta!e (constant susceptance) while the maximum capacitive power !enerated by a STATC2) decreases linearly with volta!e (constant current) This ability to provide more capacitive reactive power durin! a fault is one important advanta!e of the STATC2) over the S?C ,n addition' the STATC2) will normally exhibit a faster response than the S?C because with the ?SC' the STATC2) has no delay associated with the thyristor firin! (in the order of > ms for a S?C)

Stat'# VAR C!mpen at!r )SVC*,

"A

The S?C re!ulates volta!e at its terminals by controllin! the amount of reactive power inCected into or absorbed from the power system &hen system volta!e is low' the S?C !enerates reactive power (S?C capacitive) &hen system volta!e is hi!h' it absorbs reactive power (S?C inductive) Thyr' t!r3#!ntr!$$e% rea#t!r )TCR*, reactor is connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor valve The thyristor valve is phase(controlled .%uivalent reactance is varied continuously Thyr' t!r3 .'t#he% rea#t!r )TSR*, Same as TC0 but thyristor is either in zero( or full( conduction .%uivalent reactance is varied in stepwise manner Thyr' t!r3 .'t#he% #apa#'t!r )TSC*, capacitor is connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor valve Thyristor is either in zero( or full( conduction .%uivalent reactance is varied in stepwise manner Me#han'#a$$y3 .'t#he% #apa#'t!r )MSC*, capacitor is switched by circuit(breaker ,t aims at compensatin! steady state reactive power ,t is switched only a few times a day

5hat are FACTS %e&'#e 6 FACTS stand for Flexible AC Transmission Systems The term TFACTSU covers several power electronics based systems used for AC power transmission FACTS solutions are particularly suitable in applications' which re%uire one or more of the followin! %ualities< V 0apid dynamic response V Ability for fre%uent variations in output V Smoothly adCustable output V Fast implementation to achieve considerable increase in transmission capacity

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FACTS CONCEPTS SIMILAR TO /VDC


&hile some of the relevant technolo!y i e ' Static ?A0 Compensation is already in wide use' the FACTS concept has brou!ht to the table a tremendous potential for thyristor based Controllers which will surely revolutionize the power system The technolo!y offers the utilities the ability to< " Control power flows on their transmission routes+ * Allow secure loadin! of transmission lines to their full thermal capacity FACTS technolo!y' while allowin! use of transmission to its thermal capacity' does not do away with the need for additional transmission lines or the up!radin! of existin! lines where thermal limits have been reached or when evaluation of losses added to the cost of FACTS technolo!y shows that new lines or up!radin! of existin! lines is the most optimum answer 2ften' ac transmission systems are thou!ht of as bein! WinflexibleW 7ower flow in ac networks simply follows 2hmXs law and ordinarily cannot be made to flow alon! specific desired paths As a result' ac networks suffer from parallel(path' or WloopW flows The power flows from source to load in inverse proportion to the relative impedances of the transmission paths -ow impedance paths take the lar!est fraction of flow' but all lines in the interconnection are a part of the flow path Thus' utilities not involved in an interchan!e power transaction can be affected A fundamental notion behind FACTS is that it is possible to continuously vary the apparent impedance of specific transmission lines so as to force power to flow alon! a Wcontract pathW This is a brand(new concept for many system planners As illustrated in Fi!ure " ;' with precise control of the impedance of transmission lines usin! FACTS devices' it is possible to maintain constant power flow alon! a desired path in the presence of continuous chan!es of load levels in the external ac network' and to react in a planned way to contin!encies Yust as in 4?#C applications' FACTS controls could be desi!ned to .nhance the behavior of the uncontrolled systems The flexible system owes its ti!hter transmission control to its ability to mana!e the interrelated parameters that constrain todayXs systems' includin! series impedance' shunt impedance' phase an!le' and the occurrence of oscillations at various fre%uencies below the rated fre%uency $y addin! to in this way' the controllers enable a transmission line to function nearer its thermal ratin! For example' a @FF(k? line may have a loadin! limit of "FFF(*FFF)& for safe operation'

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but a thermal limit of ;FFF )& ,t is often not possible both to overcome these constraints and maintain the re%uired system reliability by conventional mechanical means alone' such as tap chan!ers' phase shifters' and switched capacitors and reactors (inductors) 3ranted' mechanical controllers are on the whole less expensive' but they increasin!ly need to be supplemented by rapidly respondin! power electronics controllers The new technolo!y is not a sin!le' hi!h(power electronic controller' but rather a collection of controllers' which can be applied individually or collectively in a specific power system to control the five interrelated functions already mentioned The thyristor is their basic element' Cust as the transistor is the basic element for a whole variety of microelectronic circuit $ecause all controllers for the flexible transmission system are applications of similar technolo!y' their use will eventually benefit from volume production and further development of hi!h(power electronics .lectric power networks inte!rate !eneration and load centers within each utility system and throu!h interconnections amon! nei!hborin! systems' share power with vast re!ional !rids The purpose of this is to take advanta!e of the diversity of loads' chan!es in peak demand due to weather and time differences' the availability of different !eneration reserves in various !eo!raphic re!ions' power sharin! arran!ements amon! utilities' shifts in fuel prices' re!ulatory chan!es' and other discrepancies

App$y'n+ F$e7'-'$'ty t! the E$e#tr'# P!.er Sy tem,


The power industry term FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) covers a number of technolo!ies that enhance the security' capacity and flexibility of power transmission systems FACTS solutions enable power !rid owners to increase existin! transmission network capacity while maintainin! or improvin! the operatin! mar!ins necessary for !rid stability As a result' more power can reach consumers with a minimum impact on the environment' after substantially shorter proCect implementation times' and at lower investment costs ( all compared to the alternative of buildin! new transmission lines or power !eneration facilities The two main reasons for incorporatin! FACTS devices in .lectric power systems are<

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V 0aisin! dynamic stability limits V 7rovide better power flow control Ne(r!3C!ntr!$ Appr!a#h "!r F$e7'-$e AC Tran m' '!n Sy tem , A neuro(control approach for flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) based on radial basis function neural network (0$F11) is presented in this paper The proposed scheme consists of a sin!le neuron network whose input is derived from the active or reactive power or volta!e derivation at the power system bus' where the FACTS device (in this case a unified power flow controller) is located The performance and usefulness of this approach is tested and evaluated usin! both sin!le machine infinite(bus and two machine power system subCected to various transient disturbances ,t was found that the new intelli!ent controller for FACTS exhibits a superior dynamic performance in compensation to the existin! classical control schemes ,ts simple architecture reduces the computational overhead' thereby real(time implementation $enefits of FACTS< &hen implemented on a broad(scale basis'

FACTS te#hn!$!+'e %e$'&er the "!$$!.'n+ -ene"'t 0


V A 0apidly ,mplemented ,nstallations< FACTS proCects are installed at existin! substations and avoid the takin! of public or private lands They can be completed in less than "* to "6 months a substantially shorter timeframe than the process re%uired for constructin! new transmission lines V ,ncreased System Capacity< FACTS provide increased capacity on the existin! electrical transmission system infrastructure by allowin! maximum operational efficiency of existin! transmission lines and other e%uipment V .nhanced System 0eliability< FACTS stren!then the operational inte!rity of transmission networks' allowin! !reater volta!e stability and power flow control' which leads to enhanced system reliability and security V ,mproved System Controllability< FACTS allow improved system controllability by buildin! Tintelli!enceU into the transmission network via the ability to instantaneously respond to system disturbances and !ridlock constraints and to enable redirection of power flows

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V Seamless System ,nterconnections< FACTS' in the form of $T$ dc(link confi!urations' can establish TseamlessU interconnections within and between re!ional and local networks' allowin! controlled power transfer and an increase in !rid stability

CONCLUSION,

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,t is envisa!ed that in future FACTS devices could be installed on wide scale by electrical utilities in an attempt to control the power flows throu!h their networks Concern has been expressed that such wide scale application of FACTS devices could cause conflict between the control systems of the different devices 8sin! the advanced solid state technolo!y' FACTS controllers offer flexibility of system operation fast and reliable control They better utilization of existin! power !eneration and transmission facilities with out comprisin! system availability and security The planner has to select controller out of the set of FACTS controllers' for improvin! the system operation based on cost benefit analysis

REFERNCE,
" 1 3 4in!orani' - 3yu!yi'U FACTS(Concepts and Technolo!y * S 1ilsson' TSpecial Application Considerations for Custom 7ower systemsU ; -ecture 1otes on FACTS by #r 0 Sreeram Zumar F,. (,) > www ,... com

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@ www siemens or!

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