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SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO BAR EXAMINATION

IN

POLITICAL LAW
ARRANGED BY TOPIC

(1987 2006)
Edited and Arranged by:

Atty. Janette Laggui-Icao and Atty. Alex And e! P. Icao


(Silliman University College of Law) J ly 26! 200" U#$ate$ %y&

Ro"ualdo L. #e$e i% II& LLB.


'#ril 19! 2007

(rom t)e '*S+,-S ./ 0'- ,1'23*'.3/* 4U,S.3/*S in 5/L3.3C'L L'+ %y t)e


UP LAW COMPLEX an$ PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION O LAW SCHOOLS

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

(/-+'-6
T'i% !o ( i% not intended )o %ale o co""e ce. T'i% !o ( i% ) ee!a e. It "ay *e ) eely co+ied and di%t i*uted. It i% + i"a ily intended )o all t'o%e !'o de%i e to 'a,e a dee+e unde %tanding o) t'e i%%ue% touc'ed *y t'e P'ili++ine Ba Exa"ination% and it% t end. It i% %+ecially intended )o la! %tudent% ) o" t'e + o,ince% !'o& ,e y o)ten& a e eci+ient% o) deli*e ately di%to ted note% ) o" ot'e un%c u+ulou% la!

%c'ool% and %tudent%. #'a e to ot'e % t'i% !o ( and you !ill *e ic'ly e!a ded *y God in 'ea,en. It i% al%o ,e y good (a "a.

-e !ould li(e to %ee( t'e indulgence o) t'e eade )o %o"e Ba .ue%tion% !'ic' a e i"+ o+e ly cla%%i)ied unde a to+ic and )o %o"e to+ic% !'ic' a e i"+ o+e ly o igno antly +' a%ed& )o t'e aut'o % a e /u%t Ba Re,ie!ee% !'o 'a,e + e+a ed t'i% !o ( !'ile e,ie!ing )o t'e Ba Exa"% unde ti"e con%t aint% and !it'in t'ei li"ited (no!ledge o) t'e la!. -e !ould li(e to %ee( t'e eade 0% indulgence )o a lot o) ty+og a+'ical e o % in t'i% !o (.

T'e Aut'o %

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

"

.'0L, /( C/*.,*.S
!#$% CONSTITUTION O THE PHILIPPINES.................................................................12 Phil Con 87; New Features (1991)...................................................................................12 Phil Con 87; People Power (1987)...................................................................................12 Phil Con 87; People Power (2000)...................................................................................13 Phil Con 87; People Power (2003)...................................................................................13 Nature of the Constitution: Constitutional Supre a!" (200#).....................................13 $o%ern ent Presi&ential For %s' Parlia entar" For (()*200))...........................13 ARTICLE I Nati&na' Territ&ry.........................................................................................14 +r!hipela,i! -o!trine (1989).............................................................................................14 Conti,uous .one %s' /0!lusi%e /!ono i! .one (200#)...............................................14 /0!lusi%e /!ono i! .one; 1i,hts of the Coastal State (199#)...................................14 /0!lusi%e /!ono i! .one; 1i,hts of the Coastal State ((1*2002)............................15 Fla, State %s' Fla, of Con%enien!e (200#)....................................................................15 3erritor" 4 $o%ern ent (199)).........................................................................................15 3erritorial Sea %s' 5nternal 6aters (200#).......................................................................15 ARTICLE II De('arati&n &) Prin(i*'e+ and State P&'i(ie+........................................16 +r e& For!es; Ser%ant of the People (2003).................................................................16 -o!trine of 5n!orporation; Constitutional 7aw (1997)....................................................16 -o!trine of 5n!orporation; Pa!ta Sunt Ser%an&a (2000)...............................................16 Free&o fro Nu!lear 6eapons; Forei,n 8ilitar" 9ases (1988)...............................16 Philippine Fla, ((#*200))..................................................................................................17 Prin!iple of Ci%ilian Supre a!" (()*200)).....................................................................17 State 5 unit" fro Suit (1991).......................................................................................17 State 5 unit" fro Suit (199)).......................................................................................89 State 5 unit" fro Suit (1989)......................................................................................89 State 5 unit" fro Suit (199#).......................................................................................81 State 5 unit" fro Suit (1992).......................................................................................81 State 5 unit" fro Suit (1999).......................................................................................88 State 5 unit" fro Suit (1999).......................................................................................88 State 5 unit" fro Suit (1987).......................................................................................88 State 5 unit" %s' 6ai%er of 5 unit" (1997)..............................................................88 State 5 unit" fro Suit (1993).......................................................................................8: State Prin!iples 4 Poli!ies (199#)....................................................................................8: 3ransparen!"; 8atters of Pu:li! 5nterest (1989)............................................................82 3ransparen!"; 8atters of Pu:li! 5nterest (2000)............................................................83 ARTICLE III Bi'' &) Rig,t+.................................................................................................83 9ill of +ttain&er (1987)........................................................................................................83 9ill of +ttain&er (1990)........................................................................................................84 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; /0tra;u&i!ial Confession (2001).............................................84 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; /0tra;u&i!ial Confession; Poli!e 7ine*<p (199#).................84 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; Poli!e 7ine*<p (1997)..............................................................85 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; 1i,ht to Counsel (1988)...........................................................85 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; 1i,ht to Counsel (1993)...........................................................85 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; 1i,ht to Counsel (2000)...........................................................86 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; 1i,ht to Counsel; 1e!eipt of Propert" Sei=e& (2002).........86 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; 1i,hts (1990).............................................................................87 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; 1i,hts (1993).............................................................................87 Custo&ial 5n%esti,ation; 1i,hts (199)).............................................................................:9
BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

-ou:le >eopar&" (1988)....................................................................................................:9 -ou:le >eopar&" (1993)....................................................................................................:1 -ou:le >eopar&" (1997)....................................................................................................:1 -ou:le >eopar&" (1999)....................................................................................................:8 -ou:le >eopar&" (1999)....................................................................................................:8 -ou:le >eopar&" (2000)....................................................................................................:8 -ou:le >eopar&" (2001)....................................................................................................:8 -ou:le >eopar&" (2002)....................................................................................................:: -ou:le >eopar&"; 1e?uisites (1999)...............................................................................:: -ue Pro!ess; +:sen!e of -enial (1999).........................................................................:: -ue Pro!ess; -eportation (199#).....................................................................................:2 -ue Pro!ess; Forfeiture Pro!ee&in,s (1993).................................................................:3 -ue Pro!ess; 8e&ia Co%era,e &urin, @earin, (199)).................................................:3 -ue Pro!ess; 8eetin, %s' @earin, (1999)......................................................................:3 -ue Pro!ess; Noti!e :" Pu:li!ation (1988)....................................................................:3 -ue Pro!ess; Per it to Carr" Firear Autsi&e 1esi&en!e (()*200))......................:4 -ue Pro!ess; PP+*Pilots (2001)......................................................................................:4 -ue Pro!ess; Pro!e&ural %s' Su:stanti%e (1999)..........................................................:5 -ue Pro!ess; Pro%isional Ar&er (1991)...........................................................................:5 -ue Pro!ess; Pu:li! S!hool 3ea!hers (2002)...............................................................:5 -ue Pro!ess; 1a&io Station (1987).................................................................................:6 -ue Pro!ess; 1epresente& :" a Non*7aw"er (1988)...................................................:6 -ue Pro!ess; Su:stanti%e (2003).....................................................................................:6 -ue Pro!ess; Suspension of -ri%erBs 7i!ense (1992)...................................................:6 -ue Pro!ess; <r,ent Pu:li! Nee& (1987).......................................................................:7 / inent -o ain; $arnish ent (199#)............................................................................:7 / inent -o ain; $arnish ent (1998)............................................................................29 / inent -o ain; i unit" fro suit (2001)..................................................................29 / inent -o ain; 5n&ire!t Pu:li! 9enefit (1990)............................................................29 / inent -o ain; >ust Co pensation (1988).................................................................29 / inent -o ain; >ust Co pensation (1989).................................................................21 / inent -o ain; >ust Co pensation (1998).................................................................21 / inent -o ain; 7e,al 5nterest (1993)...........................................................................21 / inent -o ain; Non*o:ser%an!e of the poli!" of Call or noneC (2000)....................28 / inent -o ain; Power to /0er!ise (2002)...................................................................28 / inent -o ain; Pu:li! <se (1987)................................................................................28 / inent -o ain; So!iali=e& @ousin, (199)).................................................................2: / inent -o ain; 6rit of Possession (1993)..................................................................2: /?ual Prote!tion; +lien / plo" ent (1989)...................................................................22 /?ual Prote!tion; 5n%i&ious -is!ri ination (1987).........................................................22 /?ual Prote!tion; 5n%i&ious -is!ri ination (1987).........................................................23 /?ual Prote!tion; Poli!e Power (2000)............................................................................23 /?ual Prote!tion; 1i,ht to /&u!ation (199#)..................................................................23 /?ual Prote!tion; Su:si&iar" 5 prison ent (1989).......................................................23 Free&o of /0pression; Censorship (2003)...................................................................24 Free&o of /0pression; Prior 1estraint (1988).............................................................24 Free&o of 1eli,ion; Con%i!te& Prisoners (1989).........................................................24 Free&o of 1eli,ion; Fla, Salute (1997)........................................................................25 Free&o of 1eli,ion; Fla, Salute (2003)........................................................................26 Free&o of 1eli,ion; Non*/sta:lish ent Clause (1988).............................................26 Free&o of 1eli,ion; Non*/sta:lish ent Clause (1992).............................................26 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%) 7

Free&o of 1eli,ion; Non*/sta:lish ent Clause (1997) Free&o of Spee!h; 9an on 3o:a!!o +- (1992) Free&o of the Press; +!tual 8ali!e (200#) Free&o of the Press; 6arti e Censorship (1987) 5 pair ent Clause; 9asi! @u an 1i,hts (1992) 5n%oluntar" Ser%itu&e (1993) 7i:ert" of +:o&e; 7i itations (1998) 7i:ert" of +:o&e; 3e porar" (199)) Non*5 prison ent for Non*Pa" ent of -e:t (1993) Poli!e Power; +:ate ent of Nuisan!e (200#) Poli!e Power; 9an on 3o:a!!o +- (1992) Poli!e Power; .onin, Ar&inan!e %s' Non*5 pair ent of Contra!ts (1989) Poli!e Power; .onin, Ar&inan!e %s' Non*5 pair ent of Contra!ts (2001) Pri%a!" of Co uni!ation (2001) Pri%a!" of Correspon&en!e (1998) Pri%a!" of Correspon&en!e; >ail (1989) 1i,ht to +sse :l"; Per it +ppli!ation; Free&o ParDs ((2*200)) 1i,ht to +sse :l"; Per it 1e?uire ents (1992) 1i,ht to +sse :l"; Pu:li! 3ea!hers (2000) 1i,ht to +sse :l"; Pu:li! 3ea!hers (2002) 1i,ht to 3ra%el; Ar&er of +rrest (1991) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; Counsel of his Choi!e ((8*2002) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; Presu ption of 5nno!en!e %s' Presu ption of 3heft (200#) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; 1i,ht to 9ail (1993) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; 1i,ht to 9ail; Capital Affense ((#*200)) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; 1i,ht to 9ail; -eportation Case (1989) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; 1i,ht to 9ail; 8atter of 1i,ht or a 8atter of -is!retion ((7* 2002) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; 1i,ht to Spee&" 3rial (2000) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; Self*5n!ri ination (1988) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; Self*5n!ri ination (1990) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; Self*5n!ri ination (1992) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; Self*5n!ri ination (2000) 1i,hts of the +!!use&; Self*5n!ri ination ((7*200)) Sear!hes an& Sei=ure; Pri%ate 5n&i%i&uals ((8*2002) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; +liens (2001) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; 9reathal"=er 3est (1992) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; 5 e&iate Control (1987) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; 5n!i&ental to Eali& Sear!h (1990) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; Pla!e of Sear!h (2001) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; sear!h a&e :" a pri%ate !iti=en (1993) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; sear!h a&e :" a pri%ate !iti=en (2002) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; Eali& 6arrantless Sear!h (2000) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; Eisual Sear!h (1992) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; 6ai%er of Consent (1989) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; 6arrantless +rrests (1993) Sear!hes an& Sei=ures; 6arrants of +rrest (1991) ARTICLE I. Citi/en+,i* +!tion for Can!ellation; Pres!ription 4 /ffe!t of -eath (199#) Citi=enship; /le!te& Affi!ial (1993) -ual +lle,ian!e %s' -ual Citi=enship (1987) BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

27 27 39 39 31 31 31 38 38 38 38 3: 3: 3: 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 49 49 41 41 41 48 48 48 4: 4: 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 45 "

-ual +lle,ian!e %s' -ual Citi=enship (1988) -ual Citi=enship (199#) /ffe!t of 8arria,e; Filipino (1989) /ffe!t of Aath of +lle,ian!e (200#) /ffe!t of 1epatriation (1999) /ffe!t of 1epatriation (2002) /ffe!t of 1epatriation (2003) /ffe!ts of 8arria,es (1999) /ffe!ts of Philippine 9ill of 1902 (2001) /le!te& Affi!ial (1992) /le!tin, Philippine Citi=enship ((8*200)) /le!tin, Philippine Citi=enship; 6hen Proper ((8*200)) Natural 9orn Filipino (1989) Natural 9orn Filipino (1998) Natural*9orn Filipino(1993) Naturali=ation; Can!ellation of Citi=enship (1998) 1esi&en!" 1e?uire ents; /le!ti%e Affi!ial ((9*2002) Status; 5lle,iti ate Chil& (1990) Status; 5lle,iti ate Chil&; -ual Citi=enship (199)) Status; 7e,iti ate Chil& (2003) 6a"s of 1ea!?uirin, Citi=enship (2000) ARTICLE .I Legi+'ati0e De*art1ent +ppropriation of Pu:li! Fun&s (1988) +ppropriation of Pu:li! Fun&s; -e:t Ser%i!in, (1992) +ppropriation of Pu:li! Fun&s; Pu:li! Purposes (1988) Co ission on +ppoint ents (2002) -ele,ation of Powers (2002) -ele,ation of Powers; (()*2002) -ele,ation of Powers; Co pleteness 3est; Suffi!ient Stan&ar& 3est (()*2002) -is!ipline; 8o&es of 1e o%al (1993) -is!ipline; Suspension of a 8e :er of the Con,ress (2002) /le!te& Affi!ial; -e Fa!to Affi!er (200#) /le!toral 3ri:unal; @1/3 8e :ersF 1i,ht 4 1esponsi:ilities (2002) /le!toral 3ri:unal; Senate; >uris&i!tion (1990) Forei,n +ffairs; 1ole of @ouse of 1ep (199)) Forei,n +ffairs; 1ole of Senate (199#) 5n%esti,ations in +i& of 7e,islation (1992) 7aw 8aDin,; Pro!ess 4 Pu:li!ation (1993) 7aw*8aDin,; +ppropriation 9ill (199)) 7aw*8aDin,; +ppropriation 7aw; +uto ati! 1enewal 4 Power of +u, entation (1998) 7aw*8aDin,; +ppropriation 7aw; 1i&er Pro%ision (2001) 7aw*8aDin,; Forei,n +ffairs; 3reaties (199)) 7aw*8aDin,; A%erri&in, the Presi&ential Eeto (1991) 7aw*8aDin,; Passa,e of a 7aw (1988) 7e,islati%e Power; Pres' +?uinoFs 3i e (1990) 7e,islati%e Powers (1989) 7oans /0ten&e& to 8e :ers of Con,ress (1991) 8ulti*Part" S"ste (1999) Non*7e,islati%e Powers (1988) Non*7e,islati%e Powers; / er,en!" Powers; 1e?uisites (1997) BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

46 46 47 47 59 59 59 59 51 51 51 58 58 58 5: 5: 5: 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 69 69 69 61 61 61 68 68 68 68 6: 6: 6: 6

Prohi:itions an& 5nhi:itions of Pu:li! Affi!e (200#) (ualifi!ations; Con,ress en (1988) (ualifi!ations; Con,ress en; (1993) (ualifi!ations; Con,ress en; (1999) Separation of Powers (1988) Separation of Powers (2003) 3hree*3er 7i it: Con,ress en (199)) 3hree*3er 7i it; Con,ress en (2001) ARTICLE .II E2e(3ti0e De*art1ent +ppointin, Power; +!tin, %s' Per anent +ppoint ent (2003) +ppointin, Power; a& interi appoint ents (1991) +ppointin, Power; +& 5nteri +ppoint ents (199#) +ppointin, Power; +ppoint ents 1e?uirin, Confir ation; 1+ )972*<n!onstitutional (2002) +ppointin, Power; Cate,ories of Affi!ials (1999) +ppointin, Power; Gin&s of +ppoint ents (199#) +ppointin, Power; 7i itations on Presi&ential +ppoint ents (1997) +ppointin, Powers; +& 5nteri +ppoint ents ((#*2002) Ca:inet 8e :ers; li itation on a!!eptin, a&&itional &uties (199)) Callin,*out Power; Presi&ent ((1*200)) -e!laration; State of Cala it"; 7e,al /ffe!ts ((1*2002) -e!laration; State of National / er,en!" ((1*200)) /nter into Contra!t or $uarantee Forei,n 7oans (199#) /nter into Contra!t or $uarantee Forei,n 7oans (1999) /nter into /0e!uti%e +,ree ents (2003) 5 pose 3ariff 1atesH 5 port an& /0port (uotas (1999) 8artial 7aw 4 Suspension of 6rit of @a:eas Corpus (1987) 8artial 7aw; 7i itations (2000) 8artial 7aw; Suffi!ien!" of the Fa!tual 9asis ((3*200)) Par&onin, Power; + nest" (1993) Par&onin, Power; + nest" (1992) Par&onin, Power; 9rea!h of Con&ition; 1e%o!ation ((2*2002) Par&onin, Power; /0e! Cle en!"; Par&on (1992) Par&onin, Power; /0e!uti%e Cle en!" (1997) Par&onin, Power; /0e!uti%e Cle en!" (1999) Par&onin, Power; Gin&s (1988) Par&onin, Power; Par&onH Con&itional (1997) Presi&ent; Parti!ipation; 7e,islati%e Pro!ess (199)) Presi&ential 5 unit" fro Suit (1997) Prohi:ition +,ainst 8ultiple Positions 4 +&&itional Co pensation (2002) Prohi:ition a,ainst 8ultiple Positions :" $o%Ft Affi!ials (1987) Suspension of 6rit of @a:eas Corpus (1997) ARTICLE .III 43di(ia' De*art1ent Cases to :e @ear& /n 9an!; Supre e Court (1999) Conte pt Powers (199)) Finalit" of Eoi& >u&, ents (1993) Fis!al +utono " (1999) Fun!tion; Continuin, Constitutional Con%ention (2000) 5ssuan!e of 1estrainin, Ar&ers an& 5n;un!tions (1992) >u&i!ial 4 9ar Coun!il (1988) >u&i!ial 4 9ar Coun!il (1999)
BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

6: 62 62 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 79 79 71 71 71 71 78 78 78 78 7: 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 76 77 77 77 77 77 199 199 199 191 191


%

>u&i!ial -epart ent; 6rit of + paro (1991)......................................................................191 >u&i!ial 5n&epen&en!e; Safe,uar& (2000)......................................................................191 >u&i!ial Power (1989).........................................................................................................198 >u&i!ial Power (1992).........................................................................................................198 >u&i!ial Power (1998).........................................................................................................19: >u&i!ial Power; S!ope (199#)..............................................................................................19: >u&i!ial 1e%iew; 7o!us Stan&i (1992).................................................................................192 >u&i!ial 1e%iew; 1e?uisites (199#)..................................................................................192 >uris&i!tion of @7<19 (1993)............................................................................................192 8an&ator" Perio& For -e!i&in, Cases (1989)...............................................................193 Politi!al (uestion (1992)....................................................................................................193 Politi!al (uestion -o!trine (1997)......................................................................................193 Politi!al (uestion: Separation of Powers (200#)...............................................................194 Politi!al (uestion; 3o Settle +!tual Contro%ersies (200#)............................................194 Politi!al (uestions (1988)..................................................................................................194 Pro @a! Ei!e Cases (1999)...............................................................................................195 1e o%al of 7ower Court >u&,es (1993)..........................................................................195 1e%iew /0e!uti%e +!ts (199))..........................................................................................195 Super%ision; Courts 4 its Personnel ((2*2002).................................................................196 3a0pa"erBs Suit; 7o!us Stan&i (1992)..............................................................................196 3er of Affi!e; >usti!es (199))...........................................................................................196 Eotes re?uire& for &e!larin, a law un!onstitutional (199)) ..........................................197 ARTICLE IX C&n+tit3ti&na' C&11i++i&n+...................................................................197 1otational S!he e (1999)...................................................................................................197 Constitutional Co issions 4 Coun!il ((7*200))............................................................197 ARTICLE IX Ci0i' Ser0i(e C&11i++i&n........................................................................197 Career Ser%i!e; Chara!teristi!s (1999)..............................................................................197 Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission %s' CA+ (200#)......................................................................197 Fun!tion of CSC (199#).......................................................................................................119 $ACCs 6ithout Ari,inal Charter %s' $ACCs 6ith Ari,inal Charter (1998).............119 >uris&i!tion o%er the $ACCs (1999)...................................................................................111 >uris&i!tion o%er the $ACCs (2003)...................................................................................111 8o&es of 1e o%al fro Affi!e (1993)................................................................................111 1e!ei%in, of 5n&ire!t Co pensation (1997)....................................................................111 Se!urit" of 3enure (1988)....................................................................................................118 Se!urit" of 3enure ((2*2002)..............................................................................................118 Se!urit" of 3enure; 8eanin, (1999)...................................................................................11: ARTICLE IX COMELEC.......................................................................................................11: /le!toral 3ri:unal; Fun!tions 4 Co position ((2*200))..............................................11: Fair /le!tion; /?ual Spa!e 4 3i e in 8e&ia (1989)......................................................11: $rant of Par&on in /le!tion Affenses (1991)..................................................................112 >u&i!ial 1e%iew of -e!isions (2001)................................................................................112 1e o%al fro Affi!e; Co issioners (1998).................................................................112 1i,ht to Eote; >uris&i!tion (2001)........................................................................................112 E'e(ti&n La5+..........................................................................................................................112 2n& Pla!er 1ule (2003).....................................................................................................112 2n& Pla!er 1ule (1990)......................................................................................................113 2n& Pla!er 1ule; in (uo 6arranto Cases (1992)..........................................................113 2n& Pla!er 1ule; 1ule of Su!!ession (199))....................................................................113 +ppre!iation of 9allots (199#)...........................................................................................114 -is?ualifi!ation; $roun&s (1991)......................................................................................114 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%) 8

-isualifi!ations (1999) /ffe!t of Filin, of Certifi!ate of Can&i&a!"; +ppointi%e Affi!er %s /le!ti%e Affi!er (2002) /ffe!t of Filin, of Certifi!ate of Can&i&a!"; Fair /le!tion +!t (2003) /le!tion Affenses; Conspira!" to 9ri:e Eoters (1991) /le!tion Protest (1990) /le!tion Protest %s' (uo 6arranto (2001) /le!tion Protest %s' (uo 6arranto ((2*200)) /le!tion Protest; >uris&i!tion (199)) /0piration of ter :ars ser%i!e thereof (2000) Petition to -e!lare Failure of /le!tions; 1e?uisites 4 /ffe!ts (1992) Pre*Pro!la ation Contest (1987) Pre*Pro!la ation Contest (1988) Pre*Pro!la ation Contest %s' /le!tion Contests (1997) Pre*Pro!la ation Contest; Proper 5ssues (199)) Pro!ess; 5lliterate Eoters (1987) Pro!ess; Prin!iple of 5&e Sonans (199#) Pro!ess; Stra" 9allot (199#) 1e!all (2002) 3hree*3er 7i it 1ule (2001) 3hree*3er 7i it; fro 8uni!ipalit" to Newl"*Create& Cit" ((9*2002) Ea!an!"; /ffe!t of Ei!e*8a"or +!tin, +s 8a"or (2002) Ea!an!"; 1ule of Su!!ession (1992) Ea!an!"; S9; 1ule on Su!!ession (2002) ARTICLE IX C&11i++i&n &n A3dit CA+; >uris&i!tion (2001) CA+; 8one" Clai s (1998) ARTICLE X L&(a' G&0ern1ent +ppoint ent of 9u&,et Affi!er; !ontrol %s super%ision (1999) 9oun&ar" -ispute 1esolution; 7$<; 13CFs >uris&i!tion ((10*2002) 9oun&ar" -ispute Settle ent; +uthorit"; >uris&i!tion (1999) Creation of New 7o!al $o%ern ent <nits; Ple:is!ite 1e?uire ent (200#) -e Fa!to Pu:li! Corporations; /ffe!t (200#) -e%olution of Power (1999) Fran!hise; prior appro%al of 7$< ne!essar" (1988) 7aw fi0in, the ter s of lo!al ele!ti%e offi!ials ((#*200)) Ar&inan!e; <se 4 7ease of Properties; Pu:li! <se (1997) Ar&inan!e; Eali&it"; Closure or 7ease of Properties for Pu:li! <se (2003) Ar&inan!e; Eali&it"; Co pensation; 3ortuous +!t of an / plo"ee (199#) Ar&inan!e; Eali&it"; 7o!al 3a0ation %s' Spe!ial +ssess ent (1987) Ar&inan!e; Eali&it"; Pre%entin, 5 oralit" (1987) Ar&inan!e; Eali&it"; <tili=ation 4 -e%elop ent; National 6ealth (1991) Ar&inan!es; Eali&it"; + en&in, NatFl 7aws (1988) Ar&inan!es; Eali&it"; $a :lin, Prohi:ition (1992) Ar&inan!es; Eali&it"; 7i itation of Penalties (1991) Ar&inan!es; Eeto Power (199)) Poli!e Power; 77-+ (1992) Power to 5ssue Su:poena 4 Cite For Conte pt (1993) Power; / inent -o ain; 7$<; 1i,ht to /0er!ise ((10*2002) Powers of 9aran,a" +sse :l" (2003) Powers; 7i,a n, ,a 9aran,a" (2003)
BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

114 114 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 116 117 117 189 181 181 181 181 188 188 188 18: 18: 182 182 182 182 183 183 184 184 184 184 184 184 185 185 185 185 186 186 186 186 187 187 187 1:9 1:9 1:1 1:1 1:1
#

1e?uisites; Contra!ts 5n%ol%in, 7$< (1991)......................................................................1:1 1e?uisites; Contra!ts in%ol%in, 7$< (1992)......................................................................1:8 3a0ation; $ACC 7ia:ilit" For 1eal /state 3a0 (1999)......................................................1:8 3a0ation; Sour!es of 1e%enue (1999).............................................................................1:8 6ith&rawal of Pu:li! Propert" fro Pu:li! <se (1990).................................................1:8 ARTICLE XI A((&3ntabi'ity &) P3b'i( O))i(er+...........................................................1:: +:an&on ent of Affi!e (2000)............................................................................................1:: -is!ipline; Cle en!"; -o!trine of Con&onation (2000)................................................1:: -is!ipline; /ffe!t of Par&on $rante& in Fa%or of Pu:li! Affi!ers (1999) ....................1:2 -is!ipline; Pre%enti%e Suspension 4 +ppeal; entitle ent to salar" pen&ente (2001) 1: 2 -is!ipline; Pre%enti%e Suspension (1990)..........................................................................1:2 -is!ipline; Pre%enti%e Suspension (2002)..........................................................................1:3 /le!ti%e an& +ppointi%e Affi!ials: &is!iplinar" authorit" (200#)........................................1:3 /le!ti%e Pu:li! Affi!er; -e Fa!to Affi!er (2000)................................................................1:3 /le!ti%e Pu:li! Affi!ers; -e Fa!to Affi!er; effe!ts (200#) .................................................1:4 $raft an& Corruption; Pres!ription of Cri e (2002)...........................................................1:4 5 pea!h ent; Cron"is (2000)..........................................................................................1:5 5 pea!h ent; $roun&s (1999).........................................................................................1:5 5 pea!h ent; Nature; $roun&s; P- 1)0) (1988).........................................................1:5 7aw of Pu:li! Affi!ers; Ne0t*in*1anD 1ule (199#).............................................................1:5 7ia:ilit" For -a a,es in Perfor an!e of Affi!ial Fun!tions (1990) ............................1:6 7o!al /le!ti%e Affi!ials; 7i itations An +&&itional -uties (1992) .....................................1:7 A :u&s an: Power to Suspen&; Pre%enti%e Suspension (200#)...................................1:7 A :u&s an; Power to 5n%esti,ate (2003).........................................................................1:7 A :u&s an; Power to Suspen&; Pre%enti%e Suspension (199))...................................129 Power to 5ssue Su:poena; %ali&it" of &ele,ation (1989)...................................................129 Prohi:ition An /le!ti%e Affi!er to @ol& Pu:li! Affi!e (2002)............................................129 Pu:li! Affi!e; Pu:li! 3rust (1998).....................................................................................129 1etire ent 9enefits (199))................................................................................................121 ARTICLE XII Nati&na' E(&n&1y and Patri1&ny.........................................................128 +!?uisition an& 7ease of Pu:li! 7an&s (1998)...................................................................128 +!?uisition of 7an&s (1987)...............................................................................................128 +!?uisition of 7an&s (2000)...............................................................................................12: +!?uisition of 7an&s :" @ere&itar" Su!!ession (2002).....................................................12: +!?uisition of 7an&s; Citi=enship issue (1989)..................................................................12: +!?uisition of 7an&s; Citi=enship issue (199#)..................................................................122 +!?uisition of 7an&s; Citi=enship issue (1992)..................................................................122 +!?uisition of 7an&s; Prohi:ition; a!?uisition of pri%ate lan&s :" aliens (199#) ........123 Citi=enship 1e?uire ent in 8ana,e ent of +&%ertisin, 5n&ustr" (1989) .......................123 /n,a,e ent in 9usiness 4 /0er!ise of Profession (1987) ..............................................123 /0ploration an& -e%elop ent of 8inerals (199#)..........................................................124 /0propriation of Pu:li! <tilities (1992)................................................................................124 7ease of Pri%ate +,ri!ultural 7an&s (2001)........................................................................124 National /!ono " 4 Patri on"; Constitutional Prohi:ition (200#) .............................125 National Patri on"; &efinition (1999)..................................................................................125 Nationali=e& +!ti%ities (199#)............................................................................................125 Awnership 1e?uire ent of 8ass 8e&ia (1989)................................................................126 Chinese !iti=ens; en,a,in, in retail tra&e ((#*200)) ........................................................126 /0plorationH &e%elop entH an& utili=ation of natural resour!es ((#*200)) .....................126 ARTICLE XIII S&(ia' 43+ti(e and H31an Rig,t+..........................................................126

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!6

+,rarian 1efor 7aw; Co%era,e (1992)............................................................................126 Co ission on @u an 1i,hts; Power to in%esti,ate (1992)...........................................127 Co ission on @u an 1i,hts; Power to issue 31A (1997)...........................................127 Co ission on @u an 1i,hts; Power to issue 31A (2001)...........................................127 Co ission on @u an 1i,hts; Power; 7i itations ((#*2002)........................................139 7a:or; 1i,ht to Self*Ar,ani=ation (1988)............................................................................131 7a:or; 1i,ht to StriDe (1988).............................................................................................131 7a:or; 1i,ht to StriDe (1993).............................................................................................131 So!ial >usti!e un&er the Present Constitution (1992).......................................................138 6o en (2000)......................................................................................................................138 ARTICLE XI. Ed3(ati&n7 S(ien(e and Te(,n&'&gy7 Art+ ..........................................13: /&u!ation; +!a&e i! Free&o (1987)...............................................................................13: /&u!ation; +!a&e i! Free&o (1989)...............................................................................13: /&u!ation; +!a&e i! Free&o (1993)...............................................................................13: /&u!ation; +!a&e i! Free&o ; /0tent (1999)..................................................................132 /&u!ation; +lien /nrollees 4 -onors (1999)..................................................................132 /&u!ation; -uties of State in 1e /&u!ation (1999)...........................................................132 /&u!ation; Fla, Salute (1987).............................................................................................133 /&u!ation; 1i,ht to Choose Profession (2000)..................................................................133 /&u!ation; 1i,ht to (ualit" /&u!ation (2003)....................................................................134 /&u!ation; 3ea!hin, of 1eli,ion (1999)..........................................................................134 /&u!ation; Eali&it" of +!a&e i! 1e?uire ents (199#).....................................................134 ARTICLE X.I Genera' Pr&0i+i&n+......................................................................................134 $eneral Pro%isions; 7o!al -iale!t (1987)...........................................................................134 +FP; li itation on a!!eptin, a&&itional &uties (199)).......................................................135 ARTICLE X.II A1end1ent+ &r Re0i+i&n+........................................................................135 PeopleFs 5nitiati%e (200#)....................................................................................................135 + en& ents an& 1e%isions; 8o&es (1997)......................................................................135 1/F/1/N-<8 %s' 5N535+35E/ ((1*2002)....................................................................135 ARTICLE X.III Tran+it&ry Pr&0i+i&n+.................................................................................136 3ransitor" Pro%isions; Forei,n 8ilitar" 9ases (199))....................................................136 3ransitor" Pro%isions; Forei,n 8ilitar" 9ases (1988)....................................................136 PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW .........................................................................................136 9asi! Prin!iples in Pu:li! 5ntFl 7aw (1991)..........................................................................136 Constituti%e 3heor" %s' -e!larator" 3heor" (200#).......................................................149 Conti,uous .one %s' /0!lusi%e /!ono i! .one (200#)..................................................149 -iplo ati! 5 unit" (2000).................................................................................................149 -iplo ati! 5 unit" (2001).................................................................................................149 -iplo ati! 5 unit" (2003).................................................................................................141 -iplo ati! 5 unit" (200#).................................................................................................141 -iplo ati! 5 unit"; + :assa&or ((3*2002)...................................................................148 -iplo ati! 5 unit"; + :assa&ors (1990).......................................................................148 -iplo ati! 5 unit"; Co%era,e ((3*2002).....................................................................14: -iplo ati! 5 unit"; -iplo ati! /n%o" an& Consular Affi!ers (1992) ...........................142 -iplo ati! 5 unit"; -iplo ati! /n%o" an& Consular Affi!ers (1997) ...........................143 /0!lusi%e /!ono i! .one (2000).....................................................................................143 /0e!uti%e +,ree ents; 9in&in, /ffe!t (2003)...................................................................143 /0tra&ition %s' -eportation (1993)......................................................................................144 /0tra&ition; -o!trine of Spe!ialt" (1993).........................................................................144 /0tra&ition; /ffe!ti%it" of treat" (199)).............................................................................144 /0tra&ition; $roun&s (2002)..............................................................................................145 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%) 11

145 /0tra&ition; 1etroa!ti%e +ppli!ation ((2*2002) 146 Fla, State %s' Fla, of Con%enien!e (200#) 146 $eno!i&e (1988) 146 @u an 1i,hts (1999) 146 @u an 1i,hts; Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,hts (1992) 147 @u an 1i,hts; Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,hts (199)) 159 5ntFl Court of >usti!e; >uris&i!tion A%er States 159 5ntFl Court of >usti!e; >uris&i!tion A%er States (199#) 159 5ntFl Court of >usti!e; 7i itations An >uris&i!tion (1999) 5ntFl Court of >usti!e; Parties; Plea&in,s an& Aral +r,u ent (199#) 159 151 5nternational Con%ention; 7aw of the Sea (200#) 151 5nternational Court of >usti!e ((9*200)) 5nternational 7aw %s' 8uni!ipal 7aw; 3erritorial Prin!iple; 5nternational Cri es ((2* 2002) 151 158 8an&ates an& 3rust 3erritories (2003) 8uni!ipal 7aw %s' 5nternational 7aw (2003) 15: 15: Neutralit" of States (1988) 152 Auter Spa!e; >uris&i!tion (2003) Prin!iple of +uto*7i itation ((10*200)) 152 152 1e!ipro!it" %' Prin!iple of +uto*7i itation ((10*200)) 152 1e!o,nition of States; -e Fa!to %s' -e >ure 1e!o,nition (1998) 153 1eparations +,ree ent; Eali&it" (1992) 153 1i,ht to 5nno!ent Passa,e (1999) 154 1i,ht to 3ransit an& 5nno!ent Passa,e (200#) 154 1i,hts an& A:li,ation un&er <N Charter (1991) 155 Sour!es of 5nternational 7aw; Pri ar" 4 Su:si&iar" Sour!es (2003) 155 So%erei,n 5 unit" of States; +:solute %s' 1estri!ti%e (1998) So%erei,nt" of States; Natural <se of 3erritor" (1989) 156 156 So%erei,nt"; -efinition; Nature ((10*200)) State 7ia:ilities (1992) 157 157 State So%erei,nt"; /ffe!ti%e A!!upation; 3erra Nullius (2000) Stateless Persons; /ffe!ts; Status; 1i,hts (1992) 157 3erritorial Sea %s' 5nternal 6aters (200#) 169 169 <se of For!e; /0!eptions (2003) 161 <se of For!e; Prin!iple of Non*5nter%ention (199#) 168 <se of For!e; 1i,ht of Self*&efense (2002) <se of For!e; Self*-efense; 6a,in, 6ar (1998) 168 16: <se of For!e; 6hen allowe& (1988) 6ar; Co :atantsI Prisoners of 6ar %s' 8er!enaries (1993) 16: 6ilson &o!trine %s' /stra&a &o!trine (200#) 162 162 ADMINISTRATI.E LAW 162 +& in 7aw; /0haustion of +& inistrati%e 1e e&ies (1991) 162 +& in 7aw; /0haustion of +& inistrati%e 1e e&ies (2000) +& in 7aw; /0haustion of +& inistrati%e 1e e&ies %s -o!trine of Pri ar" 163 >uris&i!tion (199)) 163 +& in 7aw; /0haustion of +& inistrati%e 1e e&ies; /0!eptions (1991) +& in 7aw; >u&i!ial 1e%iew of +& inistrati%e +!tion (2001) 164 164 +& in 7aw; >u&i!ial 1e%iew of +& inistrati%e -e!isions (1988) 165 +& in 7aw; 8eanin, of J$o%ern ent of the PhilippinesK (1997) +& in 7aw; Power of the Presi&ent to 1eor,ani=e +& inistrati%e Stru!ture (2003) ............................................................................................................................................... 165 BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%) !"

+& in 7aw; 1ules an& 1e,ulations; -ue Pro!ess (2000)................................................165 $o%ern ent +,en!" %s' $o%ern ent 5nstru entalit" ((7*2002)....................................166 (uasi*>u&i!ial 9o&" or +,en!" ((2*200))......................................................................166

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!-

!#$% CONSTITUTION O THE PHILIPPINES


P,i' C&n $%8 Ne5 eat3re+ 9!##!: N& 1: @ow is the 9ill of 1i,hts stren,thene& in the 1987 ConstitutionL SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3here are se%eral wa"s in whi!h the 9ill of 1i,hts is stren,thene& in the 1987 Constitution'
1' New ri,hts are ,i%en e0pli!it re!o,nition su!h asH the prohi:ition a,ainst &etention :" reason of politi!al :eliefs an& aspirations' 3he wai%er of 8iran&a ri,hts is now re?uire& to :e a&e in writin, with the assistan!e of !ounsel' 3he use of solitar"H in!o uni!a&o an& se!ret &etention pla!es is prohi:ite&H while the e0isten!e of su:stan&ar& an& ina&e?uate penal fa!ilities is a&e the !on!ern of le,islation' 3here is also re!o,nition of the ri,ht of e0pressionH an e0press prohi:ition a,ainst the use of tortureH a an&ate to the State to pro%i&e !o pensation an& reha:ilitation for %i!ti s of torture an& their fa ilies'

7' 3he Supre e Court is e powere& to a&opt rules for the prote!tion an& enfor!e ent of !onstitutional ri,hts' 8' +rt' 55' Se!' 11 !o its the State to a poli!" whi!h pla!es %alue on the &i,nit" of e%er" hu an person an& ,uarantees full respe!t for hu an ri,hts' 9' + Co ission on @u an 1i,hts is !reate&'
10' <n&er +rti!le ME5' Se!' 2(2) the State is an&ate& to pro ote respe!t for the peopleBs ri,hts a on, the e :ers of the ilitar" in the perfor an!e of their &ut"'

P,i' C&n $%8 Pe&*'e P&5er 9!#$%: N&' ME555: 3he fra ers of the 1987 Constitution an& the people who ratifie& it a&e sure that pro%isions institutionali=in, people power were in!orporate& in the fun&a ental lawH 9riefl" &is!uss at least two su!h pro%isions' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+rt' E5H Se!' 1H while %estin, in Con,ress the le,islati%e powerH nonetheless states that su!h !onfer ent of power shall :e su:;e!t to the reser%ation a&e in fa%or of the people :" pro%isions on initiati%es an& referen&u ' For this purposeH Con,ress is re?uire&H as earl" as possi:leH to pro%i&e for a s"ste of initiati%e of referen&u where:" the people !an &ire!tl" propose an& ena!t laws or appro%e or re;e!t an a!t or law or part thereof passe& :" the Con,ress or the le,islati%e :o&ies after the re,istration of a petition thereforH si,ne& :" at least 10N of the total nu :er of re,istere& %otersH of whi!h e%er" le,islati%e &istri!t ust :e represente& :" at least 3N of the re,istere& %oters' (5&'H se!' 32) 3he Constitution also pro%i&es that throu,h initiati%eH upon a petition of at least 12N of the total nu :ers of re,istere& %otersH of whi!h e%er" le,islati%e &istri!t ust :e represente& :" at least 3N of the re,istere& %oters thereinH a en& ents to the Constitution a" :e &ire!tl" propose& :" the people' +rtH M555H se!' 12 states that the state shall respe!t the role of in&epen&ent peopleBs or,ani=ation to ena:le the to pursue an& prote!tH within the &e o!rati! fra eworDH their le,iti ate an& !olle!ti%e interests an& aspirations throu,h pea!eful lawful eans' For this purposeH the Constitution ,uarantees to su!h or,ani=ations the ri,ht to parti!ipate at all le%els of so!ialH politi!al an& e!ono i! &e!ision* aDin, an& the state is re?uire& to %ali&ate the

2'

3' So e ri,hts ha%e :een e0pan&e&' For instan!eH free a!!ess to !ourts now in!lu&es a!!ess to ?uasi*;u&i!ial :o&ies an& to a&e?uate le,al assistan!e'
#' 3he re?uire ents for interferin, with so e ri,hts ha%e :een a&e ore stri!t' For instan!eH onl" ;u&,es !an now issue sear!h warrants or warrants of arrest' 3here ust :e a law authori=in, the /0e!uti%e -epart ent to interfere with the pri%a!" of !o uni!ationH the li:ert" of a:o&eH an& the ri,ht to tra%el :efore these ri,hts a" :e i paire& or !urtaile&'

2' 3he Constitution now pro%i&es that the suspension of the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus &oes not suspen& the ri,ht to :ailH thus resol%in, a &o!trinal &ispute of lon, stan&in,'
)' 3he suspension of the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus an& the pro!la ation of artial law ha%e :een li ite& to si0t" ()0) &a"s an& are now su:;e!t to the power of Con,ress to re%oDe' 5n a&&itionH the Supre e Court is ,i%en the ;uris&i!tionH upon the petition of an" !iti=en to &eter ine the suffi!ien!" of the fa!tual :asis of the suspension of the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus an& the pro!la ation of artial law'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;

esta:lish ent of a&e?uate this purpose' (5&'H se!H 1))

e!hanis

for

P,i' C&n $%8 Pe&*'e P&5er 9"666: N& 5M' 5s the !on!ept of People Power re!o,ni=e& in the ConstitutionL -is!uss :riefl"' (3N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: OesH the !on!ept of People Power is re!o,ni=e& in the Constitution'
<n&er Se!tion 32' +rti!le E5 of the ConstitutionH throu,h initiati%e an& referen&u H the people !an &ire!tl" propose an& ena!t laws or appro%e or re;e!t an" a!t or law or part thereof passe& :" the Con,ress or lo!al le,islati%e :o&" after the re,istration of a petition therefor si,ne& :" at least ten per !entu of the total nu :er of re,istere& %otersH of whi!h e%er" le,islati%e &istri!t ust :e represente& :" at least three per !entu of the re,istere& %oters thereof' <n&er Se!tion 1)H +rti!le M555 of the ConstitutionH the ri,ht of the people an& their or,ani=ations to effe!ti%e an& reasona:le parti!ipation at all le%els of so!ialH politi!al an& e!ono i! &e!ision* aDin, shall not :e a:ri&,e&' 3he State shallH :" law fa!ilitate the esta:lish ent of a&e?uate !onsultation e!hanis s'

+rti!le M555H Se!tion 1) of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es that the ri,ht of the people an& their or,ani=ations to parti!ipate at all le%els of so!ialH politi!alH an& e!ono i! &e!ision* aDin, shall not :e a:ri&,e& an& that the State shallH :" lawH fa!ilitate the esta:lish ent of a&e?uate !onsultation e!hanis s'

+rti!le ME55H Se!tion 2 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es that su:;e!t to the ena!t ent of an i ple entin, lawH the people a" &ire!tl" propose a en& ents to the Constitution throu,h initiati%e' Nat3re &) t,e C&n+tit3ti&n: C&n+tit3ti&na' S3*re1a(y 9"66;:
9!6<a: 9NN 1epu:li! has a &efense treat" with /E+ Fe&eration' +!!or&in, to the 1epu:li!Bs Se!retar" of -efenseH the treat" allows te porar" :asin, of frien&l" forei,n troops in !ase of trainin, e0er!ises for the war on terroris ' 3he 8a;orit" 7ea&er of the Senate !onten&s that whether te porar" or notH the :asin, of forei,n troops howe%er frien&l" is prohi:ite& :" the Constitution of 9NN whi!h pro%i&es thatH CNo forei,n ilitar" :ases shall :e allowe& in 9NN territor"'C

<n&er Se!tion 2' +rti!le ME55 of the ConstitutionH the people a" &ire!tl" propose a en& ents to the Constitution throu,h initiati%e upon a petition of at least twel%e per !entu of the total nu :er of re,istere& %otersH of whi!h e%er" le,islati%e &istri!t ust :e represente& :" at least three per !entu of the re,istere& %oters therein' P,i' C&n $%8 Pe&*'e P&5er 9"66-:
N& 5 * 5s Cpeople powerC re!o,ni=e& :" the

5n !ase there is in&ee& an irre!on!ila:le !onfli!t :etween a pro%ision of the treat" an& a pro%ision of the ConstitutionH in a ;uris&i!tion an& le,al s"ste liDe oursH whi!h shoul& pre%ail: the pro%ision of the treat" or of the ConstitutionL 6h"L /0plain with reasonsH :riefl"' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5n !ase of !onfli!t :etween a pro%ision of a treat" an& a pro%ision of the ConstitutionH the pro%ision of the Constitution shoul& pre%ail' Se!tion 2(2)(a)H +rti!le E555 of the 1987 Constitution authori=es the nullifi!ation of a treat" when it !onfli!ts with the Constitution' ($on=ales %' @e!hano%aH 9 SC1+ 230 P19)3Q)'

1987 ConstitutionL /0plain full"' SUGGESTED ANSWER: CPeople powerC the Constitution' is re!o,ni=e& in

+rti!le 555H Se!tion # of the 1987 Constitution ,uarantees the ri,ht of the people pea!ea:le to asse :le an& petition the ,o%ern ent for re&ress of ,rie%an!es'
+rti!le E5H Se!tion 32 of the 1987 Constitution re?uires Con,ress to pass a law allowin, the people to &ire!tl" propose an& ena!t laws throu,h initiati%e an& to appro%e or re;e!t an" a!t or law or part of it passe& :" Con,ress or a lo!al le,islati%e :o&"'

G&0ern1ent Pre+identia' &r1 0+= Par'ia< 1entary &r1 9>?<"66?: 1' a) 6hat is the prin!ipal i&entif"in, feature of a presi&ential for of ,o%ern entL /0plain' (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he prin!ipal i&entif"in, feature of a presi&ential for of ,o%ern ent is e :o&ie& in the separation of powers &o!trine' /a!h &epart ent of ,o%ern ent e0er!ises powers ,rante& to it :" the Constitution an& a" not !ontrolH interfere with or en!roa!h upon the a!ts &one within the !onstitutional !o peten!e of the others' @owe%erH the Constitution also ,i%es ea!h &epart ent !ertain powers :" whi!h it

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a" &efinitel" restrain the i pro%i&ent a!tionH there:" s"ste of !he!Ds an& :alan!es thusH preser%in, the will of e0presse& in the Constitution'

others fro aintainin, a a on, the H the so%erei,n

pre%ent infrin,e ent of its !usto sH fis!alH i i,ration or sanitar" laws an& re,ulations within its territor" or territorial sea' (+rti!le 33 of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea') 3he /MC7<S5E/ /CANA85C .AN/ is a =one e0ten&in, up to 200 nauti!al iles fro the :aselines of a state o%er whi!h the !oastal state has so%erei,n ri,hts for the purpose of e0plorin, an& e0ploitin,H !onser%in, an& ana,in, the natural resour!esH whether li%in, or nonli%in,H of the waters super;a!ent to the sea:e& an& of the sea:e& an& su:soilH an& with re,ar& to other a!ti%ities for the e!ono i! e0ploitation an& e0ploration of the =one' (+rti!les 2) an& 27 of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea')

:) 6hat are the essential !hara!teristi!s of a parlia entar" for of ,o%ern entL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he essential !hara!teristi!s of a parlia entar" for of ,o%ern ent are: the fusion of the le,islati%e an& e0e!uti%e :ran!hes in parlia ent; the pri e inisterH who is the hea& of ,o%ern entH an& the e :ers of the !a:inetH are !hosen fro a on, the e :ers of parlia ent an& as su!h are a!!ounta:le to the latter; an& the pri e inister a" :e re o%e& fro offi!e :" a %ote of loss of !onfi&en!e of parlia ent' 3here a" :e a hea& of state who a" or a" not :e ele!te&'

E2('3+i0e E(&n&1i( A&ne8 Rig,t+ &) t,e C&a+ta' State 9!##;:


N&' 11: 5n the &esire to i pro%e the fishin, etho&s of the fisher enH the 9ureau of FisheriesH with the appro%al of the Presi&entH entere& into a e oran&u of a,ree ent to allow 3hai fisher en to fish within 200 iles fro the Philippine sea !oasts on the !on&ition that Filipino fisher en :e allowe& to use 3hai fishin, e?uip ent an& %esselsH an& to learn o&ern te!hnolo," in fishin, an& !annin,'

ARTICLE I

Nati&na' Territ&ry

Ar(,i*e'agi( D&(trine 9!#$#: No' 20: 6hat &o "ou un&erstan& :" the ar!hipela,i! &o!trineL 5s this refle!te& in the 1987 ConstitutionL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he +1C@5P/7+$5C -AC315N/ e phasi=es the unit" of lan& an& waters :" &efinin, an ar!hipela,o either as a ,roup of islan&s surroun&e& :" waters or a :o&" of waters stu&&e& with islan&s' For this purposeH it re?uires that :aselines :e &rawn :" !onne!tin, the appropriate points of the Couter ost islan&s to en!ir!le the islan&s within the ar!hipela,o' 3he waters on the lan&war& si&e of the :aselines re,ar&less of :rea&th or &i ensions are erel" internal waters' OesH the ar!hipela,i! &o!trine is refle!te& in the 1987 Constitution' +rti!le 5H Se!tion 1 pro%i&es that the national territor" of the Philippines in!lu&es the Philippine ar!hipela,oH with all the islan&s an& waters e :ra!e& therein; an& the waters aroun&H :etweenH an& !onne!tin, the islan&s of the ar!hipela,oH re,ar&less of their :rea&th an& &i ensionsH for part of the internal waters of the Philippines'

1) 5s the a,ree ent %ali&L SUGGESTED ANSWER:


1) No' the Presi&ent !annot authori=e the 9ureau of Fisheries to enter into a e oran&u of a,ree ent allowin, 3hai fisher en to fish within the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one of the PhilippinesH :e!ause the Constitution reser%es to Filipino !iti=ens the use an& en;o" ent of the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one of the Philippines' Se!tion 2' +rti!le M55 of the Constitution pro%i&es: J3he State shall prote!t the nationBs arine part in its ar!hipela,i! watersH territorial seaH an& e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =oneH an& reser%e its use an& en;o" ent to Filipino !iti=ens'C Se!tion 7H +rti!le M555 of the Constitution pro%i&es: C3he State shall prote!t the ri,hts of su:sisten!e fisher enH espe!iall" of lo!al !o unitiesH to the preferential use of the !o unal arine an& fishin, resour!esH :oth inlan& an& offshore' 5t shall pro%i&e support to su!h fisher en throu,h appropriate te!hnolo," an& resear!hH a&e?uate finan!ialH pro&u!tionH an& arDetin, assistan!eH an& other ser%i!es' 3he State shall also prote!tH &e%elopH an& !onser%e su!h resour!es' 3he prote!tion shall e0ten& to offshore fishin, ,roun&s of

C&ntig3&3+ A&ne 0+= E2('3+i0e E(&n&1i( A&ne 9"66;: (2*a*2) -istin,uish: 3he !onti,uous =one an& the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
CAN35$<A<S .AN/ is a =one !onti,uous to the territorial sea an& e0ten&s up to 12 nauti!al iles fro the territorial sea an& o%er whi!h the !oastal state a" e0er!ise !ontrol ne!essar" to

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su:sisten!e fisher en a,ainst forei,n intrusion' FishworDers shall re!ei%e a ;ust share fro their la:or in the utili=ation of arine an& fishin, resour!es' E2('3+i0e E(&n&1i( A&ne8 Rig,t+ &) t,e C&a+ta' State 9>!<"66@: (!) /nu erate the ri,hts of the !oastal state in the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one' (3N) ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
5n the /MC7<S5E/ /CANA85C .AN/H the !oastal State has so%erei,n ri,hts for the purpose of e0plorin, an& e0ploitin,H !onser%in, an& ana,in, the natural resour!esH whether li%in, or non*li%in,H of the waters super;a!ent to the sea:e& an& of the sea:e& an& its su:soilH an& with re,ar& to other a!ti%ities for the e!ono i! e0ploitation an& e0ploration of the =oneH su!h as the pro&u!tion of ener," fro the waterH !urrents an& win&s in an area not e0ten&in, ore than 200 nauti!al iles :e"on& the :aseline fro whi!h the territorial sea is easure&' Ather ri,hts in!lu&e the pro&u!tion of ener," fro the waterH !urrents an& win&sH the esta:lish ent an& use of artifi!ial islan&sH installations an& stru!turesH arine s!ientifi! resear!h an& the prote!tion an& preser%ation of the arine en%iron ent' (+rt' 2)H <'N' Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea)

su!h as low or non*e0istent ta0ation or low operatin, !osts althou,h the ship has no ,enuine linD with that state' (@arrisH Cases an&
8aterials on 5nternational 7awH 2th e&'H 1998H p' #22')

Territ&ry B G&0ern1ent 9!##?:


No' 8: + law was passe& &i%i&in, the Philippines into three re,ions (7u=onH Eisa"asH an& 8in&anao)H ea!h !onstitutin, an in&epen&ent state e0!ept on atters of forei,n relationsH national &efense an& national ta0ationH whi!h are %este& in the Central ,o%ern ent' 5s the law %ali&L /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he law &i%i&in, the Philippines into three re,ionsH ea!h !onstitutin, an in&epen&ent state an& %estin, in a !entral ,o%ern ent atters of forei,n relationsH national &efenseH an& national ta0ationH is un!onstitutional'

FirstH it %iolates +rti!le 5H whi!h ,uarantees the inte,rit" of the national territor" of the Philippines :e!ause it &i%i&e& the Philippines into three states' Se!on&H it %iolates Se!tion 1H +rti!le 55 of the ConstitutionH whi!h pro%i&es for the esta:lish ent of &e o!rati! an& repu:li! States :" repla!in, it with three States or,ani=e& as a !onfe&eration' 3hir&H it %iolates Se!tion 22H +rti!le 55 of the ConstitutionH whi!hH while re!o,ni=in, an& pro otin, the ri,hts of in&i,enous !ultural !o unitiesH pro%i&es for national unit" an& &e%elop ent'
FourthH it %iolates Se!tion 12H +rti!le M of the ConstitutionH whi!hH pro%i&es for autono ous re,ions in 8usli 8in&anao an& in the Cor&illeras within the fra eworD of national so%erei,nt" as well as territorial inte,rit" of the 1epu:li! of the Philippines'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
SAE/1/5$N 15$@3S R for the purpose of e0plorin, an& e0ploitin,H !onser%in, an& ana,in, the natural resour!esH whether li%in, or non*li%in,H of the sea:e& an& su:soil an& the super;a!ent watersH an& with re,ar& to other a!ti%ities su!h as the pro&u!tion of ener," fro the waterH !urrents an& win&s in an area not e0ten&in, ore than 200 nauti!al iles :e"on& the :aseline fro whi!h the territorial sea is easure&' (See +rt' 2)H <NC7AS)

>uris&i!tionH inter aliaH with re,ar& to:


(1) the esta:lish ent an& use of islan&sH installations an& stru!tures; artifi!ial

(2) arine s!ientifi! resear!h; an& (3) the prote!tion an& preser%ation the arine en%iron ent'

of

FifthH it %iolates the so%erei,nt" of the 1epu:li! of the Philippines' Territ&ria' Sea 0+= Interna' Water+ 9"66;: (2*a*1) -istin,uish: 3he territorial sea an& the internal waters of the Philippines' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3/1153A15+7 S/+ is an a&;a!ent :elt of sea with a :rea&th of 12 nauti!al iles easure& fro the :aselines of a state an& o%er whi!h the state has so%erei,nt"' (+rti!les 2 an& 3 of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea') Ship of all states en;o" the ri,ht of inno!ent passa,e

'ag State 0+= 'ag &) C&n0enien(e 9"66;: (2*a*3) -istin,uish: 3he fla, state an& the fla, of !on%enien!e' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
F7+$ S3+3/ eans a ship has the nationalit" of the fla, of the state it fliesH :ut there ust :e a ,enuine linD :etween the state an& the ship'
(+rti!le 91 of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea')

F7+$ AF CANE/N5/NC/ refers to a state with whi!h a %essel is re,istere& for %arious reasons

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throu,h the territorial sea' (+rti!le 1# of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea')
<n&er Se!tion 1H +rti!le 5 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the 5N3/1N+7 6+3/1S of the Philippines !onsist of the waters aroun&H :etween an& !onne!tin, the islan&s of the Philippine +r!hipela,oH re,ar&less of their :rea&th an& &i ensionsH in!lu&in, the waters in :a"sH ri%ers an& laDes' No ri,ht of inno!ent passa,e for forei,n %essels e0ists in the !ase of internal waters' (@arrisH Cases an& 8aterials on 5nternational 7awH 2th e&'H 1998H p' #07') 5nternal waters are the waters on the lan&war& si&e of :aselines fro whi!h the :rea&th of the territorial sea is !al!ulate&' (Bro&n'ie( Princip'es o) P*b'ic In+erna+iona' La&( ,+- ed.( 199$( p. 1#$.)

No' 1; 6hat &o "ou un&erstan& :" the C-o!trine of 5n!orporationC in Constitutional 7awL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he -AC315N/ AF 5NCA1PA1+35AN eans that the rules of 5nternational law for part of the law of the lan& an& no le,islati%e a!tion is re?uire& to aDe the appli!a:le to a !ountr"' 3he Philippines follows this &o!trineH :e!ause Se!tion 2' +rti!le 55 of the Constitution states that the Philippines a&opts the ,enerall" a!!epte& prin!iples of international law as part of the law of the lan&'

D&(trine &) In(&r*&rati&n8 Ser0anda 9"666:

Pa(ta

S3nt

ARTICLE II De('arati&n &) Prin(i*'e+ and State P&'i(ie+


Ar1ed &r(e+8 Ser0ant &) t,e Pe&*'e 9"66-:
No 5 * +rti!le 55' Se!tion 3H of the 1987 Constitution e0pressesH in partH that the C+r e& For!es of the Philippines is the prote!tor of the people an& (of) the State'C -es!ri:e :riefl" what this pro%ision eans' 5s the Philippine National Poli!e !o%ere& :" the sa e an&ateL

No M' 3he Philippines has :e!o e a e :er of the 6orl& 3ra&e Ar,ani=ation (63A) an& resultantl" a,ree& that it Cshall ensure the !onfor it" of its lawsH re,ulations an& a& inistrati%e pro!e&ures with its o:li,ations as pro%i&e& in the anne0e& +,ree ents'C 3his is assaile& as un!onstitutional :e!ause this un&ertaDin, un&ul" li itsH restri!ts an& i pairs Philippine so%erei,nt" an& eans a on, others that Con,ress !oul& not pass le,islation that will :e ,oo& for our national interest an& ,eneral welfare if su!h le,islation will not !onfor with the 63A +,ree ents' 1efute this ar,u ent' (2N)

IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


+rti!le 55H Se!tion 3 of the 1987 Constitution eans that the +r e& For!es of the Philippines shoul& not ser%e the interest of the Presi&ent :ut of the people an& shoul& not !o it a:uses a,ainst the people' (1e!or& of the Constitutional Co issionH Eol' EH p' 133') 3his pro%ision is spe!ifi!all" a&&resse& to the +r e& For!es of the Philippines an& not to the Philippine National Poli!eH :e!ause the latter is separate an& &istin!t fro the for er' (1e!or& of the Constitutional Co issionH Eol' EH p' 29); 8analo %' Sisto=a' 312 SC1 + 239 P1999Q')

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to 3ana&a %' +n,araH 272 SC1+ 18 (1997)H the so%erei,nt" of the Philippines is su:;e!t to restri!tion :" its e :ership in the fa il" of nations an& the li itations i pose& of treat" li itations' Se!tion 2' +rti!le 55 of the Constitution a&opts the ,enerall" a!!epte& prin!iples of international law as part of the law of the lan&' Ane of su!h prin!iples is pa!ta sunt ser%an&a' 3he Constitution &i& not en%ision a her it*liDe isolation of the !ountr" fro the rest of the worl&'

SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


+rti!le 55H Se!tion 3 of the 1987 Constitution !an :e interprete& to ean that the +r e& For!es of the Philippines !an :e a le,iti ate instru ent for the o%erthrow of the !i%ilian ,o%ern ent if it has !ease& to :e the ser%ant of the people' (9ernasH 3he 1987 Constitution of the Philippines: + Co entar"H 2003 e&'H p' ))') 3his pro%ision

reed&1 )r&1 N3('ear Wea*&n+8 Mi'itary Ba+e+ 9!#$$:

&reign

&oes not appl" to the Philippine National Poli!eH :e!ause it is separate an& &istin!t fro the +r e& For!es of the Philippines' (1e!or& of the
Constitutional Co issionH Eol' EH p' 29)H 8analo %' Sisto=a' 312 SC1+ 239 P1999Q')

D&(trine &) In(&r*&rati&n8 C&n+tit3ti&na' La5 9!##%:

No' 22: 3he Se!retar" of >usti!e ha& re!entl" rule& that the Presi&ent a" ne,otiate for a o&ifi!ation or e0tension of ilitar" :ases a,ree ent with the <nite& States re,ar&less of the Cno nuDesC pro%isions in the 1987 Constitution' 3he Presi&ent forthwith announ!e& that she fin&s the sa e opinion Ca!!epta:leC an& will a&opt it' 3he Senators on the other han&H le& :" the Senate Presi&entH are sDepti!alH an& ha& e%en warne& that no treat" or international a,ree ent a" ,o into effe!t without the !on!urren!e of two*thir&s of all e :ers of the Senate'

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+ for er senator ha& sai&H Cit is !o pletel" wron,H if not erroneousHC an& Cis an a en& ent of the Constitution :" isinterpretation'C So e e :ers of the 7ower @ouse a,ree with Se!retar" Ar&one=H while others la ent the latterBs opinion as C?uestiona:leH unfortunateH an& without an" :asis at all'C

the fla, ust :e re!o,ni=e& :" lawH it i plies that !ertain aspe!ts of the fla, are su:;e!t to !han,e throu,h le,islati%e a!tion' Prin(i*'e &) Ci0i'ian S3*re1a(y 9>?<"66?: 2' 6hat Constitutional pro%isions institutionali=e the prin!iple of !i%ilian supre a!"L (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he followin, !onstitutional pro%isions institutionali=e the prin!iple of !i%ilian supre a!":
a' Ci%ilian authorit" is at all ti es supre e o%er the ilitar"' P+rti!le 55H Se!tion 3Q

-o "ou or &o "ou not the afore entione& rulin, -epart ent of >usti!eL 6h"L SUGGESTED ANSWER:

a,ree of

with the

No' 3he Constitution pro%i&es that if forei,n ilitar" :asesH troops or fa!ilities are to :e allowe& after the e0piration of the present Philippine*+ eri!an 8ilitar" 9ases +,ree ent in 1991H it ust :e Cun&er a treat" &ul" !on!urre& in :" the Senate an&H when the Con,ress so re?uiresH ratifie& :" a a;orit" of the %otes !ast :" the people in a national referen&u 'C (+rt' ME555H se!' 22) + ere a,ree entH thereforeH not a treat"H without the !on!urren!e of at least 2I3 of all the e :ers of the Senate will not :e %ali& (+rt' E55H se!' 21H +rt' ME555H se!' #)' 6ith respe!t to the pro%ision allowin, nu!lear weapons within the :asesH the Constitution appears to :an su!h weapons fro the Philippine territor"' 5t &e!lares as a state poli!" that Cthe PhilippinesH !onsistent with the national interestH a&opts an& pursues a poli!" of free&o fro nu!lear weapons in its territor"'C (+rtH 55H se!' 8) @owe%erH the &eli:erations of the Constitutional Co ission woul& see to in&i!ate that this pro%ision of the Constitution is Cnot so ethin, a:solute nor 100 per!ent without e0!eption'C 5t a" therefore :e that !ir!u stan!es a" ;ustif" a pro%ision on nu!lear weapons'

:'

!'

&'

e'
f' ,'

3he installation of the Presi&entH the hi,hest !i%ilian authorit"H as the Co an&er*in*Chief of the ilitar"' P+r* ti!le E55H Se!tion 18Q 3he re?uire ent that e :ers of the +FP swear to uphol& an& &efen& the ConstitutionH whi!h is the fun&a ental law of the !i%il ,o%ern ent' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(1)Q 3he re?uire ent that e :ers of the +FP shall ha%e respe!t for peopleBs ri,hts in the perfor an!e of their &ut"' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(2)Q Professionalis in the ar e& for!es' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(3)Q
5nsulation of the +FP fro partisan politi!s' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(3)Q Prohi:ition a,ainst the appoint ent of an +FP e :er in the a!ti%e ser%i!e to a !i%ilian position' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(#)Q

h' i'

P,i'i**ine 'ag 9>;<"66?: State whether or not the law is !onstitutional' /0plain :riefl"' 1' + law !han,in, the &esi,n of the Philippine fla,' (2N) ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 3he law is in%ali& !onsi&erin, that un&er +rti!le ME5H Se!tion 1 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the fla, of the Philippines shall :e re&H whiteH an& :lueH with a sun an& three starsH as !onse!rate& an& honore& :" the people an& re!o,ni=e& :" law' Sin!e the Constitution itself pres!ri:es the &esi,nH it !an onl" :e !han,e& :" !onstitutional a en& ent' ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3he law is %ali&H pro%i&e& that the new &esi,n &oes not !han,e the ele ents an& !olor s!he e of the fla, as state& in the ConstitutionH an& the fla, is !onse!rate& an& honore& :" the people' Sin!e the Constitution itself states that

Co pulsor" retire ent of offi!ers without e0tension of ser%i!e' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(2)Q 1e?uire ent of proportional re!ruit ent fro all pro%in!es an& !itiesH so as to a%oi& an" re,ional !li?ue fro for in, within the +FP' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(7)Q
+ 3*"ear li itation on the tour of &ut" of the Chief of StaffH whi!h althou,h e0ten&i:le in !ase of e er,en!" :" the Presi&entH &epen&s on Con,ressional &e!laration of e er,en!"' P+rti!le ME5H

;'

Se!tion 2())Q 3he esta:lish ent of a poli!e for!e that is not onl" !i%ilian in !hara!ter :ut also un&er the lo!al e0e!uti%es' P+rti!le ME5H Se!tion 2(7)Q State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!##!:
No' 13; 5n Fe:ruar" 1990H the 8inistr" of the +r "' 1epu:li! of 5n&onesiaH in%ite& :i&s for the suppl" of 200H000 pairs of !o :at :oots for the use of the 5n&onesian +r "' 3he 8ariDina Shoe CorporationH a Philippine !orporationH whi!h has no :ran!h offi!e an& no assets in 5n&onesiaH su: itte& a :i& to suppl" 200H000 pairs of

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!#

!o :at :oots at <'S' S30 per pair &eli%ere& in >aDarta on or :efore 30 A!to:er 1990' 3he !ontra!t was awar&e& :" the 8inistr" of the +r " to 8ariDina Shoe Corporation an& was si,ne& :" the parties in >aDarta' 8ariDina Shoe Corporation was a:le to &eli%er onl" 200H000 pairs of !o :at :oots in >aDarta :" 30 A!to:er 1990 an& it re!ei%e& pa" ent for 100H000 pairs or a total of <'S' S3H000H000'00' 3he 8inistr" of the +r " pro ise& to pa" for the other 100H000 pairs alrea&" &eli%ere& as soon as the re ainin, 300H000 pairs of !o :at :oots are &eli%ere&H at whi!h ti e the sai& 300H000 pairs will also :e pai& for' 8ariDina Shoe Corporation faile& to &eli%er an" ore !o :at :oots' An 1 >une 1991H the 1epu:li! of 5n&onesia file& an a!tion :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court of Pasi,' 1i=alH to !o pel 8ariDina Shoe Corporation to perfor the :alan!e of its o:li,ations un&er the !ontra!t an& for &a a,es' 5n its +nswerH 8ariDina Shoe Corporation sets up a !ounter!lai for <'S' S3H000H000'00 representin, the pa" ent for the 100H000 pairs of !o :at :oots alrea&" &eli%ere& :ut unpai&' 5n&onesia o%e& to &is iss the !ounter!lai H assertin, that it is entitle& to so%erei,n 5 unit" fro suit' 3he trial !ourt &enie& the otion to &is iss an& issue& two writs of ,arnish ent upon 5n&onesian $o%ern ent fun&s &eposite& in the Philippine National 9anD an& Far /ast 9anD' 5n&onesia went to the Court of +ppeals on a petition for !ertiorari un&er 1ule )2 of the 1ules of Court'

Consent to the e0er!ise of ;uris&i!tion of a forei,n !ourt &oes not in!lu&e wai%er of the separate i unit" fro e0e!ution' (9rownlieH Prin!iples of Pu:li! 5nternational 7awH #th e&'H p' 3##') 3husH in -e0ter %s' Carpenter %s' Gun,li, >arn%a,sst"relsenH #3 Fe& 702H it was hel& the !onsent to :e sue& &oes not ,i%e !onsent to the atta!h ent of the propert" of a so%erei,n ,o%ern ent' State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!##?:
No' ); 3he 1epu:li! of the 9alau (for erl" Palau 5slan&s) opene& an& operate& in 8anila an offi!e en,a,e& in tra&in, 9alau pro&u!ts with Philippine pro&u!ts' 5n one transa!tionH the lo!al :u"er !o plaine& that the 9alau ,oo&s &eli%ere& to hi were su:stan&ar& an& he sue& the 1epu:li! of 9alauH :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court of Pasi,H for &a a,es'

a) @ow !an the 1epu:li! of 9alau in%oDe its so%erei,n i unit"L /0plain' :) 6ill su!h &efense of so%erei,n i unit" prosperL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER: +) 3he 1epu:li! of 9alau !an in%oDe its so%erei,n 5 unit" :" filin, a otion to &is iss in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion l(a)H 1ule 1) of the 1ules of Court on the ,roun& that the !ourt has no ;uris&i!tion o%er its person'
+!!or&in, to the @ol" See %s' 1osarioH 238 SC1+ 22#H in Pu:li! 5nternational 7awH when a State wishes to plea& so%erei,n i unit" in a forei,n !ourtH it re?uests the Forei,n Affi!e of the State where it is :ein, sue& to !on%e" to the !ourt that it is entitle& to i unit"' 5n the PhilippinesH the pra!ti!e is for the forei,n ,o%ern ent to first se!ure an e0e!uti%e en&orse ent of its !lai of so%erei,n i unit"' 5n so e !asesH the &efense of so%erei,n i unit" is su: itte& &ire!tl" to the lo!al !ourt :" the forei,n ,o%ern ent throu,h !ounsel :" filin, a otion to &is iss on the ,roun& that the !ourt has no >uris&i!tion o%er its person' :) NoH the &efense of so%erei,n 5 unit" will not prosper' 3he sale of 9alau pro&u!ts is a !ontra!t in%ol%in, a !o er!ial a!ti%it"' 5n <nite& States %s' 1ui=H 13)SC1+#87 an& <nite& States %s' $uintoH 182 SC1+ )##H it was state& that a forei,n State !annot in%oDe 5 unit" fro suit if it enters into a !o er!ial !ontra!t' 3he Philippines a&heres to 1/S315C35E/ SAE/1/5$N 588<N53O'

@ow woul& the Court of +ppeals &e!i&e the !aseL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he Court of +ppeals shoul& &is iss the petition insofar as it seeDs to annul the or&er &en"in, the otion of the $o%ern ent of 5n&onesia to &is iss the !ounter!lai ' 3he !ounter!lai in this !ase is a !o pulsor" !ounter!lai sin!e it arises fro the sa e !ontra!t in%ol%e& in the !o plaint' +s su!h it ust :e set up otherwise it will :e :arre&' +:o%e allH as hel& in Froilan %s' Pan Ariental Shippin, Co'H 92 Phil' 902H :" filin, a !o plaintH the state of 5n&onesia wai%e& its i unit" fro suit' 5t is not ri,ht that it !an sue in the !ourts :ut it !annot :e sue&' 3he &efen&ant therefore a!?uires the ri,ht to set up a !o pulsor" !ounter!lai a,ainst it' @owe%erH the Court of +ppeals shoul& ,rant the petition of the 5n&onesian ,o%ern ent insofar as it sou,ht to annul the ,arnish ent of the fun&s of 5n&onesia whi!h were &eposite& in the Philippine National 9anD an& Far /ast 9anD'

State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!#$#: No' 13: + propert" owner file& an a!tion &ire!tl" in !ourt a,ainst the 1epu:li! of the Philippines

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"6

seeDin, pa" ent for a par!el of lan& whi!h the national ,o%ern ent utili=e& for a roa& wi&enin, pro;e!t' (1) Can the ,o%ern ent in%oDe the &o!trine of non*suita:ilit" of the stateL
(2) 5n !onne!tion with the pre!e&in, ?uestionH !an the propert" owner ,arnish pu:li!

fun&s to satisf" his !lai for pa" entL /0plain "our answers' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(1) NoH the ,o%ern ent !annot in%oDe the &o!trine of state of i unit" fro suit' +s hel& in 8inisterio %s' Court of First 5nstan!e of Ce:uH #0 SC1+ #)#H when the ,o%ern ent e0propriates propert" for pu:li! use without pa"in, ;ust !o pensationH it !annot in%oDe its i unit" fro the suit' AtherwiseH the ri,ht ,uarantee& in Se!tion 9H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution that pri%ate propert" shall not :e taDen for pu:li! use without ;ust !o pensation will :e ren&ere& nu,ator"' (2) NoH the owner !annot ,arnish pu:li! fun&s to satisf" his !lai for pa" entH Se!tion 7 of +!t No' 3083 prohi:its e0e!ution upon an" ;u&, ent a,ainst the ,o%ern ent' +s hel& in 1epu:li! %s' Pala!ioH 23 SC1+ 899H e%en if the ,o%ern ent a" :e sue&H it &oes not follow that its properties a" :e sei=e& un&er e0e!ution'

SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) OesH the 8uni!ipalit" of Calu pit is lia:le for the ne,li,en!e of its &ri%er >ohnn"' <n&er Se!tion 2# of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH lo!al ,o%ern ent units are not e0e pt fro lia:ilit" for &eath or in;ur" to persons or &a a,e to propert"' ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: NoH the uni!ipalit" is not lia:le for the ne,li,en!e of >ohnn"H the pre%ailin, rule in the law of uni!ipal !orporations is that a uni!ipalit" is not lia:le for the torts !o itte& :" its re,ular e plo"ees in the &is!har,e of ,o%ern ental fun!tions' 3he uni!ipalit" is answera:le onl" when it is a!tin, in a proprietar" !apa!it"'
5n the !ase at :arH >ohnn" was a re,ular e plo"ee of the 8uni!ipalit" of Calu pit as &ri%er of its &u p tru!D; he !o itte& a tortious a!t while &is!har,in, a ,o%ern ental fun!tion for the uni!ipalit"H ie'H &ri%in, re!Dlessl" the sai& tru!D loa&e& with san& for the repair of uni!ipal streets' <n&ou:te&l" thenH >ohnn" as &ri%er of the &u p tru!D was perfor in, a &ut" or tasD pertainin, to his offi!e' 3he !onstru!tion or aintenan!e of pu:li! streets are a& itte&l" ,o%ern ental a!ti%ities' +t the ti e of the a!!i&entH >ohnn" was en,a,e& in the &is!har,e of ,o%ern ental fun!tions' @en!eH the &eath of the two passen,ers of the ;eepne" *tra,i! an& &eplora:le thou,h it a" :e * i pose& on the uni!ipalit" no &ut" to pa" onetar" !o pensationH as hel& in 8uni!ipalit" of San' Fernan&o %' Fir eH 192 SC1+ )92'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
(2) NoH fun&s of the ,o%ern ent on &eposit in the :anD !annot :e ,arnishe& for two reasons: 1' <n&er +rt' 55H Se!' 29 (1) pu:li! fun&s

2'

!annot :e spent e0!ept in pursuan!e of an appropriation a&e :" lawH an& essential pu:li! ser%i!es will :e i paire& if fun&s of the ,o%ern ent were su:;e!t to e0e!utionH (Co issioner of Pu:li! @i,hwa"s %s' San -ie,oH 31 SC1+ )1) (1970))' 3he re e&" of the pre%ailin, part" is to ha%e the ;u&, ent !re&it in his fa%or in!lu&e& in the ,eneral appropriations law for the ne0t "ear'

State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!##":


No' 9: 3he Northern 7u=on 5rri,ation +uthorit" (N75+) was esta:lishe& :" a le,islati%e !harter to stren,then the irri,ation s"ste s that suppl" water to far s an& !o er!ial ,rowers in the area' 6hile the N75+ is a:le to ,enerate re%enues throu,h its operationsH it re!ei%es an annual appropriation fro Con,ress' 3he N75+ is authori=e& to Ce0er!ise all the powers of a !orporation un&er the Corporation Co&e'C -ue to a is!al!ulation :" so e of its e plo"eesH there was a assi%e irri,ation o%erflow !ausin, a flash floo& in 9arrio .an;era' + !hil& &rowne& in the in!i&ent an& his parents now file suit a,ainst 3he N75+ for &a a,es'

State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!##;: No' ); >ohnn" was e plo"e& as a &ri%er :" the 8uni!ipalit" of Calu pitH 9ula!an' 6hile &ri%in, re!Dlessl" a uni!ipal &u p tru!D with its loa& of san& for the repair of uni!ipal streetsH >ohnn" hit a ;eepne"' 3wo passen,ers of the ;eepne" were Dille&' 3he San,,unian, 9a"an passe& an or&inan!e appropriatin, P300H000 as !o pensation for the heirs of the %i!ti s' 1) 5s the uni!ipalit" lia:le for the ne,li,en!e of >ohnn"L 2) 5s the uni!ipal or&inan!e %ali&L

8a" the N75+ %ali&l" in%oDe the i unit" of the State fro suitL -is!uss thorou,hl"' SUGGESTED ANSWER:

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"!

NoH the Northern 7u=on 5rri,ation +uthorit" a" not in%oDe the i unit" of the State fro suitH :e!auseH as hel& in Fontanilla %s' 8alia anH 179 SC1+ )82 an& 19# SC1+ #8)H irri,ation is a proprietar" fun!tion' 9esi&esH the Northern 7u=on 5rri,ation +uthorit" has a ;uri&i!al personalit" separate an& &istin!t fro the ,o%ern entH a suit a,ainst it is not a suit a,ainst the State' Sin!e the wai%er of the i unit" fro suit is without ?ualifi!ationH as hel& in 1a"o %s' Court of First 5nstan!e of 9ula!anH 110 SC1+ #2)H the wai%er in!lu&es an a!tion :ase& on a ?uasi*&eli!t'

State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!###:


No E5 * 9' 3he e plo"ees of the Philippine 3o:a!!o +& inistration (P3+) sue& to re!o%er o%erti e pa"' 5n resistin, su!h !lai H the P3+ theori=e& that it is perfor in, ,o%ern ental fun!tions' -e!i&e an& e0plain' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+s hel& in Philippine Eir,inia 3o:a!!o +& inistration %' Court of 5n&ustrial 1elationsH )2 SC1+ #1)H the Philippine 3o:a!!o +& inistration is not lia:le for o%erti e pa"H sin!e it is perfor in, ,o%ern ental fun!tions' + on, its purposes are to pro ote the effe!ti%e er!han&isin, of to:a!!o so that those en,a,e& in the to:a!!o in&ustr" will ha%e e!ono i! se!urit"H to sta:ili=e the pri!e of to:a!!oH an& to i pro%e the li%in, an&

(e',' C'+'

%' 1ui=H <'S' %' $uinto)

State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!###: +' 1') 6hat &o "ou un&erstan& :" state i unit" fro suitL /0plain' (2N) 2') @ow a" !onsent of the state to :e sue& :e ,i%enL /0plain' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1') S3+3/ 588<N53O F1A8 S<53 eans that the State !annot :e sue& without its !onsent' + !orollar" of su!h prin!iple is that properties use& :" the State in the perfor an!e of its ,o%ern ental fun!tions !annot :e su:;e!t to ;u&i!ial e0e!ution' 2') Consent of the State to :e sue& a" :e a&e e0pressl" as in the !ase of a spe!ifi!H e0press pro%ision of law as wai%er of State

unit" fro

suit is not inferre& li,htl"


or when it files a suit in

327 as a en&e& :" P- 1##2T or i plie&l" as when the State en,a,es in proprietar" fun!tions (<'S'

whi!h !ase the a&%erse part" a" file a !ounter!lai (Froilan %' Pan Ariental Shippin,) or when the &o!trine woul& in effe!t :e use& to perpetuate an in;usti!e (+ i,a:le %'
Cuen!aH #3 SC1+ 3)0)'

e!ono i! !on&itions of those en,a,e& in the to:a!!o in&ustr"' State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!#$%:
(a) CMC file& a !ase a,ainst the 1epu:li! of the Philippines for &a a,es !ause& his "a!htH whi!h was ra e& :" a na%" %essel' (:) CMC also sue& in another !ase the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs an& the 1epu:li! of the Philippines for pa" ent of the !o pensation of the %alue of his lan&H whi!h was use& as part of the tar a! of the Ce:u 5nternational +irportH without prior e0propriation pro!ee&in,s'

stateBs i unit" fro suit' +s hel& in 8inisterio %' Court of First 5nstan!e' #0 SC1+ #)# (1971)H whi!h also in%ol%e& the taDin, of pri%ate propert" without the :enefit of e0propriation pro!ee&in,H C3he &o!trine of ,o%ern ental i unit" fro suit !annot ser%e as an instru ent for perpetratin, an in;usti!e on a !iti=en' ' ' ' 6hen the ,o%ern ent taDes an" propert" for pu:li! useH whi!h is !on&itional upon the pa" ent of ;ust !o pensationH to :e ;u&i!iall" as!ertaine&H it aDes anifest that it su: its to the ;uris&i!tion of the !ourt'C 3he Soli!itor $eneralBs otion to &is iss shoul&H thereforeH :e &enie&'

3he Soli!itor $eneral o%e& to &is iss the two !ases in%oDin, state i unit" fro suit -e!i&e' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) 3he ,o%ern ent !annot :e sue& for &a a,es !onsi&erin, that the a,en!" whi!h !ause& the &a a,es was the Philippine Na%"' <n&er +rt' 2180 of the Ci%il Co&eH the state !onsents to :e sue& for a ?uasi*&eli!t onl" when the &a a,e is !ause& :" its spe!ial a,ents' @en!eH the Soli!itor $eneralBs otion shoul& :e ,rante& an& the suit :rou,ht :" CMC :e &is isse&' (:) 9ut the ,o%ern ent C+NNA3 5NEAG/ the

State I113nity 0+= Wai0er &) I113nity 9!##%: NoH ): 5t is sai& that Cwai%er of i unit" :" the State &oes not ean a !on!ession of its lia:ilit"C' 6hat are the i pli!ations of this phraseL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he phrase that wai%er of i unit" :" the State &oes not ean a !on!ession of lia:ilit" eans that :" !onsentin, to :e sue&H the State &oes not ne!essaril" a& it it is lia:le' +s state& in Philippine 1o!D 5n&ustriesH 5n!' %s' 9oar& of 7i?ui&atorsH 180 SC1+ 171H in su!h a !ase the State is erel" ,i%in, the plaintiff a !han!e to

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""

pro%e that the State is lia:le :ut the State retains the ri,ht to raise all lawful &efenses' State I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!##-:
No 19: -e%i is the owner of a pie!e of lan&' 6ithout prior e0propriation or ne,otiate& saleH the national ,o%ern ent use& a portion thereof for the wi&enin, of the national hi,hwa"' -e%i file& a one" !lai with the Co ission on +u&it whi!h was &enie&' 7eft with no other re!ourseH -e%i file& a !o plaint for re!o%er" of propert" an&Ior &a a,es a,ainst the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs an& @i,hwa"s an& the 1epu:li! of the PhilippinesH 3he &efen&ant o%e& for &is issal of the !o plaint !onten&in, that the ,o%ern ent !annot :e sue& without its !onsent' 3he 13C &is isse& the !o plaint' An appealH how woul& "ou &e!i&e the !ase'

!) Se!tion 1H +rti!le ME55 of the Constitution pro%i&es: C3he LAG O THE PHILIPPINES shall :e re&H whiteH an& :lueH with a sun an& three starsH as !onse!rate& an& honore& :" the people an& re!o,ni=e& :" law'C

Se!tion 2H +rti!le ME5 of the Constitution states: 3he Con,ress a" :" lawH a&opt a new na e for the !ountr"H a national anthe H or a national sealH whi!h shall all :e trul" refle!ti%e an& s" :oli! of the i&ealsH histor"H an& tra&itions of the people' Su!h law shall taDe effe!t onl" upon its ratifi!ation :" the people in a national referen&u 'C
&) Se!tion 22H +rti!le 55 of the Constitution pro%i&es: 3he State re!o,ni=es an& pro otes the ri,hts of INDIGENOUS CULTURAL COMMUNITIES within the fra eworD of national unit" an& &e%elop ent'C Se!tion 2H +rti!le M55 of the Constitution rea&s: 3he StateH su:;e!t to the pro%isions of this Constitution an& national &e%elop ent poli!ies an& pro,ra sH shall prote!t the ri,hts of in&i,enous !ultural !o unities to their an!estral lan&s to ensure their e!ono i!H so!ial an& !ultural well*:ein,' 3he Con,ress a" pro%i&e for the appli!a:ilit" of !usto ar" laws ,o%ernin, propert" ri,hts or relations in &eter inin, the ownership an& e0tent of the an!estral &o ains'C Se!tion )H +rt' M555 of the Constitution pro%i&es: 3he State shall appl" the prin!iples of AGRARIAN RE ORM or stewar&shipH whene%er appli!a:le in a!!or&an!e with lawH in the &isposition or utili=ation of other natural resour!esH in!lu&in, lan&s of the pu:li! &o ain un&er lease or !on!ession suita:le to a,ri!ultureH su:;e!t to prior ri,htsH ho estea& ri,hts of s all settlersH an& the ri,hts of in&i,enous !o unities to their an!estral lan&s'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he or&er &is issin, the !o plaint shoul& :e re%erse&' 5n 8inisterio %' Court of First 5nstan!e of Ce:uH #0 SC1+ #)#H it was hel& that when the ,o%ern ent taDes propert" fro a pri%ate lan&owner without prior e0propriation or ne,otiate& saleH the lan&owner a" aintain a suit a,ainst the ,o%ern ent without %iolatin, the &o!trine of ,o%ern ent 5 unit" fro suit' 3he ,o%ern ent shoul& :e &ee e& to ha%e wai%e& i plie&l" its i unit" fro suit' AtherwiseH the !onstitutional ,uarantee that pri%ate propert" shall not :e taDen for pu:li! use without ;ust !o pensation will :e ren&ere& nu,ator"'

State Prin(i*'e+ B P&'i(ie+ 9!##;: No' 1; 6hat is the state poli!" on: a) worDin, wo enL :) e!olo,"L !) the s" :ols of statehoo&L &) !ultural inoritiesL e) s!ien!e an& te!hnolo,"L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
a) Se!tion 1#H +rti!le M555 of the Constitution pro%i&es: C3he State shall prote!t WORCING WOMEN :" pro%i&in, safe an& healthful worDin, !on&itionsH taDin, into a!!ount their aternal fun!tionsH an& su!h fa!ilities an& opportunities that will enhan!e their welfare an& ena:le the to reali=e their full potential in the ser%i!e of the nation'C :) Se!tion 1)H +rti!le 55 of the Constitution pro%i&es: 3he State shall prote!t an& a&%an!e the ri,ht of the people an& their posterit" to a :alan!e& an& healthful ECOLOGD in a!!or& with the rh"th an& har on" of nature'C

3he State a" resettle lan&less far ers an& far worDers in its own a,ri!ultural estates whi!h shall :e &istri:ute& to the in the anner pro%i&e& :" law'C
Se!tion 17' +rti!le M5E of the Constitution states: C3he State shall re!o,ni=eH respe!t an& prote!t the ri,hts of in&i,enous !ultural !o unities to preser%e an& &e%elop their !ulturesH tra&itionsH an& institutions' 5t shall

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!onsi&er these ri,hts in the for ulation of national plans an& poli!ies'C
e) Se!tion 17H +rti!le 55 of the Constitution pro%i&es: C3he State shall ,i%e priorit" to EDUCATION7 SCIENCE an& TECHNOLOGD7 ARTS7 CULTURE7 an& SPORTS to foster patriotis an& nationalis H a!!elerate so!ial pro,ressH an& pro ote total hu an li:eration an& &e%elop ent'C Se!tion 1#H +rti!le M55 of the Constitution rea&s in part: C3he sustaine& &e%elop ent of a reser%oir of NATIONAL TALENTS !onsistin, of Filipino s!ientistsH entrepreneursH professionalsH ana,ersH hi,h*le%el te!hni!al anpower an& sDille& worDers an& !rafts en shall :e pro ote& :" the StateH 3he State shall en!oura,e appropriate te!hnolo," an& re,ulate 5ts transfer for the national :enefit' Su:*se!tion 2H Se!tion 3' +rti!le M5E of the Constitution states: C3he" ( EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS) shall in!ul!ate patriotis an& nationalis H foster lo%e of hu anit"H respe!t for hu an ri,htsH appre!iation of the role of national heroes in the histori!al &e%elop ent of the !ountr"H tea!h the ri,hts an& &uties of !iti=enshipH stren,then ethi!al an& spiritual %aluesH &e%elop oral !hara!ter an& personal &is!iplineH en!oura,e !riti!al an& !reati%e thinDin,H :roa&en s!ientifi! an& te!hnolo,i!al Dnowle&,eH an& pro ote %o!ational effi!ien!"'C Se!tion 10' +rti!le M5E of the Constitution &e!lares: CSCIENCE an& TECHNOLOGD are essential for national &e%elop ent an& pro,ress' 3he State shall ,i%e priorit" to resear!h an& &e%elop entH in%entionH inno%ationH an& their utili=ation; an& to s!ien!e an& te!hnolo," e&u!ationH trainin,H ser%i!es' 5t shall support in&i,enousH appropriateH an& self* reliant s!ientifi! an& !ultural !apa:ilitiesH an& their appli!ation to the !ountr"Bs pro&u!ti%e s"ste s an& national life'C Se!tion 11H +rti!le M5E of the Constitution pro%i&es: C3he Con,ress a" pro%i&e for in!enti%esH in!lu&in, TAX DEDUCTIONSH to en!oura,e pri%ate parti!ipation in pro,ra s of :asi! an& applie& s!ientifi! resear!h' S!holarshipsH ,rants*in*ai& or other for s of 5n!enti%es shall :e pro%i&e& to &eser%in, s!ien!e stu&entsH resear!hersH s!ientistsH in%estorsH te!hnolo,istsH an& spe!iall" ,ifte& !iti=ens'C

Se!tion 12H +rti!le M5E of the Constitution rea&s: 3he State shall re,ulate the transfer an& pro ote the a&aptation of te!hnolo," fro all sour!es for the national :enefit' 5t shall en!oura,e wi&est parti!ipation of pri%ate ,roupsH lo!al ,o%ern entsH an& !o unit"* :ase& or,ani=ations in the ,eneration an& utili=ation of s!ien!e an& te!hnolo,"'C
NOTE: 5t is su,,este& that if an e0a inee ,a%e a su:stanti%e answer without ,i%in, the e0a!t pro%isions of the ConstitutionH then he shoul& :e ,i%en full !re&it' FurtherH one pro%ision ?uote&I&is!usse& :" the e0a inee shoul& :e suffi!ient for hi to :e ,i%en full !re&it'

Tran+*aren(y8 Matter+ &) P3b'i( Intere+t 9!#$#: No' 3: -oes the 1987 Constitution pro%i&e for a poli!" of transparen!" in atters of pu:li! interestL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER: OesH the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es for a poli!" of transparen!" in atters of pu:li! interest' Se!tion 28H +rti!le 55 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es:
1' CSu:;e!t to reasona:le !on&itions pres!ri:e& :" lawH the State a&opts an& i ple ents a poli!" of full &is!losure of all its transa!tions in%ol%in, pu:li! interestHC

2' Se!tion 7H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution states: C3he ri,ht of the people to infor ation on atters of pu:li! !on!ern shall :e re!o,ni=e&H +!!ess to offi!ial re!or&sH an& to &o!u entsH an& papers pertainin, to offi!ial a!tsH transa!tionsH or &e!isionsH as well as to ,o%ern ent resear!h &ata use& as :asis for poli!" &e%elop entH shall :e affor&e& the !iti=enH su:;e!t to su!h li itations as a" :e pro%i&e& :" law'C
3' Se!tion 20H +rti!le E5 of the 1987 Constitution rea&s: C3he re!or&s an& :ooDs of a!!ount of the Con,ress shall :e preser%e& an& :e open to the pu:li! in a!!or&an!e with lawH an& su!h :ooDs shall :e au&ite& :" the Co ission on +u&it whi!h shall pu:lish annuall" an ite i=e& list of a ounts pai& to an& e0penses in!urre& for ea!h e :er'C <n&er Se!tion 17H +rti!le M5 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the sworn state ent of assetsH lia:ilities an& net worth of the Presi&entH the Ei!e*Presi&entH the 8e :ers of the Ca:inetH the Con,ressH the Supre e CourtH the Constitutional Co ission an& other !onstitutional offi!esH an& offi!ers of the

#'

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ar e& for!es with ,eneral or fla, ranD file& upon their assu ption of offi!e shall :e &is!lose& to the pu:li! in the anner pro%i&e& :" law'
2' Se!tion 21H +rti!le M55 of the Constitution &e!lares: C5nfor ation on forei,n loans o:taine& or ,uarantee& :" the ,o%ern ent shall :e a&e a%aila:le to the pu:li!'C

)' +s hel& in Eal onte %s' 9el onteH $'1' No' 7#930H Fe:' 13H 1989H these pro%isions on pu:li! &is!losures are inten&e& to enhan!e the role of the !iti=enr" in ,o%ern ental &e!ision* aDin, as well as in !he!Din, a:use in ,o%ern ent' Tran+*aren(y8 Matter+ &) P3b'i( Intere+t 9"666:
No E' State at least three !onstitutional pro%isions refle!tin, the State poli!" on transparen!" in atters of pu:li! interest' 6hat is the purpose of sai& poli!"L (2N)

2' C+ pu:li! offi!er or e plo"ee shallH upon assu ption of offi!eH an& as often as thereafter a" :e re?uire& :" lawH su: it a &e!laration un&er oath of his assetsH lia:ilitiesH an& net worth' 5n the !ase of the Presi&entH the Ei!e Presi&entH the 8e :ers of the Ca:inetH the Con,ressH the Supre e CourtH the Constitutional Co issions an& other !onstitutional offi!esH an& offi!ers of the ar e& for!es with ,eneral or fla, ranDH the &e!laration shall :e &is!lose& to the pu:li! in the anner pro%i&e& :" law'C (Se!tion 17H +rti!le M5) )' C5nfor ation on forei,n loans o:taine& or ,uarantee& :" the $o%ern ent shall :e a&e a%aila:le to the pu:li!'C (Se!tion 21 +rti!le M55) +s e0plaine& 5n Eal onte %' 9el onteH 170 SC1+ 22) (1989)H the purpose of the poli!" is to prote!t the people fro a:use of ,o%ern ental power' 5f a!!ess to infor ation of pu:li! !on!ern is &enie&H the postulate Cpu:li! offi!e is a pu:li! trustC woul& :e ere e pt" wor&s' UNote: 3he e0a inee shoul& :e ,i%en full !re&it if he ,i%es an" three of the a:o%e* entione& pro%isions'T

SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he followin, are the !onstitutional pro%isions refle!tin, the State poli!" on transparen!" in atters of pu:li! interest:
1' CSu:;e!t to reasona:le !on&itions pres!ri:e& :" lawH the State a&opts an& 5 ple ents a poli!" of full pu:li! &is!losure of all its transa!tions in%ol%in, pu:li! interest'C (Se!tion 28H +rti!le 55) 2' 3he ri,ht of the people to infor ation on atters of pu:li! !on!ern shall :e re!o,ni=e&' +!!ess to offi!ial re!or&sH an& to &o!u entsH an& papers pertainin, to offi!ial a!tsH transa!tionsH or &e!isionsH as well as to ,o%ern ent resear!h &ata use& as :asis for poli!" &e%elop entH shall :e affor&e& to !iti=enH su:;e!t to su!h li itations as a" :e pro%i&e& :" law'C (Se!tion 7H +rti!le 555) 3' 3he re!or&s an& :ooDs of a!!ounts of the Con,ress shall :e preser%e& an& :e open to the pu:li! in a!!or&an!e with lawH an& su!h :ooDs shall :e au&ite& :" the Co ission on +u&it whi!h shall pu:lish annuall" an ite i=e& list of a ounts pai& to an& e0penses in!urre& for ea!h 8e :er'C (Se!tion 20' +rti!le E5)

ARTICLE III Bi'' &) Rig,t+


Bi'' &) Attainder 9!#$%: No' M5: Con,ress passe& a law relatin, to offi!ials an& e plo"ees who ha& ser%e& in the $o%ern ent for the perio& fro Septe :er 21H 1972 up to Fe:ruar" 22H 198)'
(a) Ane pro%ision of the law &e!lare& all offi!ials fro the ranD of assistant hea& of a &epart entH :ureauH offi!e or a,en!" C<nfitC for !ontinue& ser%i!e in the ,o%ern ent an& &e!lare& their respe!ti%e positions %a!ant' +nother pro%ision re?uire& all the other offi!ials an& e plo"ees to taDe an oath of lo"alt" to the fla, an& ,o%ern ent as a !on&ition for their !ontinue& e plo" ent'

(:)

#' 3he Affi!e of the A :u&s an shall ha%e the followin, powersH fun!tionsH an& &uties:
MMM MMM ()) Pu:li!i=e atters !o%ere& :" its in%esti,ation when !ir!u stan!es so

+re the two pro%isions %ali&L 6h"L SUGGESTED ANSWER: (a) 3he law is a :ill of attain&er :" whi!h Con,ressH :" assu in, ;u&i!ial a,istra!"H in effe!t &e!lares all offi!ials an& e plo"ees &urin, artial law (Septe :er 21H 1972* Fe:ruar" 22H 198)) as &islo"al an&H on this :asisH re o%es so e while su:;e!tin, others to a lo"alt" test'
6ith respe!t to the pro%ision &e!larin, positions %a!antH e%en the power to reor,ani=e !an not

warrant an& with &ue (Se!tion 12H +rti!le M5)

pru&en!eHC

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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:e in%oDe& :e!ause un&er the Free&o Constitution su!h power !an :e e0er!ise& onl" :" the Presi&ent an& onl" up to Fe:ruar" 22H 1987' Sin!e the law un&er ?uestion was presu a:l" passe& after Fe:ruar" 22H 1987 an& :" Con,ressH it is un!onstitutional'

C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 E2traE3di(ia' C&n)e++i&n 9"66!:


No 5M * 1afaelH Carlos an& >oseph were a!!use& of ur&er :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court of 8anila' +!!use& >oseph turne& state witness a,ainst his !o*a!!use& 1afael an& CarlosH an& was a!!or&in,l" &is!har,e& fro the infor ation' + on, the e%i&en!e presente& :" the prose!ution was an e0tra;u&i!ial !onfession a&e :" >oseph &urin, the !usto&ial 5n%esti,ationH i pli!atin, 1afael an& Carlos whoH he sai&H to,ether with hi (>oseph)H !o itte& the !ri e' 3he e0tra;u&i!ial !onfession was e0e!ute& without the assistan!e of !ounsel'

(:) 6ith respe!t to the pro%ision re?uirin, the lo"alt" testH lo"alt" as a ,eneral rule is a rele%ant !onsi&eration in assessin, e plo"eesB fitness' @owe%erH the re?uire ent in this !ase is not a ,eneral re?uire ent :ut sin,les out C artial lawC e plo"ees an& therefore is a& inistere& in a &is!ri inator" anner' 7o"alt"H thereforeH while a rele%ant !onsi&eration in other !ir!u stan!esH is :ein, e plo"e& in this !ase for an un!onstitutional purpose' Bi'' &) Attainder 9!##6:
No' 1; /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1 an& 2 issue& :" Presi&ent Cora=on C' +?uino !reate& the Presi&ential Co ission on $oo& $o%ern ent (PC$$) an& e powere& it to se?uester an" propert" shown pri a fa!ie to :e ill*,otten wealth of the late Presi&ent 8ar!osH his relati%es an& !ronies' /0e!uti%e Ar&er No' 1# %ests on the San&i,an:a"an ;uris&i!tion to tr" hi&&en wealth !ases' An +pril 1#H 198)H after an in%esti,ationH the PC$$ se?uestere& the assets of M CorporationH 5n!'

+!!use& 1afael an& Carlos %ehe entl" o:;e!te& on the ,roun& that sai& e0tra;u&i!ial !onfession was ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e a,ainst the ' 1ule on whether the sai& e0tra;u&i!ial !onfession is a& issi:le in e%i&en!e or not' (2N) IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to People %s' 9alisterosH 237 SC1+ #99 (199#)H the !onfession is a& issi:le' <n&er Se!tion 12H +rti!le 555 of the ConstitutionH the !onfession is ina& issi:le onl" a,ainst the one who !onfesse&' Anl" the one whose ri,hts were %iolate& !an raise the o:;e!tion as his ri,ht is personal'

(1) M CorporationH 5n!' !lai e& that Presi&ent +?uinoH as Presi&entH !oul& not lawfull" issue /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1H 2 an& 1#H whi!h ha%e the for!e of lawH on the ,roun& that le,islation is a fun!tion of Con,ress' -e!i&e'
(2) Sai& !orporation also ?uestione& the %ali&it" of the three e0e!uti%e or&ers on the ,roun& that the" are :ills of attain&er an&H thereforeH un!onstitutional' -e!i&e'

SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER8 +!!or&in, to People us' >araH 1## SC1+ 21)(198))H the !onfession is ina& issi:le' 5f it is ina& issi:le a,ainst the one who !onfesse&H with ore reason it shoul& :e ina& issi:le a,ainst others'
C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 E2traE3di(ia' C&n)e++i&n8 P&'i(e Line<U* 9!##;: No' 10: +n infor ation for parri!i&e was file& a,ainst -ann"' +fter the N95 foun& an e"ewitness to the !o ission of the !ri e' -ann" was pla!e& in a poli!e line*up where he was i&entifie& as the one who shot the %i!ti ' +fter the line*upH -ann" a&e a !onfession to a newspaper reporter who inter%iewe& hi '

SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1H 2 an& 1# were issue& in 198)' +t that ti e Presi&ent Cora=on +?uino e0er!ise& le,islati%e power ''''
(2) /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1H 2 an& 1# are not :ills of attain&er' A bi'' o) a++ainder is a 'egis'a+i/e ac+ &-ic- in)'ic+s p*nis-0en+ &i+-o*+ 1*dicia' +ria'. +!!or&in,l"H it was hel& in 9ataan Ship"ar&s an& /n,ineerin, !o pan"' 5n!' %' Presi&ential Co ission on $oo& $o%ern entH that /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1H 2 an& 1# are not :ills of attain&erH :e!ause the" &o not infli!t an" punish ent' An the !ontrar"H the" e0pressl" pro%i&e that an" ;u&, ent that the propert" se?uestere& is ill*,otten wealth is to :e a&e :" a !ourt (the San&i,an:a"an) onl" after trial'

1)

Can -ann" !lai that his i&entifi!ation :" the e"ewitness :e e0!lu&e& on the ,roun& that the line*up was a&e without :enefit of his !ounselL
Can -ann" !lai that his !onfession :e

2)

e0!lu&e& on the ,roun& that he was not affor&e& his C8iran&aC ri,htsL SUGGESTED ANSWER:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

"?

1) NoH the i&entifi!ation of -ann"H a pri%ate personH :" an e"ewitness &urin, the line*up !annot :e e0!lu&e& in e%i&en!e' 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in People %s' @attonH 210 SC1+ 1H the a!!use& is not entitle& to :e assiste& :" !ounsel &urin, a poli!e line*upH :e!ause it is not part of !usto&ial in%esti,ation'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER8
OesH in <nite& States %' 6a&eH 338 <'S' 218 (19)7) an& $il:ert %' CaliforniaH 338 <'S' 2)3 (19)7)' it was hel& that on the :asis of the Si0thH rather than the Fifth + en& ent (e?ui%alent to +rt' 555H Se!' 1# (2) rather than Se!' 12(1))H the poli!e line*up is su!h a !riti!al sta,e that it !arries Cpotential su:stantial pre;u&i!eC for whi!h reason the a!!use& is entitle& to the assistan!e of Counsel'

%ali& un&er Se!tion 2(:)'1ule 113 of the 1ules on Cri inal Pro!e&ure' +!!or&in, to People %s' 7a sin,H 2#8 SC1+ #71H the ri,ht to !ounsel &oes not e0ten& to poli!e line*upsH :e!ause the" are not part of !usto&ial in%esti,ations' @owe%erH a!!or&in, to People %s' 8a!an 238 SC1+ 30)H after the start of !usto&ial in%esti,ationH if the a!!use& was not assiste& :" !ounselH an" i&entifi!ation of the a!!use& in a poli!e line*up is ina& issi:le'

2) No' -ann" !annot asD that his !onfession to a newspaper reporter shoul& :e e0!lu&e& in e%i&en!e' +s hel& in People %s' 9ernar&oH 220 SC1+ 31H su!h an a& ission was not a&e &urin, a !usto&ial interro,ation :ut a %oluntar" state ent a&e to the e&ia' C3+t&dia' 9!##%: In0e+tigati&n8 P&'i(e Line<U*

C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t t& C&3n+e' 9!#$$: No' 12: +r an&o Sala an!aH a notorious poli!e !hara!terH !a e un&er !usto&ial in%esti,ation for a ro::er" in Caloo!an Cit"' Fro the outsetH the poli!e offi!ers infor e& hi of his ri,ht to re ain silentH an& also his ri,ht to ha%e a !ounsel of his !hoi!eH if he !oul& affor& one or if notH the ,o%ern ent woul& pro%i&e hi with su!h !ounsel'
@e thanDe& the poli!e in%esti,atorsH an& &e!lare& that he full" un&erstan&s the ri,hts enu erate& to hi H :ut thatH he is %oluntaril" wai%in, the ' Clai in, that he sin!erel" &esires to atone for his is&ee&sH he ,a%e a written state ent on his parti!ipation in the !ri e un&er in%esti,ation' 5n the !ourse of the trial of the !ri inal !ase for the sa e ro::er"H the written a& ission of Sala an!a whi!h he ,a%e &urin, the !usto&ial in%esti,ationH was presente& as the onl" e%i&en!e of his ,uilt' 5f "ou were his !ounselH what woul& "ou &oL /0plain "our answer'

No' 10: +H while on :oar& a passen,er ;eep one ni,htH was hel& up :" a ,roup of three teena,ers who for!i:l" &i%este& her of her wat!hH ne!Dla!e an& wallet !ontainin, P100'00' 3hat &oneH the trio ;u pe& off the passen,er ;eep an& fle&' 9H the ;eep &ri%erH an& + !o plaine& to the poli!e to who the" ,a%e &es!ription of the !ulprits' +!!or&in, to the ;eep &ri%erH he woul& :e a:le to i&entif" the !ulprits if presente& to hi ' Ne0t ornin, + an& 9 were su one& to the poli!e station where fi%e persons were line& up :efore the for i&entifi!ation' + an& 9 positi%el" i&entifie& C an& as the !ulprits' +fter preli inar" in%esti,ation' C an& - an& one >ohn -oe were !har,e& with ro::er" in an infor ation file& a,ainst the in !ourt' C an& - set upH in &efenseH the ille,alit" of their apprehensionH arrest an& !onfine ent :ase& on the i&entifi!ation a&e of the :" + an& 9 at a poli!e line*up at whi!h the" were not assiste& :" !ounsel' @ow woul& "ou resol%e the issues raise& :" C an& -L

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5 woul& o:;e!t to it on the ,roun& that the wai%er of the ri,hts to silen!e an& to !ounsel is %oi&H ha%in, :een a&e without the presen!e of !ounsel' (+rt' 555H se!' 12(1); People %' $alitH 132 SC1+ #)2 (1980)' 3he wai%er ust also :e in writin,H althou,h this re?uire ent i,ht possi:l" ha%e :een !o plie& with in this !ase :" e :o&"in, the wai%er in the written !onfession' 5t shoul& also :e note& that un&er 1ule 13#H se!' 3H e%en if the e0tra;u&i!ial !onfession is %ali&H it is not a suffi!ient ,roun& for !on%i!tion if it is not !orro:orate& :" e%i&en!e of !orpus &eli!ti'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he ar,u ents of the a!!use& are untena:le' +s hel& in People %s' +!otH 232 SC1+ #0)H the warrantless arrest of a!!use& ro::ers 5 e&iatel" after their !o ission of the !ri e :" poli!e offi!ers sent to looD for the on the :asis of the infor ation relate& :" the %i!ti s is

C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t t& C&3n+e' 9!##-: No' 17; 5n his e0tra;u&i!ial !onfession e0e!ute& :efore the poli!e authoritiesH >ose 6alan,taDot a& itte& Dillin, his ,irlfrien& in a fit of ;ealous"' 3his a& ission was a&e after the followin, answer an& ?uestion to wit:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

"%

3 * 5Daw a" a" Darapatan pa rin Du uha n, ser:is"o n, isan, a:o,a&o para aDatulon, o sa i :esti,as"on, ito at Dun, wala Dan, aDuhaH iDaw a" a in, :i:i,"an n, li:ren, a:o,a&oH ano n,a"on an, i"on, asasa:iLC

CS * Nan&i"an na an po si Fis!al (point to +ssistant Fis!al +ni!eto 8alaputo) Da"a hin&i Do na DinaDailan,anan, a:o,a&o'C

-urin, the trial' >ose 6alan,taDot repu&iate& his !onfession !onten&in, that it was a&e without the assistan!e of !ounsel an& therefore 5na& issi:le in e%i&en!e' -e!i&e'

SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he !onfession of 1a os is not a& issi:leH sin!e the !ounsel assi,ne& to hi &i& not a&%ise hi of his ri,hts' 3he fa!t that his !onfession was taDen :efore the effe!ti%it" of the 1987 Constitution is of no o ent' /%en prior to the effe!ti%it" of the 1987 ConstitutionH the Supre e Court alrea&" lai& &own stri!t rules on wai%er of the ri,hts &urin, in%esti,ation in the !ase of People %' $alitH 132 SC1+ #)2 (1982)' C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t t& C&3n+e'8 Re(ei*t &) Pr&*erty Sei/ed 9"66":
No E555' Ane &a" a passen,er :us !on&u!tor foun& a anBs han&:a, left in the :us' 6hen the !on&u!tor opene& the :a,H he foun& insi&e a !atlin, !ar& with the ownerBs na e (-ante $alan,) an& a&&ressH a few hun&re& peso :illsH an& a s all plasti! :a, !ontainin, a white pow&er" su:stan!e' @e :rou,ht the pow&er" su:stan!e to the National 9ureau of 5n%esti,ation for la:orator" e0a ination an& it was &eter ine& to :e etha pheta ine h"&ro!hlori&e or sha:uH a prohi:ite& &ru,' -ante $alan, was su:se?uentl" tra!e& an& foun& an& :rou,ht to the N95 Affi!e where he a& itte& ownership of the han&:a, an& its !ontents' 5n the !ourse of the interro,ation :" N95 a,entsH an& without the presen!e an& assistan!e of !ounselH $alan, was a&e to si,n a re!eipt for the plasti! :a, an& its sha:u !ontents' $alan, was !har,e& with ille,al possession of prohi:ite& &ru,s an& was !on%i!te&'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !onfession of >ose 6alan,taDot is ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e' 3he warnin, ,i%en to hi is insuffi!ient in a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in People %' -ueroH 10# SC1+ 379H he shoul& ha%e :een warne& also that he has the ri,ht to re ain silent an& that an" state ent he aDes a" :e use& as e%i&en!e a,ainst hi ' 9esi&esH un&er +rt' 555H Se!' 12(1) of the ConstitutionH the !ounsel assistin, a person :ein, in%esti,ate& ust :e in&epen&ent' +ssistant Fis!al +ni!eto 8alaputo !oul& not assist >ose 6alan,taDot' +s hel& in People %' Ei&u"aH 189 SC1+ #03H his fun!tion is to prose!ute !ri inal !ases' 3o allow hi to a!t as &efense !ounsel &urin, !usto&ial in%esti,ations woul& ren&er nu,ator" the !onstitutional ri,hts of the a!!use& &urin, !usto&ial in%esti,ation' 6hat the Constitution re?uires is a !ounsel who will effe!ti%el" un&ertaDe the &efense of his !lient without an" !onfli!t of interest' 3he answer of >ose 6alan,taDot in&i!ates that he &i& not full" un&erstan& his ri,hts' @en!eH it !annot :e sai& that he Dnowin,l" an& intelli,entl" wai%e& those ri,hts'

An appeal he !onten&s that *


+' 3he plasti! :a, an& its !ontents are ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e :ein, the pro&u!t of an ille,al sear!h an& sei=ure; (3N) an& 9' 3he re!eipt he si,ne& is also ina& issi:le as his ri,hts un&er !usto&ial in%esti,ation were not o:ser%e&' (2N) -e!i&e the !ase with reasons'

C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t t& C&3n+e' 9"666:


No M5' An A!to:er 1H 1982H 1a os was arreste& :" a se!urit" ,uar& :e!ause he appeare& to :e Csuspi!iousC an& :rou,ht to a poli!e pre!in!t where in the !ourse of the in%esti,ation he a& itte& he was the Diller in an unsol%e& ho i!i&e !o itte& a weeD earlier' 3he pro!ee&in,s of his in%esti,ation were put in writin, an& &ate& A!to:er 1H 1982H an& the onl" parti!ipation of !ounsel assi,ne& to hi was his ere presen!e an& si,nature on the state ent' 3he a& issi:ilit" of the state ent of 1a os was pla!e& in issue :ut the prose!ution !lai s that the !onfession was taDen on A!to:er 1H 1982 an& the 1987 Constitution pro%i&in, for the ri,ht to !ounsel of !hoi!e an& opportunit" to retainH tooD effe!t onl" on Fe:ruar" 2H 1987 an& !annot :e ,i%en retroa!ti%e effe!t' 1ule on this' (3N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: +' 5t is a& issi:le''' 9' 3he re!eipt whi!h $alan, si,ne& without the assistan!e of !ounsel is not a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' +s hel& in People %' CastroH 27# SC1+ 112 U1997)H sin!e the re!eipt is a &o!u ent a& ittin, the offense !har,e&H $alan, shoul& ha%e :een assiste& :" !ounsel as re?uire& :" +rti!le 555H Se!tion 11 of the Constitution' C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 P&'i(e Line<3* 9!##-: No' 9: >ohann learne& that the poli!e were looDin, for hi in !onne!tion with the rape of an

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

"$

18*"ear ol& ,irlH a nei,h:or' @e went to the poli!e station a weeD later an& presente& hi self to the &esD ser,eant' Coin!i&entall"H the rape %i!ti was in the pre ises e0e!utin, an e0tra;u&i!ial state ent' >ohannH alon, with si0 ()) other suspe!tsH were pla!e& in a poli!e line* up an& the ,irl pointe& to hi as the rapist' >ohann was arreste& an& lo!De& up in a !ell' >ohann was !har,e& with rape in !ourt :ut prior to arrai,n ent in%oDe& his ri,ht to preli inar" in%esti,ation' 3his was &enie& :" the ;u&,eH an& thusH trial pro!ee&e&' +fter the prose!ution presente& se%eral witnessesH >ohann throu,h !ounselH in%oDe& the ri,ht to :ail an& file& a otion thereforH whi!h was &enie& outri,ht :" the >u&,e' >ohann now files a petition for !ertiorari :efore the Court of +ppeals ar,uin, that:

9oule%ar&H whi!h is also owne& :" M' 8a" the" lawfull" sei=e the sai& unli!ense& firear sL /0plain "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) OesH the poli!e operati%es a" lawfull" sei=e the !o!aineH '''' (2) NoH M !annot su!!essfull" !hallen,e the le,alit" of the sear!h si pl" :e!ause the pea!e offi!ers &i& not infor hi a:out his ri,ht to re ain silent an& his ri,ht to !ounsel' Se!tion 12(1)H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es: C+n" person un&er in%esti,ation for the !o ission of an offense shall ha%e the ri,ht to :e infor e& of his ri,ht to re ain silent an& to ha%e !o petent an& in&epen&ent !ounsel prefera:l" of his own !hoi!e'C +s hel& in People %' -"H 128 SC1+ 111' for this pro%ision to appl"H a suspe!t ust :e un&er in%esti,ation' 3here was no in%esti,ation in%ol%e& in this !ase' (3) 3he unli!ense& firear s store& at 12 Shaw 9oule%ar& a" lawfull" :e sei=e& ''' C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t+ 9!##-:
No' #: 7arr" was an o%erni,ht ,uest in a otel' +fter he !he!De& out the followin, &a"H the !ha :er ai& foun& an atta!he !ase whi!h she sur ise& was left :ehin& :" 7arr"' She turne& it o%er to the ana,er whoH to &eter ine the na e an& a&&ress of the ownerH opene& the atta!he !ase an& saw pa!Da,es whi!h ha& a pe!uliar s ell an& upon s?uee=in, felt liDe &rie& lea%es' @is !uriosit" arouse&H the ana,er a&e an openin, on one of the pa!Da,es an& tooD se%eral ,ra s of the !ontents thereof' @e tooD the pa!Da,es to the N95H an& in the presen!e of a,entsH opene& the pa!Da,esH the !ontents of whi!h upon la:orator" e0a inationH turne& out to :e ari;uana flowerin, topsH 7arr" was su:se?uentl" foun&H :rou,ht to the N95 Affi!e where he a& itte& ownership of the atta!he !ase an& the pa!Da,es' @e was a&e to si,n a re!eipt for the pa!Da,es' 7arr" was !har,e& in !ourt for possession of prohi:ite& &ru,s' @e was !on%i!te&' An appealH he now poses the followin, issues:

2) @e shoul& ha%e :een infor e& of his ri,ht to :e represente& :" !ounsel prior to his i&entifi!ation %ia the poli!e line up' -e!i&e' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2T Pursuant to the &e!ision in People us' Cast illo' 213' SC1+ 777H >ohann nee& not :e infor e& of his ri,ht to !ounsel prior to his i&entifi!ation &urin, the poli!e line*up' 3he poli!e line*up is not part of !usto&ial in%esti,ationH sin!e >ohann was not :ein, ?uestione& :ut was erel" :ein, asDe& to e0hi:it his :o&" for i&entifi!ation :" a witness'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER
5t a" :e ar,ue& that in <nite& States %s' 6a&e' 388 <'S' 218 (19)7) an& $il:ert %s' California' 388 <'S' 2)3 (19)7) 5t was hel& that on the :asis of the Si0thH rather than the Fifth + en& ent (e?ui%alent to +rt' 555' se!' 1# (2) rather than se!' 12 (1))H the poli!e lineup is su!h a C!riti!al sta,eC that it !arries Cpotential su:stantial pre;u&i!eC for whi!h reason the a!!use& is entitle& to the assistan!e of !ounsel'

C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t+ 9!##6: No' 9; So e poli!e operati%esH a!tin, un&er a lawfull" issue& warrant for the purpose of sear!hin, for firear s in the @ouse of M lo!ate& at No' 10 Shaw 9oule%ar&H Pasi,H 8etro 8anilaH foun&H instea& of firear sH ten Dilo,ra s of !o!aine'
(1) 8a" the sai& poli!e operati%es lawfull" sei=e the !o!aineL /0plain "our answer'

(2)

8a" M su!!essfull" !hallen,e the le,alit" of the sear!h on the ,roun& that the pea!e offi!ers &i& not infor hi a:out his ri,ht to re ain silent an& his ri,ht to !ounselL /0plain "our answer'
Suppose the pea!e offi!ers were a:le to fin& unli!ense& firear s in the house in an a&;a!ent lotH that is' NoH 12 Shaw

(3)

1) 3he pa!Da,es are ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e :ein, the pro&u!t of an ille,al sear!h an& sei=ure;

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

"#

2) Neither is the re!eipt he si,ne& a& issi:leH his ri,hts un&er !usto&ial in%esti,ation not ha%in, :een o:ser%e&' -e!i&e' SUGGESTED ANSWER: An the assu ption that the issues were ti el" raise& the answers are as follows: 1) 3he pa!Da,es are a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' '''
2) 3he re!eipt is not a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' +!!or&in, to the rulin, in People %s' 8irantesH 209 SC1+ 179H su!h re!eipt is in effe!t an e0tra;u&i!ial !onfession of the !o ission of an offense' @en!eH if it was si,ne& without the assistan!e of !ounselH in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion 12(3)H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH it is ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e' PPeople %' -uhanH 1#2 SC1+ 100 (198))Q'

passin, otor %ehi!les' + 19*"ear ol& :o"H who finishe& fifth ,ra&eH while &ri%in,H was stoppe& :" the authorities at the !he!Dpoint' 6ithout an" o:;e!tion fro hi H his !ar was inspe!te&H an& the sear!h "iel&e& ari;uana lea%es hi&&en in the trunD !o part ent of the !ar' 3he prohi:ite& &ru, was pro ptl" sei=e&H an& the :o" was :rou,ht to the poli!e station for ?uestionin,'

C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t+ 9!##?:


No' 3: 1) +H who was arreste& as a suspe!t in a ur&er !ase was not represente& :" !ounsel &urin, the C?uestion an& answerC sta,e' @owe%erH :efore he was asDe& to si,n his state ents to the poli!e in%esti,atorH the latter pro%i&e& + with a !ounselH who happene& to :e at the poli!e station' +fter !onferrin, with +H the !ounsel tol& the poli!e in%esti,ator that + was rea&" to si,n the state ents'

(1) 6as the sear!h without warrant le,alL (2) 9efore interro,ationH the poli!e an on &ut" infor e& the :o" in /n,lish that he &oes Cha%e a ri,ht to re ain silent an& the ri,ht to !ounsel'C @owe%erH there was no !ounsel a%aila:le as it was i&ni,ht' @e &e!lare& orall" that he &i& not nee& an" law"er as he was inno!entH sin!e he was onl" :rin,in, the ari;uana lea%es to his e plo"er in (ue=on Cit" an& was not a &ru, user' @e was !har,e& with ille,al possession of prohi:ite& &ru,s' 5s his wai%er of the ri,ht to !ounsel %ali&L SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) NoH the sear!h was not %ali&H :e!ause there was no pro:a:le !ause '''' (2) NoH the wai%er of the ri,ht to !ounsel is not %ali&H sin!e it was not re&u!e& in writin, an& a&e in the presen!e of !ounsel' <n&er Se!tion 12(1)H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution to :e %ali&H the wai%er ust :e a&e in writin, an& in the presen!e of !ounsel' D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9!#$$:
No' 21: 3he Filipino sea en &etaine& at Gota Gina:aluH alle,e&l" fishin, in 8ala"sian territorial watersH ha& :een a!?uitte&H after trialH :" the sessions !ourt in the sa e !it"' 3he" !oul& not :e release& an& returne& to the PhilippinesH :e!ause the prose!ution ha& appeale& the ;u&, ent of a!?uittal to the Supre e Court of 8ala"sia' +ssu e the situations ha& :een re%erse& an& a 8ala"sian ha& :een apprehen&e& in ShasiH SuluH for an alle,e& offenseH !har,e& :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court an& after trial a!?uitte&'

Can the state ents of + :e presente& in !ourt as his !onfessionL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) NoH the state ents of + !annot :e presente& in !ourt as his !onfession' @e was not assiste& :" !ounsel &urin, the a!tual ?uestionin,' 3here is no showin, that the law"er who :elate&l" !onferre& with hi full" e0plaine& to hi the nature an& !onse?uen!es of his !onfession' 5n People %s' Co pil 2## SC1+ 132H the Supre e Court hel& that the a!!use& ust :e assiste& :" !ounsel &urin, the a!tual ?uestionin, an& the :elate& assistan!e of !ounsel :efore he si,ne& the !onfession &oes not !ure the &efe!t'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
OesH the state ents of + !an :e presente& in !ourt as his !onfession' +s hel& in People %s' 1ousH 2#2 SC1+ 732H e%en if the a!!use& was not assiste& :" !ounsel &urin, the ?uestionin,H his !onfession is a& issi:le if he was a:le to !onsult a law"er :efore he si,ne&'

C3+t&dia' In0e+tigati&n8 Rig,t+ 9!#$#:


No' 7: Pursuin, reports that ,reat ?uantities of prohi:ite& &ru,s are :ein, s u,,le& at ni,htti e throu,h the shores of Ca%iteH the Southern 7u=on Co an& set up !he!Dpoints at the en& of the Ca%ite !oastal roa& to sear!h

8a" the Pro%in!ial Fis!al of Sulu appeal su!h ;u&, ent of a!?uittal to the Supre e CourtH liDe what the 8ala"sians &i& in the !ase of the Filipino fisher en at Gota Gina:aluL /0plain "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH :e!ause it woul& pla!e the a!!use& in &ou:le ;eopar&"H !ontrar" to +rt' 555H se!' 21 of our Constitution' P- No' 1299 prohi:its an" person not a !iti=en to e0plore or e0ploit an" of the resour!es of the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

-6

an& aDes %iolation of the prohi:ition a !ri e punisha:le :" a fine of P2H000'00 to P100H000'00 an&Ior i prison ent of not less than ) onths nor ore than 10 "ears' 5f aliens are arreste& for fishin, within this =one :ut for so e reason are a!?uitte&H the &e!ision a,ainst the !annot :e appeale& to the Court of +ppeals :e!ause that woul& pla!e the in &ou:le ;eopar&"' 3his is so well esta:lishe& that the Supre e Court turne& &own an" pleas for re* e0a ination of the &o!trine first announ!e& in Gepner %' <nite& States' 11 Phil' ))9 (190#)' 3he &o!trine is sai& to :e part an& par!el not onl" of settle& ;urispru&en!e :ut also of !onstitutional law' Nor &oes it atter that the a!!use& are aliens' 3his ,uarantee has :een applie& e%en to aliens without thou,ht of their

!ri e fallin, un&er the !hapter on !ri inal ne,li,en!eH while a:an&on ent of oneBs %i!ti is a !ri e fallin, un&er the !hapter on !ri es a,ainst se!urit"' 3he for er is !o itte& :" eans of !ulpaH while the latter is !o itte& :" eans of &olo' Failure to help oneBs %i!ti is not an offense :" itself nor an ele ent of re!Dless i pru&en!e' 5t erel" 5n!reases the penalt" :" one &e,ree'

D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9!##%:


No' 2: 3he San,,unian, Panlun,so& of 8anila appro%e& an or&inan!e (No' 1000) prohi:itin, the operation in the streets within the !it" li its of ta0i!a: units o%er ei,ht "ears ol& (fro "ear of anufa!ture)' 3he i posa:le penalt" for %iolation thereof is a fine of P#H000'00 or i prison ent for one "ear upon the errin, operator' 3hereafter an& while the !it" or&inan!e was alrea&" in effe!t' Con,ress ena!te& a law (1epu:li! +!t No' 200) prohi:itin, the operation in the streets of !ities throu,hout the !ountr" of ta0i!a: units :e"on& ten "ears ol&' 3he i posa:le penalt" for %iolation thereof is the sa e as in Ar&inan!e No' 1000' +H an ownerIoperator of a ta0i!a: unit operatin, in the Cit" of 8anilaH was !har,e& with %iolation of the !it" or&inan!e' <pon arrai,n entH he plea&e& not ,uilt"; whereuponH trial was set fi%e &a"s thereafter' For failure of the witnesses to appear at the trialH the Cit" Court &is isse& the !ase a,ainst +' 3he Cit" Prose!utor of 8anila forthwith file& another infor ation in the sa e !ourt !har,in, + with %iolation of 1epu:li! +!t No' 200 for operatin, the ta0i!a: unit su:;e!t of the infor ation in the first !ase' 3he a!!use& o%e& to &is iss the se!on& !ase a,ainst hi in%oDin, &ou:le >eopar&"'

!iti=enship'

(See e','H People %' +n, Chio GioH 92 Phil' #72 (192#) (Chinese pre%iousl" !on%i!te& of ur&er); People %' Po ero"H 97 Phil 927 (1922) ( + eri!an pre%iousl" !on%i!te& of re:ellion with ur&erH arson an& ro::er")'

D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9!##-:


No' 13: + Pa;ero &ri%en :" >oe si&eswipe& a otor!"!le &ri%en :" Nelson resultin, in &a a,e to the otor!"!le an& in;uries to Nelson' >oe spe& on without ,i%in, assistan!e to Nelson' 3he Fis!al file& two infor ations a,ainst >oeH to wit: (1) re!Dless i pru&en!e resultin, in &a a,e to propert" with ph"si!al in;uries un&er +rt' 3)2H 1PCH :efore the 13C; an& (2) a:an&on ent of oneBs %i!ti un&er par' 2 +rt 272H :efore the 83C'

>oe was arrai,ne&H trie& an& !on%i!te& for a:an&on ent of oneBs %i!ti in the 83C' @e appeale& to the 13C' 5t was onl" a "ear later that he was arrai,ne& in the re!Dless i pru&en!e !har,e :efore the 13C' @e plea&e& not ,uilt"'
Su:se?uentl"H the 13C affir e& the &e!ision of the 83C relati%e to the a:an&on ent of oneBs %i!ti !har,e' >oe file& a petition for re%iew :efore the Court of +ppealsH in%oDin, his ri,ht to &ou:le >eopar&"H !onten&in, that the prose!ution for a:an&on ent un&er +rt' 272 of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e is a :ar to the prose!ution for ne,li,en!e un&er +rti!le 3)2 of the sa e Co&e' -e!i&e'

@ow woul& "ou rule on +Bs were the >u&,eL SUGGESTED ANSWER:

otion if "ou

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

>oe !annot !lai that his !on%i!tion for a:an&onin, his %i!ti in %iolation of +rti!le 272 of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e is a :ar to his prose!ution for ne,li,en!e un&er +rti!le 3)2 of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e' +s hel& in 7a era %' Court of +ppealsH 198 SC1+ 18)H there is no &ou:le ;eopar&"H :e!ause these two offenses are not ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: i&enti!al' 1e!Dless i pru&en!e is a BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

5f 5 were the ;u&,eH 5 woul& ,rant the otion' 3he &is issal of the first !ase for failure of the witnesses to appear ter inate& the first ;eopar&"' +s hel& in Caes %s' 5nter e&iate +ppellate CourtH 179 SC1+ 2#H the &is issal of a !ase for failure of the witnesses for the prose!ution to appear !onstitutes an a!?uittal' 3he a!?uittal of + for %iolation of Ar&inan!e No' 1000 :ars his prose!ution for %iolation of 1epu:li! +!t No' 200' <n&er Se!tion 21H +rti!le in of the ConstitutionH if an a!t is punishe& :" a law an& an or&inan!eH !on%i!tion or a!?uittal un&er either :ars another prose!ution for the sa e a!t'

-!

5f 5 were the ;u&,eH 5 woul& &en" the otion' 3he &is issal of the first !ase is %oi& an& &oes not ,i%e rise to &ou:le ;eopar&"' 3he &is issal of the first !ase is ar:itrar" an& &enie& the prose!ution &ue pro!ess of law' 3he trial was set fi%e &a"s after the arrai,n ent' 3here was no suffi!ient ti e to su:poena the witnesses an& this was the first ti e the witnesses faile& to appear' +s hel& in People %s' -e!laro 170 SC1+ 1#2H the &is issal of a !ase for failure of the witnesses to appear at the initial hearin, is ar:itrar" an& %oi& an& &oes not ,i%e rise to &ou:le ;eopar&"'

the offen&e& part"' @ow woul& "ou resol%e $eral&Bs !ontentionsL /0plain' (#N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
$eral&e !annot in%oDe &ou:le ;eopar&"' +!!or&in, to Pere= %' Court of +ppealsH 1)8 SC1+ 23)H there is no i&entit" :etween !onsente& a:&u!tion an& ?ualifie& se&u!tion'

D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9!###: +' -is!uss the ri,ht of e%er" a!!use& a,ainst &ou:le ;eopar&"L (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: +!!or&in, to 8elo %' PeopleH 82 Phil' 7))H the rule of &ou:le ;eopar&" eans that when a person was !har,e& with an offense an& the !ase was ter inate& :" a!?uittal or !on%i!tion or in an" other anner without his !onsentH he !annot a,ain :e !har,e& with the sa e or i&enti!al offense' D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9!###:
C' An A!to:er 21H 198)H 17 "ear ol& Eir,inia Sa,ra&o :rou,ht a !o plaint a,ainst 8artin $eral&e for !onsente& a:&u!tion' 6ith the a!!use& plea&in, not ,uilt" upon arrai,n entH trial ensue&' +fter trialH a ;u&, ent of !on%i!tion was ren&ere& a,ainst $eral&e' 6hen the !ase was appeale& to itH the Court of +ppeals re%erse& the ;u&, ent of the 3rial CourtH ratio!inatin, an& rulin, as follows: C3his is not to sa" that the appellant &i& nothin, wron,'''she was se&u!e& :" the appellant with pro ises (of arria,e) ;ust to a!!o plish his lew& &esi,ns'C Oears laterH Eir,inia :rou,ht another !o plaint for (ualifie& Se&u!tion' $eral&e presente& a 8otion to (uash on the ,roun& of &ou:le ;eopar&"H whi!h otion an& his su:se?uent otion for re!onsi&eration were &enie&: (uestion: 8a" $eral&e %ali&l" in%oDe &ou:le ;eopar&" in ?uestionin, the institution of the !ase for (ualifie& Se&u!tionL @e pla!e& relian!e prin!ipall" on the Csa e e%i&en!eC test to support his stan!e' @e asserte& that the offenses with whi!h he was !har,e& arose fro the sa e set of fa!ts' Further oreH he a%erte& that the !o plaint for (ualifie& Se&u!tion is :arre& :" wai%er an& estoppel on the part of the !o plainantH she ha%in, opte& to !onsi&er the !ase as !onsente& a:&u!tion' Finall"H he ar,ue& that her &ela" of ore than ei,ht (8) "ears :efore filin, the se!on& !ase a,ainst hi !onstitute& par&on on the part of

CANS/N3/- +9-<C35AN re?uires that the taDin, awa" of the offen&e& part" ust :e with her !onsentH after soli!itation or !a;oler" fro the offen&erH an& the taDin, awa" of the offen&e& part" ust :e with lew& &esi,ns' An the other han&H (<+75F5/S/-<C35AN re?uires that the !ri e :e !o itte& :" a:use of authorit"H !onfi&en!e or relationship an& the offen&er ha& se0ual inter!ourse with the wo an' 3he &ela" in filin, the se!on& !ase &oes not !onstitute par&onH a!!or&in, to +rti!le 3## of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&eH to :e %ali& the par&on of the offen&er :" the offen&e& part" ust :e e0pressl" ,i%en' D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9"666:
No ME' Char,e& :" Fran!is!o with li:elH Pa:lo was arrai,ne& on >anuar" 3H 2000H Pre*trial was &ispense& with an& !ontinuous trial was set for 8ar!h 7H 8 an& 9H 2000' An the first settin,H the prose!ution o%e& for its postpone ent an& !an!ellation of the other settin,s :e!ause its prin!ipal an& pro:a:l" onl" witnessH the pri%ate !o plainant Fran!is!oH su&&enl" ha& to ,o a:roa& to fulfill a professional !o it ent' 3he ;u&,e instea& &is isse& the !ase for failure to prose!ute'

:) 6oul& the re%ersal of the trial !ourtBs assaile& &is issal of the !ase pla!e the a!!use& in &ou:le ;eopar&"L (3N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
:) Sin!e the postpone ent of the !ase woul& not %iolate the ri,ht of the a!!use& to spee&" trialH the pre!ipitate &is issal of the !ase is %oi&' 3he re%ersal of the &is issal will not pla!e the a!!use& in &ou:le >eopar&"'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: :) Sin!e the &is issal of the !ase is %ali&H its re%ersal will pla!e the a!!use& in &ou:le ;eopar&"' D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9"66!:
No M * For the &eath of >oe"H /rnin, was !har,e& with the !ri e of ho i!i&e :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court of Ealen=uela' @e was arrai,ne&' -ue to nu erous postpone ents of the s!he&ule& hearin,s at the instan!e of the prose!utionH parti!ularl" :ase& on the ,roun& of

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una%aila:ilit" of prose!ution witnesses who !oul& not :e foun& or lo!ate&H the !ri inal !ase was pen&in, trial for a perio& of se%en "ears' <pon otion of a!!use& /rnin, who in%oDe& his ri,ht to spee&" trialH the !ourt &is isse& the !ase'
/%entuall"H the prose!ution witnesses surfa!e&H an& a !ri inal !ase for ho i!i&eH in%ol%in, the sa e in!i&ent was file& anew a,ainst /rnin,' +!!use& /rnin, o%e& for &is issal of the !ase on the ,roun& of &ou:le ;eopar&"' 3he prose!ution o:;e!te&H su: ittin, the reason that it was not a:le to present the sai& witnesses earlier :e!ause the latter went into hi&in, out of fear' 1esol%e the otion' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he otion shoul& :e ,rante&' +s hel& in Caes us' 5nter e&iate +ppellate CourtH 179 SC1+ 2# (1989)H the &is issal of a !ri inal !ase pre&i!ate& on the ri,ht of the a!!use& to a spee&" trial a ounts to an a!?uittal for failure of the prose!ution to pro%e his ,uilt an& :ars his su:se?uent prose!ution for the sa e offense'

an or&inan!eH !on%i!tion or a!?uittal un&er either shall !onstitute a :ar to another prose!ution for the sa e a!t' 5n this !aseH the sa e a!t is in%ol%e& in the two !ases' 3he re!Dless i pru&en!e whi!h resulte& in ph"si!al in;uries arose fro the sa e a!t of &ri%in, un&er the influen!e of li?uor' 5n Oap %' 7uteroH $'1' No' 7*12))9H +pril 30H 1929H the Supre e Court hel& that an a!!use& who was a!?uitte& of &ri%in, re!Dlessl" in %iolation of an or&inan!e !oul& not :e prose!ute& for &a a,e to propert" throu,h re!Dless i pru&en!e :e!ause the two !har,es were :ase& on the sa e a!t' 5n People %H 1elo%aH 1#8 SC1+ 292 (1987)H it was hel& that when there is i&entit" in the a!t punishe& :" a law an& an or&inan!eH !on%i!tion or a!?uittal un&er either shall :ar prose!ution un&er the other'

SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


3here is no &ou:le ;eopar&" :e!ause the a!t penali=e& un&er the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e is &ifferent fro the a!t penali=e& :" the or&inan!e of 8aDati Cit"' 3he 1e%ise& Penal Co&e penali=es re!Dless i pru&en!e resultin, in ph"si!al in;uriesH while the or&inan!e of 8aDati Cit" penali=es &ri%in, un&er the influen!e of li?uor'

D&3b'e 4e&*ardy 9"66":


No 5M' + 3a araw FM &ri%en :" +sion, Cas!aseroH who was &runDH si&eswipe& a pe&estrian alon, /-S+ in 8aDati Cit"H resultin, in ph"si!al in;uries to the latter' 3he pu:li! prose!utor file& two separate infor ations a,ainst Cas!aseroH the first for re!Dless i pru&en!e resultin, in ph"si!al in;uries un&er the 1e%ise& Penal Co&eH an& the se!on& for %iolation of an or&inan!e of 8aDati Cit" prohi:itin, an& penali=in, &ri%in, un&er the influen!e of li?uor' Cas!asero was arrai,ne&H trie& an& !on%i!te& for re!Dless i pru&en!e resultin, in ph"si!al in;uries un&er the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e' 6ith re,ar& to the se!on& !ase (i'e'H %iolation of the !it" or&inan!e)H upon :ein, arrai,ne&H he file& a otion to ?uash the infor ation in%oDin, his ri,ht a,ainst &ou:le ;eopar&"' @e !onten&e& thatH un&er +rt' 555H Se!tion 21 of the ConstitutionH if an a!t is punishe& :" a law an& an or&inan!eH !on%i!tion or a!?uittal un&er either shall !onstitute a :ar to another prose!ution for the sa e a!t @e ar,ue& that the two !ri inal !har,es a,ainst hi ste e& fro the sa e a!t of &ri%in, alle,e&l" un&er the influen!e of li?uor whi!h !ause& the a!!i&ent'

D&3b'e 4e&*ardy8 ReF3i+ite+ 9!###: 9' 6hat are the re?uisites of &ou:le ;eopar&"L (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+s hel& in Cuison %' Court of +ppealsH 289 SC1+ 129H for a !lai of &ou:le ;eopar&" to prosperH the followin, re?uisites ust !on!ur:

(1) a first ;eopar&" has atta!he&;


(2) the first ;eopar&" was %ali&l" ter inate&; an&

(3) the se!on& is for the sa e offense' + first ;eopar&" atta!hes: 1' upon a %ali& !o plaint or infor ation; 2' :efore a !o petent !ourt; 3' after arrai,n ent; #' a %ali& entr" of plea; an& 2' the &is issal or ter ination of the !ase without the e0press !onsent of the a!!use&' D3e Pr&(e++8 Ab+en(e &) Denia' 9!###:
No E555 * 9' An +pril )H 19)3H Poli!e Affi!er 8ario $at&ula was !har,e& :" the 8a"or with $ra%e 8is!on&u!t an& Eiolation of 7aw :efore the 8uni!ipal 9oar&' 3he 9oar& in%esti,ate& $at&ula :ut :efore the !ase !oul& :e &e!i&e&H the Cit" !harter was appro%e&' 3he Cit" Fis!alH !itin, Se!tion 30 of the !it" !harterH asserte& that he was authori=e& thereun&er to in%esti,ate !it" offi!ers an& e plo"ees' 3he !ase a,ainst $at&ula was then forwar&e& to

6as there &ou:le ;eopar&"L /0plain "our answer (2N) IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
OesH there is &ou:le ;eopar&"' <n&er the se!on& senten!e of +rti!le 555H Se!tion 21 of the ConstitutionH if an a!t is punishe& :" a law an&

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hi H an& a re*in%esti,ation was !on&u!te&' 3he offi!e of the Fis!al su:se?uentl" re!o en&e& &is issal' An >anuar" 11H 19))H the Cit" 8a"or returne& the re!or&s of the !ase to the Cit" Fis!al for the su: ission of an appropriate resolution :ut no resolution was su: itte&' An 8ar!h 3H 19)8H the Cit" Fis!al trans itte& the re!or&s to the Cit" 8a"or re!o en&in, that final a!tion thereon :e a&e :" the Cit" 9oar& of 5n%esti,ators (C95)' +lthou,h the C95 &i& not !on&u!t an in%esti,ationH the re!or&s show that :oth the 8uni!ipal 9oar& an& the Fis!alBs Affi!e e0hausti%el" hear& the !ase with :oth parties affor&e& a ple opportunit" to a&&u!e their e%i&en!e an& ar,ue their !ause' 3he Poli!e Co ission foun& $at&ula ,uilt" on the :asis of the re!or&s forwar&e& :" the C95' $at&ula !hallen,e& the a&%erse &e!ision of the Poli!e Co ission theori=in, that he was &epri%e& of &ue pro!ess' (uestions: 5s the Poli!e Co ission :oun& :" the fin&in,s of the Cit" Fis!alL 5s $at&ulaBs protestation of la!D or non* o:ser%an!e of &ue pro!ess well*,roun&e&L /0plain "our answers' (#N)

re!ei%e& the e%i&en!eH in %iolation of the C@e who &e!i&es ust hearC rule' 5s he !orre!tL 2) An the ,roun& that there was a %iolation of &ue pro!ess :e!ause the !o plainantsH the prose!utor an& the hearin, offi!ers were all su:or&inates of the 95- Co issioners who ren&ere& the &eportation &e!ision' 5s he !orre!tL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) NoH Ste%ie is not !orre!t' +s hel& in +&a son + +&a sonH 5n!' %s' + oresH 122 SC1+ 237H a& inistrati%e &ue pro!ess &oes not re?uire that the a!tual taDin, of testi on" or the presentation of e%i&en!e :efore the sa e offi!er who will &e!i&e the !ase' 5n + eri!an 3o:a!!o Co' %' -ire!tor of PatentsH )7 SC1+ 287H the Supre e Court has rule& that so lon, as the a!tual &e!ision on the erits of the !ases is a&e :" the offi!er authori=e& :" law to &e!i&eH the power to hol& a hearin, on the :asis of whi!h his &e!ision will :e a&e !an :e &ele,ate& an& is not offensi%e to &ue pro!ess' 3he Court note& that: C+s lon, as a part" is not &epri%e& of his ri,ht to present his own !ase an& su: it e%i&en!e in support thereofH an& the &e!ision is supporte& :" the e%i&en!e in the re!or&H there is no ?uestion that the re?uire ents of &ue pro!ess an& fair trial are full" et' 5n shortH there is no a:ro,ation of responsi:ilit" on the part of the offi!er !on!erne& as the a!tual &e!ision re ains with an& is a&e :" sai& offi!er' 5t isH howe%erH re?uire& that to ,i%e the su:stan!e of a hearin,H whi!h is for the purpose of aDin, &eter inations upon e%i&en!e the offi!er who aDes the &eter inations ust !onsi&er an& appraise the e%i&en!e whi!h ;ustifies the ' 2) NoH Ste%ie was not &enie& &ue pro!ess si pl" :e!ause the !o plainantsH the prose!utorH an& the hearin, offi!ers were all su:or&inates of the Co issioner of the 9ureau of 5 i,ration an& -eportation' 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in /rian,er 4 $alin,erH 5n!' %s' Court of 5n&ustrial 1elationsH 110 Phil' #70H the fin&in,s of the su:or&inates are not !on!lusi%e upon the Co issionersH who ha%e the &is!retion to a!!ept or re;e!t the ' 6hat is i portant is that Ste%ie was not &epri%e& of his ri,ht to present his own !ase an& su: it e%i&en!e in support thereofH the &e!ision is supporte& :" su:stantial e%i&en!eH an& the !o issioners a!te& on their own in&epen&ent !onsi&eration of the law an& fa!ts of the !aseH an& &i& not si pl" a!!ept the %iews of their su:or&inates in arri%in, at a &e!ision'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he Poli!e Co ission is not :oun& :" the fin&in,s of the Cit" Fis!al' 5n 8an,u:at %' &e CastroH 1)3 SC1+ )08H it was hel& that the Poli!e Co ission is not prohi:ite& fro aDin, its own fin&in,s on the :asis of its own e%aluation of the re!or&s' 7iDewiseH the protestation of la!D of &ue pro!ess is not well* ,roun&e&H sin!e the hearin,s :efore the 8uni!ipal 9oar& an& the Cit" Fis!al offere& $at&ula the !han!e to :e hear&' 3here is no &enial of &ue pro!ess if the &e!ision was ren&ere& on the :asis of e%i&en!e !ontaine& in the re!or& an& &is!lose& to the parties affe!te&'

D3e Pr&(e++8 De*&rtati&n 9!##;:


No' 9: + !o plaint was file& :" 5ntelli,en!e a,ents of the 9ureau of 5 i,ration an& -eportation (95-) a,ainst Ste%ieH a $er an nationalH for his &eportation as an un&esira:le alien' 3he 5 i,ration Co issioner &ire!te& the Spe!ial 9oar& of 5n?uir" to !on&u!t an 5n%esti,ation' +t the sai& 5n%esti,ationH a law"er fro the 7e,al -epart ent of the 95presente& as witnesses the three 5ntelli,en!e a,ents who file& the !o plaint' An the :asis of the fin&in,sH report an& re!o en&ation of the 9oar& of Spe!ial 5n?uir"H the 95Co issioners unani ousl" %ote& for Ste%ieBs &eportation' Ste%ieBs law"er ?uestione& the &eportation or&er 1) An the ,roun& that Ste%ie was &enie& &ue pro!ess :e!ause the 95- Co issioners who ren&ere& the &e!ision were not the ones who

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D3e Pr&(e++8 &r)eit3re Pr&(eeding+ 9!##-:


No' 1#: 3he SIS C8aso"C of Pana anian re,istr"H while oore& at the South @ar:orH was foun& to ha%e !ontra:an& ,oo&s on :oar&' 3he Custo s 3ea foun& out that the %essel &i& not ha%e the re?uire& shipBs per it an& shippin, &o!u ents' 3he %essel an& its !ar,o were hel& an& a warrant of Sei=ure an& -etention was issue& after &ue in%esti,ation' 5n the !ourse of the forfeiture pro!ee&in,sH the ship !aptain an& the shipBs resi&ent a,ent e0e!ute& sworn state ents :efore the Custo le,al offi!er a& ittin, that !ontra:an& !ar,o were foun& a:oar& the %essel' 3he shippin, lines o:;e!t to the a& ission of the state ents as e%i&en!e !onten&in, that &urin, their e0e!utionH the !aptain an& the shippin, a,ent were not assiste& :" !ounselH in %iolation of &ue pro!ess' -e!i&e'

the pro!ee&in,sH an& in the last anal"sis to a%oi& a is!arria,e of ;usti!e' D3e Pr&(e++8 Meeting 0+= Hearing 9!###:
No E555 * C' An No%e :er 7H 1990H nine law"ers of the 7e,al -epart ent of O 9anD who were all un&er Fre& 3orreH sent a !o plaint to ana,e ent a!!usin, 3orre of a:usi%e !on&u!t an& is ana,e ent' Furnishe& with a !op" of the !o plaintH 3orre &enie& the !har,es' 3wo &a"s laterH the law"ers an& 3orre were !alle& to a !onferen!e in the offi!e of the 9oar& Chair an to ,i%e their respe!ti%e si&es of the !ontro%ers"' @owe%erH no a,ree ent was rea!he& thereat' 9anD -ire!tor 1o ulo 8oret was tasDe& to looD further into the atter' @e et with the law"ers to,ether with 3orre se%eral ti es :ut to no a%ail' 8oret then su: itte& a report sustainin, the !har,es of the law"ers' 3he 9oar& Chair an wrote 3orre to infor hi that the :anD ha& !hosen the !o passionate option of Cwaitin,C for 3orreBs resi,nation' 3orre was asDe&H without :ein, &is isse&H to turn o%er the &o!u ents of all !ases han&le& :" hi to another offi!ial of the :anD :ut 3orre refuse& to resi,n an& re?ueste& for a Cfull hearin,C' -a"s laterH he reiterate& his re?uest for a Cfull hearin,CH !lai in, that he ha& :een C!onstru!ti%el" &is isse&C' 8oret assure& 3orre that he is Cfree to re ain in the e plo" of the :anDC e%en if he has no parti!ular worD assi,n ent' +fter another re?uest for a Cfull hearin,C was i,nore&H 3orre file& a !o plaint with the ar:itration :ran!h of N71C for ille,al &is issal' 1ea!tin, theretoH the :anD ter inate& the ser%i!es of 3orre' (uestions: (a) 6as 3orre C!onstru!ti%el" &is isse&C :efore he file& his !o plaintL (:) $i%en the ultiple eetin,s hel& a on, the :anD offi!ialsH the law"ers an& 3orreH is it !orre!t for hi to sa" that he was not ,i%en an opportunit" to :e hear&L /0plain "our answers' (#N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he a& ission of the state ents of the !aptain an& the shippin, a,ent as e%i&en!e &i& not %iolate &ue pro!ess e%en if the" were not assiste& :" !ounsel' 5n Fee&er 5nternational 7ineH Pts' 7t&' %' Court of +ppealsH 197 SC1+ 8#2H 5t was hel& that the assistan!e of !ounsel is not in&ispensa:le to &ue pro!ess in forfeiture pro!ee&in,s sin!e su!h pro!ee&in,s are not !ri inal in nature'
8oreo%erH the stri!t rules of e%i&en!e an& pro!e&ure will not appl" in a& inistrati%e pro!ee&in,s liDe sei=ure an& forfeiture pro!ee&in,s' 6hat is i portant is that the parties are affor&e& the opportunit" to :e hear& an& the &e!ision of the a& inistrati%e authorit" is :ase& on su:stantial e%i&en!e'

D3e Pr&(e++8 Hearing 9!##?:

Media

C&0erage

d3ring

No 2: +t the trial of a rape !ase where the %i!ti *!o plainant was a well Dnown personalit" while the a!!use& was a popular o%ie starH a 3E station was allowe& :" the trial ;u&,e to tele%ise the entire pro!ee&in,s liDe the A'>' Si pson trial' 3he a!!use& o:;e!te& to the 3E !o%era,e an& petitione& the Supre e Court to prohi:it the sai& !o%era,e'

+s the Supre e CourtH how woul& "ou rule on the petitionL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he Supre e Court shoul& ,rant the petition' 5n its 1esolution &ate& A!to:er 22H 1991H the Supre e Court prohi:ite& li%e ra&io an& tele%ision !o%era,e of !ourt pro!ee&in,s to prote!t the ri,ht of the parties to &ue pro!essH to pre%ent the &istra!tion of the parti!ipants in

SUGGESTED ANSWER: a) 3orre was !onstru!ti%el" &is isse&H as hel& in /?uita:le 9anDin, Corporation %' National 7a:or 1elations Co issionH 273 SC1+ 322' +llowin, an e plo"ee to report for worD without :ein, assi,ne& an" worD !onstitutes !onstru!ti%e &is issal'
:) 3orre is !orre!t in sa"in, that he was not ,i%en the !han!e to :e hear&' 3he eetin,s in the nature of !onsultations an& !onferen!es !annot :e !onsi&ere& as %ali& su:stitutes for the proper o:ser%an!e of noti!e an& hearin,'

D3e Pr&(e++8 N&ti(e by P3b'i(ati&n 9!#$$:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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No' 9: 8a!a:e:eH Pa pan,a has se%eral :arrios alon, the Pa pan,a ri%er' 3o ser%i!e the nee&s of their resi&entst the uni!ipalit" has :een operatin, a ferr" ser%i!e at the sa e ri%erH for a nu :er of "ears alrea&"' So eti e in 1987H the uni!ipalit" was ser%e& a !op" of an or&er fro the 7an& 3ansportation Fran!hisin, an& 1e,ulator" 9oar& (73F19)H ,rantin, a !ertifi!ate of pu:li! !on%enien!e to 8r' 1i!ar&o 8a!apinla!H a resi&ent of 8a!a:e:eH to operate ferr" ser%i!e a!ross the sa e ri%er an& :etween the sa e :arrios :ein, ser%i!e& presentl" :" the uni!ipalit"Bs ferr" :oats' + !he!D of the re!or&s of the appli!ation of 8a!apinla! shows that the appli!ation was file& so e onths :eforeH set for hearin,H an& noti!es of su!h hearin, were pu:lishe& in two newspapers of ,eneral !ir!ulation in the town of 8a!a:e:eH an& in the pro%in!e of Pa pan,a' 3he uni!ipalit" ha& ne%er :een &ire!tl" ser%e& a !op" of that noti!e of hearin, nor ha& the San,,unian, 9a"an :een re?ueste& :" 8a!apinla! for an" operate' 3he uni!ipalit" i e&iatel" file& a otion for re!onsi&eration with the 73F19 whi!h was &enie&' 5t went to the Supre e Court on a petition for !ertiorari to nullif" the or&er ,rantin, a !ertifi!ate of pu:li! !on%enien!e to 8a!apinla! on two ,roun&s:

NoH it is not a propert" ri,ht un&er the &ue pro!ess !lause of the Constitution' >ust liDe or&inar" li!enses in other re,ulate& fiel&sH it a" :e re%oDe& an" ti e' 5t &oes not !onfer an a:solute ri,htH :ut onl" a personal pri%ile,eH su:;e!t to restri!tions' + li!ensee taDes his li!ense su:;e!t to su!h !on&itions as the 7e,islature sees fit to i poseH an& a" :e re%oDe& at its pleasure without &epri%in, the li!ensee of an" propert" (Cha%e= %' 1o uloH $'1' No' 12703)H >une 9H 200#)' D3e Pr&(e++8 PPA<Pi'&t+ 9"66!:
No M555 * 3he Philippine Ports +uthorit" (PP+) $eneral 8ana,er issue& an a& inistrati%e or&er to the effe!t that all e0istin, re,ular appoint ents to har:or pilot positions shall re ain %ali& onl" up to -e!e :er 31 of the !urrent "ear an& that hen!eforth all appoint ents to har:or pilot positions shall :e onl" for a ter of one "ear fro &ate of effe!ti%it"H su:;e!t to "earl" renewal or !an!ellation :" the PP+ after !on&u!t of a ri,i& e%aluation of perfor an!e' Pilota,e as a profession a" :e pra!ti!e& onl" :" &ul" li!ense& in&i%i&ualsH who ha%e to pass fi%e ,o%ern ent professional e0a inations' 3he @ar:or Pilot +sso!iation !hallen,e& the %ali&it" of sai& a& inistrati%e or&er ar,uin, that it %iolate& the har:or pilotsB ri,ht to e0er!ise their profession an& their ri,ht to &ue pro!ess of law an& that the sai& a& inistrati%e or&er was issue& without prior noti!e an& hearin,' 3he PP+ !ountere& that the a& inistrati%e or&er was %ali& as it was issue& in the e0er!ise of its a& inistrati%e !ontrol an& super%ision o%er har:or pilots un&er PP+Bs le,islati%e !harterH an& that in issuin, the or&er as a rule or re,ulationH it was perfor in, its e0e!uti%e or le,islati%eH an& not a ?uasi*>u&i!ial fun!tion'

1' -enial of &ue pro!ess to the uni!ipalit"; 2' For failure of 8a!apinla! to se!ure appro%al of the San,,unian, 9a"an for hi to operate a ferr" ser%i!e in 8a!a:e:eH 1esol%e the two points in the petition with reasons' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he petition for !ertiorari shoul& :e ,rante&H
1' +s a part" &ire!tl" affe!te& :" the operation of the ferr" ser%i!eH the 8uni!ipalit" of 8a!a:e:eH Pa pan,a was entitle& to :e &ire!tl" notifie& :" the 73F19 of its pro!ee&in,s relati%e to 8a!apinla!Bs appli!ationH e%en if the 8uni!ipalit" ha& not notifie& the 73F19 of the e0isten!e of the uni!ipal ferr" ser%i!e' Noti!e :" pu:li!ation was not enou,h' (8uni!ipalit" of /!ha,ue %' +:elleraH 1#) SC1+ 180 (198)))'

2' 6here a ferr" operation lies entirel" within the uni!ipalit"H the prior appro%al of the 8uni!ipal ,o%ern ent is ne!essar"' '''' D3e Pr&(e++8 Per1it t& Carry O3t+ide Re+iden(e 9>?<"66?:
3' -oes a Per it to Carr" Firear 1esi&en!e (P3CFA1) !onstitute a ri,ht prote!te& :" the ConstitutionL (2'2N)

-ue pro!ess of law is !lassifie& into two Din&sH na el"H pro!e&ural &ue pro!ess an& su:stanti%e &ue pro!ess of law' 6as thereH orH was there no %iolation of the har:or pilotsB ri,ht to e0er!ise their profession an& their ri,ht to &ue pro!ess of lawL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he ri,ht of the har:or pilots to &ue pro!ess was %iolate&' + hel& in Corona %s' <nite& @ar:or Pilots +sso!iation of the PhilippinesH 283 SC1+ 31 (1997) pilota,e as a profession is a propert" ri,ht prote!te& :" the ,uarantee of &ue pro!ess' 3he pre*e%aluation !an!ellation of the li!enses of the har:or pilots e%er" "ear is unreasona:le an& %iolate& their ri,ht to su:stanti%e &ue pro!ess' 3he renewal is

irear1
Autsi&e propert"

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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&epen&ent on the e%aluation after the li!enses ha%e :een !an!elle&' 3he issuan!e of the a& inistrati%e or&er also %iolate& pro!e&ural &ue pro!essH sin!e no prior pu:li! hearin, was !on&u!te&' +s hol& in Co issioner of 5nternal 1e%enue %s' Court of +ppealsH 2)1 SC1+ 237 (1998)H &-en a reg*'a+ion is being iss*ed *nder +-e 2*asi"'egis'a+i/e a*+-ori+y o) an ad0inis+ra+i/e agency( +-e re2*ire0en+s o) no+ice( -earing and p*b'ica+ion 0*s+ be obser/ed.

issue& after appropriate noti!e an& hearin, to affe!te& parties' 3he rulin, in Philippine Co uni!ations Satellite Corporation %s' +l!ua=H 180 SC1+ 218H to the effe!t that an or&er pro%isionall" re&u!in, the rates whi!h a pu:li! utilit" !oul& !har,eH !oul& :e issue& without pre%ious noti!e an& hearin,H !annot appl"'

D3e Pr&(e++8 Pr&(ed3ra' 0+= S3b+tanti0e 9!###: No E555 * +' $i%e e0a ples of a!ts of the state whi!h infrin,e the &ue pro!ess !lause: 1' in its su:stanti%e aspe!t an& (1N) 2' in its pro!e&ural aspe!tL (1N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1') + law %iolates su:stanti%e &ue pro!ess when it is unreasona:le or un&ul" oppressi%e' For e0a pleH Presi&ential -e!ree No' 1717H whi!h !an!elle& all the ort,a,es an& liens of a &e:torH was !onsi&ere& un!onstitutional for :ein, oppressi%e' 7iDewiseH as state& in /r ita*8alate @otel an& 8otel Aperators +sso!iationH 5n!' %' Cit" 8a"or of 8anilaH 20 SC1+ 8#9H a law whi!h is %a,ue so that en of !o on intelli,en!e ust ,uess at its eanin, an& &iffer as to its appli!ation %iolates su:stanti%e &ue pro!ess' +s hel& in 3ana&a %' 3u%eraH 1#) SC1+ ##)H &ue pro!ess re?uires that the law :e pu:lishe&' 2') 5n State Prose!utors %' 8uroH 23) SC1+ 202H it was hel& that the &is issal of a !ase without the :enefit of a hearin, an& without an" noti!e to the prose!ution %iolate& &ue pro!ess' 7iDewiseH as hel& in People %' Court of +ppealsH 2)2 SC1+ #22H the la!D of i partialit" of the ;u&,e who will &e!i&e a !ase %iolates pro!e&ural &ue pro!ess'

D3e Pr&(e++8 P3b'i( S(,&&' Tea(,er+ 9"66": No M * 3en pu:li! s!hool tea!hers of Caloo!an Cit" left their !lassroo s to ;oin a striDeH whi!h laste& for one onthH to asD for tea!hersB :enefits'
3he -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports !har,e& the a& inistrati%el"H for whi!h reason the" were re?uire& to answer an& for all" in%esti,ate& :" a !o ittee !o pose& of the -i%ision Superinten&ent of S!hools as Chair anH the -i%ision Super%isor as e :er an& a tea!herH as another e :er' An the :asis of the e%i&en!e a&&u!e& at the for al in%esti,ation whi!h a pl" esta:lishe& their ,uiltH the -ire!tor ren&ere& a &e!ision etin, out to the the penalt" of re o%al fro offi!e' 3he &e!ision was affir e& :" the -/CS Se!retar" an& the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission' An appealH the" reiterate& the ar,u ents the" raise& :efore the a& inistrati%e :o&iesH na el": (:) 3he" were &epri%e& of &ue pro!ess of law as the 5n%esti,atin, Co ittee was i properl" !onstitute& :e!ause it &i& not in!lu&e a tea!her in representation of the tea!hersB or,ani=ation as re?uire& :" the 8a,na Carta for Pu:li! S!hool 3ea!hers (1'+' No' #)70H Se!' 9)'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he tea!hers were &epri%e& of &ue pro!ess of law' <n&er Se!tion 9 of the 8a,na Carta for Pu:li! S!hool 3ea!hersH one of the e :ers of the !o ittee ust :e a tea!her who is a representati%e of the lo!alH or in its a:sen!eH an" e0istin, pro%in!ial or national or,ani=ation of tea!hers' +!!or&in, to Fa:ella %' Court of +ppealsH 283 SC1+ 22) (1997)H to :e !onsi&ere& the authori=e& representati%e of su!h or,ani=ationH the tea!her ust :e !hosen :" the or,ani=ation itself an& not :" the Se!retar" of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports' Sin!e in a& inistrati%e pro!ee&in,sH &ue pro!ess re?uires that the tri:unal :e %este& with ;uris&i!tion an& :e so !onstitute& as to affor& a person !har,e& a& inistrati%el" a reasona:le ,uarantee of i partialit"H if the tea!her who is a e :er of the !o ittee was not appointe& in a!!or&an!e with the lawH an" pro!ee&in, :efore

D3e Pr&(e++8 Pr&0i+i&na' Order 9!##!:


No 7 * An 29 >ul" 1991' the /ner," 1e,ulator" 9oar& (/19)H in response to pu:li! !la orH issue& a resolution appro%in, an& a&optin, a s!he&ule for :rin,in, &own the pri!es of petroleu pro&u!ts o%er a perio& of one (1) "ear startin, 12 +u,ust 1991H o%er the o:;e!tion of the oil !o panies whi!h !lai that the perio& !o%ere& is too lon, to pre;u&,e an& foresee' 5s the resolution %ali&L

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the resolution is in%ali&H sin!e the /ner," 1e,ulator" 9oar& issue& the resolution without a hearin,' 3he resolution here is not a pro%isional or&er an& therefore it !an onl" :e

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it is tainte& with &epri%ation of pro!e&ural &ue pro!ess' D3e Pr&(e++8 Radi& Stati&n 9!#$%:
No' M5E: 5n the ornin, of +u,ust 28H 1987H &urin, the hei,ht of the fi,htin, at Channel # an& Ca elot @otelH the ilitar" !lose& 1a&io Station MMH whi!h was e0!ite&l" reportin, the su!!esses of the re:els an& o%e ents towar&s 8anila an& troops frien&l" to the re:els' 3he reports were !orre!t an& fa!tual' An A!to:er )H 1987H after nor al!" ha& returne& an& the $o%ern ent ha& full !ontrol of the situationH the National 3ele!o uni!ations Co issionH without noti!e an& hearin,H :ut erel" on the :asis of the report of the ilitar"H !an!elle& the fran!hise of station MM'

&efense presente& in his :ehalf will :e ina&e?uate !onsi&erin, the le,al re?uisite an& sDill nee&e& in !ourt pro!ee&in,s' 3here woul& !ertainl" :e a &enial of &ue pro!ess' (-el,a&o %' Court of +ppealsH 1#2 SC1+ 327 (198)))'

-is!uss the le,alit" of: (:) 3he !an!ellation of the fran!hise of the station on A!to:er )H 1987' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !an!ellation of the fran!hise of the station on A!to:er )H 1987H without prior noti!e an& hearin,H is %oi&' +s hel& in /astern 9roa&!astin, Corp' (-O1/) %' -ansH 137 SC1+ )#7 (1982)H the !ar&inal pri ar" re?uire ents in a& inistrati%e pro!ee&in,s (one of whi!h is that the parties ust first :e hear&) as lai& &own in +n, 3i:a" %' C51H )9 Phil' )32 (19#0) ust :e o:ser%e& in !losin, a ra&io station :e!ause ra&io :roa&!asts are a for of !onstitutionall"*prote!te& e0pression'

D3e Pr&(e++8 S3b+tanti0e 9"66-: 2003 No M55 * 3he uni!ipal !oun!il of the uni!ipalit" of $ua,uaH Pa pan,aH passe& an or&inan!e penali=in, an" person or entit" en,a,e& in the :usiness of sellin, ti!Dets to o%ies or other pu:li! e0hi:itionsH ,a es or perfor an!es whi!h woul& !har,e !hil&ren :etween 7 an& 12 "ears of a,e the full pri!e of a& ission ti!Dets instea& of onl" one* half of the a ount thereof' 6oul& "ou hol& the or&inan!e a %ali& e0er!ise of le,islati%e power :" the uni!ipalit"L 6h"L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he or&inan!e is %oi&' +s hel& in 9ala!uit %' Court of First 5nstan!e of +,usan &el Norte' 1)3 SC1+ 182 P1988QH the or&inan!e is unreasona:le' 5t &epri%es the sellers of the ti!Dets of their propert" without &ue pro!ess' + ti!Det is a propert" ri,ht an& a" :e sol& for su!h pri!e as the owner of it !an o:tain' 3here is nothin, perni!ious in !har,in, !hil&ren the sa e pri!e as a&ults'

D3e Pr&(e++8 Li(en+e 9!##":

S3+*en+i&n

&)

Dri0erG+

D3e Pr&(e++8 Re*re+ented by a N&n<La5yer 9!#$$:


No' 2: Nor:erto 8alas as was a!!use& of estafa :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court of 8anila' +fter the trialH he was foun& ,uilt"' An appealH his !on%i!tion was affir e& :" the Court of +ppeals' +fter the re!or&s of his !ase ha& :een re an&e& to the 1e,ional 3rial Court for e0e!utionH an& after the latter Court ha& set the &ate for the pro ul,ation of ;u&, entH the a!!use& file& a otion with the Court of +ppeals to set asi&e the entr" of ;u&, entH an& to re an& the !ase to the 1e,ional 3rial Court for new trial on the ,roun& that he ha& ;ust &is!o%ere& that C+tt"' 7eonilo 8apor aC who he ha& !hosen an& who ha& a!te& as his !ounsel :efore the trial !ourt an& the Court of +ppealsH is not a law"er' 1esol%e& the otion of the a!!use& with reasons'

NoH 3; Con,ress is !onsi&erin, a law a,ainst &runDen &ri%in,' <n&er the le,islationH poli!e authorities a" asD an" &ri%er to taDe a C:reathal"=er testCH wherein the &ri%er e0hales se%eral ti es into a &e%i!e whi!h !an &eter ine whether he has :een &ri%in, un&er the influen!e of al!ohol' 3he results of the test !an :e use&H in an" le,al pro!ee&in, a,ainst hi ' Further oreH &e!larin, that the issuan!e of a &ri%erBs li!ense ,i%es rise onl" to a pri%ile,e to &ri%e otor %ehi!les on pu:li! roa&sH the law pro%i&es that a &ri%er who refuses to taDe the test shall :e auto ati!all" su:;e!t to a 90*&a" suspension of his &ri%erBs li!enseH

Cite two P2Q possi:le !onstitutional o:;e!tions to this law' 1esol%e the o:;e!tions an& e0plain whether an" su!h infir ities !an :e !ure&' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Possi:le o:;e!tions to the law are that re?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe the :reathal"=er test will %iolate his ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri inationH that pro%i&in, for the suspension of his &ri%erBs li!ense without an" hearin, %iolates &ue pro!essH an& that the propose& law will %iolate the ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=uresH :e!ause it allows poli!e authorities to

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he otion shoul& :e ,rante& an& the entr" ;u&, ent shoul& :e set asi&e' +n a!!use& entitle& to :e hear& :" hi self or !ounsel' (+rt' se!' 1#(2))' <nless he is represente& :" attorne"H there is a ,reat &an,er that an" of is 555H an

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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re?uire a &ri%e to taDe the :reathal"=er test e%en if there is no pro:a:le !ause ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
1e?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe a :reathal"=er test &oes not %iolate his ri,ht a,ainst self* in!ri inationH :e!ause he is not :ein, !o pelle& to ,i%e testi onial e%i&en!e' @e is erel" :ein, asDe& to su: it to a ph"si!al test' 3his is not !o%ere& :" the !onstitutional ,uarantee a,ainst self*in!ri ination' 3husH in South -aDota %s' Ne%illeH #29 <'S' 223H it was hel& for this reason that re?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe a :loo&*al!ohol test is %ali&' +s hel& in 8a!De" %s' +fontr"a ##3 <'S' 1H :e!ause of !o pellin, ,o%ern ent interest in safet" alon, the streetsH the li!ense of a &ri%er who refuses to taDe the :reathal"=er test a" :e suspen&e& i e&iatel" pen&in, a post* suspension hearin,H :ut there ust :e a pro%ision for a post*suspension hearin,' 3husH to sa%e the propose& law fro un!onstitutionall" on the ,roun& of &enial of &ue pro!essH it shoul& pro%i&e for an i e&iate hearin, upon suspension of the &ri%erBs li!ense' 3he propose& law %iolates the ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=ures' 5t will authori=e poli!e authorities to stop an" &ri%er an& asD hi to taDe the :reathal"=er test e%en in the a:sen!e of a pro:a:le !ause'

/le!tri! 7i,ht CoH %' PSCH 10 SC1+ #) (19)#) it was hel& that a rate or&erH whi!h applies e0!lusi%el" to a parti!ular part" an& is pre&i!ate& on a fin&in, of fa!tH partaDes of the nature of a ?uasi ;u&i!ialH rather than le,islati%eH fun!tion'
3he first or&erH ,rantin, a pro%isional rate in!rease without hearin,H is %ali& if ;ustifie& :" <1$/N3 P<975C N//-H su!h as in!rease in the !ost of fuel' 3he power of the Pu:li! Ser%i!e Co ission to ,rant su!h in!rease was uphel& in se%eral !ases' (Sil%a %' A!a poH 90 Phil' 777 (1922); @alili %' PSCH 92 Phil' 103)(1923))

3he se!on& or&er re?uirin, the !o pan" to pa" unpai& super%isor" fees un&er the Pu:li! Ser%i!e +!t !annot :e sustaine&' 3he !o pan" has a ri,ht to :e hear&H :efore it a" :e or&ere& to pa"' (+n, 3i:a" %' C51H )9 Phil' )32 (19#0)) 3he thir& or&er !an :e ;ustifie&' 3he fa!t that the 319 has allowe& a pro%isional rate in!rease &oes not :in& it to aDe the or&er per anent if the e%i&en!e later su: itte& &oes not ;ustif" in!rease :utH on the !ontrar"H warrants the re&u!tion of rates' E1inent D&1ain8 Garni+,1ent 9!##;:
No' 1#: 3he 8uni!ipalit" of +ntipoloH 1i=alH e0propriate& the propert" of >uan 1e"es for use as a pu:li! arDet' 3he 8uni!ipal Coun!il appropriate& PlH000H000'00 for the pur!hase of the lot :ut the 1e,ional 3rial CourtH on the :asis of the e%i&en!eH fi0e& the %alue at P2H000H000'00'

D3e Pr&(e++8 Urgent P3b'i( Need 9!#$%:


No' 55: 3he 8anila 3ransportation Co pan" applie& for upwar& a&;ust ent of its rates :efore the 3ransportation 1e,ulator" 9oar&' Pen&in, the petitionH the 319H without pre%ious hearin,H ,rante& a ,eneral nationwi&e pro%isional in!rease of rates' 5n another Ar&erH 319 re?uire& the !o pan" to pa" the unpai& super%isor" fees !olle!ti:le un&er the Pu:li! Ser%i!e 7aw' +fter &ue noti!e an& hearin,H on the :asis of the e%i&en!e presente& :" 8anila 3ransportation Co pan" an& the AppositorsH 319 issue& an Ar&er re&u!in, the rates applie& for :" one*fourth'

6hat le,al a!tion !an >uan 1e"es taDe to !olle!t the :alan!eL 2) Can >uan 1e"es asD the 1e,ional 3rial Court to ,arnish the 8uni!ipalit"Bs a!!ount with the 7an& 9anDL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) 3o !olle!t the :alan!e of >u&, entH as state& in 3an 3o!o %s' 8uni!ipal Counsel of 5loiloH #9 Phil' 22H >uan 1e"es a" le%" on patri onial properties of the 8uni!ipalit" of +ntipolo' 5f it has no patri onial propertiesH in a!!or&an!e with the 8uni!ipalit" of 8aDati %s' Court of +ppealsH 190 SC1+ 20)H the re e&" of >uan 1e"es is to file a petition for an&a us to !o pel the 8uni!ipalit" of +ntipolo to appropriate the ne!essar" fun&s to satisf" the ;u&, ent' 2) Pursuant to the rulin, in Pasa" Cit" $o%ern ent %s' Court of First 5nstan!e of 8anilaH 132 SC1+ 12)H sin!e the 8uni!ipalit" of +ntipolo has appropriate& P1H000H000 to pa"

1)

Chara!teri=e the powers e0er!ise& :" the 319 in this !ase an& &eter ine whether un&er the present !onstitutional s"ste the 3ransportation 1e,ulator" 9oar& !an :e %ali&l" !onferre& the powers e0er!ise& :" it in issuin, the Ar&ers ,i%en a:o%e' /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he or&ers in this !ase in%ol%e the e0er!ise of ;u&i!ial fun!tion :" an a& inistrati%e a,en!"H an& thereforeH as a ,eneral ruleH the !ar&inal pri ar" ri,hts enu erate& in +n, 3i:a" %' C51H )9 Phil' )32 (19#0) ust :e o:ser%e&' 5n Ei,art

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for the lotH its :anD a!!ount a" :e ,arnishe& :ut up to this a ount onl"' E1inent D&1ain8 Garni+,1ent 9!##$: No E5 * 2H 5f the Cit" of Ce:u has one" in :anDH !an it :e ,arnishe&L P2NQ SUGGESTED ANSWER: 2' NoH the one" of the Cit" of Ce:u in the :anD !annot :e ,arnishe& if it !a e fro pu:li! fun&s' +s hel& in 8uni!ipalit" of 8aDati %s' Court of +ppealsH 190 SC1+ 20)H 212H pu:li! fun&s are e0e pte& fro ,arnish ent' E1inent D&1ain8 i113nity )r&1 +3it 9"66!:
No 555 * 3he 1epu:li! of the PhilippinesH throu,h the -epart ent of Pu:li! 6orDs an& @i,hwa"s (-P6@)H !onstru!te& a new hi,hwa" linDin, 8etro 8anila an& (ue=on pro%in!eH an& whi!h a;or thorou,hfare tra%erse& the lan& owne& :" 8an, Pan&o"' 3he ,o%ern ent neither file& an" e0propriation pro!ee&in,s nor pai& an" !o pensation to 8an, Pan&o" for the lan& thus taDen an& use& as a pu:li! roa&'

(2) +s the ;u&,eH rule on the sai& o:;e!tions' SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) +s !ounsel for C Co pan"H 5 will ar,ue that the taDin, of the propert" is not for a pu:li! use an& that the or&inan!e !annot fi0 the !o pensation to :e pai& C Co pan"H :e!ause this is a ;u&i!ial ?uestion that is for the !ourts to &e!i&e'
(2) +s ;u&,eH 5 will sustain the !ontention that the taDin, of the propert" of C Co pan" to operate the !o er!ial !enter esta:lishe& within it to finan!e a housin, pro;e!t for !it" e plo"ees is not for a pu:li! use :ut for a pri%ate purpose' +s the Court in&i!ate& in a &i!tu in 8anotoD' %' National @ousin, +uthorit"H 120 SC1+ 89H that the e0propriation of a !o er!ial !enter so that the profits &eri%e& fro its operation !an :e use& for housin, pro;e!ts is a taDin, for a pri%ate purpose' 5 will also sustain the !ontention that the or&inan!eH e%en thou,h it fi0es the !o pensation for the lan& on the :asis of the pre%ailin, lan& %alue !annot reall" &ispla!e ;u&i!ial &eter ination of the pri!e for the si ple reason that an" fa!torsH so e of the super%enin,H !annot possi:l" :e !onsi&ere& :" the le,islature at the ti e of ena!tin, the or&inan!e' 3here is ,reater reason for nullif"in, the use of the !ost of !onstru!tion in the or&inan!e as :asis for !o pensation for the i pro%e ents' 3he fair arDet %alue of the i pro%e ents a" not :e e?ual to the !ost of !onstru!tion' 3he ori,inal !ost of !onstru!tion a" :e lower than the fair arDet %alueH sin!e the !ost of !onstru!tion at the ti e of e0propriation a" ha%e in!rease&'

8an, Pan&o" file& a suit a,ainst the ,o%ern ent to !o pel pa" ent for the %alue of his lan&' 3he -P6@ file& a otion to &is iss the !ase on the ,roun& that the State is i une fro suit' 8an, Pan&o" file& an opposition' 1esol%e the otion' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he otion to &is iss shoul& :e &enie&' +s hel& in + i,a:le %' Cuen!aH #3 SC1+ 300 (1972)H when the $o%ern ent e0propriates pri%ate propert" without pa"in, !o pensationH it is &ee e& to ha%e wai%e& its i unit" fro suit' AtherwiseH the !onstitutional ,uarantee that pri%ate propert" shall not :e taDen for pu:li! use without pa" ent of ;ust !o pensation will :e ren&ere& nu,ator"'

E1inent D&1ain8 Indire(t P3b'i( Bene)it 9!##6:


No' 2: 3he Cit" of Ce:u passe& an or&inan!e pro!lai in, the e0propriation of a ten (10) he!tare propert" of C Co pan"H whi!h propert" is alrea&" a &e%elope& !o er!ial !enter' 3he Cit" propose& to operate the !o er!ial !enter in or&er to finan!e a housin, pro;e!t for !it" e plo"ees in the %a!ant portion of the sai& propert"' 3he or&inan!e fi0e& the pri!e of the lan& an& the %alue of the i pro%e ents to :e pai& C Co pan" on the :asis of the pre%ailin, lan& %alue an& !ost of !onstru!tion'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 3he taDin, of the !o er!ial !enter is ;ustifie& :" the !on!ept of in&ire!t pu:li! :enefit sin!e its operation is inten&e& for the &e%elop ent of the %a!ant portion for so!iali=e& housin,H whi!h is !learl" a pu:li! purpose' E1inent D&1ain8 43+t C&1*en+ati&n 9!#$$:
No' 8: 8r' 1olan& 1i%era is the owner of four lots sou,ht to :e e0propriate& :" the /0port Pro!essin, .one +uthorit" for the e0pansion of the e0port pro!essin, =one at 9a,uio Cit"' 3he sa e par!els of lan& ha& :een %alue& :" the +ssessor at P120'00 per s?uare eterH while 8r' 1i%era ha& pre%iousl" fi0e& the arDet %alue of the sa e at P100 per s?uare eter' 3he 1e,ional 3rial Court &e!i&e& for e0propriation an& or&ere& the pa" ent to 8r' 1i%era at the rate of P100 a s?uare eter

(1)

+s !ounsel for C Co pan"H ,i%e two !onstitutional o:;e!tions to the %ali&it" of the or&inan!e'

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pursuant to Presi&ential -e!ree No' 1233H pro%i&in, that in &eter inin, ;ust !o pensation for pri%ate propert" a!?uire& throu,h e inent &o ain pro!ee&in,sH the !o pensation to :e pai& shall not e0!ee& the %alue &e!lare& :" the owner or &eter ine& :" the +ssessorH pursuant to the 1eal Propert" 3a0 Co&eH whi!he%er %alue is lowerH prior to the re!o en&ation or &e!ision of the appropriate ,o%ern ent offi!e to a!?uire the propert"' 8r' 1i%era appeale&H insistin, that ;ust !o pensation for his propert" shoul& :e &eter ine& :" Co issioners who !oul& e%aluate all e%i&en!e on the real %alue of the propert"H at the ti e of its taDin, :" the ,o%ern ent' @e aintains that the lower !ourt erre& in rel"in, on Presi&ential -e!ree NoH 1233H whi!h he !lai s is un!onstitutional'

wron,' Se!on&l"H the &eter ination of ;ust !o pensation in e0propriation !ases is a ;u&i!ial fun!tion' Sin!e un&er Se!tion 9H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution pri%ate propert" shall not :e taDen for pu:li! use without ;ust !o pensationH no law !an an&ate that its &eter ination as to the ;ust !o pensation shall pre%ail o%er the fin&in,s of the !ourt'

E1inent D&1ain8 43+t C&1*en+ati&n 9!##$:


No E5' 3he Cit" of Ce:u e0propriate& the propert" of Carlos 3opi!o for use as a uni!ipal parDin, lot' 3he San,,unian, Panlun,so& appropriate& P10 illion for this purpose :ut the 1e,ional 3rial Court fi0e& the !o pensation for the taDin, of the lan& at P12 illion' 1' 6hat le,al re e&"H if an"H &oes Carlos 3opi!o ha%e to re!o%er the :alan!e of P2

@ow woul& "ou &e!i&e the appealL /0plain "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he &e!ision of the lower !ourt shoul& :e re%erse&' 5n /P.+ %H -ula"H 1#9 SC1+ 302 (1987) the Supre e Court &e!lare& P- No' 1233 to :e an un!onstitutional en!roa!h ent on the prero,ati%es of the ;u&i!iar"' 5t was e0plaine& that althou,h a !ourt woul& te!hni!all" ha%e the power to &eter ine the ;ust !o pensation for propert" un&er the -e!reeH the !ourtBs tasD woul& :e rele,ate& to si pl" statin, the lower %alue of the propert" as &e!lare& either :" the owner or :" the assessor' >ust !o pensation eans the %alue of the propert" at the ti e of the taDin,' 5t eans a fair an& full e?ui%alent for the loss sustaine&' 3o &eter ine it re?uires !onsi&eration of the !on&ition of the propert" an& its surroun&in,H its i pro%e ents an& !apa:ilities'

illion for the taDin, of his lan&L P3NQ S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 1' 3he re e&" of Carlos 3opl!o is to le%" on the patri onial properties of the Cit" of Ce:u' 5n 8uni!ipalit" of Paoa" %s 8anaoisH 8) Phil )29' )32H the Supre e Court hel&:
CPropert"H howe%erH whi!h is patri onial an& whi!h is hel& :" a uni!ipalit" in its proprietar" !apa!it" as treate& :" the ,reat wei,ht of authorit" as the pri%ate asset of the town an& a" :e le%ie& upon an& sol& un&er an or&inar" e0e!ution'C

E1inent D&1ain8 43+t C&1*en+ati&n 9!#$#:


NoH ): + law pro%i&es that in the e%ent of e0propriationH the a ount to :e pai& to a lan&owner as !o pensation shall :e either the sworn %aluation a&e :" the owner or the offi!ial assess ent thereofH whi!he%er is lower' Can the lan&owner su!!essfull" !hallen,e the law in !ourtL -is!uss :riefl" "our answer'

5f the Cit" of Ce:u &oes not ha%e patri onial propertiesH the re e&" of Carlos 3opi!o is to file a petition for an&a us to !o pel it to appropriate one" to satisf" the >u&, ent' 5n 8uni!ipalit" 8aDati %s' Court of +ppealsH 190 SC1+ 20)H 213' the Supre e Court sai&: C6here a uni!ipalit" falls or refusesH without ;ustifia:le reasonH to effe!t pa" ent of a final one" ;u&, ent ren&ere& a,ainst itH the !lai ant a" a%ail of the re e&" of an&a us in or&er to !o pel the ena!t ent an& appro%al of the ne!essar" appropriation or&inan!eH an& the !orrespon&in, &is:urse ent of uni!ipal fun&s therefor'C

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 1' @e !an file the one" !lai the Co ission on +u&it'

with

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH the lan&owner !an su!!essfull" !hallen,e the law in !ourt' +!!or&in, to the &e!ision in /0port Pro!essin, .one +uthorit" %s' -ula"H 1#9 SC1+ 302H su!h a law is un!onstitutional' First of allH it %iolates &ue pro!essH :e!ause it &enies to the lan&owner the opportunit" to pro%e that the %aluation in the ta0 &e!laration is

E1inent D&1ain8 Lega' Intere+t 9!##-: NoH 2: 5n e0propriation pro!ee&in,s:


1) 6hat le,al interest shoul& :e use& in the !o putation of interest on ;ust !o pensationL

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+s hel& in National Power Corporation %s' +n,as' 208 SC1+ 2#2H in a!!or&an!e with +rti!le 2209 of the Ci%il Co&eH the le,al interest

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shoul& :e S5M per !ent ()N) a "ear' Central 9anD Cir!ular No' #1)H whi!h in!rease& the le,al interest to twel%e per!ent (12N) a "ear is not appli!a:le to the e0propriation of propert" an& is li ite& to loansH sin!e its issuan!e is :ase& on Presi&ential -e!ree NoH 11)H whi!h a en&e& the <sur" 7aw'

:e other a%aila:le lots in Santa for a sports !enter' NonethelessH the 8uni!ipalit" of SantaH throu,h its 8a"orH file& a !o plaint for e inent &o ain' Christina oppose& this on the followin, ,roun&s: 1' the 8uni!ipalit" of Santa has no power to e0propriate; 2' 1esolution No' 1 has :een %oi&e& sin!e the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an &isappro%e& it for :ein, ar:itrar"; an& 3' the 8uni!ipalit" of Santa has other an& :etter lots for that purpose' 1esol%e the !ase with reasons' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWERS: a) <n&er Se!tion 19 of 1'+' No' 71)0H the power of e inent &o ain is e0pli!itl" ,rante& to the uni!ipalit"H :ut ust :e e0er!ise& throu,h an or&inan!e rather than throu,h a resolution' (8uni!ipalit" ofParana?ue %' E'8' 1ealt" Corp'H $'1' No' 127820H >ul" 20H 1998)
:) 3he San,,unian, Panlalawi,an of 5lo!os Sur was without the authorit" to &isappro%e 1esolution No' 1 as the uni!ipalit" !learl" has the power to e0er!ise the ri,ht of e inent &o ain an& its San,,unian, 9a"an the !apa!it" to pro ul,ate sai& resolution' 3he onl" ,roun& upon whi!h a pro%in!ial :oar& a" &e!lare an" uni!ipal resolutionH or&inan!e or or&er in%ali& is when su!h resolutionH or&inan!e or or&er is :e"on& the powers !onferre& upon the !oun!il or presi&ent aDin, the sa e' Su!h is not the situation in this !ase' (8o&a" %' Court of +ppealsH $'1' No' 10791)H Fe:ruar" 20H 1997) !) 3he ?uestion of whether there is ,enuine ne!essit" for the e0propriation of ChristinaBs lot or whether the uni!ipalit" has other an& :etter lots for the purpose is a atter that will ha%e to :e resol%e& :" the Court upon presentation of e%i&en!e :" the parties to the !ase'

E1inent D&1ain8 N&n<&b+er0an(e &) t,e *&'i(y &) Ha'' &r n&neH 9"666:
No E555' 8a&lan,:a"an is the owner of a 200 s?uare eter lot whi!h was the :irthpla!e of the foun&er of a reli,ious se!t who a& itte&l" pla"e& an i portant role in Philippine histor" an& !ulture' 3he National @istori!al Co ission (N@C) passe& a resolution &e!larin, it a national lan& arD an& on its re!o en&ation the lot was su:;e!te& to e0propriation pro!ee&in,s' 3his was oppose& :" 8a&lan,:a"an on the followin, ,roun&s: a) that the lot is not a %ast tra!t; :) that those to :e :enefite& :" the e0propriation woul& onl" :e the e :ers of the reli,ious se!t of its foun&erH an& !) that the N@C has not initiate& the e0propriation of :irthpla!es of other ore &eser%in, histori!al personalities' 1esol%e the opposition raise& :" 8a&lan,:a"an' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he ar,u ents of 8a&lan,:a"an are not eritorious' +!!or&in, to 8anos!a %' Court of +ppealsH 222 SC1+ #12 (199))H the power of e inent &o ain is not !onfine& to e0propriation of %ast tra!ts of the lan&' 3he e0propriation of the lot to preser%e it as the :irthpla!e of the foun&er of the reli,ious se!t :e!ause of his role in Philippine histor" an& !ulture is for a pu:li! purposeH :e!ause pu:li! use is no lon,er restri!te& to the tra&itional !on!ept' 3he fa!t that the e0propriation will :enefit the e :ers of the reli,ious se!t is erel" in!i&ental' 3he fa!t that other :irthpla!es ha%e not :een e0propriate& is liDewise not a %ali& :asis for opposin, the e0propriation' +s hel& in >'8' 3uason an& Co pan"H 5n!' %' 7an& 3enure +& inistrationH 31 SC1+ #13 (1970)H the e0propriatin, authorit" is not re?uire& to a&here to the poli!" of Call or noneC'

E1inent D&1ain8 P&5er t& E2er(i+e 9"66@:


(10*2) 3he San,,unian, 9a"an of the 8uni!ipalit" of SantaH 5lo!os Sur passe& 1esolution No' 1 authori=in, its 8a"or to initiate a petition for the e0propriation of a lot owne& :" Christina as site for its uni!ipal sports !enter' 3his was appro%e& :" the 8a"or' @owe%erH the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an of 5lo!os Sur &isappro%e& the 1esolution as there i,ht still

E1inent D&1ain8 P3b'i( U+e 9!#$%: No' ME5: 5n >anuar" 198#H Pasa" Cit" file& e0propriation pro!ee&in,s a,ainst se%eral lan&owners for the !onstru!tion of an a?ue&u!t for floo& !ontrol in a :aran,a"' Clearl"H onl" the resi&ents of that :aran,a" woul& :e :enefite& :" the pro;e!t'
+s !o pensationH the !it" offere& to pa" onl" the a ount &e!lare& :" the owners in their ta0

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&e!larationsH whi!h a ount was lower than the assesse& %alue as &eter ine& :" the assessor' 3he lan&owners oppose the e0propriation on the ,roun&s that: (a) the sa e is not for pu:li! use; an&
(:) assu in, it is for pu:li! useH the !o pensation ust :e :ase& on the e%i&en!e presente& in !ourt an& notH as pro%i&e& in presi&ential &e!rees pres!ri:in, pa" ent of the %alue state& in the ownerBs ta0 &e!larations or the %alue &eter ine& :" the assessorH whi!he%er is lower'

e0propriation is to use the lan& as a relo!ation site for 200 fa ilies s?uattin, alon, the Pasi, ri%er'
a) Can the owner of the propert" oppose the e0propriation on the ,roun& that onl" 200 out of the ore than 10H000 s?uatter fa ilies in Pasi, Cit" will :enefit fro the e0propriationL /0plain'

5f "ou were ;u&,eH how woul& "ou rule on the issueL 6h"L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) 3he !ontention that the taDin, of pri%ate propert" for the purpose of !onstru!tin, an a?ue&u!t for floo& !ontrol is not for pu:li! useC is untena:le* 3he i&ea that CP<975C <S/C eans e0!lusi%el" use :" the pu:li! has :een &is!ar&e&' +s lon, as the purpose of the taDin, is pu:li!H the e0er!ise of power of e inent &o ain is ;ustifia:le' 6hate%er a" :e :enefi!iall" e plo"e& for the ,eneral welfare satisfies the re?uire ent of pu:li! use' (@eirs of
>uan!ho +r&ona %' 1e"esH 123 SC1 + 220 (1983))

Can the -epart ent of +,rarian 1efor re?uire the Cit" of Pasi, to first se!ure authorit" fro sai& -epart ent :efore !on%ertin, the use of the lan& fro a,ri!ultural to housin,L /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
a) NoH the owner of the propert" !annot oppose the e0propriation on the ,roun& that onl" 200 out of ore than 10H000 s?uatter fa ilies in Pasi, Cit" will :enefit fro the e0propriation' +s hel& in Philippine Colu :ian +sso!iation %s' PantsH 228 SC1+ ))8H the a!?uisition of pri%ate propert" for so!iali=e& housin, is for pu:li! use an& the fa!t that onl" a few an& not e%er"one will :enefit fro the e0propriation &oes not &etra!t fro the nature of the pu:li! use' :) NoH the -epart ent of +,rarian 1efor !annot re?uire Pasi, Cit" to first se!ure authorit" fro it :efore !on%ertin, the use of the lan& fro a,ri!ultural to resi&ential' +!!or&in, to Pro%in!e of Ca arines Sur %s' Court of +ppealsH 222 SC1+ 173H there is no pro%ision in the Co prehensi%e +,rarian 1efor 7aw whi!h su:;e!ts the e0propriation of a,ri!ultural lan&s :" lo!al ,o%ern ent units to the !ontrol of the -epart ent of +,rarian 1efor an& to re?uire appro%al fro the -epart ent of +,rarian 1efor will ean that it is not the lo!al ,o%ern ent unit :ut the -epart ent of +,rarian 1efor who will &eter ine whether or not the e0propriation is for a pu:li! use'

:)

(:) 9ut the !ontention that the Presi&ential -e!rees pro%i&in, that in &eter inin, ;ust !o pensation the %alue state& :" the owner in his ta0 &e!laration or that &eter ine& :" the assessorH whi!he%er is lowerH in un!onstitutional is !orre!t' 5n /P.+ %' -ula"' $'1' No' 29)03H +pril 29H 1987H it was hel& that this etho& pres!ri:e& for as!ertainin, ;ust !o pensation !onstitutes an i per issi:le en!roa!h ent on the prero,ati%es of !ourts' 5t ten&s to ren&er !ourts inutile in a atter whi!hH un&er the ConstitutionH is reser%e& to the for final &eter ination' For althou,h un&er the &e!rees the !ourts still ha%e the power to &eter ine ;ust !o pensationH their tasD is re&u!e& to si pl" &eter inin, the lower %alue of the propert" as &e!lare& either :" the owner or :" the assessor' C><S3 CA8P/NS+35ANC eans the %alue of the propert" at the ti e of the taDin,' 5ts &eter ination re?uires that all fa!ts as to the !on&ition of the propert" an& its surroun&in,s an& its i pro%e ents an& !apa:ilities ust :e !onsi&ere&H an& this !an onl" :e &one in a ;u&i!ial pro!ee&in,'

E1inent D&1ain8 Writ &) P&++e++i&n 9!##-: NoH 2: 5n e0propriation pro!ee&in,s: Can the ;u&,e %ali&l" withhol& issuan!e of the writ of possession until full pa" ent of the final %alue of the e0propriate& propert"L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the ;u&,e !annot %ali&l" withhol& the issuan!e of the writ of possession until full pa" ent of the final %alue of the e0propriate& propert"' +s hel& in National Power Corporation %s' >o!sonH 20) SC1+ 220' it is the rninisterial &ut" of the >u&,e to issue the writ of possession upon &eposit of the pro%isional %alue of the e0propriate& propert" with the National or Pro%in!ial 3reasurer'

E1inent D&1ain8 S&(ia'i/ed H&3+ing 9!##?:


No' # * 3he Cit" of Pasi, initiate& e0propriation pro!ee&in,s on a one*he!tare lot whi!h is part of a ten*he!tare par!el of lan& &e%ote& to the ,rowin, of %e,eta:les' 3he purpose of the

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:

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(per -on&ee) in Republic vs. GingoyonH $1 no' 1))#29H -e!' 19H 2002H the SC hel& that 1+ 897# now re?uires full pa" ent :efore the State a" e0er!ise proprietar" ri,hts in an e0propriation pro!ee&in, an& aDin, the pre%ious rulin, o:iter &i!tu ' EF3a' Pr&te(ti&n8 A'ien E1*'&y1ent 9!#$#: No 18: +n or&inan!e of the Cit" of 8anila re?uires e%er" alien &esirin, to o:tain e plo" ent of whate%er Din&H in!lu&in, !asual an& part*ti e e plo" entH in the !it" to se!ure an e plo" ent per it fro the Cit" 8a"or an& to pa" a worD per it fee of P200' 5s the or&inan!e %ali&L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the or&inan!e is not %ali&' 5n Eille,as %s' @iu Chion, 3sai Pao @oH 8) SC1+ 270H it was hel& that su!h an or&inan!e %iolates e?ual prote!tion' 5t faile& to !onsi&er the %ali& su:stantial &ifferen!es a on, the aliens re?uire& to pa" the fee' 3he sa e a on, it :ein, !olle!te& fro e%er" e plo"e& alienH whether he is !asual or per anentH part*ti e or full* ti e' 3he or&inan!e also %iolates &ue pro!essH :e!ause it &oes not !ontain an" stan&ar& to ,ui&e the a"or in the e0er!ise of the power ,rante& to hi :" the or&inan!e' 3husH it !onfers upon hi unrestri!te& power to allow or pre%ent an a!ti%it" whi!h is lawful per se'

8arina feels %er" a,,rie%e& o%er the &enial an& has !o e to "ou for a&%i!e' She wants to Dnow:
(1) 6hether the 9oar& of /0a iners ha& an" plausi:le or le,al :asis for re;e!tin, her appli!ation in 198)' /0plain :riefl"' 6hether the 1987 Constitution ,uarantees her the ri,ht to a& ission to taDe the !o in, >anuar" 1988 arine offi!ers

(2)

e0a inations' /0plain an& !ite rele%ant pro%isions' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


(a) 3he &is?ualifi!ation of fe ales fro the pra!ti!e of arine profession !onstitutes as in%i&ious &is!ri ination !on&e ne& :" the /?ual Prote!tion Clause of that Constitution (+rt' 5EH Se!' 1) 5n the <nite& StatesH un&er a si ilar pro%isionH while earlier &e!isions of the Supre e Court uphel& the %ali&it" of a statute prohi:itin, wo en fro :arten&in, unless she was the wife or &au,hter of a ale owner
(3oesar+ /. C'eary( 445 6.7. ,%, (19, ) an& &en"in, (Brad&e'' /.

EF3a' Pr&te(ti&n8 In0idi&3+ Di+(ri1inati&n 9!#$%:


No' E5: 8arina NeptuniaH &au,hter of a sea !aptain an& sister to four arine offi!ers &e!i&e& as a !hil& to follow in her fatherBs footsteps' 5n her ,rowin, up "ears she was as u!h at ho e on :oar& a :oat as she was in the fa il" ho e :" the sea' 5n ti e she earne& a 9a!helor of S!ien!e &e,ree in 8arine 3ransportationH a;or in Na%i,ation an& Sea anship' She ser%e& her apprenti!eship for a "ear in a er!hant arine %essel re,istere& for forei,n tra&e an& another "ear on a er!hant arine %essel re,istere& for !oastwise tra&e' 9ut to :e!o e a full*fle&,e& arine offi!er she ha& to pass the appropriate :oar& e0a inations :efore she !oul& ,et her professional li!ense an& re,istration' She applie& in >anuar" 198) to taDe e0a ination for arine offi!ers :ut her appli!ation was re;e!te& for the reason that the law 1e,ulatin, the Pra!ti!e of 8arine Profession in the Philippines (Pres' -e!' No' 97 (1973) ) spe!ifi!all" pres!ri:es that CNo person shall :e ?ualifie& for e0a ination as arine offi!er unless he is:

to wo en the ri,ht to pra!ti!e law 7+a+e( 4 6.7. (1% Wa'') 14$ (1 !4) H re!ent &e!isions ha%e in%ali&ate& statutes or re,ulations pro%i&in, for &ifferential treat ent of fe ales :ase& on nothin, stereot"pi!al an& ina!!urate ,enerali=ations' 3he Court hel& that C!lassifi!ation :ase& on se0H liDe !lassifi!ations :ase& upon ra!eH aliena,eH or national ori,inH are inherentl" suspe!tH an& ust therefore :e su:;e!te& to stri!t ;u&i!ial s!rutin"'C +!!or&in,l"H the Court in%ali&ate& a statute per ittin, a ale ser%i!e an to !lai his spouse as a &epen&ent to o:tain in!rease& ?uarter allowan!eH re,ar&less of whether the wife is a!tuall" &epen&ent on hi H while &en"in, the sa e ri,ht to a ser%i!ewo an unless her hus:an& was in fa!t &epen&ent on her for o%er one half of his support' (8ron+ierro / Ric-ardson( ,11 6.7. % !
(19!4)9 Accord Craig( /. Boren( ,#9 6.7. 19$ (19!%)

(pro%i&in, for sale of :eer to ales un&er 21 an& to fe ales un&er 18); 1ee& %' 1ee&' #0# <'S' 71 (1971) (preferen!e ,i%en to en o%er wo en for appoint ent as a& inistrators of estates in%ali&)'
(:) 5n a&&ition to the /?ual Prote!tion ClauseH the 1987 Constitution now re?uires the State to Censure the fun&a ental e?ualit" :efore the law of wo en an& enC (+rt 55H Se!' 1#) an& to pro%i&e the with Csu!h fa!ilities an& opportunities that will enhan!e their welfare an& ena:le the to reali=e their full potential in the ser%i!e of the nation'C (+rt' M555H Se!' 1#)' 3hese pro%isions put in serious &ou:t the %ali&it" of P- 97 li itin, the pra!ti!e of arine profession to ales'

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EF3a' Pr&te(ti&n8 In0idi&3+ Di+(ri1inati&n 9!#$%:


No' 10: CMCH a son of a ri!h fa il"H applie& for enrol ent with the San Carlos Se inar" in 8an&alu"on,H 8etro 8anila' 9e!ause he ha& :een pre%iousl" e0pelle& fro another se inar" for s!holasti! &efi!ien!"H the 1e!tor of San Carlos Se inar" &enie& the appli!ation without ,i%in, an" ,roun&s for the &enial' +fter CMC was refuse& a& issionH the 1e!tor a& itte& another appli!antH who is the son of a poor far er who was also a!a&e i!all" &efi!ient'

professionsH the e&i!al profession &ire!tl" affe!ts the li%es of the people' EF3a' Pr&te(ti&n8 Rig,t t& Ed3(ati&n 9!##;: No' 12; 3he -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports 5ssue& a !ir!ular &is?ualif"in, an"one who fails for the fourth ti e in the National /ntran!e 3ests fro a& ission to a Colle,e of -entistr"' M who was thus &is?ualifie&H ?uestions the !onstitutionalit" of the !ir!ular' 1) -i& the !ir!ular &epri%e her of her !onstitutional ri,ht to e&u!ationL 2) -i& the !ir!ular %iolate the e?ual prote!tion !lause of the ConstitutionL SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) NoH :e!ause it is a per issi%e li itation to ri,ht to e&u!ationH as it is inten&e& to ensure that onl" those who are ?ualifie& to :e &entists are a& itte& for enroll ent''''
2) NoH the !ir!ular &i& not %iolate the e?ual prote!tion !lause of the Constitution' 3here is a su:stantial &istin!tion :etween &entistr" stu&ents an& other stu&ents' 3he &ental profession &ire!tl" affe!ts the li%es an& health of people' Ather professions &o not in%ol%e the sa e &eli!ate responsi:ilit" an& nee& not :e si ilarl" treate&' 3his is in a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports %s' San -ie,oH 180 SC1+ 233'

(a) Prepare a short ar,u ent !itin, rulesH lawsH or !onstitutional pro%isions in support of CMBsC otion for re!onsi&eration of the &enial of his appli!ation' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he refusal of the se inar" to a& it CMC !onstitutes in%i&ious &is!ri inationH %iolati%e of the /?ual Prote!tion Clause (+rt' 555H Se!' 1) of the Constitution' 3he fa!tH that the other appli!ant is the son of a poor far er &oes not aDe the &is!ri ination an" less in%i&ious sin!e the other appli!ant is also a!a&e i!all" &efi!ient' 3he re%erse &is!ri ination pra!ti!e& :" the se inar" !annot :e ;ustifie& :e!ause unliDe the ra!e pro:le in + eri!aH po%ert" is not a !on&ition of inferiorit" nee&in, re&ress'

EF3a' Pr&te(ti&n8 P&'i(e P&5er 9"666:


No 5E' <n&aunte& :" his three failures in the National 8e&i!al +& ission 3est (N8+3)H Cru= applie& to taDe it a,ain :ut he was refuse& :e!ause of an or&er of the -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports (-/CS) &isallowin, flunDers fro taDin, the test a fourth ti e' Cru= file& suit assailin, this rule raisin, the !onstitutional ,roun&s of a!!essi:le ?ualit" e&u!ationH a!a&e i! free&o an& e?ual prote!tion' 3he ,o%ern ent opposes thisH uphol&in, the !onstitutionalit" of the rule on the ,roun& of e0er!ise of poli!e power' -e!i&e the !ase &is!ussin, the ,roun&s raise&' (2N)

EF3a' Pr&te(ti&n8 S3b+idiary I1*ri+&n1ent 9!#$#:


No' #: CMC was senten!e& to a penalt" of 1 "ear an& 2 onths of prision !orre!tional an& to pa" a fine of P8H000'00H with su:si&iar" i prison ent in !ase of sol%en!"' +fter ser%in, his prison ter H CMC asDe& the -ire!tor of Prisons whether he !oul& alrea&" :e release&' CMC was asDe& to pa" the fine of P2H000'00 an& he sai& he !oul& not affor& itH :ein, an in&i,ent' 3he -ire!tor infor e& hi he has to ser%e an a&&itional prison ter at the rate of one &a" per ei,ht pesos in a!!or&an!e with +rti!le 39 of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&eH 3he law"er of CMC file& a petition for ha:eas !orpus !onten&in, that the further in!ar!eration of his !lient for unpai& fines %iolates the e?ual prote!tion !lause of the Constitution' -e!i&e'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+s hel& in -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports %' San -ie,oH180 SC1+ 233 (1989)H the rule is a %ali& e0er!ise of poli!e power to ensure that those a& itte& to the e&i!al profession are ?ualifie&' 3he ar,u ents of Cru= are not eritorious' 3he ri,ht to ?ualit" e&u!ation an& a!a&e i! free&o are not a:solute' <n&er Se!tion 2(3)H +rti!le M5E of the ConstitutionH the ri,ht to !hoose a profession is su:;e!t to fairH reasona:le an& e?uita:le a& ission an& a!a&e i! re?uire ents' 3he rule &oes not %iolate e?ual prote!tion' 3here is a su:stantial &istin!tion :etween e&i!al stu&ents an& other stu&ents' <nliDe other

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(1) 3he petition shoul& :e ,rante&H :e!ause +rti!le 39 of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e is un!onstitutional' 5n 3ate %s' ShortH #01 <'S' 392H the <nite& States Supre e Court hel& that i position of su:si&iar" i prison ent upon a !on%i!t who is too poor to pa" a fine %iolates e?ual prote!tionH :e!ause e!ono i! status

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!annot ser%e as a %ali& :asis for &istin,uishin, the &uration of the i prison ent :etween a !on%i!t who is a:le to pa" the fine an& a !on%i!t who is una:le to pa" it'
(2) An the other han&H in <nite& States e0 rel' Pri%itera %s' GrossH 239 F Supp 118H it was hel& that the i position of su:si&iar" i prison ent for ina:ilit" to pa" a fine &oes not %iolate e?ual prote!tionH :e!ause the punish ent shoul& :e tailore& to fit the in&i%i&ualH an& e?ual prote!tion &oes not !o pel the era&i!ation of e%er" &isa&%anta,e !ause& :" in&i,en!e' 3he &e!ision was affir e& :" the <nite& States Cir!uit Court of +ppeals in 3#2 F2& 233H an& the <nite& States Supre e Court &enie& the petition for !ertiorari in 382 <'S' 911' 3his rulin, was a&opte& :" the 5llinois Supre e Court in People %s' 6illia sH 31 +713& 920'

Co uni!ations' 6hat woul& "ou &o re,ar&in, that :an on the sale of :lo!De& ti eL /0plain "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5 woul& !hallen,e its %ali&it" in !ourt on the ,roun& that it !onstitutes a prior restraint on free&o of e0pression' Su!h a li itation is %ali& onl" in e0!eptional !asesH su!h as where the purpose is to pre%ent a!tual o:stru!tion to re!ruit ent of ser%i!e or the sailin, &ates of transports or the nu :er an& lo!ation of troopsH or for the purpose of enfor!in, the pri ar" re?uire ents of &e!en!" or the se!urit" of !o unit" life' (Near %' 8innesotaH 283 <'SH )97 (1931))' +tta!Ds on the ,o%ern entH on the other han&H !annot ;ustif" prior restraints' For as has :een pointe& outH Cthe interest of so!iet" an& the aintenan!e of ,oo& ,o%ern ent &e an& a full &is!ussion of pu:li! affairs' Co plete li:ert" to !o ent on the !on&u!t of pu:li! en is a s!alpel in the !ase of free spee!h' 3he sharp in!ision of its pro:e relie%es the a:s!esses of offi!ial&o ' 8en in pu:li! life a" suffer un&er a hostile an& an un;ust a!!usation; the woun& !an :e assua,e& with the :al of a !lear !ons!ien!eHC (<nite& States % 9ustosH 37 Phil' 7#1 (1918))' 3he parties a&%ersel" affe!te& a" also &isre,ar& the re,ulation as :ein, on its fa!e %oi&' +s has :een hel&H Can" s"ste of prior restraints of e0pression !o es to the !ourt :earin, a hea%" presu ption a,ainst its !onstitutional %ali&it"HC an& the ,o%ern ent Cthus !arries a hea%" :ur&en of showin, ;ustifi!ation for the i position of su!h a restraint'C (New OorD 3i es Co' %' <nite& StatesH #03 <'S' 713 (1971))'

reed&1 &) E2*re++i&n8 Cen+&r+,i* 9"66-:


No 5M * 8a" the CA8/7/C (CA8/7/C) prohi:it the postin, of &e!als an& sti!Ders on C o:ileC pla!esH pu:li! or pri%ateH su!h as on a pri%ate %ehi!leH an& li it their lo!ation onl" to the authori=e& postin, areas that the CA8/7/C itself fi0esL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to +&ion, %' CA8/7/C' 207 SC1+ 712 P1992QH the prohi:ition is un!onstitutional' 5t !urtails the free&o of e0pression of in&i%i&uals who wish to e0press their preferen!e for a !an&i&ate :" postin, &e!als an& sti!Ders on their !ars an& to !on%in!e others to a,ree with the ' 5t is also o%er:roa&H :e!ause it en!o passes pri%ate propert" an& !onstitutes &epri%ation of propert" without &ue pro!ess of law' Awnership of propert" in!lu&es the ri,ht to use' 3he prohi:ition is !ensorshipH whi!h !annot :e ;ustifie&'

reed&1 &) E2*re++i&n8 Pri&r Re+traint 9!#$$:


No' 1): 3he Se!retar" of 3ransportation an& Co uni!ations has warne& ra&io station operators a,ainst sellin, :lo!De& ti eH on the !lai that the ti e !o%ere& there:" are often use& :" those :u"in, the to atta!D the present a& inistration' +ssu e that the &epart ent i ple ents this warnin, an& or&ers owners an& operators of ra&io stations not to sell :lo!De& ti e to intereste& parties without prior !learan!e fro the -epart ent of 3ransportation an& Co uni!ations' Oou are approa!he& :" an intereste& part" affe!te& a&%ersel" :" that or&er of the Se!retar" of 3ransportation an&

3he usual presu ption of %ali&it" that inheres in le,islation is re%erse& in the !ase of laws i posin, prior restraint on free&o of e0pression' reed&1 &) Re'igi&n8 C&n0i(ted Pri+&ner+ 9!#$#:
No' 2: CMC is ser%in, his prison senten!e in 8untinlupa' @e :elon,s to a reli,ious se!t that prohi:its the eatin, of eat' @e asDe& the -ire!tor of Prisons that he :e ser%e& with eatless &iet' 3he -ire!tor refuse& an& CMC sue& the -ire!tor for &a a,es for %iolatin, his reli,ious free&o ' -e!i&e'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH the -ire!tor of Prison is lia:le un&er +rti!le 32 of the Ci%il Co&e for %iolatin, the reli,ious free&o of CMC' +!!or&in, to the &e!ision of the <nite& States Supre e Court in the !ase of

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AB7one %s' /state of Sha:a==H 107 S' Ct' 2#00H !on%i!te& prisoners retain their ri,ht to free e0er!ise of reli,ion' +t the sa e ti eH lawful in!ar!eration :rin,s a:out ne!essar" li itations of an" pri%ile,es an& ri,hts ;ustifie& :" the !onsi&erations un&erl"in, the penal s"ste ' 5n !onsi&erin, the appropriate :alan!e :etween these two fa!torsH reasona:leness shoul& :e the test' +!!o o&ation to reli,ious free&o !an :e a&e if it will not in%ol%e sa!rifi!in, the interests of se!urit" an& it will ha%e no i pa!t on the allo!ation of the resour!es of the penitentiar"' 5n this !aseH pro%i&in, CMC with a eatless &iet will not !reate a se!urit" pro:le or un&ul" in!rease the !ost of foo& :ein, ser%e& to the prisoners' 5n fa!tH in the !ase of AB 7one %s' /state of Sha:a==H it was note& that the 8osle prisoners were :ein, ,i%en a &ifferent eal whene%er porD woul& :e ser%e&'

of a!tion' 3he ri,ht to a!t on oneBs reli,ious :elief is not a:solute an& is su:;e!t to poli!e power for the prote!tion of the ,eneral welfare' @en!e the tapes a" :e re?uire& to :e re%iewe& prior to airin,' 5n 5,lesia ni Cristo %s' Court of +ppealsH 229 SC1+ 229H 2##H the Supre e Court hel&:
C6e thus re;e!t petitionerBs postulate that 5ts reli,ious pro,ra is per se :e"on& re%iew :" the respon&ent 9oar&' 5ts pu:li! :roa&!ast on 3E of its reli,ious pro,ra :rin,s it out of the :oso of internal :elief' 3ele%ision is a e&iu that rea!hes e%en the e"es an& ears of !hil&ren' 3he Court reiterates the rule that the e0er!ise of reli,ions free&o !an :e re,ulate& :" the State when it will :rin, a:out the C7/+1 +N- P1/S/N3 -+N$/1 of so e su:stanti%e e%il whi!h the State is &ut" :oun& to pre%entH i'e'H serious &etri ent to the ere o%erri&in, 5nterest of pu:li! healthH pu:li! oralsH or pu:li! welfare'C @owe%erH the 8o%ie an& 3ele%ision 1e%iew an& Classifi!ation 9oar& !annot :an the tapes on the ,roun& that the" atta!De& other reli,ions' 5n 5,lesia ni Cristo %s' Court of +ppealsH' 229 SC1+ 229H 2#7H the Supre e Court hel&: C/%en a si&e ,lan!e at Se!tion 3 of P- No' 198) will re%eal that it is not a on, the ,roun&s to ;ustif" an or&er prohi:itin, the :roa&!ast of petitionerBs tele%ision pro,ra 'C 8oreo%erH the :roa&!asts &o not ,i%e rise to a !lear an& present &an,er of a su:stanti%e e%il' 5n the !ase of 5,lesia ni Cristo %s' Court of +ppealsH 229 SC1+ 229H 2#9: CPrior restraint on spee!hH in!lu&in, the reli,ious spee!hH !annot :e ;ustifie& :" h"potheti!al fears :ut onl" :" the showin, of a su:stanti%e an& i inent e%il whi!h has taDen the realit" alrea&" on the ,roun&'C

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3he suit shoul& :e &is isse&' 3he Free /0er!ise Clause of the Constitution is essentiall" a restraint on ,o%ern ental interferen!e with the ri,ht of in&i%i&uals to worship as the" please' 5t is not a an&ate to the state to taDe positi%eH affir ati%e a!tion to ena:le the in&i%i&ual to en;o" his free&o ' 5t woul& ha%e :een &ifferent ha& the -ire!tor of Prisons prohi:ite& eatless &iets in the penal institution'

reed&1 &) Re'igi&n8 Li1itati&n+ 9!##$: No ME' * + reli,ious or,ani=ation has a weeDl" tele%ision pro,ra ' 3he pro,ra presents an& propa,ates its reli,iousH &o!trinesH an& !o pares their pra!ti!es with those of other reli,ions'
+s the 8o%ie an& 3ele%ision 1e%iew an& Classifi!ation 9oar& (831C9) foun& as offensi%e se%eral episo&es of the pro,ra whi!h atta!De& other reli,ionsH the 831C9 re?uire& the or,ani=ation to su: it its tapes for re%iew prior to airin,'

3he reli,ious or,ani=ation :rou,ht the !ase to !ourt on the ,roun& that the a!tion of the 831C9 suppresses its free&o of spee!h an& interferes with its ri,ht to free e0er!ise of reli,ion' -e!i&e' P2NQ SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he reli,ious or,ani=ation !annot in%oDe free&o of spee!h an& free&o of reli,ion as ,roun&s for refusin, to su: it the tapes to the 8o%ie an& 3ele%ision 1e%iew an& Classifi!ation 9oar& for re%iew prior to airin,' 6hen the reli,ious or,ani=ation starte& presentin, its pro,ra o%er tele%isionH it went into the real

reed&1 &) Re'igi&n8 'ag Sa'3te 9!##%:


No' 12: Se!tion 28' 3itle E5H Chapter 9H of the +& inistrati%e Co&e of 1987 re?uires all e&u!ational institutions to o:ser%e a si ple an& &i,nifie& fla, !ere on"H in!lu&in, the pla"in, or sin,in, of the Philippine National +nthe H pursuant to rules to :e pro ul,ate& :" the Se!retar" of /&u!ation' Culture an& SportsH 3he refusal of a tea!herH stu&ent or pupil to atten& or parti!ipate in the fla, !ere on" is a ,roun& for &is issal after &ue in%esti,ation' 3he Se!retar" of /&u!ation Culture an& Sports issue& a e oran&u i ple entin, sai& pro%ision of law' +s or&ere&H the fla, !ere on"

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woul& :e hel& on 8on&a"s at 7:30 a' ' &urin, !lass &a"s' + ,roup of tea!hersH stu&ents an& pupils re?ueste& the Se!retar" that the" :e e0e pte& fro atten&in, the fla, !ere on" on the ,roun& that atten&an!e thereto was a,ainst their reli,ious :elief' 3he Se!retar" &enie& the re?uest' 3he tea!hersH stu&ents an& pupils !on!erne& went to Court to ha%e the e oran&u !ir!ular &e!lare& null an& %oi&'

&is!retionar" fun&s' 1e!entl"H howe%erH the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an passe& a resolution appropriatin, P100H000 as a spe!ial &is!retionar" fun& of the $o%ernor to :e spent :" hi in lea&in, a pil,ri a,e of his pro%in!e ates to 8e!!aH Sau&i +ra:iaH 5sla Bs holiest !it"' Phil!onsaH on !onstitutional ,roun&sH has file& suit to nullif" the resolution of the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an ,i%in, the spe!ial &is!retionar" fun& to the $o%ernor for the state& purpose' @ow woul& "ou &e!i&e the !aseL $i%e "our reasons' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he resolution is un!onstitutional FirstH it %iolates art' E5H se!' 29(2) of the Constitution whi!h prohi:its the appropriation of pu:li! one" or propert"H &ire!tl" or in&ire!tl"H for the useH :enefit or support of an" s"ste of reli,ionH an&H se!on&H it !ontra%enes art' E5H se!H 22()) whi!h li its the appropriation of &is!retionar" fun&s onl" for pu:li! purposes' 3he use of &is!retionar" fun&s for purel" reli,ious purpose is thus un!onstitutionalH an& the fa!t that the &is:urse ent is a&e :" resolution of a lo!al le,islati%e :o&" an& not :" Con,ress &oes not aDe it an" less offensi%e to the Constitution' +:o%e allH the resolution !onstitutes a !lear %iolation of the Non* esta:lish ent Clause (art' 555H se!' 2) of the Constitution'

-e!i&e the !ase' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he tea!hers an& the stu&ents shoul& :e e0e pte& fro the fla, !ere on"' +s hel& in /:ralina, %s' -i%ision Superinten&ent of S!hools of Ce:uH 221 SC1+ 2)9' to !o pel the to parti!ipate in the fla, !ere on" will %iolate their free&o of reli,ion' Free&o of reli,ion !annot :e i paire& e0!ept upon the showin, of a !lear an& present &an,er of a su:stanti%e e%il whi!h the State has a ri,ht to pre%ent' 3he refusal of the tea!hers an& the stu&ents to parti!ipate in the fla, !ere on" &oes not pose a !lear an& present &an,er'

reed&1 &) Re'igi&n8 'ag Sa'3te 9"66-:


No 555 * Chil&ren who are e :ers of a reli,ious se!t ha%e :een e0pelle& fro their respe!ti%e pu:li! s!hools for refusin,H on a!!ount of their reli,ious :eliefsH to taDe part in the fla, !ere on" whi!h in!lu&es pla"in, :" a :an& or sin,in, the national anthe H salutin, the Philippine fla, an& re!itin, the patrioti! ple&,e' 3he stu&ents an& their parents assail the e0pulsion on the ,roun& that the s!hool authorities ha%e a!te& in %iolation of their ri,ht to free pu:li! e&u!ationH free&o of spee!hH an& reli,ious free&o an& worship' -e!i&e the !ase'

reed&1 &) Re'igi&n8 N&n<E+tab'i+,1ent C'a3+e 9!##":


No' 10: 1e!o,ni=in, the %alue of e&u!ation in aDin, the Philippine la:or arDet attra!ti%e to forei,n in%est entH the -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports offers su:si&ies to a!!re&ite& !olle,es an& uni%ersities in or&er to pro ote ?ualit" tertiar" e&u!ation' 3he -/CS ,rants a su:si&" to a Catholi! s!hool whi!h re?uires its stu&ents to taDe at least 3 hours a weeD of reli,ious instru!tion'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he stu&ents !annot :e e0pelle& fro s!hool' +s hel& in /:ralina, %' 3he -i%ision Superinten&ent of S!hools of Ce:u' 219 SC1+ 22) P1993QH to !o pel stu&ents to taDe part in the fla, !ere on" when it is a,ainst their reli,ious :eliefs will %iolate their reli,ious free&o ' 3heir e0pulsion also %iolates the &ut" of the State un&er +rti!le M5EH Se!tion 1 of the Constitution to prote!t an& pro ote the ri,ht of all !iti=ens to ?ualit" e&u!ation an& aDe su!h e&u!ation a!!essi:le to all'

a)
:)

5s the su:si&" per issi:leL /0plainH


Presu in, that "ou answer in the ne,ati%eH woul& it aDe a &ifferen!e if the su:si&" were ,i%en solel" in the for of la:orator" e?uip ent in !he istr" an& ph"si!sL Presu eH on the other han&H that the su:si&" is ,i%en in the for of s!holarship %ou!hers ,i%en &ire!tl" to the stu&ent an& whi!h the stu&ent !an use for pa"in, tuition in an" a!!re&ite& s!hool of his !hoi!eH

!)

reed&1 &) Re'igi&n8 N&n<E+tab'i+,1ent C'a3+e 9!#$$:


No' 7: * 3awi*3awi is a pre&o inantl" 8osle pro%in!e' 3he $o%ernorH the Ei!e*$o%ernorH an& e :ers of its San,*,unian, Panlalawi,an are all 8osle s' 5ts :u&,et pro%i&es the $o%ernor with a !ertain a ount as his

whether reli,ious or non*se!tarian' 6ill "our answer :e &ifferentL SUGGESTED ANSWER:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

;$

a) NoH the su:si&" is not per issi:le' 5t will foster reli,ionH sin!e the s!hool ,i%es reli,ious instru!tions to its stu&ents' 9esi&esH it will %iolate the prohi:ition in Se!tion 29P2>H +rti!le E5 of the Constitution a,ainst the use of pu:li! fun&s to ai& reli,ion' 5n 7e on %s Gurt= an' #03 <'S' )02H it was hel& that finan!ial assistan!e to a se!tarian s!hool %iolates the prohi:ition a,ainst the esta:lish ent of reli,ion if it fosters an e0!essi%e ,o%ern ent entan,le ent with reli,ion' Sin!e the s!hool re?uires its stu&ents to taDe at least three hours a weeD of reli,ious instru!tionsH to ensure that the finan!ial assistan!e will not :e use& for reli,ious purposesH the ,o%ern ent will ha%e to !on&u!t a !ontinuin, sur%eillan!e' 3his in%ol%es e0!essi%e entan,le ent with reli,ion' :) 5f the assistan!e woul& :e in the for of la:orator" e?uip ent in !he istr" an& ph"si!sH it will :e %ali&' 3he purpose of the assistan!e is se!ularH i'e'H the i pro%e ent of the ?ualit" of tertiar" e&u!ation' +n" :enefit to reli,ion is erel" in!i&ental' Sin!e the e?uip ent !an onl" :e use& for a se!ular purposeH it is reli,iousl" neutral' +s hel& in 3ilton %s' 1i!har&sonH #03 <'S' )72H it will not in%ol%e e0!essi%e ,o%ern ent entan,le ent with reli,ionH for the use of the e?uip ent will not re?uire sur%eillan!e' !) 5n ,eneralH the ,i%in, of s!holarship %ou!hers to stu&ents is %ali&' Se!tion 2(3)H +rti!le M5E of the Constitution re?uires the State to esta:lish a s"ste of su:si&ies to &eser%in, stu&ents in :oth pu:li! an& pri%ate s!hools' @owe%erH the law is %a,ue an& o%er*:roa&' <n&er itH a stu&ent who wants to stu&" for the priesthoo& !an appl" for the su:si&" an& use it for his stu&ies' 3his will in%ol%e usin, pu:li! fun&s to ai& reli,ion'

6as the Co ission on +u&it !orre!t in &isallowin, the %ou!hers in ?uestionL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH the Co ission on +u&it was !orre!t in &isallowin, the e0pen&itures' Se!tion 29(2)H +rti!le E5 of the Constitution prohi:its the e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s for the useH :enefitH or support of an" priest' 3he onl" e0!eption is when the priest is assi,ne& to the ar e& for!esH or to an" penal institution or ,o%ern ent orphana,e or leprosariu ' 3he sen&in, of a priest to inister to the spiritual nee&s of o%erseas !ontra!t worDers &oes not fall within the s!ope of an" of the e0!eptions'

reed&1 &) S*ee(,8 Ban &n T&ba((& AD 9!##": No' 1: Con,ress passes a law prohi:itin, tele%ision stations fro airin, an" !o er!ial a&%ertise ent whi!h pro otes to:a!!o or in an" wa" ,la ori=es the !onsu ption of to:a!!o pro&u!ts' 3his le,islation was passe& in response to fin&in,s :" the -epart ent of @ealth a:out the alar in, rise in lun, &iseases in the !ountr"' 3he 6orl& @ealth Ar,ani=ation has also reporte& that <'S' to:a!!o !o panies ha%e* shifte& arDetin, efforts to the 3hir& 6orl& &ue to &win&lin, sales in the health*!ons!ious + eri!an arDet' Cow:o" 7e%"BsH a >eans !o pan"H re!entl" release& an a&%ertise ent featurin, o&el 1i!har& 9ur,os wearin, 7e%"Bs ;a!Dets an& ;eans an& hol&in, a pa!D of 8arl:oro !i,arettes'
3he +sian 9roa&!astin, NetworD (+9N)H a pri%atel" owne& tele%ision stationH refuses to air the a&%ertise ent in !o plian!e with the law' a) +ssu e that su!h refusal a:ri&,es the free&o of spee!h' -oes the !onstitutional prohi:ition a,ainst the a:ri&,e ent of the free&o of spee!h appl" to a!ts &one :" +9NH a pri%ate !orporationL /0plain'

reed&1 &) Re'igi&n8 N&n<E+tab'i+,1ent C'a3+e 9!##%:


No' #: <pon re?uest of a ,roup of o%erseas !ontra!t worDers in 9runeiH 1e%' Father >uan &e la Cru=H a 1o an Catholi! priestH was sent to that !ountr" :" the Presi&ent of the Philippines to inister to their spiritual nee&s' 3he tra%el e0pensesH per &ie sH !lothin, allowan!e an& onthl" stipen& of P2H000 were or&ere& !har,e& a,ainst the Presi&entBs &is!retionar" fun&' <pon post au&it of the %ou!hers thereforH the Co ission on +u&it refuse& appro%al thereof !lai in, that the e0pen&itures were in %iolation of the Constitution'

:) 8a" Cow:o" 7e%"BsH a !orporationH in%oDe the free ,uarantee in its fa%orL /0plain'
!)

pri%ate spee!h

1e,ar&less of "our answers a:o%eH &e!i&e

the !onstitutionalit" of the law in ?uestion' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


a) 3he !onstitutional prohi:ition a,ainst the free&o of spee!h &oes not appl" to +9NH a pri%ate !orporation' +s state& in @u&,ens %s' National 7a:or 1elations 9oar&H #2# <'S' 207H the !onstitutional ,uarantee of free&o of spee!h is a ,uarantee onl" a,ainst

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;#

a:ri&,e ent :" the ,o%ern ent' 5t &oes not therefore appl" a,ainst pri%ate parties' ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
Sin!e +9N has a fran!hiseH it a" :e !onsi&ere& an a,ent of the ,o%ern ent :" !o pl"in, with the law an& refusin, to air the a&%ertise entH it ali,ne& itself with the ,o%ern ent' 3hus it ren&ere& itself lia:le for a lawsuit whi!h is :ase& on a:ri&,e ent of the free&o of spee!h' <n&er +rti!le 32 of the Ci%il Co&eH e%en pri%ate parties a" :e lia:le for &a a,es for i pair ent of the free&o of spee!h'

Dnowle&,e that it was false or with re!Dless &isre,ar& of whether it was false or not (9or;a %' Court of +ppealsH 301 SC1+ 1 I1999)' Sin!e there is no proof that the report was pu:lishe& with Dnowle&,e that it is false or with re!Dless &isre,ar& of whether it was false or notH the &efen&ants are not lia:le for &a a,e'

SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


Sin!e Senator MM is a pu:li! person an& the ?uestione& i putation is &ire!te& a,ainst hi in his pu:li! !apa!it"H in this !ase a!tual ali!e eans the state ent was a&e with Dnowle&,e that it was false or with re!Dless &isre,ar& of whether it was false or not (9or;al %' Court of +ppealsH 301 SC1+ 1 I1999Q)' Sin!e it is a atter of pu:li! Dnowle&,e that there is no OO Street in 8aDatiH the pu:li!ation was a&e with re!Dless &isre,ar& of whether or not it is false' 3he &efen&ants a" :e hel& lia:le for &a a,es'

:) Cow:o" 7e%"Bs a" in%oDe the !onstitutional ,uarantee of free&o of spee!h in its fa%or' 5n First National 9anD of 9oston %s' 9ellottiH #32 <'S' 7)2H it was rule& that this ,uarantee e0ten&s to !orporations' 5n Eir,inia
State 9oar& of Phar a!" %s' Eir,inia Citi=ens Consu er Coun!il 5n!'H #22 <'S' 7#8 H it was hel&

that this ri,ht a&%ertise ents'

e0ten&s to !o er!ial 5n +"er Pro&u!tions Pt"H 7t&' %s' Capulon,H 1)0 SC1+ 8)1H the Supre e Court hel& that e%en if the pro&u!tion of a fil is a !o er!ial a!ti%it" that is e0pe!te& to "iel& profitsH it is !o%ere& :" the ,uarantee of free&o of spee!h'

reed&1 &) t,e Pre++8 Warti1e Cen+&r+,i* 9!#$%:


No' M5E: 5n the ornin, of +u,ust 28H 1987H &urin, the hei,ht of *the fi,htin, at Channel # an& Ca elot @otelH the ilitar" !lose& 1a&io Station MMH whi!h was e0!ite&l" reportin, the su!!esses of the re:els an& o%e ents towar&s 8anila an& troops frien&l" to the re:els' 3he reports were !orre!t an& fa!tual' An A!to:er )H 1987H after nor al!" ha& returne& an& the $o%ern ent ha& full !ontrol of the situationH the National 3ele!o uni!ations Co issionH without noti!e an& hearin,H :ut erel" on the :asis of the report of the ilitar"H !an!elle& the fran!hise of station MM'

!) 3he law is !onstitutional' e0er!ise of poli!e powerH ''''

5t is a %ali&

reed&1 &) t,e Pre++8 A(t3a' Ma'i(e 9"66;:


(2*a) 3he S3+1H a national &ail" newspaperH !arrie& an e0!lusi%e report statin, that Senator MM re!ei%e& a house an& lot lo!ate& at OO StreetH 8aDatiH in !onsi&eration for his %ote !uttin, !i,arette ta0es :" 20N' 3he Senator sue& the S3+1H its reporterH e&itor an& pu:lisher for li:elH !lai in, the report was !o pletel" false an& ali!ious' +!!or&in, to the SenatorH there is no OO Street in 8aDatiH an& the ta0 !ut was onl" 20N' @e !lai e& one illion pesos in &a a,es' 3he &efen&ants &enie& Ca!tual ali!eHC !lai in, pri%ile,e& !o uni!ation an& a:solute free&o of the press to report on pu:li! offi!ials an& atters of pu:li! !on!ern' 5f there was an" errorH the S3+1 sai& it woul& pu:lish the !orre!tion pro ptl"' 5s there Ca!tual ali!eC in S3+1BS reporta,eL @ow is Ca!tual ali!eC &efine&L +re the &efen&ants lia:le for &a a,esL (2N)

-is!uss the le,alit" of: (a) 3he a!tion taDen a,ainst the station on +u,ust 28H 1987; (:) 3he !an!ellation of the fran!hise of the station on A!to:er )H 1987' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) 3he !losin, &own of 1a&io Station MM &urin, the fi,htin, is per issi:le' 6ith respe!t news e&iaH warti e !ensorship has :een uphel& on the ,roun& that Cwhen a nation is at war an" thin,s that i,ht :e sai& in ti e of pea!e are su!h a hin&ran!e to its efforts that their utteran!e will not :e en&ure& so lon, as en fi,ht an& that no Court !oul& re,ar& the as prote!te& :" an" !onstitutional ri,ht'C 3he se!urit" of !o unit" life a" :e prote!te& a,ainst in!ite ents to a!ts of %iolen!e an& the o%erthrow :" for!e of or&erl" ,o%ern ent' (Near %' 8innesotaH 283 <'S' )97 (1931)H ?uotin, >usti!e @ol eBs opinion in S!hen!D %' <nite& StatesH 2#9 <'S' #7 (1919); New OorD

IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


Sin!e Senator MM is a pu:li! person an& the ?uestione& i putation is &ire!te& a,ainst hi in his pu:li! !apa!it"H in this !ase a!tual ali!e eans the state ent was a&e with

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@6

3i es %' <nite& StatesH #03 <'S' 713 (1971) ) 6ith ,reater reason then a" !ensorship in ti es of e er,en!" :e ;ustifie& in the !ase of :roa&!ast e&ia sin!e their free&o is so ewhat lesser in s!ope' 3he i pa!t of the %i:rant spee!hH as >usti!e $utierre= sai&H is for!eful an& i e&iate' <nliDe rea&ers of the printe& worDH a ra&io au&ien!e has lesser opportunit" to !o,itateH anal"=e an& re;e!t the utteran!e' (/astern 9roa&!astin, Corp (-O1/) %H -ansH 137 SC1+ )#7 (1982) )' 5n FCC %' Pa!ifi!a Foun&ationH #38 <'S' 72) (1978)H it was hel& that Cof all for s of !o uni!ationH it is :roa&!astin, whi!h has re!ei%e& the ost li ite& First + en& ent Prote!tion'C

&oes not entail enfor!e ent of the stipulation not to arr" an& not to ha%e a :a:"' 5t is li ite& to a refun& of a portion of the pro otion e0penses in!urre& :" Soli&ari&a& Fil s'

In0&'3ntary Ser0it3de 9!##-:


No' 1); * >o"H an 13C steno,rapherH retire& at the a,e of )2' She left unfinishe& the trans!ription of her notes in a !ri inal !ase whi!h was on appeal' 3he Court of +ppeals or&ere& >o" to trans!ri:e her notes' She refuse& to !o pl" with the or&er reasonin, that she was no lon,er in the ,o%ern ent ser%i!e' 3he C+ &e!lare& >o" in !onte pt of !ourt an& she was in!ar!erate&' >o" file& a petition for ha:eas !orpus ar,uin, that her in!ar!eration is tanta ount to ille,al &etention an& to re?uire her to worD sans !o pensation woul& :e in%oluntar" ser%itu&e' -e!i&e'

I1*air1ent C'a3+e8 Ba+i( H31an Rig,t+ 9!##":


No' 2: SheilaH an a!tressH si,ne& a two*"ear !ontra!t with Soli&ari&a& Fil sH 3he fil !o pan" un&ertooD to pro ote her !areer an& to feature her as the lea&in, la&" in at least four o%ies' 5n turnH Sheila pro ise& thatH for the &uration of the !ontra!tH she shall not ,et arrie& or ha%e a :a:"; otherwiseH she shall :e lia:le to refun& to the fil !o pan" a portion of its pro otion e0penses'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
>o" !an :e in!ar!erate& for !onte pt of !ourt for refusin, to trans!ri:e her steno,raphi! notes' +s hel& 5n +&ora!ion %' $at aitanH )# SC1+ 132H her in!ar!eration &oes not !onstitute ille,al &etention' 5t is lawfulH :e!ause it is the !onse?uen!e of her &iso:e&ien!e of the !ourt or&er' Neither !an she !lai that to re?uire her to worD without !o pensation is tanta ount to in%oluntar" ser%itu&e' Sin!e !ourts ha%e the 5nherent power to 5ssue su!h or&ers as are ne!essar" for the a& inistration of >usti!eH the Court of +ppeals a" or&er her to trans!ri:e her steno,raphi! notes e%en if she is no lon,er 5n the ,o%ern ent ser%i!e'

a) -oes this !ontra!t i pairH or i pin,e uponH an" !onstitutionall" prote!te& li:ert" of SheilaL /0plain'
:) 5f Soli&ari&a& Fil s tries to enfor!e this !ontra!t ;u&i!iall"H will this !onstitutionall" prote!te& li:ert" pre%ailL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
a) OesH the !ontra!t i pairs the ri,ht of Sheila to arr" an& to pro!reate' 3he !ase of 7o%in, %s' Eir,iniaH 388 <'S' 1 an& .a:lo!Di %s' 1e&hail #3# <'S' 37# re!o,ni=e& the ri,ht to arr" is a :asi! !i%il ri,ht' 7iDewiseH the !ase of SDinner %s ADlaho aH 31) <'S' 232 re!o,ni=e& that the ri,ht to pro!reate is a :asi! !i%il ri,ht' 3hese ri,hts are part of the li:ert" prote!te& :" the &ue pro!ess !lause in Se!tion 1' +rti!le 1 of the Constitution' :) OesH the !onstitutionall" prote!te& li:ert" of Sheila will pre%ailH :e!ause it in%ol%es :asi! hu an ri,hts' 3he wai%er of these :asi! hu an ri,hts is %oi&' 6hat Soli&ari&a& Fil s is seeDin, to re!o%er are pro otion e0penses' 3hese in%ol%e propert" ri,hts' +s hel& in Philippine 9loo in, 8ills / plo"ees Ar,ani=ation %s' Philippine 9loo in, 8illsH 5n!'H 21 SC1+ 189H !i%il ri,hts are superior to propert" ri,hts'

Liberty &) Ab&de8 Li1itati&n+ 9!##$:


No E555 * >uan Casano%a !ontra!te& @ansenBs &isease (lepros") with open lesions' + law re?uires that lepers :e isolate& upon petition of the Cit" @ealth Affi!er' 3he wife of >uan Casano%a wrote a letter to the Cit" @ealth Affi!er to ha%e her for erl" philan&erin, hus:an& !onfine& in so e isolate& leprosariu ' >uan Casano%a !hallen,e& the !onstitutionalit" of the law as %iolatin, his li:ert" of a:o&e' 6ill the suit prosperL P2NQ

SUGGESTED ANSWER: NoH the suit will not prosper' Se!tion )H +rti!le 555 of the Constitution pro%i&es:
C3he li:ert" of a:o&e an& of !han,in, the sa e within the li its pres!ri:e& :" law shall not :e i paire& e0!ept upon lawful or&er of the !ourt'C 3he li:ert" of a:o&e is su:;e!t to the poli!e power of the State' 1e?uirin, the se,re,ation of lepers is a %ali& e0er!ise of poli!e power' 5n

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER8
3he wai%er of the ri,ht to arr" an& the ri,ht to pro!reate is %ali&' /nfor!e ent of the !ontra!t

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

@!

7oren=o us' -ire!tor of @ealth' 20 Phil 292H 298H the Supre e Court hel&:
C>u&i!ial noti!e will :e taDen of the fa!t that lepros" is !o onl" :elie%e& to :e an infe!tious &isease ten&in, to !ause one affli!te& with it to :e shunne& an& e0!lu&e& fro so!iet"H an& that !o pulsor" se,re,ation of lepers as a eans of pre%entin, the sprea& of the &isease is supporte& :" hi,h s!ientifi! authorit"'C

a %ali& e0er!ise of poli!e power' (See also People %s' NitafanH 207 SC1+ 730) P&'i(e P&5er8 Abate1ent &) N3i+an(e 9"66;:
(9*:) 3he Cit" of San 1afael passe& an or&inan!e authori=in, the Cit" 8a"orH assiste& :" the poli!eH to re o%e all a&%ertisin, si,ns &ispla"e& or e0pose& to pu:li! %iew in the ain !it" streetH for :ein, offensi%e to si,ht or otherwise a nuisan!e' +8H whose a&%ertisin, a,en!" owns an& rents out an" of the :ill:oar&s or&ere& re o%e& :" the Cit" 8a"orH !lai s that the Cit" shoul& pa" for the &estro"e& :ill:oar&s at their !urrent arDet %alue sin!e the Cit" has appropriate& the for the pu:li! purpose of !it" :eautifi!ation' 3he 8a"or refuses to pa"H so +8 is suin, the Cit" an& the 8a"or for &a a,es arisin, fro the taDin, of his propert" without &ue pro!ess nor ;ust !o pensation' 6ill +8 prosperL 1eason :riefl"' (2N)

Liberty &) Ab&de8 Te1*&rary 9!##?: No 2: 3he ilitar" !o an&er*in !har,e of the operation a,ainst re:el ,roups &ire!te& the inha:itants of the islan& whi!h woul& :e the tar,et of atta!D :" ,o%ern ent for!es to e%a!uate the area an& offere& the resi&ents te porar" ilitar" ha let' Can the ilitar" !o an&er for!e the resi&ents to transfer their pla!es of a:o&e without a !ourt or&erL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the ilitar" !o an&er !annot !o pel the resi&ents to transfer their pla!es of a:o&e without a !ourt or&er' <n&er Se!tion )H +rti!le 555 of the ConstitutionH a lawful or&er of the !ourt is re?uire& :efore the li:ert" of a:o&e an& of !han,in, the sa e !an :e i paire&'

IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


3he suit of +8 will not prosper' 3he re o%al of the :ill:oar&s is not an e0er!ise of the power of e inent &o ain :ut of poli!e power (Chur!hill %' 1affert"H 32 Phil' 280 P19120* 3he a:ate ent of a nuisan!e in the e0er!ise of poli!e power &oes not !onstitute taDin, of propert" an& &oes not entitle the owner of the propert" in%ol%e& to !o pensation' (+sso!iation of S all 7an&owners in the PhilippinesH 5n!' %' Se!retar" of +,rarian 1efor H 172 SC1+ 3#3 P1989Q)'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER8 OesH the ilitar" !o an&er !an !o pel the resi&ents to transfer their pla!es of a:o&e without a !ourt or&er' 5f there is no reasona:le ti e to ,et a !ourt or&er an& the !han,e of a:o&e is erel" te porar"H :e!ause of the e0i,en!"H this e0er!ise of poli!e power a" :e ;ustifie&' N&n<I1*ri+&n1ent )&r N&n<Pay1ent &) Debt 9!##-: No 12: Se!' 13 of P- 112 (3rust 1e!eipts 7aw) pro%i&es that when the entrustee in a trust re!eipt a,ree ent fails to &eli%er the pro!ee&s of the sale or to return the ,oo&s if not sol& to the entrustee*:anDH the entrustee is lia:le for estafa un&er the 1PC' -oes this pro%ision not %iolate the !onstitutional ri,ht a,ainst i prison ent for non*pa" ent of a &e:tL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH Se!tion 13 of Presi&ential -e!ree No' 112 &oes not %iolate the !onstitutional ri,ht a,ainst i prison ent for non*pa" ent of a &e:t' +s hel& in 7ee %s' 1o&ilH 172 SC1+ 100H the !ri inal lia:ilit" arises fro the %iolation of the trust re!eiptH whi!h is separate an& &istin!t fro the loan se!ure& :" it' Penali=in, su!h an a!t is

SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 3he re o%al of the :ill:oar&s for the purpose of :eautifi!ation per anentl" &epri%e& +8 of the ri,ht to use his propert" an& a ounts to its taDin,' Conse?uentl"H he shoul& :e pai& ;ust !o pensation' (People %' Fa;ar&oH 10# Phil' ##3 11928Q)' P&'i(e P&5er8 Ban &n T&ba((& AD 9!##": No' 1: Con,ress passes a law prohi:itin, tele%ision stations fro airin, an" !o er!ial a&%ertise ent whi!h pro otes to:a!!o or in an" wa" ,la ori=es the !onsu ption of to:a!!o pro&u!ts' 3his le,islation was passe& in response to fin&in,s :" the -epart ent of @ealth a:out the alar in, rise in lun, &iseases in the !ountr"' 3he 6orl& @ealth Ar,ani=ation has also reporte& that <'S' to:a!!o !o panies ha%e* shifte& arDetin, efforts to the 3hir& 6orl& &ue to &win&lin, sales in the health*!ons!ious + eri!an arDetH

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

@"

Cow:o" 7e%"BsH a >eans !o pan"H re!entl" release& an a&%ertise ent featurin, o&el 1i!har& 9ur,os wearin, 7e%"Bs ;a!Dets an& ;eans an& hol&in, a pa!D of 8arl:oro !i,arettes'
3he +sian 9roa&!astin, NetworD (+9N)H a pri%atel" owne& tele%ision stationH refuses to air the a&%ertise ent in !o plian!e with the law'

of the or&inan!e is a %ali& e0er!ise of poli!e power' 5t is ha=ar&ous to health an& !o fort to use the lot for resi&ential purposesH sin!e a hi,hwa" !rosses the su:&i%ision an& the area has :e!o e !o er!ial'

P&'i(e P&5er8 A&ning Ordinan(e 0+= N&n< I1*air1ent &) C&ntra(t+ 9"66!:
No ME555 5n the &ee&s of sale toH an& in the lan& titles of ho eowners of a resi&ential su:&i%ision in Pasi, Cit"H there are restri!tions annotate& therein to the effe!t that onl" resi&ential houses or stru!tures a" :e :uilt or !onstru!te& on the lots' @owe%erH the Cit" Coun!il of Pasi, ena!te& an or&inan!e a en&in, the e0istin, =onin, or&inan!e :" !han,in, the =one !lassifi!ation in that pla!e fro purel" resi&ential to !o er!ial' C+CH a lot ownerH sol& his lot to a :anDin, fir an& the latter starte& !onstru!tin, a !o er!ial :uil&in, on the lot to house a :anD insi&e the su:&i%ision' 3he su:&i%ision owner an& the ho eownersB asso!iation file& a !ase in !ourt to stop the !onstru!tion of the :uil&in, for :anDin, :usiness purposes an& to respe!t the restri!tions e :o&ie& in the &ee& of sale :" the su:&i%ision &e%eloper to the lot ownersH as well as the annotation in the titles'

-e!i&e the !onstitutionalit" of the law in ?uestion' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he law is !onstitutional' 5t is a %ali& e0er!ise of poli!e powerH :e!ause s oDin, is har ful to health' 5n Posa&as &e Puerto 1i!o +sso!iates %s' 3ouris Co pan" of Puerto 1i!oH #78 <'S' 328H it was rule& that a law prohi:itin, !ertain t"pes of a&%ertise ents is %ali& if it was a&opte& in the interest of the healthH safet"H an& welfare of the people' 5n Capital 9roa&!astin, Co pan" us' 8it!hell 333 F Supp 282H a law aDin, it unlawful to a&%ertise !i,arettes on an" e&iu of ele!troni! !o uni!ation was uphel&' 3he <nite& States Supre e Court su aril" sustaine& this rulin, in CapitaV 9roa&!astin, Co pan" usH +!tin, +ttorne" $eneral #02 <'S' 1000' 3he law in ?uestion was ena!te& on the :asis of the le,islati%e fin&in, that there is a nee& to prote!t pu:li! healthH :e!ause s oDin, !auses lun, &iseases' Cow:o" 7e%"Bs has not o%erthrown this fin&in,'

P&'i(e P&5er8 A&ning Ordinan(e 0+= N&n< I1*air1ent &) C&ntra(t+ 9!#$#:
No' 12: Pe&ro :ou,ht a par!el of lan& fro S art CorporationH a realt" fir en,a,e& in &e%elopin, an& sellin, lots to the pu:li!' Ane of the restri!tions in the &ee& of sale whi!h was annotate& in the title is that the lot shall :e use& :" the :u"er e0!lusi%el" for resi&ential purposes' + ain hi,hwa" ha%in, :een !onstru!te& a!ross the su:&i%isionH the area :e!a e !o er!ial in nature' 3he uni!ipalit" later passe& a =onin, or&inan!e &e!larin, the area as a !o er!ial :anD :uil&in, on his lot' S art Corporation went to !ourt to stop the !onstru!tion as %iolati%e of the :uil&in, restri!tions i pose& :" it' 3he !orporation !onten&s that the =onin, or&inan!e !annot nullif" the !ontra!tual o:li,ation assu e& :" the :u"er' -e!i&e the !ase'

5f "ou were the >u&,eH how woul& "ou resol%e the !aseL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 5f 5 were the ;u&,eH 5 woul& &is iss the !ase' +s hel& in Arti,as an& Co pan" 7i ite& Partnership %s' F/+35 9anD an& 3rust Co pan"' 9# SC1+ )33 (1979)H the =onin, or&inan!e is a %ali& e0er!ise of poli!e power an& pre%ails o%er the !ontra!tual stipulation restri!tin, the use of the lot to resi&ential purposes' Pri0a(y &) C&113ni(ati&n 9"66!: No M55 * C+C has a telephone line with an e0tension' Ane &a"H C+C was talDin, to C9C o%er the telephone' C+C !onspire& with his frien& CCCH who was at the en& of the e0tension line listenin, to C+BsC telephone !on%ersation with C9C in or&er to o%erhear an& tape*re!or& the !on%ersation wherein C9C !onfi&entiall" a& itte& that with e%i&ent pre e&itationH he (9) Dille& C-C for ha%in, !heate& hi in their :usiness partnership' C9C was not aware that the telephone !on%ersation was :ein, tape* re!or&e&'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !ase ust :e &is isse&' +s hel& in Arti,as an& Co pan"H 7i ite& Partnership %s' F/+35i 9anD an& 3rust Co pan"H 9# SC1+ 233H su!h a restri!tion in the !ontra!t !annot pre%ail o%er the =onin, or&inan!eH :e!ause the ena!t ent

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

@-

5n the !ri inal !ase a,ainst C9C for ur&erH is the tape*re!or&e& !on%ersation !ontainin, his a& ission a& issi:le in e%i&en!eL 6h"L (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he tape*re!or&e& !on%ersation is not a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' +s hel& in Sal!e&o* Artane= %s' Court of +ppealsH 232 SC1+ 111 (199#)' 1epu:li! +!t No' #200 aDes the tape* re!or&in, of a telephone !on%ersation &one without the authori=ation of all the parties to the !on%ersationH ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e' 5n a&&itionH the tapin, of the !on%ersation %iolate& the ,uarantee of pri%a!" of !o uni!ations enun!iate& in Se!tion 3H +rti!le 555 of the Constitution'

o%e& for its return on the ,roun& that it %iolates the ri,ht of CMC a,ainst unlawful sear!h an& sei=ure' -e!i&e' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he o:;e!tion of the law"er ust :e sustaine&H Se!tion 3(1)H +rti!le 5E of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es: C3he pri%a!" of !o uni!ation an& !orrespon&en!e shall :e in%iola:le e0!ept upon lawful or&er of the !ourtH or when pu:li! safet" or or&er re?uires otherwise as pres!ri:e& :" law'C 3here was no !ourt or&er whi!h authori=e& the war&en to rea& the letter of CMC' Neither is there an" law spe!ifi!all" authori=in, the 9ureau of Prisons to rea& the letter of CMCH <n&er Se!tion 3(1)H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 ConstitutionH to interfere with an" !orrespon&en!e when there is no !ourt or&erH there ust :e a law authori=in, it in the interest of pu:li! safet" or or&er'
3he rulin, of the <nite& States Supre e Court in the !ase of Strou& %s' <nite& StatesH 221 <'S' 12 is not appli!a:le hereH :e!ause Se!tion 3(1)H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution has no !ounterpart in the + eri!an Constitution' @en!eH in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion 3(2)H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the letter is ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e'

Pri0a(y &) C&rre+*&nden(e 9!##$:


No E55' * 3he poli!e ha& suspi!ions that >uan Sa sonH e :er of the su:%ersi%e New Proletarian +r "H was usin, the ail for propa,an&a purposes in ,ainin, new a&herents to its !ause' 3he Chief of Poli!e of 9antolanH 7anao &el Sur or&ere& the Post aster of the town to inter!ept an& open all ail a&&resse& to an& !o in, fro >uan Sa son in the interest of the national se!urit"' 6as the or&er of the Chief of Poli!e %ali&L (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: NoH the or&er of the Chief of Poli!e is not %ali&H :e!ause there is no law whi!h authori=es hi to or&er the Post aster to open the letters a&&resse& to an& !o in, fro >uan Sa son' +n offi!ial in the /0e!uti%e -epart ent !annot interfere with the pri%a!" of !orrespon&en!e an& !o uni!ation in the a:sen!e of a law authori=in, hi to &o so or a lawful or&er of the !ourt' Se!tion 3(1)H +rti!le 555 of the Constitution pro%i&es:
C3he pri%a!" of !o uni!ation an& !orrespon&en!e shall :e in%iola:le e0!ept upon lawful or&er of the !ourtH or when pu:li! safet" or or&er re?uires otherwise as pres!ri:e& :" law'C

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3he o:;e!tion of the law"er ust :e o%errule&' 5n @u&son %s' Pal erH #)8 <'S' 217H it was hel& that the !onstitutional prohi:ition a,ainst ille,al sear!hes an& sei=ures &oes not e0ten& to the !onfines of the prison' 5n Strou& %s' <nite& StatesH 221 <'S' 12H the <nite& States Supre e Court hel& that letters %oluntaril" written :" a prisoner an& e0a ine& :" the war&en whi!h !ontaine& in!ri inator" state ents were a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' 3heir inspe!tion :" the prison authorities &i& not %iolate the !onstitutional prohi:ition a,ainst ille,al sear!hes an& sei=ures' 3his is an esta:lishe& pra!ti!e reasona:l" &esi,ne& to pro ote &is!ipline within the penitentiar"'

Pri0a(y &) C&rre+*&nden(e8 4ai' 9!#$#:


No' 8: 6hile ser%in, senten!e in 8untinlupa for the !ri e of theftH CMC sta::e& &ea& one of his ,uar&sH CMC was !har,e& with ur&er' -urin, his trialH the prose!ution intro&u!e& as e%i&en!e a letter written in prison :" CMC to his wife ten&in, to esta:lish that the !ri e of ur&er was the result of pre e&itation' 3he letter was written %oluntaril"' 5n the !ourse of inspe!tionH it was opene& an& rea& :" a war&en pursuant to the rules of &is!ipline of the 9ureau of Prisons an& !onsi&erin, its !ontentsH the letter was turne& o%er to the prose!utor' 3he law"er of CMC o:;e!te& to the presentation of the letter an&

Rig,t t& A++e1b'y8 Per1it A**'i(ati&n8 reed&1 ParI+ 9>"<"66?:


3he Sa ahan n, ,a 8ahihirap (S8) file& with the Affi!e of the Cit" 8a"or of 8anila an appli!ation for per it to hol& a rall" on 8en&iola Street on Septe :er 2H 200) fro 10:00 a' ' to 3:00 p' ' to protest the politi!al Dillin,s of ;ournalists' @owe%erH the Cit" 8a"or &enie& their appli!ation on the ,roun& that a rall" at the

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

@;

ti e an& pla!e applie& for will :lo!D the traffi! in the San 8i,uel an& (uiapo -istri!ts' @e su,,este& the 7iwasan, 9onifa!ioH whi!h has :een &esi,nate& a Free&o ParDH as %enue for the rall"' -oes the S8 ha%e a re e&" to !ontest the &enial of its appli!ation for a per itL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH S8 has a re e&"' <n&er 9'P' 9i,' 880 (3he Pu:li! +sse :l" +!t of 1982)H in the e%ent of &enial of the appli!ation for a per itH the appli!ant a" !ontest the &e!ision in an appropriate !ourt of law' 3he !ourt ust &e!i&e within twent"*four (2#) hours fro the &ate of filin, of the !ase' Sai& &e!ision a" :e appeale& to the appropriate !ourt within fort"* ei,ht (#8) hours after re!eipt of the sa e' 5n all !asesH an" &e!ision a" :e appeale& to the Supre e Court (9a"an 8una %' /r itaH $'1' No' 1)9838H +pril 22H 200))'

1'

SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he arrests are unlawful' 6hat is prohi:ite& an& penali=e& un&er Se!' 13 (a) an& 1# (a) of 9'P' 9i, 880 is Cthe hol&in, of an" pu:li! asse :l" as &efine& in this +!t :" an" lea&er or or,ani=er without ha%in, first se!ure& that written per it where a per it is re?uire& fro the offi!e !on!erne& 0 0 0 Pro%i&e&H howe%erH that no person !an :e punishe& or hel& !ri inall" lia:le for parti!ipatin, in or atten&in, an otherwise pea!eful asse :l"'C
3husH onl" the lea&er or or,ani=er of the rall" without a per it a" :e arreste& without a warrant while the e :ers a" not :e arreste&H as the" !an not :e punishe& or hel& !ri inall" lia:le for atten&in, the rall"' @owe%erH un&er Se!tion 12 thereofH when the pu:li! asse :l" is hel& without a per it where a per it is re?uire&H the sai& pu:li! asse :l" a" :e pea!efull" &isperse&'

-oes the a%aila:ilit" of a Free&o ParD ;ustif" the &enial of S8Bs appli!ation for a per itL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the a%aila:ilit" of a free&o parD &oes not ;ustif" the &enial of the per it' 5t &oes i pl" that no per its are re?uire& for a!ti%ities in free&o parDs' <n&er 9'P' 9i,' 880H the &enial a" :e ;ustifie& onl" if there is !lear an& !on%in!in, e%i&en!e that the pu:li! asse :l" will !reate a !lear an& present &an,er to pu:li! or&erH pu:li! safet"H pu:li! !on%enien!eH pu:li! orals or pu:li! health (9a"an 8una %' /r itaH $'1' No' 1)9838H +pril 22H 200))'

2'

Rig,t t& A++e1b'y8 Per1it ReF3ire1ent+ 9!##": No' #: Al" pia +!a&e "H a pri%ate uni%ersit"H issue& a stu&ent re,ulation for aintainin, or&er in the s!hool !a pus an& to ensure that a!a&e i! a!ti%ities shall :e !on&u!te& effe!ti%el"'
@en!eforthH e%er" stu&ent or,ani=ation inten&in, to hol& an" s" posiu H !on%o!ationH rall" or an" asse :l" within s!hool propert" an& in%ol%in, at least 20 people ust fileH for the prior appro%al of the -ean of Stu&entsH an +ppli!ation settin, forth the ti eH pla!eH e0pe!te& si=e of the ,roupH an& the su:;e!t* atter an& purpose of the asse :l"' 3he 7ea,ue of Nationalist Stu&ents ?uestions the %ali&it" of the new re,ulation' 1esol%e'

5s the re?uire ent to appl" for a per it to hol& a rall" a prior restraint on free&o of spee!h an& asse :l"L (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the re?uire ent for a per it to hol& a rall" is not a prior restraint on free&o of spee!h an& asse :l"' 3he Supre e Court has hel& that the per it re?uire ent is %ali&H referrin, to it as re,ulation of the ti eH pla!eH an& anner of hol&in, pu:li! asse :liesH :ut not the !ontent of the spee!h itself' 3husH there is no prior restraintH sin!e the !ontent of the spee!h is not rele%ant to the re,ulation (9a"an 8una %' /r itaH $'1' No' 1)9838H +pril 22H 200))'

3'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he re,ulation is %ali&' +s hel& 5n 1arnento us' 8al* a:ananH 129 SC1+ 329H if an asse :l" will :e hel& :" stu&ents in s!hool pre isesH per it ust :e sou,ht fro the s!hool authoritiesH who are &e%oi& of the power to &en" su!h re?uest ar:itraril" or unreasona:l"' 5n ,rantin, su!h per itH there a" :e !on&itions as to the ti e an& pla!e of the asse :l" to a%oi& &isruption of !lasses or stoppa,e of worD of the non* a!a&e i! personnel'

#'

+ssu in, that &espite the &enial of S8Bs appli!ation for a per itH its e :ers hol& a rall"H pro ptin, the poli!e to arrest the ' +re the arrests without ;u&i!ial warrants lawfulL (2'2N)

Rig,t t& A++e1b'y8 P3b'i( Tea(,er+ 9"666:


No M55 * Pu:li! s!hool tea!hers sta,e& for &a"s ass a!tions at the -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports to press for the i e&iate ,rant of their &e an& for a&&itional pa"' 3he

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

@@

-/CS Se!retar" issue& to the a noti!e of the ille,alit" of their unauthori=e& a!tionH or&ere& the to i e&iatel" return to worDH an& warne& the of i posa:le san!tions' 3he" i,nore& this an& !ontinue& with their ass a!tion' 3he -/CS Se!retar" issue& or&ers for their pre%enti%e suspension without pa" an& !har,e& the tea!hers with ,ross is!on&u!t an& ,ross ne,le!t of &ut" for unauthori=e& a:an&on ent of tea!hin, posts an& a:sen!es without lea%e'

(a) 3heir striDe was an e0er!ise of their !onstitutional ri,ht to pea!eful asse :l" an& to petition the ,o%ern ent for re&ress of ,rie%an!es' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) +!!or&in, to -e la Cru= %' Court of +ppealsH 302 SC1+ 303 (1999)H the ar,u ent of the tea!hers that the" were erel" e0er!isin, their !onstitutional ri,ht to pea!eful asse :l" an& to petition the ,o%ern ent for re&ress of ,rie%an!e !annot :e sustaine&H :e!ause su!h ri,hts ust :e e0er!ise& within reasona:le li its' 6hen su!h ri,hts were e0er!ise& on re,ular s!hool &a"s instea& of &urin, the free ti e of the tea!hersH the tea!hers !o itte& a!ts pre;u&i!ial to the :est interests of the ser%i!e'

a) +re e plo"ees in the pu:li! se!tor allowe& to for unionsL 3o striDeL 6h"L (3N)
:) 3he tea!hers !lai that their ri,ht to pea!ea:l" asse :le an& petition the ,o%ern ent for re&ress of ,rie%an!es has :een !urtaile&' +re the" !orre!tL 6h"L

(2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


a) Se!tion 8H +rti!le 555 of the Constitution allows e plo"ees in the pu:li! se!tor to for unions' @owe%erH the" !annot ,o on striDe' +s e0plaine& in So!ial Se!urit" S"ste / plo"ees +sso!iation %' Court of +ppeals' 172 SC1+ )8) P1989QH the ter s an& !on&itions of their e plo" ent are fi0e& :" law' / plo"ees in the pu:li! se!tor !annot striDe to se!ure !on!essions fro their e plo"er' :' 3he tea!hers !annot !lai that their ri,ht to pea!ea:l" asse :le an& petition for the re&ress of ,rie%an!es has :een !urtaile&' +!!or&in, to 9an,alisan %' Court of +ppeals' 27) SC1+ )19 (1997)H the" !an e0er!ise this ri,ht without stoppa,e of !lasses'

Rig,t t& Tra0e'8 Order &) Arre+t 9!##!:


No' ): 8r' /ste:an Gron"H a Filipino !iti=enH is arreste& for the !ri e of s u,,lin,' @e posts :ail for his release' Su:se?uentl"H he ;u ps :ail an& is a:out to lea%e the !ountr" when the -epart ent of Forei,n +ffairs (-F+) !an!els his passport' @e sues the -F+H !lai in, %iolation of his free&o to tra%elH !itin, the new pro%ision in the 9ill of 1i,hts of the 1987 ConstitutionH to wit: CNeither shall the ri,ht to tra%el :e i paire& e0!ept in the interest of national se!urit"H pu:li! safet"H or pu:li! healthH as a" :e pro%i&e& :" law' -e!i&e the !ase'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !ase shoul& :e &is isse&' +n" person un&er an or&er of arrest is un&er restraint an& therefore he !an not !lai the ri,ht to tra%el' 5f he is a& itte& to :ail his free&o of o%e ent is !onfine& within the !ountr"' 3hereforeH if he su:se?uentl" ;u ps :ailH he !annot &e an& passport whi!h in effe!t will fa!ilitate his es!ape fro the !ountr"; he is in fa!t lia:le to :e arreste& an"ti e' 5n&ee&H the ri,ht to tra%el un&er the Constitution presupposes that the in&i%i&ual is un&er no restraint su!h as that whi!h woul& follow fro the fa!t that one has a pen&in, !ri inal !ase an& has :een pla!e& un&er arrest'

Rig,t t& A++e1b'y8 P3b'i( Tea(,er+ 9"66": No M * 3en pu:li! s!hool tea!hers of Caloo!an Cit" left their !lassroo s to ;oin a striDeH whi!h laste& for one onthH to asD for tea!hersB :enefits'
3he -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports !har,e& the a& inistrati%el"H for whi!h reason the" were re?uire& to answer an& for all" in%esti,ate& :" a !o ittee !o pose& of the -i%ision Superinten&ent of S!hools as Chair anH the -i%ision Super%isor as e :er an& a tea!herH as another e :er' An the :asis of the e%i&en!e a&&u!e& at the for al in%esti,ation whi!h a pl" esta:lishe& their ,uiltH the -ire!tor ren&ere& a &e!ision etin, out to the the penalt" of re o%al fro offi!e' 3he &e!ision was affir e& :" the -/CS Se!retar" an& the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission' An appealH the" reiterate& the ar,u ents the" raise& :efore the a& inistrati%e :o&iesH na el":

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 C&3n+e' &) ,i+ C,&i(e 9>$<"66@:


(1) 8ariano was arreste& :" the N95 as a suspe!t in the shoppin, all :o :in,s' +&%ise& of his ri,htsH 8ariano asDe& for the assistan!e of his relati%eH +tt"' Santos' 3he N95 noti!e& that +tt"' Santos was ine0perien!e&H in!o petent an& inattenti%e' -ee in, hi unsuite& to prote!t the ri,hts of 8arianoH the N95 &is isse& +tt"' Santos' +ppointe& in his pla!e was +tt"' 9arrosoH a

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@?

:ar topnot!her who was in the pre ises %isitin, a relati%e' +tt"' 9arroso a:l" assiste& 8ariano when the latter ,a%e a state ent' @owe%erH 8ariano assaile& the in%esti,ation !lai in, that he was &epri%e& of !ounsel of his !hoi!e'
6as the N95 !orre!t in &is issin, +tt"' Santos an& appointin, +tt"' 9arroso in his stea&L 5s 8arianoBs state entH a&e with the assistan!e of +tt"' 9arrosoH a& issi:le in e%i&en!eL (2N)

on!e the prose!ution shows there was !o plian!e with the !onstitutional re?uire ent on pre*interro,ation a&%isoriesH a !onfession is presu e& to :e %oluntar" an& the &e!larant :ears the :ur&en of pro%in, that his !onfession is in%oluntar" an& untrue' + !onfession is a& issi:le until the a!!use& su!!essfull" pro%es that it was ,i%en as a result of %iolen!eH inti i&ationH threat or pro ise of rewar& or lenien!" whi!h are not present in this !ase' +!!or&in,l"H the state ent is a& issi:le'
(People %' >ere=H $'1' No' 11#382H >anuar" 29H 1998)

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3he N95 was not !orre!t in &is issin, +tt"' Santos an& appointin, +tt"' 9arroso in his stea&' +rti!le 555H Se!tion 12(1) of the 1987 Constitution re?uires that a person un&er in%esti,ation for the !o ission of an offense shall ha%e no less than C!o petent an& in&epen&ent !ounsel prefera:l" of his own !hoi!e C 3his is eant to stress the pri a!" a!!or&e& to the %oluntariness of the !hoi!e un&er the uni?uel" stressful !on&itions of a !usto&ial in%esti,ationB 3husH the law"er !alle& to :e present &urin, su!h in%esti,ation shoul& :e as far as reasona:l" possi:leH the !hoi!e of the in&i%i&ual un&er,oin, ?uestionin,' 3he appoint ent of +tt"' 9arroso is ?uestiona:le :e!ause he was %isitin, a relati%e worDin, in the N95 an& thus his in&epen&en!e is &ou:tful' 7aw"ers en,a,e& :" the poli!eH whate%er testi onials are ,i%en as proof of their pro:it" an& suppose& in&epen&en!eH are ,enerall" suspe!tH as in an" areasH the relationship :etween law"ers an& law enfor!e ent authorities !an :e s" :ioti!' Consi&erin, that 8ariano was &epri%e& of !ounsel of his own !hoi!eH the state ent is ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e' (People %' >anuarioH $'1' No' 98222H Fe:ruar" 7H 1997)

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Pre+31*ti&n &) Inn&(en(e 0+= Pre+31*ti&n &) T,e)t 9"66;: (2*:) A. lost fi%e hea& of !attle whi!h he reporte& to the poli!e as stolen fro his :arn' @e re?ueste& se%eral nei,h:orsH in!lu&in, 11H for help in looDin, for the issin, ani als' +fter an e0tensi%e sear!hH the poli!e foun& two hea& in 11Bs far ' 11 !oul& not e0plain to the poli!e how the" ,ot hi&&en in a re ote area of his far ' 5nsistin, on his inno!en!eH 11 !onsulte& a law"er who tol& hi he has a ri,ht to :e presu e& inno!ent un&er the 9ill of 1i,hts' 9ut there is another presu ption of theft arisin, fro his une0plaine& possession of stolen !attleR un&er the penal law'

+re the two presu ptions !apa:le of re!on!iliation 5n this !aseL 5f soH how !an the" :e re!on!ile&L 5f notH whi!h shoul& pre%ailL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he two presu ptions !an :e re!on!ile&' 3he presu ption of inno!en!e stan&s until the !ontrar" is pro%e&' 5t a" :e o%er!o e :" a !ontrar" presu ption foun&e& upon hu an e0perien!e' 3he presu ption that 11 is the one who stole the !attle of A. is lo,i!alH sin!e he was foun& in possession of the stolen !attle' 11 !an pro%e his inno!en!e :" presentin, e%i&en!e to re:ut the presu ption' 3he :ur&en of e%i&en!e is shifte& to 11H :e!ause how he !a e into possession of the !attle is pe!uliarl" within his Dnowle&,e' (-i=on*Pa intuan %' PeopleH 23# SC1+ )3 (199#))'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3he N95 was !orre!t in &is issin, +tt"' Santos as he was in!o petent' 3he 1987 Constitution re?uires !ounsel to :e !o petent an& in&epen&ent' +tt"' 9arrosoH :ein, a :ar topnot!her a:l" assiste& 8ariano an& there is no showin, that his ha%in, a relati%e in the N95 affe!te& his in&epen&en!e' 8oreo%erH the a!!use& has the final !hoi!e of !ounsel as he a" re;e!t the one !hosen for hi an& asD for another' + law"er pro%i&e& :" the in%esti,ators is &ee e& en,a,e& :" the a!!use& where he raises no o:;e!tion a,ainst the law"er &urin, the !ourse of the in%esti,ationH an& the a!!use& thereafter su:s!ri:es to the truth of his state ent :efore the swearin, offi!er' 3husH

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Rig,t t& Bai' 9!##-:


No' 9: >ohann learne& that the poli!e were looDin, for hi in !onne!tion with the rape of an 18* "ear ol& ,irlH a nei,h:or' @e went to the poli!e station a weeD later an& presente& hi self to the &esD ser,eant' Coin!i&entall"' the rape %i!ti was in the pre ises e0e!utin, an e0tra;u&i!ial state ent' >ohannH alon, with si0 ()) other suspe!tsH were pla!e& in a poli!e line* up an& the ,irl pointe& to hi as the rapist' >ohann was arreste& an& lo!De& up in a !ell'

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>ohann was !har,e& with rape in !ourt :ut prior to arrai,n ent in%oDe& his ri,ht to preli inar" in%esti,ation' 3his was &enie& :" the ;u&,eH an& thusH trial pro!ee&e&' +fter the prose!ution presente& se%eral witnessesH >ohann throu,h !ounselH in%oDe& the ri,ht to :all an& file& a otion thereforH whi!h was &enie& outri,ht :" the >u&,e' >ohann now files a petition for !ertiorari :efore the Court of +ppeals ar,uin, that: 3) @e is entitle& to :ail as a atter of ri,htH thus the >u&,e shoul& not ha%e &enie& his otion to fi0 :all outri,ht' -e!i&e' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3) 5n a!!or&an!e with +rt' 555' se!' 13 of the ConstitutionH >ohann a" :e &enie& :ail if the e%i&en!e of his ,uilt is stron, !onsi&erin, that the !ri e with whi!h he is !har,e& is punisha:le :" re!lusion perpetua' 5t is thus not a atter of ri,ht for hi to :e release& on :ail in su!h !ase' 3he !ourt ust first aDe a &eter ination of the stren,th of the e%i&en!e on the :asis of e%i&en!e alrea&" presente& :" the prose!utionH unless it &esires to present so e oreH an& ,i%e the a!!use& the opportunit" to present !ounter%ailin, e%i&en!e' 5f ha%in, &one this the !ourt fin&s the e%i&en!e not to :e stron,H then it :e!o es the ri,ht of >ohann to :e a& itte& to :ail' 3he error of the trial !ourt lies in outri,htl" &en"in, the otion for :ail of >ohann'

No' 12: 8a" an alien in%oDe the !onstitutional ri,ht to :ail &urin, the pen&en!" of &eportation pro!ee&in,sL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No' an alien a" not in%oDe the !onstitutional ri,ht to :ail &urin, the pen&en!" of &eportation pro!ee&in,s' 5n @ar%e" %s Santia,oH 1)2 SC1+ 8#0H it was hel& that the !onstitutional ,uarantee to :ail a" not :e in%oDe& in &eportation pro!ee&in,sH :e!ause the" &o not partaDe of the nature of a !ri inal a!tion'

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Rig,t t& Bai'8 Matter &) Rig,t &r a Matter &) Di+(reti&n 9>%<"66@:
a) State with reason(s) whether :ail is a atter of ri,ht or a atter of &is!retion in the

followin, !ases: (#N) a) 3he i posa:le penalt" for the !ri e !har,e& is rec'*sion perpe+*a an& the a!!use& is a inor; SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5f the a!!use& is a inor where the i posa:le penalt" for the !ri e !har,e& is re!lusion perpetuaH :ail woul& :e a atter of ri,ht' <n&er +rti!le )8 of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&eH when the offen&er is a inor un&er ei,hteen "ears of a,eH he is entitle& to a penalt"H &epen&in, on his a,eH lower :" one or two &e,rees than that pres!ri:e& :" law for the !ri e !o itte&' 3he Constitution withhol&s the ,uarant" of :ail fro one who is a!!use& of a !apital offense where the e%i&en!e of ,uilt is stron,' 3he o:%ious reason is that one who fa!es a pro:a:le &eath senten!e has a parti!ularl" stron, te ptation to flee' 3his reason &oes not hol& where the a!!use& has :een esta:lishe& without o:;e!tion to :e a inor who :" law !annot :e senten!e& to &eath' (9ra%o %' 9or;aH $'1' No' 7*)2228H Fe:ruar" 18H 1982)

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Rig,t t& Bai'8 Ca*ita' O))en+e 9>;<"66?: State whether or not the law is !onstitutional' /0plain :riefl"' 2' + law &en"in, persons !har,e& with !ri es punisha:le :" re!lusion perpetua or &eath the ri,ht to :ail' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he law is in%ali& as it !ontra%enes Se!tion 13H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution whi!h pro%i&es that Call personsH e0!ept those !har,e& with offenses punisha:le :" re!lusion perpetua when e%i&en!e of ,uilt is stron,H shallH :efore !on%i!tionH :e :aila:le :" suffi!ient suretiesH or :e release& on re!o,ni=an!e as a" :e pro%i&e& :" law'C 3he a!!use& a" not :e &epri%e& of his !onstitutional ri,ht to :ail e%en if !har,e& with a !apital offense where the e%i&en!e of ,uilt is not stron,'

:) 3he i posa:le penalt" for the !ri e !har,e& is life i prison ent an& the a!!use& is a inor; ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
5f the a!!use& is a inor an& the i posa:le penalt" for the !ri e !har,e& is life i prison entH :ail woul& not :e a atter of ri,ht' 5n the instant !aseH assu in, that e%i&en!e of ,uilt stron,H :ail shall :e &enie& as the pri%ile,e& iti,atin, !ir!u stan!e of inorit" is not a%aila:le for %iolation of spe!ial laws penali=e& :" life i prison ent'

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Rig,t t& Bai'8 De*&rtati&n Ca+e 9!#$#:

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
+lthou,h the Constitution entions onl" re!lusion perpetuaH 1ule 11# of the 1ules of

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Court a&&s life i prison entH an& thereforeH appl"in, the PRO R:O ;OCTRI<:H :ail woul& still :e a atter of ri,htH sin!e it is fa%ora:le to the a!!use&'
!) 3he a!!use& has :een !on%i!te& of ho i!i&e on a !har,e of ur&er an& senten!e& to suffer an in&eter inate penalt" of fro ei,ht (8) "ears an& one (1) &a" of prision a"orH as ini u H to twel%e

pri%ate

!o plainantH

the

;u&,e

properl"

&is isse& the !ase for failure to prose!ute'

(12) "ears an& four (#) te poralH as a0i u ' SUGGESTED ANSWER:

onths of re!lusion

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Se')<In(ri1inati&n 9!#$$: No' 3: -r' >uan Sto' 3o as is a pra!ti!in, &entist in 8ariDinaH 8etro 8anila' @e was !har,e& with i oralit" :efore the 9oar& of -entistr" :" a la&" patientH who !lai s that -r' Sto' 3o as tooD li:erties with her person an& Disse& her while she was un&er the treat ent at the latterBs !lini!'
+t the initial hearin, of the a& inistrati%e !o plaintH the !o plainantBs !ounsel !alle& the respon&ent as his first witness' 3he respon&ent throu,h !ounselH o:;e!te& %i,orousl"H !lai in, his !onstitutional ri,ht to :e e0e pt fro :ein, a witness a,ainst hi self' 3he 9oar& note& the o:;e!tionH :ut rule& that in the ne0t s!he&ule& hearin,H a onth an& a half laterH the respon&ent woul& :e !alle& to testif" as a witnessH as the ri,ht he !lai s is not a%aila:le in a& inistrati%e in%esti,ationsH :ut onl" in !ri inal prose!utions'

5f the a!!use& has :een !on%i!te& of ho i!i&e on a !har,e of ur&er an& senten!e& to suffer i prison ent of fro 8 to 12 "earsH :ail is a atter of &is!retion' <n&er 1ule 11#H Se!' 2H par' 1 of the 1ules of CourtH if the &e!ision of the trial !ourt !on%i!tin, the a!!use& !han,e& the nature of the offense fro non*:aila:le to :aila:leH the appli!ation for :ail a" :e file& an& a!te& upon :" the appellate !ourt' +& ission to :ail is &is!retionar"'

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Rig,t t& S*eedy Tria' 9"666:


No ME' Char,e& :" Fran!is!o with li:elH Pa:lo was arrai,ne& on >anuar" 3H 2000H Pre*trial was &ispense& with an& !ontinuous trial was set for 8ar!h 7H 8 an& 9H 2000' An the first settin,H the prose!ution o%e& for its postpone ent an& !an!ellation of the other settin,s :e!ause its prin!ipal an& pro:a:l" onl" witnessH the pri%ate !o plainant Fran!is!oH su&&enl" ha& to ,o a:roa& to fulfill a professional !o it ent' 3he ;u&,e instea& &is isse& the !ase for failure to prose!ute'

-r' Sto' 3o as is &e!i&e& not to testif"' +s his law"erH what woul& "ou &oL 6h"L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5 will file a petition for prohi:ition with pra"er for preli inar" in;un!tion with the 1e,ional 3rial Court' 3he pri%ile,e a,ainst self in!ri ination is a%aila:le not onl" in ;u&i!ial pro!ee&in,s :ut also in a& inistrati%e in%esti,ations' 5n Pas!ual %' 9oar& of 8e&i!al /0a inersH 28 SC1+ 3## (19)9)H it was hel& that the re%o!ation of a li!ense as a e&i!al pra!titioner !an :e an e%en ,reater &epri%ation than ere forfeiture of propert"' 5n so e aspe!ts it is si ilar to !ri inal pro!ee&in,s an&H thereforeH the respon&ent !an not :e a&e to testif" as a witness for the !o plainant'

a) 6oul& the ,rant of the otion for postpone ent ha%e %iolate& the a!!use&Bs ri,ht to spee&" trialL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he ,rant of the otion for postpone ent woul& not ha%e %iolate& the ri,ht of the a!!use& to spee&" trial' +s hel& 5n People %' 7e%isteH 222 SC1+ 238 (199))' sin!e the otion for postpone ent was the first one re?ueste&H the nee& for the offen&e& part" to atten& to a professional !o it ent is a %ali& reasonH no su:stantial ri,ht of the a!!use& woul& :e pre;u&i!e&H an& the prose!ution shoul& :e affor&e& a fair opportunit" to prose!ute its !aseH the otion shoul& :e ,rante&'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
Sin!e !ontinuous trial of !ases is re?uire& an& sin!e the &ate of the initial hearin, was set upon a,ree ent of all partiesH in!lu&in, the

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Se')<In(ri1inati&n 9!##6: No' #: 3he pri%ile,e of self*in!ri ination ust :e ti el" in%oDe&H otherwise it is &ee e& wai%e&' 1' 5n a C5E57 C+S/H the plaintiff !alle& the &efen&ant a hostile witness an& announ!e& that the &efen&ant woul& :e asDe& in!ri inatin, ?uestions in the &ire!t e0a ination' 6hen shoul& the &efen&ant in%oDe the pri%ile,e a,ainst self* in!ri inationL
2' 5n a C1585N+7 C+S/H the prose!ution !alle& the a!!use& to the witness stan& as the first witness in %iew of !ertain fa!ts

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3'

a& itte& :" the a!!use& at the pre*trial' 6hen shoul& the a!!use& in%oDe the pri%ile,e a,ainst self*in!ri inationL 5n an a& inistrati%e !ase for alpra!ti!e an& the !an!ellation of li!ense to pra!ti!e e&i!ine file& a,ainst CH the !o plainant !alle& C to the witness stan&' 6hen

Cite two P2Q possi:le !onstitutional o:;e!tions to this law' 1esol%e the o:;e!tions an& e0plain whether an" su!h infir ities !an :e !ure&' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Possi:le o:;e!tions to the law are that re?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe the :reathal"=er test will %iolate his ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri inationH that pro%i&in, for the suspension of his &ri%erBs li!ense without an" hearin, %iolates &ue pro!essH an& that the propose& law will %iolate the ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=uresH :e!ause it allows poli!e authorities to re?uire a &ri%e to taDe the :reathal"=er test e%en if there is no pro:a:le !ause' 1e?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe a 91/+3@+7O./1 3/S3 &oes not %iolate his ri,ht a,ainst self* in!ri inationH :e!ause he is not :ein, !o pelle& to ,i%e testi onial e%i&en!e' @e is erel" :ein, asDe& to su: it to a ph"si!al test' 3his is not !o%ere& :" the !onstitutional ,uarantee a,ainst self*in!ri ination' 3husH in South -aDota %s' Ne%illeH #29 <'S' 223H it was hel& for this reason that re?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe a :loo&*al!ohol test is %ali&' +s hel& in 8a!De" %s' +fontr"a ##3 <'S' 1H :e!ause of !o pellin, ,o%ern ent interest in safet" alon, the streetsH the li!ense of a &ri%er who refuses to taDe the :reathal"=er test a" :e suspen&e& i e&iatel" pen&in, a post* suspension hearin,H :ut there ust :e a pro%ision for a post*suspension hearin,' 3husH to sa%e the propose& law fro un!onstitutionall" on the ,roun& of &enial of &ue pro!essH it shoul& pro%i&e for an i e&iate hearin, upon suspension of the &ri%erBs li!ense' 3he propose& law %iolates the ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=ures' 5t will authori=e poli!e authorities to stop an" &ri%er an& asD hi to taDe the :reathal"=er test e%en in the a:sen!e of a pro:a:le !ause'

shoul& C in%oDe the pri%ile,e a,ainst self* in!ri inationL /0plain "our answers to the three ?uestions' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(1) +s hel& in 9a,a&ion, %H -e $u= anH 9# SC1+ 90)H the &efen&ant shoul& taDe the witness stan& an& o:;e!t when a ?uestion !allin, for an in!ri inatin, ?uestion is propoun&e&' <nliDe in pro!ee&in,s whi!h are !ri inal in !hara!ter in whi!h the a!!use& !an refuse to testif"H the &efen&ant ust wait until a ?uestion !allin, for an in!ri inator" answer is a!tuall" asDe&' (Suare= %' 3on,!oH 2 SC1+ 71) (2) +s hel& in Cha%e= %' Court of +ppealsH 2# SC1+ ))3H in a !ri inal !ase the a!!use& a" alto,ether refuse to taDe the witness an& refuse to answer an" ?uestionH :e!ause the purpose of !allin, hi as a witness for the prose!ution has no other purpose :ut to in!ri inate hi '

(3) +s in a !ri inal !aseH C !an refuse to taDe the witness stan& an& refuse to answer an" ?uestion' 5n Pas!ual %' 9oar& of 8e&i!al /0a inersH 28 SC1+ 3##H it was hel& that an a& inistrati%e !ase for alpra!ti!e an& !an!ellation of the li!ense to pra!ti!e e&i!ine is penal in !hara!terH :e!ause an unfa%ora:le &e!ision woul& result in the re%o!ation of the li!ense of the respon&ent to pra!ti!e e&i!ine' Conse?uentl"H he !an refuse to taDe the witness stan&' Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Se')<In(ri1inati&n 9!##":
NoH 3; Con,ress is !onsi&erin, a law a,ainst &runDen &ri%in,' <n&er the le,islationH poli!e authorities a" asD an" &ri%er to taDe a C:reathal"=er testCH wherein the &ri%er e0hales se%eral ti es into a &e%i!e whi!h !an &eter ine whether he has :een &ri%in, un&er the influen!e of al!ohol' 3he results of the test !an :e use&H in an" le,al pro!ee&in, a,ainst hi ' Further oreH &e!larin, that the issuan!e of a &ri%erBs li!ense ,i%es rise onl" to a pri%ile,e to &ri%e otor %ehi!les on pu:li! roa&sH the law pro%i&es that a &ri%er who refuses to taDe the test shall :e auto ati!all" su:;e!t to a 90*&a" suspension of his &ri%erBs li!enseH

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Se')<In(ri1inati&n 9"666: No M5' :) + an was shot an& Dille& an& his
Diller fle&' 8o ents after the shootin,H an e"ewitness &es!ri:e& to the poli!e that the sla"er wore white pantsH a shirt with floral &esi,nH ha& :oots an& was a:out 70 Dilos an& 1')2 eters' 9or;aH who fit the &es!ription ,i%enH was seen near:"' @e was taDen into !usto&" an& :rou,ht to the poli!e pre!in!t where his pantsH shirt an& :oots were for!i:l" taDen an& he was wei,he&H easure&H photo,raphe&H fin,erprinte& an& su:;e!te& to paraffin testin,' +t his trialH 9or;a o:;e!te& to the a& ission in e%i&en!e of the apparelH his

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

?6

hei,ht an& wei,htH his photo,raphsH fin,erprints !o parison an& the results of the paraffin testH assertin, that these were taDen in %iolation of his ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri ination' 1ule on the o:;e!tion' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
:) 3he o:;e!tion of 9or;a is not tena:le' +s hel& in People %' Pa"norH 2)1 SC1+ )12 (199))H the ri,hts ,uarantee& :" Se!tion 12H +rti!le in of the Constitution applies onl" a,ainst testi onial e%i&en!e' +n a!!use& a" :e !o pelle& to :e photo,raphe& or easure&H his ,ar ents a" :e re o%e&H an& his :o&" a" :e e0a ine&'

proof' Ane &a"H / ilio :roDe open the &esD of +l%in an& &is!o%ere& a letter wherein 1an&" thanDe& +l%in for ha%in, passe& on to hi %ital tra&e se!rets of / ilio' /n!lose& in the letter was a !he!D for P20H000'00 &rawn a,ainst the a!!ount of 1an&" an& pa"a:le to +l%in' / ilio then &is isse& +l%in fro his e plo" ent' / ilioBs proof of +l%inBs perfi&" are the sai& letter an& !he!D whi!h are o:;e!te& to as ina& issi:le for ha%in, :een o:taine& throu,h an ille,al sear!h' +l%in file& a suit assailin, his &is issal'

Rig,t+ &) t,e A((3+ed8 Se')<In(ri1inati&n 9>%<"66?: Sele!t the :est answer an& e0plain'
1' +n a!!use&Bs ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri ination is %iolate& in the followin, !ases: (2N)

1ule on the a& issi:ilit" of the letter an& !he!D' (2N) ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
+s hel& in People %' 8arti ($'1' No' 812)1H >anuar" 18H 1991)H the !onstitutionH in la"in, &own the prin!iples of the ,o%ern ent an& fun&a ental li:erties of the peopleH &oes not ,o%ern relationships :etween in&i%i&uals' 3husH if the sear!h is a&e at the :ehest or initiati%e of the proprietor of a pri%ate esta:lish ent for its own an& pri%ate purposes an& without the inter%ention of poli!e authoritiesH the ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!h an& sei=ure !annot :e in%oDe& for onl" the a!t of pri%ate in&i%i&ualsH not the law enfor!ersH is in%ol%e&' 5n su H +-e pro+ec+ion agains+ *nreasonab'e searc-es and sei=*res canno+ be e>+ended +o ac+s co00i++ed by PRI?AT: I<;I?I;6AL7 so as +o bring i+ &i+-in +-e a0bi+ o) a''eged *n'a&)*' in+r*sion by +-e go/ern0en+. +!!or&in,l"H the letter an& !he!D are a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' (6aterous -ru, Corp' %' N71CH $'1' No' 113271H A!to:er 1)H 1997)

a' 6hen he is or&ere& :" the trial !ourt to un&er,o a paraffin test to pro%e he is ,uilt" of ur&er; :' 6hen he is !o pelle& to pro&u!e his :anD:ooDs to :e use& as e%i&en!e a,ainst his father !har,e& with plun&er; !' 6hen he is or&ere& to pro&u!e a sa ple of his han&writin, to :e use& as e%i&en!e that he is the author of a letter wherein he a,ree& to Dill the %i!ti ; &' 6hen the presi&ent of a !orporation is su:* poenae& to pro&u!e !ertain &o!u ents as proofs he is ,uilt" of ille,al re!ruit ent' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he :est answer is !) when he is or&ere& to pro&u!e a sa ple of his han&writin, to :e use& as e%i&en!e that he is the author of a letter wherein he a,ree& to Dill the %i!ti ' <n&er +rti!le @5H Se!tion 17 of the 1987 ConstitutionH Cno person shall :e !o pelle& to :e a witness a,ainst hi self'C Sin!e the pro%ision prohi:its !o pulsor" testi onial in!ri inationH it &oes not atter whether the testi on" is taDen :" oral or written eans as either wa" it in%ol%es the <S/ AF 5N3/77/C3<+7 F+C<735/S' 3he purpose of the pri%ile,e is to a%oi& an& prohi:it there:" the repetition an& re!urren!e of !o pellin, a personH in a !ri inal or an" other !aseH to furnish the issin, e%i&en!e ne!essar" for his !on%i!tion (9er u&e= %' CastilloH Per 1e!' No' 71#*+H >ul" 2)H 1937; 9eltran %' Sa sonH $'1' No' 32022H Septe :er 23H1929)'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3he letter is ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e' 3he !onstitutional in;un!tion &e!larin, the pri%a!" of !o uni!ation an& !orrespon&en!e to :e in%iola:le is no less appli!a:le si pl" :e!ause it is the e plo"er who is the part" a,ainst who the !onstitutional pro%ision is to :e enfor!e&' 3he onl" e0!eption to the prohi:ition in the Constitution is if there is a lawful or&er fro the !ourt or when pu:li! safet" or or&er re?uires otherwiseH as pres!ri:e& :" law' +n" %iolation of this pro%ision ren&ers the e%i&en!e o:taine& ina& issi:le for an" purpose in an" pro!ee&in,' (.ulueta %' Court of +ppealsH $'1' No' 107383H Fe:ruar" 20H 199))

Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re8 Pri0ate Indi0id3a'+ 9>$<"66@:


(2) / ilio ha& lon, suspe!te& that +l%inH his e plo"eeH ha& :een passin, tra&e se!rets to his !o petitorH 1an&"H :ut he ha& no

Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 A'ien+ 9"66!:


No 5E * + is an alien' State whetherH in the PhilippinesH he: 5s entitle& to the ri,ht a,ainst

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?!

ille,al sear!hes an& sei=ures an& a,ainst ille,al arrests' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: +liens are entitle& to the ri,ht a,ainst ille,al sear!hes an& sei=ures an& ille,al arrests' +s applie& in People %' Chua @o SanH 307 SC1+ #32 (1999)H these ri,hts are a%aila:le to all personsH in!lu&in, aliens' Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 Breat,a'y/er Te+t 9!##":
NoH 3; Con,ress is !onsi&erin, a law a,ainst &runDen &ri%in,' <n&er the le,islationH poli!e authorities a" asD an" &ri%er to taDe a C:reathal"=er testCH wherein the &ri%er e0hales se%eral ti es into a &e%i!e whi!h !an &eter ine whether he has :een &ri%in, un&er the influen!e of al!ohol' 3he results of the test !an :e use&H in an" le,al pro!ee&in, a,ainst hi ' Further oreH &e!larin, that the issuan!e of a &ri%erBs li!ense ,i%es rise onl" to a pri%ile,e to &ri%e otor %ehi!les on pu:li! roa&sH the law pro%i&es that a &ri%er who refuses to taDe the test shall :e auto ati!all" su:;e!t to a 90*&a" suspension of his &ri%erBs li!enseH

to sa%e the propose& law fro un!onstitutionall" on the ,roun& of &enial of &ue pro!essH it shoul& pro%i&e for an i e&iate hearin, upon suspension of the &ri%erBs li!ense' 3he propose& law %iolates the ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=ures' 5t will authori=e poli!e authorities to stop an" &ri%er an& asD hi to taDe the :reathal"=er test e%en in the a:sen!e of a pro:a:le !ause'

Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 I11ediate C&ntr&' 9!#$%:


No' 555: CMC a Consta:ular" Affi!erH was arreste& pursuant to a lawful !ourt or&er in 9a,uio Cit" for ur&er' @e was :rou,ht to 8anila where a warrantless sear!h was !on&u!te& in his offi!ial ?uarters at Ca p Cra eH 3he sear!h tea foun& an& sei=e& the ur&er weapon in a &rawer of CMC' Can CMC !lai that the sear!h an& sei=ure were ille,al an& o%e for e0!lusion fro e%i&en!e of the weapon sei=e&L /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH CMC !an &o so' 3he warrantless sear!h !annot :e ;ustifie& as an in!i&ent of a %ali& arrestH :e!ause !onsi&era:le ti e ha& elapse& after his arrest in 9a,uio :efore the sear!h of his ?uarters in Ca p Cra eH (ue=on Cit" was a&eH an& :e!ause the &istan!e :etween the pla!e of arrest an& the pla!e of sear!h ne,ates an" !lai that the pla!e sear!he& is within his Ci e&iate !ontrolC so as to ;ustif" the apprehension that he i,ht &estro" or !on!eal e%i&en!e of !ri e :efore a warrant !an :e o:taine&' (Chi el %' CaliforniaH 392 <'S' 722 (19)9) ) in Nolas!o %' Cru= PanoH 1#7 SC1+ 209 (1987)H the Supre e Court re!onsi&ere& its pre%ious &e!ision hol&in, that a warrantless sear!hH a&e after 30 inutes fro the ti e of arrestH an&H in a pla!e se%eral :lo!Ds awa" fro the pla!e of arrestH was %ali&' 5t hel& that a warrantless sear!h is li ite& to the sear!h of the person of the arrestee at the ti e an& in!i&ent to his arrest an& for &an,erous weapons or an"thin, whi!h a" :e use& as proof of the offense' + !ontrar" rule woul& ;ustif" the poli!e in pro!urin, a warrant of arrest an&H :" %irtue thereofH not onl" arrest the person :ut also sear!h his &wellin,' + warrant re?uires that all fa!ts as to the !on&ition of the propert" an& its surroun&in,s an& its i pro%e ents an& !apa:ilities ust :e !onsi&ere&H an& this !an onl" :e &one in a ;u&i!ial pro!ee&in,'

Cite two P2Q possi:le !onstitutional o:;e!tions to this law' 1esol%e the o:;e!tions an& e0plain whether an" su!h infir ities !an :e !ure&' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Possi:le o:;e!tions to the law are that re?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe the :reathal"=er test will %iolate his ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri inationH that pro%i&in, for the suspension of his &ri%erBs li!ense without an" hearin, %iolates &ue pro!essH an& that the propose& law will %iolate the ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=uresH :e!ause it allows poli!e authorities to re?uire a &ri%e to taDe the :reathal"=er test e%en if there is no pro:a:le !ause 1e?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe a :reathal"=er test &oes not %iolate his ri,ht a,ainst self* in!ri inationH :e!ause he is not :ein, !o pelle& to ,i%e testi onial e%i&en!e' @e is erel" :ein, asDe& to su: it to a ph"si!al test' 3his is not !o%ere& :" the !onstitutional ,uarantee a,ainst self*in!ri ination' 3husH in South -aDota %s' Ne%illeH #29 <'S' 223H it was hel& for this reason that re?uirin, a &ri%er to taDe a :loo&*al!ohol test is %ali&' +s hel& in 8a!De" %s' +fontr"a ##3 <'S' 1H :e!ause of !o pellin, ,o%ern ent interest in safet" alon, the streetsH the li!ense of a &ri%er who refuses to taDe the :reathal"=er test a" :e suspen&e& i e&iatel" pen&in, a post* suspension hearin,H :ut there ust :e a pro%ision for a post*suspension hearin,' 3husH

Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 In(identa' t& .a'id Sear(, 9!##6:


No' 9; So e poli!e operati%esH a!tin, un&er a lawfull" issue& warrant for the purpose of

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?"

sear!hin, for firear s in the @ouse of M lo!ate& at No' 10 Shaw 9oule%ar&H Pasi,H 8etro 8anilaH foun&H instea& of firear sH ten Dilo,ra s of !o!aine'
(1) 8a" the sai& poli!e operati%es lawfull" sei=e the !o!aineL /0plain "our answer'

(2)

8a" M su!!essfull" !hallen,e the le,alit" of the sear!h on the ,roun& that the pea!e offi!ers &i& not infor hi a:out his ri,ht to re ain silent an& his ri,ht to !ounselL /0plain "our answer'
Suppose the pea!e offi!ers were a:le to fin& unli!ense& firear s in the house in an a&;a!ent lotH that is' NoH 12 Shaw 9oule%ar&H whi!h is also owne& :" M' 8a" the" lawfull" sei=e the sai&

(3)

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin,s in <" Ge"tin %H EillarealH #2 Phil' 88) an& People %' S" >u!oH )# Phil' ))7H the unli!ense& firear s foun& in the house at 12 Shaw 9oule%ar& a" not :e lawfull" sei=e&H sin!e the" were not in!lu&e& in the &es!ription of the arti!les to :e sei=e& :" %irtue of the sear!h warrant' 3he sear!h warrant &es!ri:e& the arti!les to :e sei=e& as firear s in the house of M lo!ate& at 10 Shaw 9oule%ar&' Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 P'a(e &) Sear(, 9"66!: No M5 * +r e& with a sear!h an& sei=ure warrantH a tea of poli!e en le& :" 5nspe!tor 3rias entere& a !o poun& an& sear!he& the house &es!ri:e& therein as No' 17 SpeaDer Pere= St'H Sta' 8esa @ei,htsH (ue=on Cit"H owne& :" 8r' /rnani PeletsH for a reporte& !a!he of firear s an& a unition' @owe%erH upon thorou,h sear!h of the houseH the poli!e foun& nothin,'
3henH a!tin, on a hun!hH the poli!e en pro!ee&e& to a s aller house insi&e the sa e !o poun& with a&&ress at No' 17*+ SpeaDer Pere= St'H entere& itH an& !on&u!te& a sear!h therein o%er the o:;e!tion of 8r' Pelets who happene& to :e the sa e owner of the first house' 3hereH the poli!e foun& the unli!ense& firear s an& a unition the" were looDin, for' +s a result' 8r' /rnani Pelets was !ri inall" !har,e& in !ourt with 5lle,al possession of firear s an& a unition as penali=e& un&er P'-' 18))H as a en&e& :" 1+' 829#' +t the trialH he %ehe entl" o:;e!te& to the presentation of the e%i&en!e a,ainst hi for :ein, ina& issi:le' 5s 8r' / ani PeletBs !ontention %ali& or notL 6h"L (2N)

unli!ense& firear sL "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER:

/0plain

(1) OesH the poli!e operati%es a" lawfull" sei=e the !o!aineH :e!ause it is an ite whose possession is prohi:ite& :" lawH it was in plain %iew an& it was onl" ina&%ertentl" &is!o%ere& in the !ourse of a lawful sear!h' 3he possession of !o!aine is prohi:ite& :" Se!tion 8 of the -an,erous -ru,s +!t' +s hel& in 8a,on!ia %' Pala!ioH 80 Phil' 770H an arti!le whose possession is prohi:ite& :" law a" :e sei=e& without the nee& of an" sear!h warrant if it was &is!o%ere& &urin, a lawful sear!h' 3he a&&itional re?uire ent lai& &own in 1oan %' $on=alesH 1#2 SC1+ )87 that the &is!o%er" of the arti!le ust ha%e :een a&e ina&%ertentl" was also satisfie& in this !ase' (2) NoH M !annot su!!essfull" !hallen,e the le,alit" of the sear!h si pl" :e!ause the pea!e offi!ers &i& not infor hi a:out his ri,ht to re ain silent an& his ri,ht to !ounsel' Se!tion 12(1)H +rti!le 555 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es: C+n" person un&er in%esti,ation for the !o ission of an offense shall ha%e the ri,ht to :e infor e& of his ri,ht to re ain silent an& to ha%e !o petent an& in&epen&ent !ounsel prefera:l" of his own !hoi!e'C

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !ontention of /rnani Pelet is %ali&' +s hel& in People %s' Court of +ppealsH 291SC1+ #00 (1993)H if the pla!e sear!he& is &ifferent fro that state& in the sear!h warrantH the e%i&en!e sei=e& is ina& issi:le' 3he poli!e an !annot o&if" the pla!e to :e sear!he& as set out in the sear!h warrant'

+s hel& in People %' -"H 128 SC1+ 111' for this pro%ision to appl"H a suspe!t ust :e un&er in%esti,ation' 3here was no in%esti,ation in%ol%e& in this !ase'
(3) 3he unli!ense& firear s store& at 12 Shaw 9oule%ar& a" lawfull" :e sei=e& sin!e their possession is ille,al' +s hel& in 8a,on!ia a Pala!ioH 80 Phil' 770H when an in&i%i&ual possesses !ontra:an& (unli!ense& firear s :elon, to this !ate,or")H he is !o ittin, a !ri e an& he !an :e arreste& without a warrant an& the !ontra:an& !an :e sei=e&'

Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 +ear(, 1ade by a *ri0ate (iti/en 9!##-:


No' #: 7arr" was an o%erni,ht ,uest in a otel' +fter he !he!De& out the followin, &a"H the !ha :er ai& foun& an atta!he !ase whi!h she sur ise& was left :ehin& :" 7arr"' She turne& it o%er to the ana,er whoH to &eter ine the na e an& a&&ress of the ownerH opene& the atta!he !ase an& saw pa!Da,es whi!h ha& a

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

?-

pe!uliar s ell an& upon s?uee=in, felt liDe &rie& lea%es' @is !uriosit" arouse&H the ana,er a&e an openin, on one of the pa!Da,es an& tooD se%eral ,ra s of the !ontents thereof' @e tooD the pa!Da,es to the N95H an& in the presen!e of a,entsH opene& the pa!Da,esH the !ontents of whi!h upon la:orator" e0a inationH turne& out to :e ari;uana flowerin, topsH 7arr" was su:se?uentl" foun&H :rou,ht to the N95 Affi!e where he a& itte& ownership of the atta!he !ase an& the pa!Da,es' @e was a&e to si,n a re!eipt for the pa!Da,es' 7arr" was !har,e& in !ourt for possession of prohi:ite& &ru,s' @e was !on%i!te&' An appealH he now poses the followin, issues:

possession of prohi:ite& &ru,s was !on%i!te&' An appeal he !onten&s that *

an&

(1) 3he plasti! :a, an& its !ontents are ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e :ein, the pro&u!t of an ille,al sear!h an& sei=ure; (3N) an& (2) 3he re!eipt he si,ne& is also ina& issi:le as his ri,hts un&er !usto&ial in%esti,ation were not o:ser%e&' (2N) -e!i&e the !ase with reasons'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+' 3he plasti! :a, an& its !ontents are a& issi:le in e%i&en!eH sin!e it was not the National 9ureau of 5n%esti,ation :ut the :us !on&u!tor who opene& the :a, an& :rou,ht it to the National 9ureau of 5n%esti,ation' +s hel& 5n People %' 8artiH 193 SC1+ 27 (1991)H the !onstitutional ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!h an& sei=ure is a restraint upon the ,o%ern ent' 5t &oes not appl" so as to re?uire e0!lusion of e%i&en!e whi!h !a e into the possession of the $o%ern ent throu,h a sear!h a&e :" a pri%ate !iti=en'

3he pa!Da,es are ina& issi:le in e%i&en!e :ein, the pro&u!t of an ille,al sear!h an& sei=ure; ' 2) Neither is the re!eipt he si,ne& a& issi:leH his ri,hts un&er !usto&ial in%esti,ation not ha%in, :een o:ser%e&' -e!i&e' SUGGESTED ANSWER: An the assu ption that the issues were ti el" raise& the answers are as follows:
1) 3he pa!Da,es are a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' 3he one who opene& the pa!Da,es was the ana,er of the otel without an" interferen!e of the a,ents of the National 9ureau of 5n%esti,ation' +s hel& in People %s' 8artiH 193 SC1+ 27H the !onstitutional ri,ht a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=ures refers to unwarrante& intrusion :" the ,o%ern ent an& &oes not operate as a restraint upon pri%ate in&i%i&uals'

1)

9'

5t is ina& issi:le''''

Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 .a'id Warrant'e++ Sear(, 9"666:


a) Cra!D offi!ers of the +nti*Nar!oti!s <nit were assi,ne& on sur%eillan!e of the en%irons of a !e eter" where the sale an& use of &an,erous &ru,s are ra pant' + an with re&&ish an& ,lass" e"es was walDin, unstea&il" o%in, towar&s the :ut %eere& awa" when he sense& the presen!e of poli!e en' 3he" approa!he& hi H intro&u!e& the sel%es as poli!e offi!ers an& asDe& hi what he ha& !len!he& in his han&' +s he Dept u H the poli!e en prie& his han& open an& foun& a sa!het of sha:uH a &an,erous &ru,' +!!or&in,l" !har,e& in !ourtH the a!!use& o:;e!te& to the a& ission in e%i&en!e of the &an,erous &ru, :e!ause it was the result of an ille,al sear!h an& sei=ure' 1ule on the o:;e!tion' (3N)

2) 3he re!eipt is not a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' ''' Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 +ear(, 1ade by a *ri0ate (iti/en 9"66":
No E555' Ane &a" a passen,er :us !on&u!tor foun& a anBs han&:a, left in the :us' 6hen the !on&u!tor opene& the :a,H he foun& insi&e a !atlin, !ar& with the ownerBs na e (-ante $alan,) an& a&&ressH a few hun&re& peso :illsH an& a s all plasti! :a, !ontainin, a white pow&er" su:stan!e' @e :rou,ht the pow&er" su:stan!e to the National 9ureau of 5n%esti,ation for la:orator" e0a ination an& it was &eter ine& to :e etha pheta ine h"&ro!hlori&e or sha:uH a prohi:ite& &ru,' -ante $alan, was su:se?uentl" tra!e& an& foun& an& :rou,ht to the N95 Affi!e where he a& itte& ownership of the han&:a, an& its !ontents' 5n the !ourse of the interro,ation :" N95 a,entsH an& without the presen!e an& assistan!e of !ounselH $alan, was a&e to si,n a re!eipt for the plasti! :a, an& its sha:u !ontents' $alan, was !har,e& with ille,al

:) 6hat are the instan!es when warrantless sear!hes a" :e effe!te&L (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: a) 3he o:;e!tion is not tena:le' 5n a!!or&an!e with 8analili %' Court of +ppealsH 280 SC1+ #00 (1997)' sin!e the a!!use& ha& re& e"es an& was walDin, unstea&il" an& the pla!e is a Dnown han,*out of &ru, a&&i!tsH the poli!e offi!ers ha& suffi!ient reason to stop the a!!use& an& to frisD hi ' Sin!e sha:u was a!tuall" foun& &urin, the in%esti,ationH it !oul& :e sei=e& without the nee& for a sear!h warrant'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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:) + warrantless sear!h a" :e effe!te& in the followin, !ases: a) Sear!hes in!i&ental to a lawful arrest: :) Sear!hes of o%in, %ehi!les; !) Sear!hes of prohi:ite& arti!les in plain %iew: &) /nfor!e ent of !usto s law; e) Consente& sear!hes; f) Stop an& frisD (People %' 8ona!oH 282 SC1+ 703 P1998Q);
,) 1outine sear!hes at :or&ers an& ports of entr" (<nite& States %' 1a se"H #31 <'S'

were foun& after a ore e0tensi%e sear!h of the %arious !o part ents of the !ar' +s hel& in Eal onte %s' -e EillaH 182 SC1+ ))2H for su!h a sear!h to :e %ali&H there ust :e a pro:a:le !ause' 5n this !aseH there was no pro:a:le !auseH as there was nothin, to in&i!ate that +ntonio ha& prohi:ite& &ru,s insi&e the !o part ents of his !ar' Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 Wai0er &) C&n+ent 9!#$#:
No' 7: Pursuin, reports that ,reat ?uantities of prohi:ite& &ru,s are :ein, s u,,le& at ni,htti e throu,h the shores of Ca%iteH the Southern 7u=on Co an& set up !he!Dpoints at the en& of the Ca%ite !oastal roa& to sear!h passin, otor %ehi!les' + 19*"ear ol& :o"H who finishe& fifth ,ra&eH while &ri%in,H was stoppe& :" the authorities at the !he!Dpoint' 6ithout an" o:;e!tion fro hi H his !ar was inspe!te&H an& the sear!h "iel&e& ari;uana lea%es hi&&en in the trunD !o part ent of the !ar' 3he prohi:ite& &ru, was pro ptl" sei=e&H an& the :o" was :rou,ht to the poli!e station for ?uestionin,' 6as the sear!h without warrant le,alL

)0) P1977Q); an&


h) Sear!hes of :usinesses in the e0er!ise of %isitorial powers to enfor!e poli!e re,ulations (New OorD %' 9ur,erH #82 <'S'

)91 (1987Q)'
Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 .i+3a' Sear(, 9!##":

No' 2: -urin, the re!ent ele!tionsH !he!Dpoints were set up to enfor!e the ele!tion perio& :an on firear s' -urin, one su!h routine sear!h one ni,htH while looDin, throu,h an open win&ow with a flashli,htH the poli!e saw firear s at the :a!Dseat of a !ar partiall" !o%ere& :" papers an& !lothes'
+ntonioH owner an& &ri%er of the !ar in ?uestionH was !har,e& for %iolation of the firear s :an' +re the firear s a& issi:le in e%i&en!e a,ainst hi L /0plain' 5fH upon further inspe!tion :" the poli!eH prohi:ite& &ru,s were foun& insi&e the %arious !o part ents of +ntonioBs !arH !an the &ru,s :e use& in e%i&en!e a,ainst +ntonio if he is prose!ute& for possession of prohi:ite& &ru,sL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the sear!h was not %ali&H :e!ause there was no pro:a:le !ause for !on&u!tin, the sear!h' +s hel& in +l e&a San!he= %s' <nite& StatesH #13 <'S' 2))H while a o%in, %ehi!le !an :e sear!he& without a warrantH there ust still :e pro:a:le !ause' 5n the !ase in ?uestionH there was nothin, to in&i!ate that ari;uana lea%es were hi&&en in the trunD of the !ar' 3he ere fa!t that the :o" &i& not o:;e!t to the inspe!tion of the !ar &oes not !onstitute !onsent to the sear!h' +s rule& in People %s' 9ur,osH 1## SC1+ 1H the failure to o:;e!t to a warrantless sear!h &oes not !onstitute !onsentH espe!iall" in the li,ht of the fa!t'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
a) OesH the firear s are a& issi:le in e%i&en!eH :e!ause the" were %ali&l" sei=e&' 5n Eal onte %s' -e EillaH 178 SC1+ 211 an& 182 SC1+ ))2H the Supre e Court hel& that !he!Dpoints a" :e set up to aintain pea!e an& or&er for the :enefit of the pu:li! an& !he!Dpoints are a se!urit" easure a,ainst unauthori=e& firear s' Sin!e the sear!h whi!h resulte& in the &is!o%er" of the firear s was li ite& to a %isual sear!h of the !arH it was reasona:le' 9e!ause of the :an on firear sH the possession of the firear s was prohi:ite&' Sin!e the" were foun& in plain %iew in the !ourse of a lawful sear!hH in a!!or&an!e with the &e!ision in 8a,an!ia %s' Pala!ioH 80 Phil' 770H the" are a& issi:le in e%i&en!e' :) NoH the &ru,s !annot :e use& in e%i&en!e a,ainst +ntonio if he is prose!ute& for possession of prohi:ite& &ru,s' 3he &ru,s

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
Oes' 3he re?uire ent of pro:a:le !ause &iffers fro !ase to !ase' 5n this oneH sin!e the poli!e a,ents are !onfronte& with lar,e*s!ale s u,,lin, of prohi:ite& &ru,sH e0isten!e of whi!h is of pu:li! Dnowle&,eH the" !an set up !he!Dpoints at strate,i! pla!esH in the sa e wa" that of in a nei,h:orhoo& a !hil& is Di&nappe&H it is lawful to sear!h !ars an& %ehi!les lea%in, the nei,h:orhoo& or %illa,e: 3his situation is also si ilar to warrantless sear!hes of o%in, %ehi!les in !usto s areaH whi!h sear!hes ha%e :een uphel&' (Papa %s' 8a,oH 22 SC1+ 827 (19)8)' 3he rule is :ase& on pra!ti!al ne!essit"'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 Warrant'e++ Arre+t+ 9!##-:


No' 9: >ohann learne& that the poli!e were looDin, for hi in !onne!tion with the rape of an 18* "ear ol& ,irlH a nei,h:or' @e went to the poli!e station a weeD later an& presente& hi self to the &esD ser,eant' Coin!i&entall"' the rape %i!ti was in the pre ises e0e!utin, an e0tra;u&i!ial state ent' >ohannH alon, with si0 ()) other suspe!tsH were pla!e& in a poli!e line* up an& the ,irl pointe& to hi as the rapist' >ohann was arreste& an& lo!De& up in a !ell' >ohann was !har,e& with rape in !ourt :ut prior to arrai,n ent in%oDe& his ri,ht to preli inar" in%esti,ation' 3his was &enie& :" the ;u&,eH an& thusH trial pro!ee&e&' +fter the prose!ution presente& se%eral witnessesH >ohann throu,h !ounselH in%oDe& the ri,ht to :ail an& file& a otion thereforH whi!h was &enie& outri,ht :" the >u&,e' >ohann now files a petition for !ertiorari :efore the Court of +ppeals ar,uin, that: @is arrest was not in a!!or&an!e with law' -e!i&e'

e?uip ent' 3he warrant parti!ularl" &es!ri:es the ele!troni! e?uip ent an& spe!ifies the pro%isions of the 3ariff an& Custo s Co&e whi!h were %iolate& :" the i portation'

3he warrant was ser%e& an& i ple ente& in the afternoon of 2 >anuar" 1988 :" Custo s poli!e en who then sei=e& the &es!ri:e& e?uip ent' 3he in%entor" of the sei=e& arti!les was si,ne& :" the Se!retar" of the 3iDasan Corporation' 3he followin, &a"H a hearin, offi!er in the Affi!e of the Colle!tor of Custo s !on&u!te& a hearin, on the !onfis!ation of the e?uip ent'
3wo &a"s thereafterH the !orporation file& with the Supre e Court a petition for !ertiorariH prohi:ition an& an&a us to set asi&e the warrantH en;oin the Colle!tor an& his a,ents fro further pro!ee&in, with the forfeiture hearin, an& to se!ure the return of the !onfis!ate& e?uip entH alle,in, therein that the warrant issue& is null an& %oi& for the reason thatH pursuant to Se!tion 2 of +rti!le 555 of the 1987 ConstitutionH onl" a ;u&,e a" issue a sear!h warrant' 5n his !o ent to the petitionH the Colle!tor of Custo sH throu,h the Affi!e of the Soli!itor $eneralH !onten&s that he is authori=e& un&er the 3ariff an& Custo Co&e to or&er the sei=ure of the e?uip ent whose &uties an& ta0es were not pai& an& that the !orporation &i& not e0haust a& inistrati%e re e&ies' Shoul& the petition :e ,rante&L -e!i&e'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH the warrantless arrest of >ohann was not in a!!or&an!e with law' +s hel& in $o %' Court of +ppealsH 20) SC1+ 138H his !ase &oes not fall un&er the 5nstan!es in 1ule 113H se!' 2 (a) of the 1982 1ules of Cri inal Pro!e&ure authori=in, warrantless arrests' 5t !annot :e !onsi&ere& a %ali& warrantless arrest :e!ause >ohann &i& not !o it a !ri e in the presen!e of the poli!e offi!ersH sin!e the" were not present when >ohann ha& alle,e&l" rape& his nei,h:or' Neither !an 5t :e !onsi&ere& an arrest un&er 1ule 113 se!' 2 (:) whi!h allows an arrest without a warrant to :e a&e when a !ri e has in fa!t ;ust :een !o itte& an& the person aDin, the arrest has personal Dnowle&,e offsets in&i!atin, that the person to :e arreste& !o itte& it' Sin!e >ohann was arreste& a weeD after the alle,e& rapeH it !annot :e &ee e& to :e a !ri e whi!h Chas ;ust :een !o itte&C' Nor &i& the poli!e offi!ers who arreste& hi ha%e personal Dnowle&,e of fa!ts in&i!atin, that >ohann rape& his nei,h:or'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he petition shoul& not :e ,rante&' <n&er Se!s' 2202 an& 2208 of the 3ariff an& Custo s Co&eH !usto s offi!ials are authori=e& to enter an" warehouseH not use& as &wellin,H for the purpose of sei=in, an" arti!le whi!h is su:;e!t to forfeiture' For this purpose the" nee& no warrant issue& :" a !ourt' +s state& in Ei&u"a %s' 9er&ia,oH 73 SC1+ 223' for !enturies the sei=ure of ,oo&s :" !usto s offi!ials to enfor!e the !usto s laws without nee& of a sear!h warrant has :een re!o,ni=e&'

Sear(,e+ and Sei/3re+8 Warrant+ &) Arre+t 9!##!:


No' 8: An the :asis of a %erifie& report an& !onfi&ential infor ation that %arious ele!troni! e?uip entH whi!h were ille,all" i porte& into the PhilippinesH were foun& in the :o&e,a of the 3iDasan Corporation lo!ate& at 1002 9inaDa"an St'H Ce:u Cit"H the Colle!tor of Custo s of Ce:u issue&H in the ornin, of 2 >anuar" 1988H a 6arrant of Sei=ure an& -etention a,ainst the !orporation for the sei=ure of the ele!troni!

ARTICLE I.

Citi/en+,i*
Pre+(ri*ti&n

A(ti&n )&r Can(e''ati&n8 B E))e(t &) Deat, 9!##;:

No' 7: * /n=oH a Chinese nationalH was ,rante& Philippine !iti=enship in a &e!ision ren&ere& :" the Court of First 5nstan!e of Pa pan,a on >anuar" 10H 192)' @e tooD his oath of offi!e on >une 2H 1929' 5n 1970H the Soli!itor $eneral file& a petition to !an!el his !iti=enship on the ,roun& that in >ul" 19)9 the Court of 3a0 +ppeals foun& that /n=o ha& !heate& the

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

??

,o%ern ent of in!o e ta0es for the "ears 192) to 1929' Sai& &e!ision of the 3a0 Court was affir e& :" the Supre e Court in 19)9' 9etween 19)0 an& 1970H /n=o ha& a!?uire& su:stantial real propert" 5n the PhilippinesH

(2) 6hether or not Fer&ieBs a!t of filin, his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" !onstitutes wai%er of his status as a per anent resi&ent of the

(1) @as the a!tion for !an!ellation of /n=oBs !iti=enship pres!ri:e&L


(2) Can /n=o asD for the &enial of the petition on the ,roun& that he ha& a%aile& of the 3a0 + nest" for his ta0 lia:ilitiesL (3) 6hat is the effe!t on the petition for

!an!ellation of /n=oBs !iti=enship if /n=o &ie& &urin, the pen&en!" of the hearin, on sai& petitionL SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) NoH the a!tion has not pres!ri:e&' +s hel& in 1epu:li! %s' 7i OaoH 21# SC1+ 7#8H a !ertifi!ate of naturali=alion a" :e !an!elle& at an" ti e if it was frau&ulentl" o:taine& :" islea&in, the !ourt re,ar&in, the oral !hara!ter of the petitioner'
2) NoH /n=o !annot asD for the &enial of the petition for the !an!ellation of his !ertifi!ate of naturali=ation on the ,roun& that he ha& a%aile& of the ta0 a nest"' 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in 1epu:li! %s' 7i OaoH 22# SC1+ 7#8H the ta0 a nest" erel" re o%e& all the !i%ilH !ri inal an& a& inistrati%e lia:ilities of /n=o' 5t &i& not o:literate his la!D of ,oo& oral !hara!ter an& irreproa!ha:le !on&u!t' 3) An the assu ption that he left a fa il"H the &eath of /n=o &oes not ren&er the petition for the !an!ellation of his !ertifi!ate of naturali=ation oot' +s hel& in 1epu:li! %s' 7i OaoH 22# SC1+ 7#8H the out!o e of the !ase will affe!t his wife an& !hil&ren'

<nite& States' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) +!!or&in, to the rulin, in Coast %s' Court of +ppealsH 191 SC1+ 229H a ,reen !ar& is proof that the hol&er is a per anent resi&ent of the <nite& StatesH for it i&entifies the hol&er as a resi&ent of the <nite& States an& states that the hol&er is entitle& to resi&e per anentl" an& worD in the <nite& States'
2) 3he filin, of a !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" &oes not !onstitute a wai%er of the status of the hol&er of a ,reen !ar& as a per anent resi&ent of the <nite& States' +s hel& in Coast %s' Court of +ppealsH 191 SC1+229H the wai%er shoul& :e anifeste& :" an a!t in&epen&ent of an& prior to the filin, of his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"'

D3a' A''egian(e 0+= D3a' Citi/en+,i* 9!#$%: No' E555: C+C was :orn in 1921 in the <nite& States of a Chinese father an& a Filipina other' <n&er Chinese lawsH C+BsC other auto ati!all" :e!a e a Chinese national :" her arria,e'
5n 1973H upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit"H C+C ele!te& to a!?uire Philippine !iti=enship' @owe%erH C+C !ontinue& to resi&e in California an& to !arr" an + eri!an passport' @e also pai& alle,ian!e to the 3aipei ,o%ern ent' 5n the 1987 Philippine National ele!tionsH he was ele!te& Senator' @is opponent o%e& to &is?ualif" hi on the ,roun&s:

a) 3hat he was not a natural :orn !iti=en; an&


:) 3hat he ha& C&ual alle,ian!eC not onl" to

Citi/en+,i*8 E'e(ted O))i(ia' 9!##-:


No' 7: Fer&ie i i,rate& to the <nite& States in the 1980s' 3hereafterH he %isite& his ho etownH 8aDaho"H e%er" other "ear &urin, town fiestas' 5n >anuar" 1993' Fer&ie !a e ho e an& file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for 8a"or of 8aDaho"' @e won in the ele!tions' >oeH the &efeate& !an&i&ateH learne& that Fer&ie is a ,reen!ar& hol&er whi!h on its fa!e i&entifies Fer&ie as a Cresi&ent alienC an& on the :a!D thereof is !learl" printe&: CPerson i&entifie& :" this !ar& is entitle& to resi&e per anentl" an& worD in the <nite& States'C >oe file& a !ase to &is?ualif" Fer&ie fro assu in, the a"orship of 8aDa*ho"'

the <nite& States :ut also to the 1epu:li! of China' -e!i&e' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he ele!toral !ontest ust :e &is isse&'
(a) C+C is a natural :orn !iti=en' +rt' 5EH Se!' 2 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es that Cthose who ele!t Philippine !iti=enship in a!!or&an!e with para,raph (3)H Se!' 1 hereof shall :e &ee e& natural :orn !iti=ens'C 3he purpose of this pro%ision is to e?uali=e the status of those who ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship :efore an& those who &i& so after >anuar" 17H 1973 when the pre%ious Constitution tooD effe!t' (:) 3he C-<+7 +77/$5+NC/C &e!lare& ini i!al to national interest in +rt' 5EH Se!' 2 refers to the &ual alle,ian!e of so e su!h as naturali=e& Filipino !iti=ens ( ostl" Chinese) who aintain alle,ian!e to Nationalist China as

(uestions: (1) 6hether or not a ,reen !ar& is proof that the hol&er is a per anent resi&ent of the <nite& States'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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shown in so e !ases :" their e :ership in the le,islati%e Ouan after their naturali=ation as !iti=ens of the Philippines' 3he prohi:ition &oes not appl" in situations :rou,ht a:out :" &ual !iti=enshipH su!h as the one in%ol%e& in the pro:le ' 5n&ee&H a Filipino wo an !an ha%e &ual alle,ian!e resultin, fro her arria,e to a forei,ner un&er Se!' #H so lon, as she &oes not &o or o it to &o an a!t a ountin, to renun!iation un&er Co onwealth +!t' No' )3H Se!' 1(2)' <n&er this lawH e0press renun!iation is &ifferent fro an a!t of alle,ian!e to a forei,n power as a ,roun& for loss of Philippine !iti=enship' 8oreo%erH what !onstitutes C&ual alle,ian!eC ini i!al to national interest is an& what the san!tions for su!h &ual alle,ian!e will :eH will still ha%e to :e &efine& :" law pen&in, a&option of su!h le,islationH o:;e!tion :ase& on &ual alle,ian!e will :e pre ature'

of the Philippines (+rt' 5EH se!' 1(3))' <n&er +rt' 5EH se!H 2 he is also &ee e& a natural* :orn !iti=en'
2' 3he Constitution re?uiresH a on, other thin,sH that a !an&i&ate for e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es ust :e at least 22 "ears of a,e Con the &a" of the ele!tion'C (+rt' E5H se!' ))' +s 9rown was :orn on 8a" 12H 19)2H he &i& not :e!o e 22 "ears ol& until 8a" 12H 1987' @en!e on 8a" 11H 1987H when the ele!tion was hel&H he was # &a"s short of the re?uire& a,e' 3' 3he Constitution pro%i&es that those who seeD either to !han,e their !iti=enship or to a!?uire the status of an i i,rant of another !ountr" C&urin, their tenureC shall :e &ealt with :" law (+rt' M5H se!' 17)' 3he pro%ision !annot appl" to 9rown for the followin, reasons: FirstH 9rown is in a&&ition an + eri!an !iti=en an& thus has a &ual !iti=enship whi!h is allowe& :" the Constitution' (Cf' +rt' 5EH se!' #)H Se!on&H 9rown &i& not seeD to a!?uire the status of an i i,rantH :ut is an + eri!an :" :irth un&er the prin!iple of ;us soli o:tainin, in the <nite& States' 3hir&H he &i& not seeD to !han,e his status &urin, his tenure as a pu:li! offi!er' FourthH the pro%ision of +rt' M5H se!' 17 is not self*e0e!utin, :ut re?uires an i ple entin, law' FifthH :ut a:o%e allH the @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unal has no ;uris&i!tion to &e!i&e this ?uestion sin!e it &oes not !on!ern the ?ualifi!ation of a e :er*ele!t'

D3a' A''egian(e 0+= D3a' Citi/en+,i* 9!#$$:


No' 13: 1o:ert 9rown was :orn in @awaii on 8a" 12H 19)2H of an + eri!an father an& a Filipina other' An 8a" 1)H 1983 while hol&in, an + eri!an passportH he re,istere& as a Filipino with the Philippine Consulate at @onoluluH @awaii' 5n Septe :erH 1983 he returne& to the PhilippinesH an& tooD up resi&en!e at 9oa!H 8arin&u?ueH ho etown of his other' @e re,istere& as a %oterH %ote&H an& e%en parti!ipate& as a lea&er of one of the !an&i&ates in that &istri!t in the 198# 9atasan ele!tions' 5n the ele!tions of 1987H he ran for Con,ress anH an& won' @is sole opponent is now ?uestionin, his ?ualifi!ations an& is tr"in, to oust hi on two :asi! !lai s:

D3a' Citi/en+,i* 9!##;:


No' 8: 5n 1989H .en" 1e"es arrie& 9en 3ulo,H a national of the State of Gon,o' <n&er the laws of Gon,oH an alien wo an arr"in, a Gon,o national auto ati!all" a!?uires Gon,o !iti=enship' +fter her arria,eH .en" resi&e& in Gon,o an& a!?uire& a Gon,o passport' 5n 1991H .en" returne& to the Philippines to run for $o%ernor of Sorso,on'

(1) @e is not a natural :orn Filipino !iti=enH :ut is in fa!tH an + eri!anH :orn in @awaiiH an inte,ral portion of the <'S'+'H who hol&s an + eri!an passport; (2) @e &i& not eet the a,e re?uire ent; an& (3) @e has a C,reen !ar&C fro the <'S' $o%ern ent' +ssu e that "ou are a e :er of the @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unal where the petition for 9rownBs ouster is pen&in,' @ow woul& "ou &e!i&e the three issues raise& a,ainst hi L SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he first an& thir& ,roun&s ha%e no erit' 9ut the se!on& is well taDen an&H thereforeH 9rown shoul& :e &is?ualifie&'
1' 1o:ert 9rown is a natural :orn !iti=en of the Philippines' + person :orn of a Filipino other an& an alien father :efore >anuar" 17H 1973H who thereafter upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" ele!t Philippine !iti=enshipH is a !iti=en

(1) 6as .en" ?ualifie& to run for $o%ernorL


(2) Suppose instea& of enterin, politi!s' .en" ;ust ,ot herself ele!te& as %i!e*presi&ent of the Philippine 9ulletinH a lo!al newspaper' 6as she ?ualifie& to hol& that positionL

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) <n&er Se!tion #H +rti!le 5E of the Constitution' .en" retaine& her Filipino !iti=enship' Sin!e she also :e!a e a !iti=en of Gon,oH she possesses &ual !iti=enship' Pursuant to Se!tion #0 (&) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH she is &is?ualifie& to run for ,o%ernor' 5n a&&itionH if .en" returne& to the PhilippinesH less than a "ear i e&iatel" :efore

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the &a" of the ele!tionH .en" is not ?ualifie& to run for $o%ernor of Sorso,on' <n&er Se!tion 39(a) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH a !an&i&ate for ,o%ernor ust :e a resi&ent in the pro%in!e where he inten&s to run at least one (1) "ear i e&iatel" pre!e&in, the &a" of the ele!tion' 9" resi&in, in Gon,o upon her arria,e in 1989H .en" a:an&one& her resi&en!e in the Philippines'

not ?ualif" to parti!ipate in the ana,e ent of the 9ulletin as Ei!e*Presi&ent thereof' E))e(t &) Marriage8 i'i*in& 9!#$#:
NoH 2: (1) 7il" 3eh arri%e& in 8anila on one of her re,ular tours to the Philippines fro 3aipeh' She et Peter $oH a naturali=e& Filipino !iti=en' +fter a whirlwin& !ourtshipH 7il" an& Peter were arrie& at the San +,ustin Chur!h' + weeD after the we&&in,H 7il" 3eh petitione& in a& inistrati%e pro!ee&in,s :efore i i,ration authorities to &e!lare her a Filipino !iti=en statin, that she ha& none of the &is?ualifi!ations pro%i&e& in the 1e%ise& Naturali=ation 7aw' 3he ;ilte& Filipino ,irlfrien& of Peter $o oppose& the petition !lai in, that 7il" 3eh was still a inor who ha& not e%en !ele:rate& her 21st :irth&a"H who ne%er resi&e& in the Philippines e0!ept &urin, her one*weeD %isit as tourist fro 3aipeh &urin, the Chinese New OearH who spoDe onl" ChineseH an& who ha& ra&i!al i&eas liDe& a&%o!atin, unifi!ation of 3aiwan with ainlan& China' 7il" 3ehH howe%erH swore that she was renoun!in, her Chinese alle,ian!e an& while she Dnew no Filipino !usto s an& tra&itions as "etH she e%in!e& a sin!ere &esire to learn an& e :ra!e the ' 6oul& 7il" 3eh su!!ee& in :e!o in, a Filipino !iti=en throu,h her arria,e to Peter $oL /0plain'

3his is in a!!or&an!e with the &e!ision in Caasi %s' Court of +ppealsH 191 SC1+ 229' ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
No' .en" was not ?ualifie& to run for $o%ernor' <n&er the ConstitutionH C!iti=ens of the Philippines who arr" aliens shall retain their !iti=enshipH unless :" their a!t or o ission the" are &ee e&H un&er the law to ha%e renoun!e& it'C (Se!' #H +rt' 5EH Constitution)' @er resi&in, in Gon,o an& a!?uirin, a Gon,o passport are in&i!ati%e of her renun!iation of Philippine !iti=enshipH whi!h is a ,roun& for loss of her !iti=enship whi!h she was suppose& to ha%e retaine&' 6hen she ran for $o%ernor of Sorso,onH .en" was no lon,er a Philippine !iti=en an&H hen!eH was &is?ualifie& for sai& position' 2) +lthou,h un&er Se!tion 11(1)H +rti!le ME5 of the ConstitutionH ass e&ia ust :e wholl" owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens an& un&er Se!tion 2 of the +nti*-u " 7aw aliens a" not inter%ene in the ana,e ent of an" nationali=e& :usiness a!ti%it"' .en" a" :e ele!te& %i!e presi&ent of the Philippine 9ulletinH :e!ause she has re aine& a Filipino !iti=en' <n&er Se!tion #H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH Filipino !iti=ens who arr" aliens retains their !iti=enship unless :" their a!t or o ission the" are &ee e&H un&er the lawH to ha%e renoun!e& it' 3he a!ts or o ission whi!h will result in loss of !iti=enship are enu erate& in Co onwealth +!t NoH )3' .en" is not ,uilt" of an" of the ' +s hel& in GawaDita %s' <nite& StatesH 3#3 <'S' 717H a person who possesses &ual !iti=enship liDe .en" a" e0er!ise ri,hts of !iti=enship in :oth !ountries an& the use of a passport pertainin, to one !ountr" &oes not result in loss of !iti=enship in the other !ountr"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH 7il" 3eh ipso fa!to :e!a e a Philippine !iti=en upon her arria,e to Peter $oH who is a Philippine !iti=enH pro%i&e& she possesses none of the &is?ualifi!ations lai& &own in Se!tion # of the 1e%ise& Naturali=ation 7aw' +!!or&in, to to the rulin, in 8o" Oa 7i Oao %s' Co issioner of 5 i,rationH #1 SC1+ 292H an alien wo an who arries a Filipino hus:an& ipso fa!to :e!o es a Filipino !iti=en without ha%in, to possess an" of the ?ualifi!ations pres!ri:e& in Se!tion 2 of the 1e%ise& Naturali=ation 7aw pro%i&e& she possesses none of the &is?ualifi!ations set forth in Se!tion # of the sa e law' +ll of the ,roun&s in%oDe& :" the for er ,irlfrien& of Peter $o for opposin, the petition of 7il" 3ehH e0!ept for the last oneH are ?ualifi!ationsH whi!h 7il" 3eh nee& not possess' 3he fa!t that 7il" 3eh is a&%o!atin, the unifi!ation of 3aiwan with ainlan& China is not a ,roun& for &is?ualifi!ation un&er Se!tion # of the 1e%ise& Naturali=ation 7aw'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
NeitherH was .en" ?ualifie& to hol& the position of %i!e*presi&ent of Philippine 9ulletin' <n&er the ConstitutionH Cthe ownership an& ana,e ent of ass e&ia shall :e li ite& to !iti=ensH of the PhilippinesH or to !orporationH !ooperati%es or asso!iations wholl" owne& an& ana,e& :" su!h !iti=ensC (Se!tion M5 P1QH +rt' ME5)H 9ein, a non*Philippine !iti=enH .en" !an

E))e(t &) Oat, &) A''egian(e 9"66;: (#*a) 3C+H a Filipina e&i!al te!hnolo,istH left in 1972 to worD in .A. State' 5n 1988 she arrie& A-@H a !iti=en of .A.' Pursuant to .A.Bs lawH :" taDin, an oath of alle,ian!eH she

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a!?uire& her hus:an&Bs !iti=enship' A-@ &ie& in 2001H lea%in, her finan!iall" se!ure&' She returne& ho e in 2002H an& sou,ht ele!ti%e offi!e in 200# :" runnin, for 8a"or of +PPH her ho etown' @er opponent sou,ht to ha%e her &is?ualifie& :e!ause of her .A. !iti=enship' She replie& that althou,h she a!?uire& .A.Bs !iti=enship :e!ause of arria,eH she &i& not lose her Filipino !iti=enship' 9oth her parentsH she sai&H are Filipino !iti=ens' 5s 3C+ ?ualifie& to run for 8a"orL (2N)

E))e(t &) Re*atriati&n 9"66":


No 5 * + was :orn in the Philippines of Filipino parents' 6hen artial law was &e!lare& in the Philippines on Septe :er 21H 1972H he went to the <nite& States an& was naturali=e& as an + eri!an !iti=en' +fter the /-S+ 1e%olutionH he !a e ho e to the Philippines an& later on rea!?uire& Philippine !iti=enship :" repatriation' Suppose in the 8a" 200# ele!tions he is ele!te& 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es an& a !ase is file& seeDin, his &is?ualifi!ation on the ,roun& that he is not a natural*:orn !iti=en of the PhilippinesH how shoul& the !ase a,ainst hi :e &e!i&e&L /0plain "our answer' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
An the assu ption that 3C+ tooD an oath of alle,ian!e to .A. to a!?uire the !iti=enship of her hus:an&H she is not ?ualifie& to run for a"or' She &i& not :e!o e a !iti=en of .A. erel" :" %irtue of her arria,eH she also tooD an oath of alle,ian!e to .A.' 9" this a!tH she lost her Philippine !iti=enship' (Se!tion 1 P3QH Co onwealth +!t No' )3')

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !ase shoul& :e &e!i&e& in fa%or of +' +s hel& 5n Bengson /. @o*se o) Represen+a+i/es :'ec+ora' Trib*na'H 327 SC1+ 2#2 (2001)H repatriation results in the re!o%er" of the ori,inal nationalit"' Sin!e + was a natural*:orn Filipino !iti=en :efore he :e!a e a naturali=e& + eri!an !iti=enH he was restore& to his for er status as a natural*:orn Filipino when he repatriate&'

E))e(t &) Re*atriati&n 9!###:


No 555 * 9' >ulio @ortal was :orn of Filipino parents' <pon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit"H he :e!a e a naturali=e& !iti=en in another !ountr"' 7aterH he rea!?uire& Philippine !iti=enship' Coul& @ortal re,ain his status as natural :orn Filipino !iti=enL 6oul& "our answer :e the sa e whether he rea!?uires his Filipino* !iti=enship :" repatriation or :" a!t of Con,ressL /0plain' (3N)

E))e(t &) Re*atriati&n 9"66-:


No 5E * >uan Cru= was :orn of Filipino parents in 19)0 in Pa pan,a' 5n 1982H he enliste& in the <'S' 8arine Corps an& tooD an oath of alle,ian!e to the <nite& States of + eri!a' 5n 1990H he was naturali=e& as an + eri!an !iti=en' 5n 199#H he was repatriate& un&er 1epu:li! +!t No' 2#30' -urin, the 1998 National /le!tionsH he ran for an& was ele!te& representati%e of the First -istri!t of Pa pan,a where he resi&e& sin!e his repatriation' 6as he ?ualifie& to run for the positionL /0plain'

IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


>ulian 8ortal !an re,ain his status as a natural :orn !iti=en :" repatriatin,' Sin!e repatriation in%ol%es restoration of a person to !iti=enship pre%iousl" lost :" e0patriation an& >ulian 8ortal was pre%iousl" a natural :orn !iti=enH in !ase he repatriates he will :e restore& to his status as a natural :orn !iti=en' 5f he rea!?uire& his !iti=enship :" an a!t of Con,ressH >ulian @ortal will not :e a natural :orn !iti=enH sin!e he rea!?uire& his !iti=enship :" le,islati%e naturali=ation'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Cru= was ?ualifie& to run as representati%e of the First -istri!t of Pa pan,a' Sin!e his parents were Filipino !iti=ensH he was a natural* :orn !iti=en' +lthou,h he :e!a e a naturali=e& + eri!an !iti=enH un&er the rulin, in 9en,son %' @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal' 327 SC1+ 2#2 P2001QH :" %irtue of his repatriationH Cru= was restore& to his ori,inal status as a natural*:orn Filipino !iti=en'

SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


>ulian @ortal !annot re,ain his status as a natural :orn !iti=en :" repatriatin,' @e ha& to perfor an a!t to a!?uire his !iti=enshipH i'e'H repatriation' <n&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH natural :orn !iti=ens are those who are !iti=ens fro :irth without ha%in, to perfor an a!t to a!?uire or perfe!t their !iti=enship' 5f he rea!?uire& his !iti=enship :" an a!t of Con,ressH >ulian @ortal will not :e a natural :orn !iti=en sin!e he rea!?uire& his !iti=enship :" le,islati%e naturali=ation'

E))e(t+ &) Marriage+ 9!###: No 555* 6hat are the effe!ts of arria,es of: 1' a !iti=en to an alien; (1N) 2' an alien to a !iti=en; on their spouses an& !hil&renL -is!uss' (1N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1') +!!or&in, to Se!tion #H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH Filipino !iti=ens who arr" aliens retain their !iti=enshipH unless :" their a!t or

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o ission the" are &ee e&H un&er the lawH to ha%e renoun!e& it'
2) +!!or&in, to 8o Oa 7i Oao %' Co issioner of 5 i,rationH #1 SC1+ 292H un&er Se!tion 12 of the 1e%ise& Naturali=ation 7awH a forei,n wo an who arries a Filipino !iti=en :e!o es a Filipino !iti=en pro%i&e& she possesses none of the &is?ualifi!ations for naturali=ation' + forei,n an who arries a Filipino !iti=en &oes not a!?uire Philippine !iti=enship' @owe%erH un&er Se!tion 3 of the 1e%ise& Naturali=ation +!tH in su!h a !ase the resi&en!e re?uire ent for naturali=ation will :e re&u!e& fro ten (10) to fi%e (2) "ears' <n&er Se!tion 1(2)H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH the !hil&ren of an alien an& a Filipino !iti=en are !iti=ens of the Philippines'

E'e(ted O))i(ia' 9!##": No' 1): /&win Ni!asioH :orn in the Philippines of Filipino parents an& raise& in the pro%in!e of Nue%a /!i;aH ran for $o%ernor of his ho e pro%in!e' @e won an& he was sworn into offi!e' 5t was re!entl" re%eale&H howe%erH that Ni!asio is a naturali=e& + eri!an !iti=en'
a) -oes he still possess Philippine !iti=enshipL :) 5f the se!on&*pla!er in the ,u:ernatorial ele!tions files a ?uo warranto suit a,ainst Ni!asio an& he is foun& to :e &is?ualifie& fro offi!eH !an the se!on&*pla!er :e sworn into offi!e as ,o%ernorL !) 5fH instea&H Ni!asio ha& :een :orn (of the sa e set of parents) in the <nite& States an& he there:" a!?uire& + eri!an !iti=enship :" :irthH woul& "our answer :e

E))e(t+ &) P,i'i**ine Bi'' &) !#6" 9"66!:


No 5 * Fro ainlan& China where he was :orn of Chinese parentsH 8r N"a 3sa Chan i,rate& to the Philippines in 189#' +s of +pril 11H 1899H he was alrea&" a per anent resi&ent of the Philippine 5slan&s an& !ontinue& to resi&e in this !ountr" until his &eath' -urin, his lifeti e an& when he was alrea&" in the PhilippinesH 8r' N"a 3sa Chan arrie& Charin,H a FilipinaH with who he :e,ot one sonH @ap ChanH who was :orn on A!to:er 18' 1897' @ap Chan ,ot arrie& also to Ni faH a FilipinaH an& one of their !hil&ren was 7a!?ui Chan who was :orn on Septe :er 27H 193)' 7a!?ui Chan finishe& the !ourse 9a!helor of S!ien!e in Co er!e an& e%entuall" en,a,e& in :usiness' 5n the 8a" 1989 ele!tionH 7a!?ui Chan ran for an& was ele!te& 1epresentati%e (Con,ress an)' @is ri%al !an&i&ateH 1a on -eloriaH file& a ?uo warranto or &is?ualifi!ation !ase a,ainst hi on the ,roun& that he was not a Filipino !iti=en' 5t was pointe& out in parti!ularH that 7a!?ui Chan &i& not ele!t Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of 21'

&ifferentL SUGGESTED ANSWER: a) NoH Ni!asio no lon,er possesses Philippine !iti=enship' +s hel& in Fri%al&o %s' CA8/7/CH 17# SC1+ 2#2H :" :e!o in, a naturali=e& + eri!an !iti=enH Ni!asio lost his Philippine !iti=enship' <n&er Se!tion 1(1) of Co onwealth +!t No' )3H Philippine !iti=enship is lost :" naturali=ation in a forei,n !ountr"H :) 2n& pla!er !anFt :e sworn to offi!e'''

!) 5f Ni!asio was :orn in the <nite& StatesH he woul& still :e a !iti=en of the PhilippinesH sin!e his parents are Filipinos' <n&er Se!tion 1(2)H those whose fathers or others are !iti=ens of the Philippines are !iti=ens of the Philippines' Ni!asio woul& possess &ual !iti=enshipH sin!e un&er + eri!an 7aw persons :orn in the <nite& States are + eri!an !iti=ens' +s hel& in +=nor %s' CA8/7/C' 182 SC1+ 703H a person who possesses :oth Philippine an& + eri!an !iti=enship is still a Filipino an& &oes not lose his Philippine !iti=enship unless he renoun!es it'

-e!i&e whether 8r' 7a!?ui Chan suffers fro &is?ualifi!ation or not' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:

E'e(ting P,i'i**ine Citi/en+,i* 9>$<"66?:


1' +tt"' / il" $oH a le,iti ate &au,hter of a Chinese father an& a Filipino otherH was :orn in 19#2' +t 21H she ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship an& stu&ie& law' She passe& the :ar e0a inations an& en,a,e& in pri%ate pra!ti!e for an" "ears' 3he >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il no inate& her as a !an&i&ate for the position of +sso!iate >usti!e of the Supre e Court' 9ut her no ination is :ein, !onteste& :" +tt"' >uris CastilloH also an aspirant to the position' She

7a!?ui Chan is a Filipino !iti=en an& nee& not ele!t Philippine !iti=enship' @is fatherH @ap ChanH was a Spanish su:;e!tH was resi&in, in the Philippines on +pril 11H 1899H an& !ontinue& to resi&e in the Philippines' 5n a!!or&an!e with Se!tion # of the Philippine 9ill of 1902H he was a Filipino !iti=en' @en!eH in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion 1(3T of the 1932 ConstitutionH 7a!?ui Chan is a natural :orn Filipino !iti=enH sin!e his father was a Filipino !iti=en'

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!lai s that +tt"' / il" $o is not a natural* :orn !iti=enH hen!eH not ?ualifie& to :e appointe& to the Supre e Court' 5s this !ontention !orre!tL (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !ontention is not !orre!t' <n&er +rti!le 5EH Se!tion 1(3) of the 1987 ConstitutionH it is pro%i&e& that those :orn :efore >anuar" 17H 1973 of Filipino othersH who ele!t Philippine Citi=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" are Filipino !iti=ens' +tt"' / il" $o was :orn of a Filipino other in 19#2 an& ele!te& !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of 21' She is a natural :orn Filipino !iti=en as pro%i&e& :" +rti!le 5EH Se!tion 2 of the Constitution R C0 0 0 those who ele!t Philippine !iti=enship in a!!or&an!e with para,raph (3)H Se!tion 1 hereof shall :e &ee e& natural*:orn !iti=ens'C @en!e she is ?ualifie& to :e appointe& to the Supre e Court' E'e(ting 2' P,i'i**ine Citi/en+,i*8 W,en

NoH 2: (2) + !hil& was :orn to a >apanese father an& a Filipina other' 6oul& he :e eli,i:le to run for the position of 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es upon rea!hin, twent"*fi%e "ears of a,eL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !hil& !an run for the @ouse of 1epresentati%es pro%i&e& upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" he ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship' <n&er Se!tion )H +rti!le E5 of the 1987 ConstitutionH to ?ualif" to :e a e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH one ust :e a natural*:orn Philippine !iti=en' +!!or&in, to Se!tion 1 (3)H +rti!le 5E of the 1987 ConstitutionH !hil&ren :orn :efore >anuar" 17H 1973 of Filipino othersH who ele!t Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" are Philippine !iti=ens' Se!tion 2H +rti!le 5E of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es: C3hose who ele!t Philippine !iti=enship in a!!or&an!e with para,raph (3)H Se!tion 1 hereof shall :e &ee e& natural*:orn !iti=ens'C An the other han&H if the !hil& was :orn after >anuar" 17H 1973H he woul& :e !onsi&ere& a natural :orn !iti=en without nee& of ele!tion pursuant to +rt' 5EH Se!' 1(2)'

Pr&*er 9>$<"66?:
+tt"' 1i!har& Chua was :orn in 19)#' @e is a le,iti ate son of a Chinese father an& a Filipino other' @is father :e!a e a naturali=e& Filipino !iti=en when +tt"' Chua was still a inor' /%entuall"H he stu&ie& law an& was allowe& :" the Supre e Court to taDe the :ar e0a inationsH su:;e!t to his su: ission to the Supre e Court proof of his Philippine !iti=enship' +lthou,h he ne%er !o plie& with su!h re?uire entH +tt"' Chua pra!ti!e& law for an" "ears until one Noel /u,enio file& with the Supre e Court a !o plaint for &is:ar ent a,ainst hi on the ,roun& that he is not a Filipino !iti=en' @e then file& with the 9ureau of 5 i,ration an affi&a%it ele!tin, Philippine !iti=enship' Noel !onteste& it

Nat3ra' B&rn i'i*in& 9!##$:


No 5E * +n&res +n, was :orn of a Chinese father an& a Filipino other in Sorso,onH Sorso,on' An >anuar" 20H 1973H in 1988H his father was naturali=e& as a Filipino !iti=en' An 8a" 11H 1998H +n&res +n, was ele!te& 1epresentati%e of the First -istri!t of Sorso,on' >uan 9onto who re!ei%e& the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otesH file& a petition for (uo 6arranto a,ainst +n,' 3he petition was file& with the @ouse of 1epresentati%e /le!toral 3ri:unal (@1/3)' 9onto !onten&s that +n, is not a natural :orn !iti=en of the Philippines an& therefore is &is?ualifie& to :e a e :er of the @ouse'

!lai in, it was file& an" "ears after +tt"' Chua rea!he& the a,e of a;orit"' 6ill +tt"' Chua :e &is:arre&L /0plain' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH +tt"' Chua will not :e &is:arre&' +tt"' Chua is alrea&" a Filipino !iti=en an& there was no nee& for hi to file the affi&a%it ele!tin, Filipino !iti=enship' +n ele!tion of Philippine !iti=enship presupposes that the person ele!tin, is an alien' @is fatherH howe%erH alrea&" :e!a e a Filipino !iti=en when +tt"' Chua was still a inor an& thusH he was alrea&" a Filipino :e* fore the a,e of a;orit" (Co %' @1/3H $'1' Nos' 92191*92H >ul" 30H1991)'

3he @1/3 rule& in fa%or of +n,' 9onto file& a petition for !ertiorari in the Supre e Court' 3he followin, issues are raise&: (1) 6hether the !ase is ;usti!ia:le !onsi&erin, that +rti!le E5' Se!tion 17 of the Constitution &e!lares the @1/3 to :e the Csole >u&,eC of all !ontests relatin, to the ele!tion returns an& &is?ualifi!ations of e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' P2NQ (2) 6hether +n, is a natural :o !iti=en of the Philippines' W2NQ
@ow shoul& this !ase :e &e!i&e&L

Nat3ra' B&rn i'i*in& 9!#$#:

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

%"

1' 3he !ase is ;usti!ia:le' (,ra%e a:use of &is!retion)'''


2' +n&res +n, shoul& :e !onsi&ere& a natural :orn !iti=en of the Philippines' @e was :orn of a Filipino other on >anuar" 20H 1973' 3his was after the effe!ti%it" of the 1973 Constitution on >anuar" 17H 1973' <n&er Se!tion (1)H +rti!le 555 of the 1973 ConstitutionH those whose fathers or others are !iti=ens of the Philippines are !iti=ens of the Philippines' +n&res +n, re aine& a !iti=en of the Philippines after the effe!ti%it" of the 1987 Constitution' Se!tion 1H +rti!le 5E of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es:

with Se!tion 2H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH whi!h rea&s:


3hose who ele!t Philippine !iti=enship in a!!or&an!e with para,raph (3)H Se!tion 1 hereof shall :e &ee e& natural :orn !iti=ens'C 2) /rnest is not un&er*a,e&' ( ini u 22 "rs

ol&)'''' Nat3ra'i/ati&n8 Can(e''ati&n &) Citi/en+,i* 9!##$:


No M' * 7i 3on, 9iaoH a Chinese !iti=en applie& for an& was ,rante& Philippine !iti=enship :" the !ourt' @e tooD his oath as !iti=en of the Philippines to >ul" 19)3H in 1972H the Affi!e of the Soli!itor $eneral file& a petition to !an!el his Philippine !iti=enship for the reason that in +u,ust 19)3H the Court of 3a0 +ppeals foun& hi ,uilt" of ta0 e%asion for &eli:eratel" un&erstatin, his in!o e ta0es for the "ears 1929*19)1'

C3he followin, are !iti=ens of the Philippines: C(l) 3hose who are !iti=ens of the Philippines at the ti e of the a&option of this Constitution;C Nat3ra'<B&rn i'i*in&9!##-:
No' 1: 5n 19)#H 1uffaH a Filipina &o esti! helper worDin, in @on,Don,H went to 3aipei for a %a!ationH where she et Chen, Sio PaoH who she arrie&' <n&er Chinese 7awH 1uffa auto ati!all" :e!a e a Chinese !iti=en' 3he !ouple resi&e& in @on,Don,H where on 8a" 9H 19)2H 1uffa ,a%e :irth to a :o" na e& /rnest' <pon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit"H /rnest ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship' +fter the /-S+ 1e%olutionH /rnest &e!i&e& to li%e per anentl" in the PhilippinesH where he prospere& as a :usiness an' -urin, the 8a" 11H 1993 ele!tionH /rnest ran an& won as a !on,ress an' @is opponentH notin, /rnestBs Chinese an!estr"H file& a petition to &is?ualif" the latter on the followin, ,roun&s; (1) /rnest Chen, is not a natural :orn Filipino; an& (2) he is un&er*a,e&' -e!i&e'

(1) Coul& 7i 3on, 9iao raise the &efense of pres!ription of the a!tion for !an!ellation of his Filipino !iti=enshipL P3NQ
(2) Supposin, the 3a0 + lia:ilitiesH &efense to 7i 3on, 9iao ha& a%aile& of nest" of the ,o%ern ent for his ta0 woul& this !onstitute a %ali& the !an!ellation of his Filipino

!iti=enshipL P2NQ SUGGESTED ANSWER:


1' NoH 7i 3on, 9iao !annot raise the &efense of pres!ription' +s hel& in 1epu:li! us' $o 9on 7eeH 1 SC1+ 11))H 1170H a &e!ision ,rantin, !iti=enship is not res ;u&i!ata an& the ri,ht of the ,o%ern ent to asD for the !an!ellation of a !ertifi!ate !an!ellation is not :arre& :" the lapse of ti e'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) /rnest !annot :e &is?ualifie&' Se!tion 1H +rti!le 5E of the Constitution pro%i&es: C3he followin, are !iti=ens of the Philippines; MMM MMM MMM C(3) 3hose :orn :efore >anuar" 17H 1973H of Filipino othersH who ele!t Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit";C /rnest !oul& ele!t Philippine !iti=enship sin!e he was :orn :efore >anuar" 17H 1973 an& his other is a Filipino' +s state& in the !ases of 3orres %s' 3an Chi H )9 Phil' 218 an& Cu %s' 1epu:li!H 83 Phil' #73H for this pro%ision to appl"H the other nee& not :e a Filipino !iti=en at the ti e she ,a%e :irth to the !hil& in ?uestion' 5t is suffi!ient that she was a Filipino !iti=en at the ti e of her arria,e' AtherwiseH the nu :er of persons who woul& :e :enefite& :" the fore,oin, pro%ision woul& :e li ite&' @a%in, ele!te& Philippine !iti=enshipH /rnest is a natural*:orn Filipino !iti=en in a!!or&an!e

2' 3he fa!t that 7i 3on, 9iao a%aile& of the ta0 a nest" is not a %ali& &efense to the !an!ellation of his Filipino !iti=enship' 5n 1epu:li! %s' 7i OaoH 21# SC1+ 7#8H 72#H the Supre e Court hel&:
C5n other wor&sH the ta0 a nest" &oes not ha%e the effe!t of o:literatin, his la!D of ,oo& oral !hara!ter an& irreproa!ha:le !on&u!t whi!h are ,roun&s for &enaturali=ationHC

Re+iden(y ReF3ire1ent+8 E'e(ti0e O))i(ia' 9>#<"66@:


(1) 5n the 8a" 8H1992 ele!tions for lo!al offi!ials whose ter s were to !o en!e on >une 30H 1992H 1i!D" file& on 8ar!h 20H 1992 his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for the Affi!e of $o%ernor of 7a,una' @e wonH :ut his ?ualifi!ations as an ele!te& offi!ial was ?uestione&' 5t is a& itte& that

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%-

he is a repatriate& Filipino !iti=en an& a resi&ent of the Pro%in!e of 7a,una' 3o :e ?ualifie& for the offi!e to whi!h a lo!al offi!ial has :een ele!te&H when at the latest shoul& he :e: (2N) (a) + Filipino Citi=enL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !iti=enship re?uire ent is to :e possesse& :" an ele!ti%e offi!ial at the latest as of the ti e he is pro!lai e& an& at the start of the ter of offi!e to whi!h he has :een ele!te&' Se!tion 39 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH whi!h enu erates the ?ualifi!ations of ele!ti%e lo!al ,o%ern ent offi!ialsH &oes not spe!if" an" parti!ular &ate or ti e when the !an&i&ate ust possess !iti=enship' (Fri%al&o %' CA8/7/CH $'1' No' 120292H >une 28H199))

Stat3+8 I''egiti1ate C,i'd8 D3a' Citi/en+,i* 9!##?: No' 8: 2) M was :orn in the <nite& States of a Filipino father an& a 8e0i!an other' @e returne& to the Philippines when he was twent"* si0 "ears of a,eH !arr"in, an + eri!an passport an& he was re,istere& as an alien with the 9ureau of 5 i,ration' 6as M ?ualifie& to run for e :ership in the @ouse of 1epresentati%es in the 1992 ele!tionsL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 6hether or not M was ?ualifie& to run for e :ership in the @ouse of 1epresentati%es in the 1992 ele!tion &epen&s on the !ir!u stan!es'
5f M was an 5lle,iti ate !hil&H he is not ?ualifie& to run for the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' +!!or&in, to the !ase of in re 8allareH 29 SC1+ #2H an ille,iti ate !hil& follows the !iti=enship of the other' Sin!e the other of M is a 8e0i!anH he will :e a 8e0i!an !iti=en if he is an ille,iti ate !hil&H e%en if his father is a Filipino' 5f M is a le,iti ate !hil&H he is a Filipino !iti=en' <n&er Se!tion 2(2)H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH those whose fathers are !iti=ens of the Philippines are Filipino !iti=ens' Sin!e M was :orn in the <nite& StatesH whi!h follows ;us soliH M is also an + eri!an !iti=en' 5n a!!or&an!e with +=nar %s' Co issionH on /le!tionsH 182 SC1+ 703H the ere fa!t a person with &ual !iti=enship re,istere& as an alien with the Co ission on 5 i,ration an& -eportation &oes not ne!essaril" ean that he is renoun!in, his Philippine !iti=enship' 7iDewiseH the ere fa!t that M use& an + eri!an passport &i& not result in the loss of his Philippine !iti=enship' +s hel& in GawaDita %s' <ntie& StatesH 3#3 <'S' 717H sin!e a person with &ual !iti=enship has the ri,hts of !iti=enship in :oth !ountriesH the use of a passport issue& :" one !ountr" is not in!onsistent with his !iti=enship in the other !ountr"'

(:) + resi&ent of the lo!alit"L /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER: <n&er Se!tion 39 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH an in&i%i&ual ust possess the resi&en!" re?uire ent in the lo!alit" where he inten&s to run at least one "ear i e&iatel" pre!e&in, the &a" of ele!tion' Stat3+8 I''egiti1ate C,i'd 9!##6:
No' 3: O was ele!te& Senator in the 8a" 1987 national ele!tions' @e was :orn out of we&lo!D in 19#9 of an + eri!an father an& a naturali=e& Filipina other' O ne%er ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit"'

9efore what :o&" shoul& 3H the losin, !an&i&ateH ?uestion the ele!tion of OL State the reasons for "our answer' (2) 5s O a Filipino !iti=enL /0plain "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) 3H the losin, !an&i&ateH shoul& ?uestion the ele!tion of O :efore the Senate /le!toral 3ri:unalH ''''
(2) OesH O is a Filipino !iti=en' 8ore than that he is a natural :orn !iti=en of the Philippines ?ualifie& to :e!o e a Senator' Sin!e O is an ille,iti ate !hil& of a Filipino otherH he follows the !iti=enship of his other' @e nee& not ele!t Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" as hel& 5n re 8allare' 29 SC1+ #2' 5n Asias %' +ntoninoH /le!toral Case No' 11H +u,ust )H 1971H the Senate /le!toral 3ri:unal hel& that the ille,iti ate !hil& of an alien father an& a Filipino other is a Filipino !iti=en an& is ?ualifie& to :e a Senator'

(1)

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 5f M has taDen an oath of alle,ian!e to the <'S' he will :e &ee e& to ha%e renoun!e& his Philippine !iti=enship' Conse?uentl"H he is &is?ualifie& to run for the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' Stat3+8 Legiti1ate C,i'd 9"66-:
No 5E * 8i,uel Sin was :orn a "ear a,o in China to a Chinese father an& a Filipino other @is parents et in Shan,hai where the" were

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%;

lawfull" arrie& ;ust two "ears a,o' 5s 8i,uel Sin a Filipino !iti=enL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
8i,uel Sin is a Filipino !iti=en :e!ause he is the le,iti ate !hil& of a Filipino other' <n&er +rti!le 5EH Se!tion # of the 1987 ConstitutionH his other retaine& her Philippine !iti=enship &espite her arria,e to an alien hus:an&H an& a!!or&in, to +rti!le 5EH Se!tion 1(2) of the 1987 ConstitutionH !hil&ren :orn of a Filipino other are Filipino !iti=ens'

of pu:li! fun&s :" P+$CA1H not :ein, a&e pursuant to an appropriation a&e :" lawH %iolates the Constitution' A**r&*riati&n &) P3b'i( Debt Ser0i(ing 9!##": 3nd+8

Way+ &) Rea(F3iring Citi/en+,i* 9"666:


No ME555' * Cru=H a Filipino :" :irthH :e!a e an + eri!an !iti=en' 5n his ol& a,e he has returne& to the !ountr" an& wants to :e!o e a Filipino a,ain' +s his law"erH enu erate the wa"s :" whi!h !iti=enship a" :e rea!?uire&' (2N)

No 13: /0plain how the auto ati! appropriation of pu:li! fun&s for &e:t ser%i!in, !an :e re!on!ile& with +rti!le E5H Se!tion 29(1) of the Constitution' Sai& pro%ision sa"s that Cno one" shall :e pai& out of the 3reasur" e0!ept in pursuan!e of an appropriation a&e :" lawC'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+s state& in $uin,ona %s' Cara,ueH 19) SC1+ 221H the presi&ential &e!rees pro%i&in, for the appropriation of fun&s to pa" the pu:li! &e:t &o not %iolate Se!tion 29(1)H +rti!le E5 of the Constitution' 3he" pro%i&e for a !ontinuin, appropriationH there is no !onstitutional prohi:ition a,ainst this' 3he presi&ential &e!rees appropriate as u!h one" as is nee&e& to pa" the prin!ipalH interestH ta0es an& other nor al :anDin, !har,es on the loan' +lthou,h no spe!ifi! a ounts are entione&H the a ounts are !ertain :e!ause the" !an :e !o pute& fro the :ooDs of the National 3reasur"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER: Cru= a" rea!?uire Philippine !iti=enship in the followin, wa"s: 1' 9" naturali=ation; 2' 9" repatriation pursuant to 1epu:li! +!t No' 8171; an& 3' 9" &ire!t a!t of Con,ress (Se!tion 2 of Co onwealth +!t No' )3)'

ARTICLE .I De*art1ent

Legi+'ati0e

A**r&*riati&n &) P3b'i( P3b'i( P3r*&+e+ 9!#$$:

3nd+8

A**r&*riati&n &) P3b'i( 3nd+ 9!#$$:


No' ): * 8etropolitan newspapers ha%e reporte& that the Philippine $a es an& + use ent Corporation (P+$CA1) ,i%es heft" !ontri:utions to 8ala!anan,H to fun& Cso!io* e!ono i! an& !i%i! pro;e!tsC of the Presi&entH 3he reports a&& that for 1988 aloneH so e si0 hun&re& illion (P)008) pesos ha%e alrea&" :een ear arDe& for re ittan!e to the Affi!e of the Presi&ent' P+$CA1 ha& also :een reporte& to ha%e fun&e&H as !oor&inate& :" a Con,ress an fro 8in&anaoH spe!ial pro;e!ts of ?uite a nu :er of e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' +ssu in, that one" earne& :" P+$CA1 fro its operations are pu:li! fun&sH are su!h !ontri:utions to 8ala!aXan, an& to !ertain Con,ress en an& their e0pen&iture as reporte&H le,alL Cite !onstitutional or &e!isional rules in support of "our answer'

No' 7: * 3awi*3awi is a pre&o inantl" 8osle pro%in!e' 3he $o%ernorH the Ei!e*$o%ernorH an& e :ers of its San,,unian, Panlalawi,an are all 8osle s' 5ts :u&,et pro%i&es the $o%ernor with a !ertain a ount as his &is!retionar" fun&s' 1e!entl"H howe%erH the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an passe& a resolution appropriatin, P100H000 as a spe!ial &is!retionar" fun& of the $o%ernorH to' :e spent :" hi in lea&in, a pil,ri a,e of his pro%in!e ates to 8e!!aH Sau&i +ra:iaH 5sla Bs holiest !it"' Phil!onsaH on !onstitutional ,roun&sH has file& suit to nullif" the resolution of the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an ,i%in, the spe!ial &is!retionar" fun& to the $o%ernor for the state& purpose'

@ow woul& "ou &e!i&e the !aseL $i%e "our reasons' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he resolution is un!onstitutional FirstH it %iolates art' E5H se!' 29(2) of the Constitution whi!h prohi:its the appropriation of pu:li! one" or propert"H &ire!tl" or in&ire!tl"H for the useH :enefit or support of an" s"ste of reli,ionH an&H se!on&H it !ontra%enes art' E5H se!H 22()) whi!h li its the appropriation of &is!retionar" fun&s onl" for pu:li! purposes'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !ontri:utions a&e to 8ala!aXan, an& to !ertain !on,ress en are 5lle,al' <n&er art' E5H se!' 29(1) no one" !an :e pai& out of the 3reasur" e0!ept in pursuan!e of an appropriation a&e :" law' 3he &is:urse ent

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%@

3he use of &is!retionar" fun&s for purel" reli,ious purpose is thus un!onstitutionalH an& the fa!t that the &is:urse ent is a&e :" resolution of a lo!al le,islati%e :o&" an& not :" Con,ress &oes not aDe it an" less offensi%e to the Constitution' +:o%e allH the resolution !onstitutes a !lear %iolation of the Non* esta:lish ent Clause (art' 555H se!' 2) of the Constitution' C&11i++i&n &n A**&int1ent+ 9"66": No 555 * Suppose there are 202 e :ers in the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' Af this nu :erH 182 :elon, to the Pro,ressi%e Part" of the Philippines or PPPH while 17 :elon, to the Citi=ens Part" or CP' @ow woul& "ou answer the followin, ?uestions re,ar&in, the representation of the @ouse in the Co ission on +ppoint entsL +' + @ow an" seats woul& the PPP :e entitle& to ha%e in the Co ission on +ppoint entsL /0plain "our answer full"' (2N)
9' Suppose 12 of the CP representati%esH while aintainin, their part" affiliationH entere& into a politi!al allian!e with the PPP in or&er to for the C1ain:ow CoalitionBB in the @ouse' 6hat effe!tH if an"H woul& this ha%e on the ri,ht of the CP to ha%e a seat or seats in the Co ission on +ppoint entsL /0plain "our answer full"' (2N)

Co ission on +ppoint entsH AtherwiseH the Co ission on +ppoint ents will ha%e to :e reor,ani=e& as often as %otes shift fro one si&e to another in the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' De'egati&n &) P&5er+ 9"66":
No ME55' * Suppose that Con,ress passe& a law !reatin, a -epart ent of @u an @a:itat an& authori=in, the -epart ent Se!retar" to pro ul,ate i ple entin, rules an& re,ulations' Suppose further that the law &e!lare& that %iolation of the i ple entin, rules an& re,ulations so issue& woul& :e punisha:le as a !ri e an& authori=e& the -epart ent Se!retar" to pres!ri:e the penalt" for su!h %iolation' 5f the law &efines !ertain a!ts as %iolations of the law an& aDes the punisha:leH for e0a pleH with i prison ent of three (3) "ears or a fine in the a ount of P10H000'00H or :oth su!h i prison ent an& fineH in the &is!retion of the !ourtH !an it :e pro%i&e& in the i ple entin, rules an& re,ulations pro ul,ate& :" the -epart ent Se!retar" that their %iolation will also :e su:;e!t to the sa e penalties as those pro%i&e& in the law itselfL /0plain "our answer full"' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he rules an& re,ulations pro ul,ate& :" the Se!retar" of @u an @a:itat !annot pro%i&e that the penalties for their %iolation will :e the sa e as the penalties for the %iolation of the law' +s hel& in <nite& States %' 9arriasH 11 Phil' 327 (1908)H the fi0in, of the penalt" for !ri inal offenses in%ol%es the e0er!ise of le,islati%e power an& !annot :e &ele,ate&' 3he law itself ust pres!ri:e the penalt"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+' 3he 182 e :ers of the Pro,ressi%e Part" of the Philippines represent 91'28 per !ent of the 202 e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' 5n a!!or&an!e with +rti!le E5H Se!tion 18 of the ConstitutionH it is entitle& to ha%e ten of the twel%e seats in the Co ission on +ppoint ents' +lthou,h the 182 e :ers of Pro,ressi%e Part" of the Philippines represent 10'98 seats in the Co ission on +ppoint entsH un&er the rulin, in $uin,ona %' $on=alesH 21# SC1+ 789 (1992)H a fra!tional e :ership !annot :e roun&e& off to full e :ership :e!ause it will result in o%er* representation of that politi!al part" an& un&er* representation of the other politi!al parties' 9' 3he politi!al allian!e for e& :" the 12 e :ers of the Citi=ens Part" with the Pro,ressi%e Part" of the Philippines will not result in the &i inution of the nu :er of seats in the Co ission on +ppoint ents to whi!h the Citi=ens Part" is entitle&' +s hel& in Cunanan %' 3anH 2 SC1+ 1 (19)2)H a te porar" allian!e :etween the e :ers of one politi!al part" an& another politi!al part" &oes not authori=e a !han,e in the e :ership of the

De'egati&n &) P&5er+8 9>?<"66@: (2) Se!tion 32 of 1epu:li! +!t No' #)70 (3he 8a,na Carta for Pu:li! S!hool 3ea!hers) rea&s:
Se!' 32' Penal Pro%ision' R + person who shall willfull" interfere withH restrain or !oer!e an" tea!her in the e0er!ise of his ri,hts ,uarantee& :" this +!t or who shall in an" other anner !o it an" a!t to &efeat an" of the pro%isions of this +!t shallH upon !on%i!tionH :e punishe& :" a fine of not less than one hun&re& pesos nor ore than one thousan& pesosH or :" i prison entH in the &is!retion of the !ourt' 5s the pro%iso ,rantin, the !ourt the authorit" to i pose a penalt" or i prison ent in its &is!retion !onstitutionalL /0plain :riefl"' (#N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

%?

3he pro%iso is un!onstitutional' Se!tion 32 of 1'+' No' #)70 pro%i&es for an in&eter ina:le perio& of i prison entH with neither a ini u nor a a0i u &uration ha%in, :een set :" the le,islati%e authorit"' 3he !ourts are thus ,i%en wi&e latitu&e of &is!retion to fi0 the ter of i prison entH without e%en the :enefit of an" suffi!ient stan&ar&H su!h that the &uration thereof a" ran,eH in the wor&s of respon&ent ;u&,eH fro one inute to the life span of the a!!use&' 3his !annot :e allowe&' 5t %ests in the !ourts a power an& a &ut" essentiall" le,islati%e in nature an& whi!hH as applie& to this !aseH &oes %iolen!e to the rules on separation of powers as well as the non*&ele,a:ilit" of le,islati%e powers' (People %' >u&,e -a!u"!u"H $'1' No' 7* #2127H 8a" 2H 1989)

when it rea!hes hi e0!ept to enfor!e it' (See 53S %' +n, 3an, @oH $'1' No' 7* 17122H Fe:ruar" 27H 1922) S<FF5C5/N3 S3+N-+1- 3/S3' + suffi!ient stan&ar& is inten&e& to ap out the :oun&aries of the &ele,ateBs authorit" :" &efinin, the le,islati%e poli!" an& in&i!atin, the !ir!u stan!es un&er whi!h it is to :e pursue& an& effe!te&; inten&e& to pre%ent a total transferen!e of le,islati%e power fro the le,islature to the &ele,ate' 3he stan&ar& is usuall" in&i!ate& in the law &ele,atin, le,islati%e power' (See Onot u' 5nter e&iate +ppellate CourtH $'1' No' 7##27H 8ar!h 20H 1987) Di+(i*'ine8 M&de+ &) Re1&0a' 9!##-: No' 11: * @ow a" the followin, :e re o%e& fro offi!e: 1) Senators 4 Con,ress en 2) >u&,es of lower !ourts 3) Affi!ers an& e plo"ees in the Ci%il Ser%i!e SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) 5n a!!or&an!e with +rt' 555H se!tion 1)(3)H of the ConstitutionH Senators an& Con,ress en a" :e re o%e& :" their /MP<7S5AN for &isor&erl" :eha%iorH with the !on!urren!e of at least two*thir&s of all the e :ers of the @ouse to whi!h the" :elon,' 5n a&&itionH the" a" also :e re o%e& in !onse?uen!e of an ele!tion !ontest file& with the Senate or @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal'

De'egati&n &) P&5er+8 C&1*'etene++ Te+t8 S3))i(ient Standard Te+t 9>?<"66@: (1) 3he two a!!epte& tests to &eter ine whether or not there is a %ali& &ele,ation of le,islati%e power are the Co pleteness 3est an& the Suffi!ient Stan&ar& 3est' /0plain ea!h' (#N) ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
<n&er the CA8P7/3/N/SS 3/S3H a law ust :e !o plete in all its ter s an& pro%isions when it lea%es the le,islature that nothin, is left to the ;u&, ent of the &ele,ate' 3he le,islature &oes not a:&i!ate its fun!tions when it &es!ri:es what ;o: ust :e &oneH who is to &o itH an& what is the s!ope of his authorit"' @owe%erH a &ele,ation of power to aDe the laws whi!h ne!essaril" in%ol%es a &is!retion as to what it shall :e a" not !onstitutionall" :e &one' (/&u %' /ri!taH $'1' No' 7*3209)H A!to:er 2#H 1970) <n&er the S<FF5C5/NCO AF S3+N-+1-S 3/S3H the statute ust not onl" &efine a fun&a ental le,islati%e poli!"H arD its li its an& :oun&ariesH an& spe!if" the pu:li! a,en!" to e0er!ise the le,islati%e power' 5t ust also in&i!ate the !ir!u stan!es un&er whi!h the le,islati%e !o an& is to :e effe!te&' 3o a%oi& the taint of unlawful &ele,ationH there ust :e a stan&ar&H whi!h i plies at the %er" least that the le,islature itself &eter ines atters of prin!iple an& la"s &own fun&a ental poli!"' (Free 3elephone 6orDers <nion %' 8inister of 7a:orH $'1' No' 7*2818#H A!to:er 30H 1981)

2) +s to >u&,esH +rt' E555H se!' 11 of the ConstitutionH '''' 3) +s to Ci%il Ser%i!e / plo"eesH +rt' 5M* 9' Se!' 2(3) of the Constitution'''' Di+(i*'ine8 S3+*en+i&n &) a Me1ber &) t,e C&ngre++ 9"66":
No 55' * Si eon Ealera was for erl" a Pro%in!ial $o%ernor who ran an& won as a 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es for the Se!on& Con,ressional -istri!t of lloilo' For %iolation of Se!tion 3 of the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t (1'+' No'3019)H as a en&e&H alle,e&l" !o itte& when he was still a Pro%in!ial $o%ernorH a !ri inal !o plaint was file& a,ainst hi :efore the Affi!e of the A :u&s an for whi!hH upon a fin&in, of pro:a:le !auseH a !ri inal !ase was file& with the San&i,an:a"an' -urin, the !ourse of trialH the San&i,an:a"an issue& an or&er of pre%enti%e suspension for 90 &a"s a,ainst hi '

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
CA8P7/3/N/SS 3/S3' 3he law ust :e !o plete in all its essential ter s an& !on&itions when it lea%es the le,islature so that there will :e nothin, left for the &ele,ate to &o

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

%%

1epresentati%e Ealera ?uestione& the %ali&it" of the San&i,an:a"an or&er on the ,roun& thatH un&er +rti!le E5H Se!tion 1)(3) of the ConstitutionH he !an :e suspen&e& onl" :" the @ouse of 1epresentati%es an& that the !ri inal !ase a,ainst hi &i& not arise fro his a!tuations as a e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' 5s 1epresentati%e EaleraBs !ontention !orre!tL 6h"L (2N)

was a &e fa!to offi!er while he was in possession of the offi!e' 3o allow +E/ to !olle!t the salaries an& allowan!es will result in aDin, the ,o%ern ent pa" a se!on& ti e' (8e!he H + 3reatise on the 7aw of Pu:li! Affi!es an& Pu:li! Affi!ersH P1890Q pp' 222*223') 9+13 is not re?uire& to refun& to the ,o%ern ent the salaries an& allowan!es he re!ei%e&' +s a &e fa!to offi!erH he is entitle& to the salaries an& allowan!es :e!ause he ren&ere& ser%i!es &urin, his in!u :en!"' (1o&ri,ue= %' 3anH 91 Phil' 72# P1922Q) 3he :ills whi!h 9+13 alone authore& an& were appro%e& :" the @ouse of 1epresentati%es are %ali& :e!ause he was a &e fa!to offi!er &urin, his in!u :en!"' 3he a!ts of a &e fa!to offi!er are %ali& insofar as the pu:li! is !on!erne&' (People %' $ar!iaH 313 SC1+ 279 P1999Q)'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !ontention of 1epresentati%e Ealera is not !orre!t +s hel& in Santia,o %' San&i,an:a"anH 32) SC1+ )3)H the suspension !onte plate& in +rti!le E5H Se!tion 1)(3) of the Constitution is a punish ent that is i pose& :" the Senate or @ouse of 1epresentati%es upon an errin, e :erH it is &istin!t fro the suspension un&er Se!tion 13 of the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!tH whi!h is not a penalt" :ut a pre%enti%e easure' Sin!e Se!tion 13 of the +nti*$raft an& Corruption Pra!ti!es +!t &oes not state that the pu:li! offi!er ust :e suspen&e& onl" in the offi!e where he is alle,e& to ha%e !o itte& the a!ts whi!h he has :een !har,e&H it applies to an" offi!e whi!h he a" :e hol&in,' E'e(ted O))i(ia'8 De a(t& O))i(er 9"66;: 9!6<b: +E/ ran for Con,ress an of (< pro%in!e' @owe%erH his opponentH 9+13H was the one pro!lai e& an& seate& as the winner of the ele!tion :" the CA8/7/C' +E/ file& seasona:l" a protest :efore @1/3 (@ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal)' +fter two "earsH @1/3 re%erse& the CA8/7/CBs &e!ision an& +E/ was pro!lai e& finall" as the &ul" ele!te& Con,ress an' 3husH he ha& onl" one "ear to ser%e in Con,ress'

E'e(t&ra' Trib3na'8 HRET Me1ber+J Rig,t B Re+*&n+ibi'itie+ 9"66": No 5E' 5n an ele!tion !aseH the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal ren&ere& a &e!ision uphol&in, the ele!tion protest of protestant +H a e :er of the Free&o Part"H a,ainst protestee 9H a e :er of the Fe&eral Part"' 3he &e!i&in, %ote in fa%or of + was !ast :" 1epresentati%e MH a e :er of the Fe&eral Part" '
For ha%in, %ote& a,ainst his part" ateH 1epresentati%e M was re o%e& :" 1esolution of the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH at the instan!e of his part" (the Fe&eral Part")H fro e :ership in the @1/3' 1epresentati%e M proteste& his re o%al on the ,roun& that he %ote& on the :asis of the e%i&en!e presente& an& !onten&e& that he ha& se!urit" of tenure as a @1/3 8e :er an& that he !annot :e re o%e& e0!ept for a %ali& !ause'

Can +E/ !olle!t salaries an& allowan!es fro the ,o%ern ent for the first two "ears of his ter as Con,ress anL Shoul& 9+13 refun& to the ,o%ern ent the salaries an& allowan!es he ha& re!ei%e& as Con,ress anL 6hat will happen to the :ills that 9+13 alone authore& an& were appro%e& :" the @ouse of 1epresentati%es while he was seate& as Con,ress anL 1eason an& e0plain :riefl"' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
+E/ !annot !olle!t salaries an& allowan!es fro the ,o%ern ent for the first two "ears of his ter H :e!ause in the eanwhile 9+13 !olle!te& the salaries an& allowan!es' 9+13

6ith whose !ontention &o "ou a,reeH that of the Fe&eral Part" or that of 1epresentati%e ML 6h"L (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5 a,ree with the !ontention of 1epresentati%e M' +s hel& 5n 9on&o! %' Pine&aH 201 SC1+ 792 (1991)H the e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal are entitle& to se!urit" of tenure liDe e :ers of the ;u&i!iar"' 8e :ership in it a" not :e ter inate& e0!ept for a ;ust !ause' -islo"alt" to part" is not a %ali& ,roun& for the e0pulsion of a e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal' 5ts e :ers ust &is!har,e their fun!tions with i partialit" an&

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

%$

in&epen&en!e fro the politi!al part" to whi!h the" :elon,' E'e(t&ra' 9!##6: Trib3na'8 Senate8 43ri+di(ti&n

a,ree ent ust :e !on!urre& in :" at least two*thir&s of all the 8e :ers of the Senate'
Se!tion #H +rti!le ME555 of the Constitution pro%i&es: C+ll e0istin, treaties or international a,ree ents whi!h ha%e not :een ratifie& shall not :e renewe& or e0ten&e& without the !on!urren!e of at least two*thir&s of all the 8e :ers of the Senate'K

No' 3: O was ele!te& Senator in the 8a" 1987 national ele!tions' @e was :orn out of we&lo!D in 19#9 of an + eri!an father an& a naturali=e& Filipina other' O ne%er ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit"' 9efore what :o&" shoul& 3H the losin, !an&i&ateH ?uestion the ele!tion of OL State the reasons for "our answer'

In0e+tigati&n+ in Aid &) Legi+'ati&n 9!##":


No' 8: + !ase was file& :efore the San&i,an:a"an re,ar&in, a ?uestiona:le ,o%ern ent transa!tion' 5n the !ourse of the pro!ee&in,sH newspapers linDe& the na e of Senator >' &e 7eon to the s!an&al' Senator &e 7eon tooD the floor of the Senate to speaD on a C atter of personal pri%ile,eC to %in&i!ate his honor a,ainst those C:aseless an& ali!iousC alle,ations' 3he atter was referre& to the Co ittee on +!!ounta:ilit" of Pu:li! Affi!ersH whi!h pro!ee&e& to !on&u!t a le,islati%e in?uir"' 3he Co ittee asDe& 8r' Ein!e 7e&es aH a :usiness an linDe& to the transa!tion an& now a respon&ent :efore the San&i,an:a"anH to appear an& to testif" :efore the Co ittee'

5s O a Filipino !iti=enL /0plain "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


(1) 3H the losin, !an&i&ateH shoul& ?uestion the ele!tion of O :efore the Senate /le!toral 3ri:unalH :e!ause the issue in%ol%e& is the ?ualifi!ation of O to :e a Senator' Se!tion 17H +rti!le E5 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es that' 3he Senate an& the @ouse of 1epresentati%es shall ea!h*ha%e an /le!toral 3ri:unal whi!h shall :e the sole ;u&,e of all !ontests relatin, to the ele!tionH returnsH an& ?ualifi!ations of their respe!ti%e 8e :ers'C

(2) OesH O is a natural :orn Filipino !iti=en' '''' &reign A))air+8 R&'e &) H&3+e &) Re* 9!##?:
No' 7: 2) Can the @ouse of 1epresentati%es taDe a!ti%e part in the !on&u!t of forei,n relationsH parti!ularl" in enterin, into treaties an& international a,ree entsL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the @ouse of 1epresentati%es !annot taDe a!ti%e part in the !on&u!t of forei,n relationsH parti!ularl" in enterin, into treaties an& international a,ree ents' +s hel& in <nite& States %s' Curtiss*6ri,ht /0port CorporationH 299 <'S' 30#H the Presi&ent alone is the representati%e of the nation in the !on&u!t of forei,n affairs' +lthou,h the Senate has the power to !on!ur in treatiesH the Presi&ent alone ne,otiates treaties an& Con,ress is powerless to intru&e into this' @owe%erH if the atter in%ol%es a treat" or an e0e!uti%e a,ree entH the @ouse of 1epresentati%es a" pass a resolution e0pressin, its %iews on the atter'

8r 7e&es a refuses to appear an& file suit :efore the Supre e Court to !hallen,e the le,alit" of the pro!ee&in,s :efore the Co ittee' @e also asDs whether the Co ittee ha& the power to re?uire hi to testif"' 5&entif" the issues 5n%ol%e& an& resol%e the ' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he issues in%ol%e& in this !ase are the followin,: 1' 6hether or not the Supre e Court has ;uris&i!tion to entertain the !ase;
2' 6hether or not the Co ittee on +!!ounta:ilit" of Pu:li! Affi!ers has the power to in%esti,ate a atter whi!h is in%ol%e& in a !ase pen&in, in !ourt; an&

3' 6hether or not the petitioner !an in%oDe his ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri ination' +ll these 5ssues were resol%e& in the !ase of 9en,=on %s' Senate 9lue 1i::on Co itteeH 203 SC1+ 7)7' 3he Supre e Court has ;uris&i!tion o%er the !ase (&eter ination of ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion)''''

&reign A))air+8 R&'e &) Senate 9!##;: No' 13: 1) <n&er the ConstitutionH what is the role of the Senate in the !on&u!t of forei,n affairsL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he Senate pla"s a role in the !on&u!t of forei,n affairsH :e!ause of the re?uire ent in Se!tion 21H +rti!le E55 of the Constitution that to :e %ali& an& effe!ti%e a treat" or international

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

%#

3he Co ittee on +!!ounta:ilit" of Pu:li! Affi!ers has no power to in%esti,ate the s!an&al' (no ;u&i!ial fun!tions)'''

easure if the appropriation of pu:li! fun&s is not its prin!ipal purpose an& the appropriation is onl" in!i&ental to so e other o:;e!ti%e' La5<MaIing8 A**r&*riati&n La58 A3t&1ati( Rene5a' B P&5er &) A3g1entati&n 9!##$:

3he petitioner !an in%oDe his ri,ht a,ainst self* in!ri inationH :e!ause this ri,ht is a%aila:le in all pro!ee&in,s' Sin!e the petitioner is a respon&ent in the !ase pen&in, :efore the San&i,an:a"anH he a" refuse to testif"' La5 MaIing8 Pr&(e++ B P3b'i(ati&n 9!##-:
No' 2; /rnest Chen,H a :usiness anH has no Dnowle&,e of le,islati%e pro!e&ure' Chen, retains "ou as his le,al a&%iser an& asDs enli,hten ent on the followin, atters: (1) 6hen &oes a :ill :e!o e a law e%en without the si,nature of the Presi&entL

No M5' * Suppose the Presi&ent su: its a :u&,et whi!h &oes not !ontain pro%isions for C-F (Countr"wi&e -e%elop ent Fun&s)H popularl" Dnown as the porD :arrelH an& :e!ause of this Con,ress &oes not pass the :u&,et' 1' 6ill that ean parali=ation of ,o%ern ent operations in the ne0t fis!al "ear for la!D of an appropriation lawL (2N)
2' Suppose in the sa e :u&,etH there is a spe!ial pro%ision in the appropriations for the +r e& For!es authori=in, the Chief of StaffH +FPH su:;e!t to the appro%al of the Se!retar" of National -efenseH to use sa%in,s in the appropriations pro%i&e& thereto to !o%er up whate%er finan!ial losses suffere& :" the +FP 1etire ent an& Separation 9enefits S"ste (1S9S) in the last fi%e (2) "ears &ue to alle,e& :a& :usiness ;u&, ent' 6oul& "ou ?uestion the !onstitutionalit" %ali&it" of the spe!ial pro%isionL P3NQ

(2) 6hen &oes the law taDe effe!tL SUGGESTED ANSWER:


1) <n&er Se!tion 27(1)H +rti!le E5 of the ConstitutionH a :ill :e!o es a law e%en without the si,nature of the Presi&ent if he %etoe& it :ut his %eto was o%erri&en :" two*thir&s %ote of all the e :ers of :oth the Senate an& the @ouse of 1epresentati%es an& 5f the Presi&ent faile& to !o uni!ate his %eto to the @ouse fro whi!h the :ill ori,inate&H within thirt" &a"s after the &ate of re!eipt of the :ill :" the Presi&ent' 2) +s hel& in 3ana&a %s' 3u%eraH 1#) SC1+ ##)H a law ust :e pu:lishe& as a !on&ition for its effe!ti%it" an& in a!!or&an!e with +rti!le 2 of the Ci%il Co&eH it shall taDe effe!t fifteen &a"s followin, the !o pletion of its pu:li!ation in the Affi!ial $a=ette or in a newspaper of ,eneral !ir!ulation unless it is otherwise pro%i&e&' (/0e!uti%e Ar&er No' 292H 1e%ise& +& inistrati%e Co&e of 1989)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1' NoH the failure of Con,ress to pass the :u&,et will not paral"=e the operations of the $o%ern ent'
Se!tion 22(7)H +rti!le E5 of the Constitution pro%i&es: C5fH :" the en& of an" fis!al "earH the Con,ress shall ha%e faile& to pass the ,eneral appropriations :ill for the ensuin, fis!al "earH the ,eneral appropriations law for the pre!e&in, fis!al "ear shall :e &ee e& reena!te& an& shall re ain in for!e an& effe!t until the ,eneral appropriations :ill is passe& :" the Con,ress'

La5<MaIing8 A**r&*riati&n Bi'' 9!##?: No 2: +re the followin, :ills file& in Con,ress !onstitutionalL
+ :ill ori,inatin, fro the Senate whi!h pro%i&es for the !reation of the Pu:li! <tilit" Co ission to re,ulate pu:li! ser%i!e !o panies an& appropriatin, the initial fun&s nee&e& to esta:lish the sa e' /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2' OesH the pro%ision authori=in, the Chief of StaffH with the appro%al of the Se!retar" of National -efenseH to use sa%in,s to !o%er the losses suffere& :" the +FP 1etire ent an& Separation 9enefits S"ste is un!onstitutional'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+ :ill pro%i&in, for the !reation of the Pu:li! <tilit" Co ission to re,ulate pu:li! ser%i!e !o panies an& appropriatin, fun&s nee&e& to esta:lish it a" ori,inate fro the Senate' 5t is not an appropriation :illH :e!ause the appropriation of pu:li! fun&s is not the prin!ipal purpose of the :ill' 5n +sso!iation of S all 7an&owners of the PhilippinesH 5n!' %s' Se!retar" of +,rarian 1efor 172 SC1+ 3#3H it was hel& that a law is not an appropriate

Se!tion 22(2QH +rti!le E5 of the Constitution pro%i&es:


CNo law shall :e passe& authori=in, an" transfer of appropriations; howe%erH the Presi&entH the Presi&ent of the SenateH the SpeaDer of the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH the Chief >usti!e of the Supre e CourtH an& the hea&s of Constitutional Co issions a"H :" lawH :e authori=e& to au, ent an" ite in the

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$6

,eneral appropriation law for their respe!ti%e offi!es fro sa%in,s in other 5te s of their respe!ti%e appropriations'C
5n Philippine Constitution %s /nri?ue=H 232 SC1+ 20)H 2##H the Supre e Court hel& that a pro%ision in the $eneral +ppropriation +!t authori=in, the Chief of Staff to use sa%in,s to au, ent the fun&s of the +FP 1etire ent an& Separation 9enefits S"ste s was un!onstitutional' C6hile Se!tion 22(2) allows as an e0!eption the reali,n ent of sa%in,s to au, ent ite s in the ,eneral appropriations law for the e0e!uti%e :ran!hH su!h ri,ht ust an& !an :e e0er!ise& onl" :" the Presi&ent pursuant to a spe!ifi! law'C

entere& into :" the Presi&ent' 3he :ill !ontains the ,ui&elines to :e followe& :" the !o ission 5n the &is!har,e of its fun!tions' /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+ :ill !reatin, a ;oint le,islati%e*e0e!uti%e !o ission to ,i%eH on :ehalf of the SenateH its a&%i!eH !onsent an& !on!urren!e to treaties entere& into :" the Presi&ent' 3he Senate !annot &ele,ate this fun!tion to su!h a !o issionH :e!ause un&er Se!tion 21H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH the !on!urren!e of at least two*thir&s of the Senate itself is re?uire& for the ratifi!ation of treaties'

La5<MaIing8 A**r&*riati&n Pr&0i+i&n 9"66!:

La58

Rider

No E55 * Suppose that the forth!o in, $eneral +ppropriations 7aw for Oear 2002H in the portion pertainin, to the -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& SportsH will !ontain a pro%ision to the effe!t that the 1eser%e Affi!ers 3rainin, Course (1A3C) in all !olle,es an& uni%ersities is here:" a:olishe&H an& in lieu thereof all ale !olle,e stu&ents shall :e re?uire& to plant ten (10) trees e%er" "ear for two (2) "ears in areas to :e &esi,nate& :" the -epart ent of /n%iron ent an& Natural 1esour!es in !oor&ination with the -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports an& the lo!al ,o%ern ent unit !on!erne&' 5t further pro%i&es that the sa e pro%ision shall :e in!orporate& 5n future $eneral appropriations +!ts' 3here is no spe!ifi! ite of appropriation of fun&s for the purpose'Co ent on the !onstitutionalit" of sai& pro%ision' (2N)

La5<MaIing8 O0erriding t,e Pre+identia' .et& 9!##!: No' 2: 3he Presi&ent si,ns into law the +ppropriations +!t passe& :" Con,ress :ut she %etoes separate ite s thereinH a on, whi!h is a pro%ision statin, that the Presi&ent a" not in!rease an ite of appropriation :" transfer of sa%in,s fro other ite s' 3he @ouse of 1epresentati%es !hooses not to o%erri&e this %eto' 3he SenateH howe%erH pro!ee&s to !onsi&er two options: (1) to o%erri&e the %eto an& (2) to !hallen,e the !onstitutionalit" of the %eto :efore the Supre e Court' a) 5s option (1) %ia:leL 5f so' what is the %ote re?uire& to o%erri&e the %etoL :) 5s option (2) %ia:leL 5f not' wh" notL 5f %ia:leH how shoul& the Court &e!i&e the !aseL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) Aption 1 is not %ia:le in as u!h as the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH fro whi!h the +ppropriations +!t ori,inate& an& to whi!h the Presi&ent ust ha%e returne& the lawH is unwillin, to o%erri&e the presi&ential %eto' 3here isH thereforeH no :asis for the Senate to e%en !onsi&er the possi:ilit" of o%erri&in, the Presi&entBs %eto' <n&er the Constitution the %ote of two*thir& of all the e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es an& the SenateH %otin, separatel"H will :e nee&e& to o%erri&e the presi&ential %eto' (:) 5t is not feasi:le to ?uestion the !onstitutionalit" of the %eto :efore the Supre e Court' 5n $on=ales %s' 8a!arai,H 191 SC1+ 122H the Supre e Court uphel& the !onstitutionalit" of a si ilar %eto' <n&er +rti!le E5H Se!' 27(2) of the ConstitutionH a &istin!t an& se%era:le part of the $eneral +ppropriations a!t a" :e the su:;e!t of a separate %eto' 8oreo%erH the %etoe& pro%ision &oes not relate to an" parti!ular appropriation an& is ore an

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he pro%ision is un!onstitutionalH :e!ause it is a ri&er' Se!tion 22(2)H +rti!le E5 of the Constitution pro%i&esH CNo pro%ision or ena!t ent shall :e e :ra!e& in the ,eneral appropriations :ill unless it relates spe!ifi!all" to so e parti!ular appropriation therein'C 3he a:olition of the 1eser%e Affi!ers 3rainin, Course in%ol%es a poli!" atter' +s hel& in Philippine Constitution +sso!iation %s' /nri?ue=H 232 SC1+ 20) (199#)H this !annot :e in!orporate& in the $eneral +ppropriations +!t :ut ust :e e :o&ie& in a separate law'

La5<MaIing8 &reign A))air+8 Treatie+ 9!##?: No 2: +re the followin, :ills file& in Con,ress !onstitutionalL
2) + :ill !reatin, a ;oint le,islati%e*e0e!uti%e !o ission to ,i%eH on :ehalf of the SenateH its a&%i!eH !onsent an& !on!urren!e to treaties

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e0pression of a !on,ressional poli!" in respe!t of au, entation fro sa%in,s than a :u&,etar" pro%ision' 5t is therefore an inappropriate pro%ision an& it shoul& :e treate& as an ite for purposes of the %eto power of the Presi&ent'

3he Supre e Court shoul& uphol& the %ali&it" of the %eto in the e%ent the ?uestion is :rou,ht :efore it' La5<MaIing8 Pa++age &) a La5 9!#$$: No' 12: * 2' + :ill upon filin, :" a Senator or a 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es ,oes throu,h spe!ifie& steps :efore it lea%es the @ouse of 1epresentati%es or the SenateH as the !ase a" :e' +fter lea%in, the le,islatureH please na e the three etho&s :" whi!h sai& :ill a" :e!o e a law' SUGGESTED ANSWER: + :ill passe& :" Con,ress a" :e!o e a law in an" of the followin, !ases: 5f it is si,ne& into law :" the Presi&ent' (+rt' E5H se!' 27(1))' 5f it is re*passe& o%er the Presi&entBs %eto :" the %ote of two thir&s of all the e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es an& of the Senate' (5&') 5f the Presi&ent fails to %eto it within thirt" &a"s after re!eipt thereof an& !o uni!ate the %eto to the @ouse fro whi!h it ori,inate&H (5&') Legi+'ati0e P&5er8 Pre+= AF3in&J+ Ti1e 9!##6:
No' 1; * /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1 an& 2 issue& :" Presi&ent Cora=on C' +?uino !reate& the Presi&ential Co ission on $oo& $o%ern ent (PC$$) an& e powere& it to se?uester an" propert" shown pri a fa!ie to :e ill*,otten wealth of the late Presi&ent 8ar!osH his relati%es an& !ronies' /0e!uti%e Ar&er No' 1# %ests on the San&i,an:a"an ;uris&i!tion to tr" hi&&en wealth !ases' An +pril 1#H 198)H after an in%esti,ationH the PC$$ se?uestere& the assets of M CorporationH 5n!'

(1) 3he !ontention of M Corporation shoul& :e re;e!te&' /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1H 2 an& 1# were issue& in 198)' +t that ti e Presi&ent Cora=on +?uino e0er!ise& le,islati%e power Se!tion 1H +rti!le 55 of the Pro%isional Constitution esta:lishe& :" Pro!la ation NoH 3H pro%i&e&:
C<ntil a le,islature is ele!te& an& !on%ene& un&er a new !onstitutionH the Presi&ent shall !ontinue to e0er!ise le,islati%e power'C

7iDewiseH Se!tion )H +rti!le ME555 of the 1987 Constitution rea&s: 3he in!u :ent Presi&ent shall !ontinue to e0er!ise le,islati%e power until the first Con,ress is !on%ene&'C
5n the !ase of Gapatiran n, ,a Na,lilin,Do& sa Pa a*halaan n, Pilipinas' 5n!' %' 3anH 1)3 SC1+ 371' the Supre e Court rule& that the Pro%isional Constitution an& the 1987 ConstitutionH :oth re!o,ni=e& the power of the presi&ent to e0er!ise le,islati%e powers until the first Con,ress !reate& un&er the 1987 Constitution was !on%ene& on >ul" 27H 1987'

(2) /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1H 2 an& 1# are not :ills of attain&er' '''' Legi+'ati0e P&5er+ 9!#$#:
No' 1#: +n e0istin, law ,rants ,o%ern ent e plo"ees the option to retire upon rea!hin, the a,e of 27 "ears an& !o pletion of at least 30 "ears of total ,o%ern ent ser%i!e' +s a fis!al retren!h ent easureH the Affi!e of the Presi&ent later issue& a 8e oran&u Cir!ular re?uirin, ph"si!al in!apa!it" as an a&&itional !on&ition for optional retire ent a,e of )2 "ears' + ,o%ern ent e plo"eeH whose appli!ation for optional retire ent was &enie& :e!ause he was :elow )2 "ears of a,e an& was not ph"si!all" in!apa!itate&H file& an a!tion in !ourt ?uestionin, the &isappro%al of his appli!ation !lai in, that the 8e oran&u Cir!ular is %oi&' 5s the !ontention of the e plo"ee !orre!tL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH the !ontention of the e plo"ee is !orre!t' 5n 8arasi,an %s' Cru=H 120 SC1 + 1H it was hel& that su!h a e oran&u !ir!ular is %oi&' 9" intro&u!in, ph"si!al !apa!it" as an a&&itional !on&ition for optional retire entH the e oran&u !ir!ular trie& to a en& the law' Su!h a power is lo&,e& with the le,islati%e :ran!h an& not with the e0e!uti%e :ran!h'

CorporationH 5n!' !lai e& that Presi&ent +?uinoH as Presi&entH !oul& not lawfull" issue /0e!uti%e Ar&ers Nos' 1H 2 an& 1#H whi!h ha%e the for!e of lawH on the ,roun& that le,islation is a fun!tion of Con,ress' -e!i&e'

Sai& !orporation also ?uestione& the %ali&it" of the three e0e!uti%e or&ers on the ,roun& that the" are :ills of attain&er an&H thereforeH un!onstitutional' -e!i&e'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

L&an+ E2tended t& Me1ber+ &) C&ngre++ 9!##!:

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No' 9: +' +fter 2 Fe:ruar" 1987H the Philippine National 9anD (PN9) ,rants a loan to Con,ress an M' 5s the loan %iolati%e of the ConstitutionL
Suppose the loan ha& instea& :een ,rante& :efore 2 Fe:ruar" 1987H :ut was outstan&in, on that &ate with a re ainin, :alan!e on the prin!ipal in the a ount of P20H000'00H !an the PN9 %ali&l" ,i%e Con,ress an M an e0tension of ti e after sai& &ate to settle the o:li,ationL

(1) 3o a!t as national :oar& of !an%assers for


Presi&ent an& Ei!e Presi&ent' (+rt' E55H se!' #)'

(2) 3o

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+' 6hether or not the loan is %iolati%e of the 1987 Constitution &epen&s upon its purpose' 5f it was o:taine& for a :usiness purposeH it is %iolati%e of the Constitution' 5f it was o:taine& for so e other purposeH e','H for housin,' 5t is not %iolati%e of the Constitution :e!ause un&er Se!tion 1)H +rti!le M5' 8e :ers of Con,ress are prohi:ite& fro o:tainin, loans fro ,o%ern ent*owne& :anDs onl" if it is for a :usiness purpose' 5f the loan was ,rante& :efore the effe!ti%it" of the Constitution on Fe:ruar" 2H 1987H the Philippine National 9anD !annot e0ten& its aturit" after Fe:ruar" 2H 1987H if the loan was o:taine& for a :usiness purpose' 5n su!h a !ase the e0tension is a finan!ial a!!o o&ation whi!h is also prohi:ite& :" the Constitution'

&e!i&e whether the Presi&ent is te poraril" &isa:le& in the e%ent he reassu es his offi!e after the Ca:inetH :" a a;orit" of %ote of its e :ersH &e!lare& that he is una:le to &is!har,e the powers an& &uties of his offi!e an& now within fi%e &a"s insists that the Presi&ent is reall" una:le to &is!har,e the powers an& &uties of the presi&en!"' (+rt' E55H se!' 11)

(3) 3o !on!ur in the ,rant of a nest" :" the Presi&ent' (+rt' E55H se!' 19)H
(#) 3o initiate throu,h the @ouse of 1epresentati%es an&H throu,h the SenateH to tr" all !ases of i pea!h ent a,ainst the Presi&entH Ei!e Presi&entH the 8e :ers of the Supre e CourtH the 8e :ers of the Constitutional Co issions an& the A :u&s anH for !ulpa:le %iolation of the ConstitutionH treasonH :ri:er"H ,raft an& !orruptionH other hi,h !ri esH or :etra"al of pu:li! trust' (+rt' M5H se!s' 2*3)' (2) 3o a!t as a !onstituent asse :l" for the re%ision or a en& ent of the Constitution'

(+rt' ME55)'

M3'ti<Party Sy+te1 9!###: No M5E * -is!uss the erits an& &e erits of the ulti*part" s"ste ' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+ ulti*part" s"ste pro%i&es %oters with a ,reater !hoi!e of !an&i&atesH i&easH an& platfor s instea& of li itin, their !hoi!e to two partiesH whose i&eas a" :e sterile' 5t also lea%es roo for &eser%in, !an&i&ates who are not a!!epta:le to those who !ontrol the two &o inant parties to seeD pu:li! offi!e' An the other han&H a ulti*part" s"ste a" aDe it &iffi!ult to o:tain a sta:le an& worDa:le a;orit"H sin!e pro:a:l" no part" will ,et a a;orit"' 7iDewiseH the opposition will :e weaDene& if there are se%eral inorit" parties'

N&n<Legi+'ati0e P&5er+8 E1ergen(y P&5er+8 ReF3i+ite+ 9!##%: No' 11: -urin, a perio& of national e er,en!"' Con,ress a" ,rant e er,en!" powers to the Presi&entH State the !on&itions un&er whi!h su!h %esture is allowe&' SUGGESTED ANSWER: <n&er Se!tion 23(2)H +rti!le E5 of the Constitution' Con,ress a" ,rant the Presi&ent e er,en!" powers su:;e!t to the followin, !on&itions: (1) 3here is a war or other national e er,en!": (2) 3he ,rant of e er,en!" powers ust :e for a li ite& perio&; (3) 3he ,rant of e er,en!" powers is su:;e!t to su!h restri!tions as Con,ress a" pres!ri:e; an&
(#) 3he e er,en!" powers ust :e e0er!ise& to !arr" out a &e!lare& national poli!"'

N&n<Legi+'ati0e P&5er+ 9!#$$:


No' 12: 7e,islati%e powers ha& :een %este& :" the Constitution in the Con,ress of the Philippines' 5n a&&itionH the Constitution also ,rante& the law aDin, :o&"H non*le,islati%e powers' Gin&l" na e fi%e of the latter'

Pr&,ibiti&n+ and In,ibiti&n+ &) P3b'i( O))i(e 9"66;:


9-<a: >+1 fa!es a &ile a: shoul& he a!!ept a Ca:inet appoint ent now or run later for SenatorL @a%in, su!!ee&e& in law pra!ti!e as well as prospere& in pri%ate :usiness where he an& his wife ha%e su:stantial in%est entsH he

SUGGESTED ANSWER: Con,ress has the followin, le,islati%e powers:

non*

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now !onte plates pu:li! ser%i!e :ut without losin, the fle0i:ilit" to en,a,e in !orporate affairs or parti!ipate in professional a!ti%ities within ethi!al :oun&s' 3aDin, into a!!ount the prohi:itions an& inhi:itions of pu:li! offi!e whether as Senator or Se!retar"H he turns to "ou for a&%i!e to resol%e his &ile a' 6hat is "our a&%i!eL /0plain :riefl"' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5 shall a&%ise >+1 to run for S/N+3A1' +s a SenatorH he !an retain his in%est ents in his :usinessH althou,h he ust aDe a full &is!losure of his :usiness an& finan!ial interests an& notif" the Senate of a potential !onfli!t of interest if he authors a :ill' (Se!tion 12H +rti!le E5 of the 1987 Constitution') @e !an !ontinue pra!ti!in, lawH :ut he !annot personall" appear as !ounsel :efore an" !ourt of ;usti!eH the /le!toral 3ri:unalsH or ?uasi* ;u&i!ial an& other a& inistrati%e :o&ies' (Se!tion 1#H +rti!le E5 of the 1987 Constitution') +s a e :er of the Ca:inetH >+1 !annot &ire!tl" or in&ire!tl" pra!ti!e law or parti!ipate in an" :usiness' @e will ha%e to &i%est hi self of his in%est ents in his :usiness' (Se!tion 13H +rti!le E55 of the 1987 Constitution') 5n fa!tH the Constitutional prohi:ition i pose& on e :ers of the Ca:inet !o%ers :oth pu:li! an& pri%ate offi!e or e plo" ent' (Ci%il 7i:erties <nion %' /0e!uti%e Se!retar"H 19# SC1+ 317)

+ssu e that "ou are a e :er of the @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unal where the petition for 9rownBs ouster is pen&in,' @ow woul& "ou &e!i&e the three issues raise& a,ainst hi L SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he first an& thir& ,roun&s ha%e no erit' 9ut the se!on& is well taDen an&H thereforeH 9rown shoul& :e &is?ualifie&' 1' 1o:ert 9rown is a natural :orn !iti=en of the Philippines' + person :orn of a Filipino other an& an alien father :efore >anuar" 17H 1973H who thereafter upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" ele!t Philippine !iti=enshipH is a !iti=en of the Philippines (+rt' 5EH se!' 1(3))' <n&er +rt' 5EH se!H 2 he is also &ee e& a natural*:orn !iti=en'
2' 3he Constitution re?uiresH a on, other thin,sH that a !an&i&ate for e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es ust :e at least 22 "ears of a,e Con the &a" of the ele!tion'C (+rt' E5H se!' ))' +s 9rown was :orn on 8a" 12H 19)2H he &i& not :e!o e 22 "ears ol& until 8a" 12H 1987' @en!e on 8a" 11H 1987H when the ele!tion was hel&H he was # &a"s short of the re?uire& a,e' 3' 3he Constitution pro%i&es that those who seeD either to !han,e their !iti=enship or to a!?uire the status of an i i,rant of another !ountr" C&urin, their tenureC shall :e &ealt with :" law (+rt' M5H se!' 17)' 3he pro%ision !annot appl" to 9rown for the followin, reasons: FirstH 9rown is in a&&ition an + eri!an !iti=en an& thus has a &ual !iti=enship whi!h is allowe& :" the Constitution' (Cf' +rt' 5EH se!' #)H Se!on&H 9rown &i& not seeD to a!?uire the status of an i i,rantH :ut is an + eri!an :" :irth un&er the prin!iple of ;us soli o:tainin, in the <nite& States' 3hir&H he &i& not seeD to !han,e his status &urin, his tenure as a pu:li! offi!er' FourthH the pro%ision of +rt' M5H se!' 17 is not self*e0e!utin, :ut re?uires an i ple entin, law' FifthH :ut a:o%e allH the @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unal has no ;uris&i!tion to &e!i&e this ?uestion sin!e it &oes not !on!ern the ?ualifi!ation of a e :er*ele!t'

>3a'i)i(ati&n+8 C&ngre++1en 9!#$$:


No' 13: * 1o:ert 9rown was :orn in @awaii on 8a" 12H 19)2H of an + eri!an father an& a Filipina other' An 8a" 1)H 1983 while hol&in, an + eri!an passportH he re,istere& as a Filipino with the Philippine Consulate at @onoluluH @awaii' 5n Septe :erH 1983 he returne& to the PhilippinesH an& tooD up resi&en!e at 9oa!H 8arin&u?ueH ho etown of his other' @e re,istere& as a %oterH %ote&H an& e%en parti!ipate& as a lea&er of one of the !an&i&ates in that &istri!t in the 198# 9atasan ele!tions' 5n the ele!tions of 1987H he ran for Con,ress anH an& won' @is sole opponent is now ?uestionin, his ?ualifi!ations an& is tr"in, to oust hi on two :asi! !lai s:

>3a'i)i(ati&n+8 C&ngre++1en8 9!##-:


No' 1: 5n 19)#' 1uffaH a Filipina &o esti! helper worDin, in @on,Don,H went to 3aipei for a %a!ationH where she et Chen, Sio Pao' who she arrie&' <n&er Chinese 7awH 1uffa auto ati!all" :e!a e a Chinese !iti=en' 3he !ouple resi&e& in @on,Don,H where on 8a" 9H 19)2H 1uffa ,a%e :irth to a :o" na e& /rnest' <pon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit"H /rnest ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship' +fter the /-S+

@e is not a natural :orn Filipino !iti=enH :ut is in fa!tH an + eri!anH :orn in @awaiiH an inte,ral portion of the <'S'+'H who hol&s an + eri!an passport; @e &i& not eet the a,e re?uire ent; an& @e has a C,reen !ar&C fro the <'S' $o%ern ent'

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1e%olutionH /rnest &e!i&e& to li%e per anentl" in the PhilippinesH where he prospere& as a :usiness an' -urin, the 8a" 11H 1993 ele!tionH /rnest ran an& won as a !on,ress an' @is opponentH notin, /rnestBs Chinese an!estr"H file& a petition to &is?ualif" the latter on the followin, ,roun&s; (1) /rnest Chen, is not a natural :o Filipino; an& (2) he is un&era,e&' -e!i&e'

SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) /rnest !annot :e &is?ualifie&'''''


2) /rnest is not un&er*a,e&' @a%in, :een :orn on 8a" 9H 19)2H he was o%er twent"*fi%e "ears ol& on the &ate of the 8a" 11H 1993 ele!tion' (/le!tion was hel& on 8a" 11H 1992)' Se!tion )H +rti!le E5 of the ConstitutionH re?uires !on,ress en to :e at least twent"*fi%e "ears of a,e on the &a" of the ele!tion'

Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" to :e !onsi&ere& a natural :orn !iti=en an& ?ualifie& to run for Con,ress' 1epu:li! +!t No' )809 re&u!e& the a;orit" a,e to ei,hteen (18) "ears' Cuen!o %' Se!retar" of >usti!eH 2 SC1+ 108 re!o,ni=e& three (3) "ears fro rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit" as the reasona:le perio& for ele!tin, Philippine !iti=enship' Sin!e 1epu:li! +!t No' )809 tooD effe!t in 1989 an& there is no showin, that Ei!tor +h a& ele!te& Philippine !iti=enship within three (3) "ears fro the ti e he rea!he& the a,e of a;orit" on -e!e :er 1)H 199CH he is not ?ualifie& to run for Con,ress'

5f he !onsulte& e on -e!e :er 1)H 1991H 5 woul& infor hi that he shoul& ele!t Philippine !iti=enship so that he !an :e !onsi&ere& a natural :orn !iti=en' Se*arati&n &) P&5er+ 9!#$$: No' 22: Can an" other &epart ent or a,en!" of the $o%ern ent re%iew a &e!ision of the Supre e CourtL 6h" or wh" notL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No' 3he Supre e Court is the hi,hest ar:iter of le,al ?uestions' (>a%ier %' Co ele!H 1## SC1+ 19# (198))) 3o allow re%iew of its &e!ision :" the other &epart ents of ,o%ern ent woul& upset the !lassi! pattern of separation of powers an& &estro" the :alan!e :etween the ;u&i!iar" an& the other &epart ents of ,o%ern ent' +s the >usti!es sai& in their answer to the !o plaint for i pea!h ent in the Co ittee on >usti!e of the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH C>ust as it is !o pletel" una!!epta:le to file !har,es a,ainst the in&i%i&ual e :ers of Con,ress for the laws ena!te& :" the upon the ar,u ent that these laws are %iolati%e of the ConstitutionH or are a :etra"al of pu:li! trustH or are un;ust' So tooH shoul& it :e e?uall" i per issi:le to aDe the in&i%i&ual e :ers of the Supre e Court a!!ounta:le for the !ourtBs &e!isions or rulin,s'

>3a'i)i(ati&n+8 C&ngre++1en8 9!###: No 555 * C' Ei!tor +h a& was :orn on -e!e :er 1)H 1972 of a Filipino other an& an alien father' <n&er the law of his fatherBs !ountr"H his other &i& not a!?uire his fatherBs !iti=enship' Ei!tor !onsults "ou on -e!e :er 21H 1993 an& infor s "ou of his intention to run for Con,ress in the 1992 ele!tions' 5s he ?ualifie& to runL 6hat a&%i!e woul& "ou ,i%e hi L 6oul& "our answer :e the sa e if he ha& seen an& !onsulte& "ou on -e!e :er 1)H 1991 an& infor e& "ou of his &esire to run for Con,ress in the 1992 ele!tionsL -is!uss "our answer' (3N) IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
C' NoH Ei!tor +h a& is not ?ualifie& to run for Con,ress in the 1992 ele!tions' <n&er Se!tion )H +rti!le E5 of the ConstitutionH a e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es ust :e at least twent"*fi%e (22) "ears of a,e on the &a" of the ele!tion' Sin!e he will :e less than twent"*fi%e (22) "ears of a,e in 1992H Ei!tor +h a& is not ?ualifie& to run' <n&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH to :e &ee e& a natural*:orn !iti=enH Ei!tor +h a& ust ele!t Philippine !iti=enship upon rea!hin, the a,e of a;orit"' 5 shall a&%ise hi to ele!t Philippine !iti=enshipH if he has not "et &one soH an& to wait until the 1998 ele!tions'

Se*arati&n &) P&5er+ 9"66-:


No 55 * + ,roup of losin, liti,ants in a !ase &e!i&e& :" the Supre e Court file& a !o plaint :efore the A :u&s an !har,in, the >usti!es with Dnowin,l" an& &eli:eratel" ren&erin, an un;ust &e!ision in utter %iolation of the penal laws of the lan&' Can the A :u&s an %ali&l" taDe !o,ni=an!e of the !aseL /0plain'

8" answer will :e the sa e if he !onsulte& e in 1991 an& infor e& e of his &esire to run in the 1992 ele!tions' SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
C' <n&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le 5E of the ConstitutionH Ei!tor +h a& ust ha%e ele!te&

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the A :u&s an !annot entertain the !o plaint' +s state& in the !ase of 5n re: 7aureta' 1#8 SC1+ 382 P1987QH pursuant to the prin!iple of separation of powersH the

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!orre!tness of the &e!isions of the Supre e Court as final ar:iter of all ;usti!ia:le &isputes is !on!lusi%e upon all other &epart ents of the ,o%ern ent; the A :u&s an has no power to re%iew the &e!isions of the Supre e Court :" entertainin, a !o plaint a,ainst the >usti!es of the Supre e Court for Dnowin,l" ren&erin, an un;ust &e!ision' SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
+rti!le M5H Se!tion 1 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es that pu:li! offi!ers ust at all ti es :e a!!ounta:le to the people' Se!tion 22 of the A :u&s an +!t pro%i&es that the Affi!e of the A :u&s an has the power to in%esti,ate an" serious is!on&u!t alle,e&l" !o itte& :" offi!ials re o%a:le :" i pea!h ent for the purpose of filin, a %erifie& !o plaint for i pea!h ent if warrante&' 3he A :u&s an !an entertain the !o plaint for this purpose'

1epresentati%es for a thir& ter ' 3his ter shoul& :e in!lu&e& in the !o putation of the ter li itsH e%en if C+C &i& not ser%e for a full ter ' (1e!or& of the Constitutional Co issionH Eol' nH p' 292') @e re aine& a 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es e%en if he was suspen&e&'

ARTICLE .II E2e(3ti0e De*art1ent


A**&inting P&5er8 A(ting 0+= Per1anent A**&int1ent 9"66-:
No E * 6hat is the nature of an Ca!tin, appoint entC to a ,o%ern ent offi!eL -oes su!h an appoint ent ,i%e the appointee the ri,ht to !lai that the appoint ent willH in ti eH ripen into a per anent oneL /0plain'

T,ree<Ter1 Li1it: C&ngre++1en 9!##?: No' 13: * MH a e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH was ser%in, his thir& !onse!uti%e ter in the @ouse' 5n >une 199) he was appointe& Se!retar" of National -efense' Can he run for ele!tion to the Senate in the 1998 ele!tionsL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER: OesH M !an run for the Senate in the 1988 ele!tion' <n&er Se!tion 7H +rti!le M of the ConstitutionH ha%in, ser%e& for three !onse!uti%e ter s as 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' M is onl" prohi:ite& fro runnin, for the sa e position' T,ree<Ter1 Li1it8 C&ngre++1en 9"66!:
No E * -urin, his thir& ter H C+CH a 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH was suspen&e& fro offi!e for a perio& of )0 &a"s :" his !ollea,ues upon a %ote of two*thir&s of all the 8e :ers of the @ouse' 5n the ne0t su!!ee&in, ele!tionH he file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for the sa e position' C9CH the opposin, !an&i&ateH file& an a!tion for &is?ualifi!ation of C+C on the ,roun& that the latterBsH !an&i&a!" %iolate& Se!tion 7' +rti!le E5 of the Constitution whi!h pro%i&es that no 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es shall ser%e for ore than three !onse!uti%e ter s' C+C answere& that he was not :arre& fro runnin, a,ain for that position :e!ause his ser%i!e was interrupte& :" his )0* &a" suspension whi!h was in%oluntar"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to Se%illa %' Court of +ppeals' 209 SC1+ )37 P1992QH an a!tin, appoint ent is erel" te porar"' +s hel& in 8aroho :sar %' +lontoH 19# SC1+ 390 P1991QH a te porar" appoint ent !annot :e!o e a per anent appoint entH unless a new appoint ent whi!h is per anent is a&e' 3his hol&s true unless the a!tin, appoint ent was a&e :e!ause of a te porar" %a!an!"' 5n su!h a !aseH the te porar" appointee hol&s offi!e until the assu ption of offi!e :" the per anent appointee'

A**&inting P&5er8 ad interi1 a**&int1ent+ 9!##!: No' 3: * An 3 8a" 1992H while Con,ress is on a short re!ess for the ele!tionsH the presi&ent appoints 1enato &e Sil%a to the ranD of $eneral (#*star) in the +r e& For!es' She also &esi,nates hi as Chief of Staff of the +FP' @e i e&iatel" taDes his oath an& assu es that offi!eH with the ranD of #*star $eneral of the +FP'
6hen Con,ress resu es its session on 17 8a" 1992H the Co ission on +ppoint ents infor s the Affi!e of the Presi&ent that it has re!ei%e& fro her offi!e onl" the appoint ent of -e Sil%a to the ranD of #*star $eneral an& that unless his appoint ent to the Affi!e of the Chief of Staff of the +FP is also su: itte&H the Co ission will not a!t on the atter'

Can B+BH le,all" !ontinue with his !an&i&a!" or is he alrea&" :arre&L 6h"L (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
C+C !annot le,all" !ontinue with his !an&i&a!"' @e was ele!te& as 8e :er of the @ouse of

3he Presi&ent aintains that she has su: itte& to the Co ission all that the Constitution !alls for' (a) 6ho is !orre!tL

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(:) -i& $en' &e Sil%a %iolate the Constitution in i e&iatel" assu in, offi!e prior to a !onfir ation of his appoint entL
(!) +re the appoint ent an& &esi,nation %ali&L

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) + is senior to 9' 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in Su ers %s' A=aeta' 81 Phil' 72#H the a& interi appoint ent e0ten&e& to + is per anent an& is effe!ti%e upon his a!!eptan!e althou,h it is su:;e!t to !onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) 3he Presi&ent is !orre!t' <n&er Presi&ential -e!ree No' 3)0H the ,ra&e of four*star ,eneral is !onferre& onl" upon the Chief of Staff' @en!eH the appoint ent of 1enato &e Sil%a as a four*star ,eneral ust :e &ee e& to !arr" with it his appoint ent as Chief of Staff of the +FPH (:) $en' 1enato &e Sil%a &i& not %iolate the Constitution when he i e&iatel" assu e& offi!e :efore the !onfir ation of his appoint entH sin!e his appoint ent was an a& interi appoint ent' <n&er +rti!le E5 5H Se!' 1) of the ConstitutionH su!h appoint ent is i e&iatel" effe!ti%e an& is su:;e!t onl" to &isappro%al :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents or as a result of the ne0t a&;ourn ent of the Con,ress' (!) 3he appoint ent an& &esi,nation of $en' &e Sil%a are %ali& for reasons ,i%en a:o%e' @owe%erH fro another point of %iew the" are not %ali& :e!ause the" were a&e within the perio& of the :an for aDin, appoint ents' <n&er +rti!le E55H Se!' 12 the Presi&ent is prohi:ite& fro aDin, appoint ents within the perio& of two (2) onths pre!e&in, the ele!tion for Presi&ent an& Ei!e Presi&ent' 3he appoint ent in this !ase will :e a&e on 8a" 3H 1992 whi!h is ;ust 8 &a"s awa" fro the ele!tion for Presi&ent an& Ei!e Presi&ent on 8a" 11H 1992' For this reason the appoint ent an& &esi,nation of $en' &e Sil%a are after all

2) 5f Con,ress a&;ourne& without the appoint ents of + an& 9 ha%in, :een !onfir e& :" the Co ission on +ppoint entsH + !annot return to his ol& position' +s hel& in Su ers %s' (=aetaH 81 Phil' 72#H :" a!!eptin, an a& interi appoint ent to a new positionH + wai%e& his ri,ht to hol& his ol& position' An the other han&H sin!e 9 &i& not assu e the new positionH he retaine& his ol& position' A**&inting P&5er8 A**&int1ent+ ReF3iring C&n)ir1ati&n8 RA ?#%@< Un(&n+tit3ti&na' 9"66":
No E * An -e!e :er 13H 1990H the Presi&ent si,ne& into law 1epu:li! +!t No' )972 (su:se?uentl" a en&e& :" 1+ No' 8221) !reatin, the -epart ent of 5nterior an& 7o!al $o%ern ent' Se!tions 2) an& 31 of the law pro%i&e that senior offi!ers of the Philippine National Poli!e (PNP)H fro Senior Superinten&entH Chief Superinten&entH -eput" -ire!tor $eneral to -ire!tor $eneral or Chief of PNP shallH a on, othersH :e appointe& :" the Presi&ent su:;e!t to !onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents' 5n 1991 the Presi&ent pro ote& Chief Superinten&ent 1o:erto 8atapan, an& Senior Superinten&ent Conra&o 8ahi,pit to the positions of -ire!tor an& Chief Superinten&ent of the PNPH respe!ti%el"' 3heir appoint ents were in a per anent !apa!it"' 6ithout un&er,oin, !onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint entsH 8atapan, an& 8ahi,pit tooD their oath of offi!e an& assu e& their respe!ti%e positions' 3hereafterH the -epart ent of 9u&,et an& 8ana,e ent authori=e& &is:urse ents for their salaries an& other e olu ents' >uan 9anta" file& a ta0pa"erBs suit ?uestionin, the le,alit" of the appoint ents an& &is:urse ents a&e' 9anta" ar,ues that the appoint ents are in%ali& inas u!h as the sa e ha%e not :een !onfir e& :" the Co ission on +ppoint entsH as re?uire& un&er Se!tions 2) an& 31 of 1'+' No' )972'

in%ali&'

PNote: 8a" 3H 1991 an& 8a" 17H 1992 are Sun&a"s' @owe%er the Co ittee fin&s no rele%an!e in the fa!t that these are holi&a"s an& therefore &e!i&e& to i,nore this fa!t'Q

A**&inting P&5er8 Ad Interi1 A**&int1ent+ 9!##;:


No' 1); 5n -e!e :er 1988H while Con,ress was in re!essH + was e0ten&e& an a& interi appoint ent as 9ri,a&ier $eneral of the Philippine +r "H in Fe:ruar" 1989' 6hen Con,ress was in sessionH 9 was no inate& as 9ri,a&ier $eneral of the Philippine +r "' 9Bs no ination was !onfir e& on +u,ust 2H 1989 while +Bs appoint ent was !onfir e& on Septe :er 2H 1989'

6ho is &ee e& ore senior of the twoH + or 9L Suppose Con,ress a&;ourne& without the Co ission on +ppoint ents a!tin, on :oth appoint entsH !an + an& 9 retain their ori,inal ranDs of !olonelL

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-eter ine with reasons the le,alit" of the appoint ents an& the &is:urse ents for salaries :" &is!ussin, the !onstitutional %ali&it" of Se!tions 2) an& 31 of 1'+' No' )972' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he appoint ents of 8atapan, an& 8ahi,pit are %ali& e%en if the" were not !onfir e& :" the Co ission on +ppoint entsH :e!ause the" are not a on, the pu:li! offi!ials whose appoint ents are re?uire& to :e !onfir e& :" the first senten!e of +rti!le E55H Se!tion 1) of the Constitution' +!!or&in, to 8analo %' Sisto=aH 312 SC1+ 239 (1999)H Se!tions 2) an& 31 of 1epu:li! +!t )972 are un!onstitutionalH :e!ause Con,ress !annot :" law e0pan& the list of pu:li! offi!ials re?uire& to :e !onfir e& :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents' Sin!e the appoint ents of 8atapan, an& 8ahi,pit are %ali&H the &is:urse ents of their salaries an& e olu ents are %ali&'

!onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents are the hea& of e0e!uti%e &epart entsH a :assa&orsH other pu:li! inisters an& !onsulsH offi!ers of the ar e& for!es fro the ranD of !olonel or na%al !aptainH
an& other offi!ials whose appoint ents are %este& in the Presi&ent :" the Constitution'

A**&inting P&5er8 Cind+ &) A**&int1ent+ 9!##;: 6hen is an appoint ent in the !i%il ser%i!e per anentL
-istin,uish :etween an Cappoint ent in an a!tin, !apa!it"C e0ten&e& :" a -epart ent Se!retar" fro an a& interi appoint ent e0ten&e& :" the Presi&ent'

-istin,uish :etween a pro%isional a te porar" appoint ent' SUGGESTED ANSWER:

an&

A**&inting P&5er8 Categ&rie+ &) O))i(ia'+ 9!###: +' 1') 6hat are the si0 !ate,ories of offi!ials who are su:;e!t to the appointin, power of the Presi&entL (2N)
2') Na e the !ate,or" or !ate,ories of offi!ials whose appoint ents nee& !onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint entsL (2N)

1) <n&er Se!tion 22(a) of the Ci%il Ser%i!e -e!reeH an appoint ent in the !i%il ser%i!e is P/18+N/N3 when issue& to a person who eets all the re?uire ents for the position to whi!h he is :ein, appointe&H in!lu&in, the appropriate eli,i:ilit" pres!ri:e&H in a!!or&an!e with the pro%isions of lawH rules an& stan&ar&s pro ul,ate& in pursuan!e thereof' 2) +n appoint ent in an +C35N$ C+P+C53O e0ten&e& :" a -epart ent Se!retar" is not per anent :ut te porar"' @en!eH the -epart ent Se!retar" a" ter inate the ser%i!es of the appointee at an" ti e' An the other han&H an +- 5N3/158 +PPA5N38/N3 e0ten&e& :" the Presi&ent is an appoint ent whi!h is su:;e!t to !onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents an& was a&e &urin, the re!ess of Con,ress' +s hel& in Su ers %s' (=aetaH 81 Phil' 72#H an a& interi appoint ent is per anent' 3) 5n Se!tion 2# (&) of the Ci%il Ser%i!e +!t of 1929H a 3/8PA1+1O +PPA5N38/N3 is one issue& to a person to a position nee&e& onl" for a li ite& perio& not e0!ee&in, si0 onths' <n&er Se!tion 22(:) of the Ci%il Ser%i!e -e!reeH a te porar" appoint ent is one issue& to a person who eets all the re?uire ents for the position to whi!h he is :ein, appointe& e0!ept the appropriate !i%il ser%i!e eli,i:ilit" :e!ause of the a:sen!e of appropriate eli,i:les an& it is ne!essar" in the pu:li! 5nterest to fill the %a!an!"' An the other han&' Se!tion 2#(e) of the Ci%il Ser%i!e +!t of 1929 &efine& a P1AE5S5AN+7

SUGGESTED ANSWER: <n&er Se!tion 1)H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH the si0 !ate,ories of offi!ials who are su:;e!t to the appointin, power of the Presi&ent are the followin,: 1' @ea& of e0e!uti%e &epart ents; 2' + :assa&orsH other pu:li! inisters an& !onsuls; 3' Affi!ers of the ar e& for!es fro the ranD of !olonel or na%al !aptain; #' Ather offi!ers whose appoint ents are %este& in hi :" the Constitution; 2' +ll other offi!ers of the ,o%ern ent whose appoint ents are not otherwise pro%i&e& :" law; an&
)' 3hose who he a" :e authori=e& :" law to appoint' (Cru=H Philippine Politi!al 7awH

1998 e&'H pp' 20#*202)

(I+ is s*gges+ed +-a+ i) +-e e>a0inee )o''o&ed +-e c'assi)ica+ion in 7ar0ien+o /. Aison( 15% 7CRA 5,9 and na0ed on'y )o*r ca+egories( beca*se -e co0bined +-e )irs+ +-ree ca+egories in+o one( -e be gi/en )*'' credi+.)

2') +!!or&in, to Sar iento %' 8isonH 12) SC1+ 2#9H the onl" offi!ers whose appoint ents nee&

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+PPA5N38/N3 as one 5ssue& upon the prior authori=ation of the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission in a!!or&an!e with its pro%isions an& the rules an& stan&ar&s pro ul,ate& in pursuan!e thereto to a person who has not ?ualifie& in an appropriate e0a ination :ut who otherwise eets the re?uire ents for appoint ent to a re,ular position in the !o petiti%e ser%i!eH whene%er a %a!an!" o!!urs an& the fillin, thereof is ne!essar" in the interest of the ser%i!e an& there is no appropriate re,ister of eli,i:les at the ti e of appoint ent'

to :e finishe& in not ore than si0 onths :ut :e!ause the interest of the ser%i!e re?uires that !ertain worD :e &one :" a re,ular e plo"eeH onl" that no one with appropriate eli,i:ilit" !an :e appointe& to it' @en!eH an" other eli,i:le a" :e appointe& to &o su!h worD in the eanti e that a suita:le eli,i:le &oes not ?ualif" for the position' 3o :e ore pre!iseH a pro%isional appoint ent a" :e e0ten&e& onl" to a person who has not ?ualifie& in an appropriate e0a ination :ut who otherwise eets the re?uire ents for appoint ent to a re,ular position in the !o petiti%e ser%i!eH eanin, one who ust an" wa" :e a !i%il ser%i!e eli,i:le' 5n the !ase of a te porar" appoint entH all that the law en;oins is that Cpreferen!e in fillin, su!h position :e ,i%en to persons on appropriate eli,i:le lists'C 8erel" ,i%in, preferen!e presupposes that e%en a non*eli,i:le a" :e appointe&' <n&er the lawH e%en if the appointee has the re?uire& !i%il ser%i!e eli,i:ilit"H his appoint ent is still te porar" si pl" :e!ause su!h is the nature of the worD to :e &one'
NA3/: Sin!e pro%isional appoint ents ha%e alrea&" :een a:olishe& e0a inees shoul& :e ,i%en full !re&it for whate%er answer the" a" or a" not ,i%e'

Pro%isional appoint ents in ,eneral ha%e alrea&" :een a:olishe& :" 1epu:li! +!t )0#0' @owe%erH it still applies with re,ar& to tea!hers un&er the 8a,na Carta for Pu:li! S!hool 3ea!hers' ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 3he !ase of 1e,is %s' As enaH 197 SC1+ 308H lai& &own the &istin!tion :etween a pro%isional an& a te porar" appoint ent'
+ P1AE5S5AN+7 +PPA5N38/N3 is e0ten&e& to a person who has not ?ualifie& in an appropriate e0a ination :ut who otherwise eets the re?uire ents for appoint ent to a re,ular position in the !o petiti%e ser%i!e whene%er a %a!an!" o!!urs an& the fillin, thereof is ne!essar" in the interest of the ser%i!e an& there is no appropriate re,ister of eli,i:le at the ti e of the appoint ent' An the other han&H a 3/8PA1+1O +PPA5N38/N3 ,i%en to a non*!i%il ser%i!e eli,i:le is without a &efinite tenure an& is &epen&ent on the pleasure of the appointin, power'

A**&inting P&5er8 Li1itati&n+ Pre+identia' A**&int1ent+ 9!##%:

&n

+ pro%isional appoint ent is ,oo& onl" until repla!e ent :" a !i%il ser%i!e eli,i:le an& in no !ase :e"on& 30 &a"s fro &ate of re!eipt :" the appointin, offi!er of the !ertifi!ate of eli,i:ilit"' (Se!' 2# P!W' 1epu:li! +!t 22)0)'
+ pro%isional appoint ent !onte plates a &ifferent situation fro that of a te porar" appoint ent' 6hereas a te porar" appoint ent is &esi,ne& to fill a position nee&e& onl" for a li ite& perio& not e0!ee&in, si0 ()) onthsH a pro%isional appoint entH on the other han&H is inten&e& for the !ontin,en!" that Ca %a!an!" o!!urs an& the fillin, thereof is ne!essar" in the interest of the ser%i!e an& there is no appropriate re,ister of eli,i:les at the ti e of the appoint ent'C 5n other wor&sH the reason for e0ten&in, a pro%isional appoint ent is not :e!ause there is an o!!asional worD to :e &one an& is e0pe!te&

No' 7: + onth :efore a forth!o in, ele!tionH C+C one of the in!u :ent Co issioners of the CA8/7/CH &ie& while in offi!e an& C9CH another Co issionerH suffere& a se%ere stroDe' 5n %iew of the pro0i it" of the ele!tions an& to a%oi& paral"=ation in the CA8/7/CH the Presi&ent who was not runnin, for an" offi!eH appointe& Co issioner C of the Co ission on +u&itH who was not a law"er :ut a !ertifie& pu:li! a!!ountant :" professionH a& interi Co issioner to su!!ee& Co issioner + an& &esi,nate& :" wa" of a te porar" easure' +sso!iate >usti!e - of the Court of +ppeals as a!tin, +sso!iate Co issioner &urin, the a:sen!e of Co issioner 9' -i& the Presi&ent &o the ri,ht thin, in e0ten&in, su!h a& interi appoint ent in fa%or of Co issioner C an& &esi,natin, >usti!e a!tin, Co issioner of the CA8/7/CL

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No' 3he Presi&ent was wron, a& interi appoint ent Co issioner C' 5n Su ers Phil' 72#H it was hel& that appoint ent is a per anent in e0ten&in, an in fa%or of %s' A=aetaH 81 an a& interi appoint ent'

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<n&er Se!tion 12H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH within two onths i e&iatel" :efore the ne0t presi&ential ele!tions an& up to the en& of his ter H the Presi&ent !annot aDe per anent appoint ents'
3he &esi,nation of >usti!e - as a!tin, +sso!iate Co issioner is also in%ali&' Se!tion 1(2)' +rti!le 5M*C of the Constitution prohi:its the &esi,nation of an" Co issioner of the CA8/7/C in a te porar" or a!tin, !apa!it"' Se!tion 12H +rti!le E555 of the Constitution prohi:its the &esi,nation of an" e :er of the >u&i!iar" to an" a,en!" perfor in, ?uasi* ;u&i!ial or a& inistrati%e fun!tions'

a&;ourn ent of Con,ress' + te porar" or a!tin, appointee &oes not en;o" an" se!urit" of tenureH no atter how :riefl"' (8ati:a, %' 9enipa"oH $'1' No' 1#903)H +pril 2H 2002) ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: +n a& interi appoint ent is a per anent appoint ent an& &oes not %iolate Se!tion 1(2)H +rti!le 5M*C of the Constitution' (Pa antasan n, 7un,so& n, 8a"nila %' 5+CH $'1' No' 7* )2#39H No%e :er 13H1982)
(:) +ssu in, the le,alit" of the first a& interi appoint ent an& assu ption of offi!e :" SantosH were his se!on& a& interi appoint ent an& su:se?uent assu ption of offi!e to the sa e position %iolations of the prohi:ition on reappoint ent un&er Se!tion 1(2)H

A**&inting P&5er+8 A**&int1ent+ 9>;<"66@:

Ad

Interi1

(1) 5n 8ar!h 2001H while Con,ress was a&;ourne&H the Presi&ent appointe& Santos as Chair an of the CA8/7/C' Santos i e&iatel" tooD his oath an& assu e& offi!e' 6hile his appoint ent was pro ptl" su: itte& to the Co ission on +ppoint ents for !onfir ationH it was not a!te& upon an& Con,ress a,ain a&;ourne&' 5n >une 2001H the Presi&ent e0ten&e& a se!on& a& interi appoint ent to Santos for the sa e position with the sa e ter H an& this appoint ent was a,ain su: itte& to the Co ission on +ppoint ents for !onfir ation' Santos tooD his oath anew an& perfor e& the fun!tions of his offi!e'

+rti!le 5M*C of the ConstitutionL SUGGESTED ANSWER:


NoH the se!on& a& interi appoint ent an& su:se?uent assu ption of offi!e &oes not %iolate the Constitution' 3he prohi:ition on reappoint ent in Se!tion 1(2)H +rti!le 5M*C of the Constitution &oes not appl" to :"*passe& a& interi appoint ents' 5t !an :e re%i%e& :" a new a& interi appoint ent :e!ause there is no final &isappro%al un&er Se!tion 1)H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH an& su!h new appoint ent will not result in the appointee ser%in, :e"on& the fi0e& ter of se%en "ears' 3he phrase Cwithout reappoint entC applies onl" to one who has :een appointe& :" the Presi&ent an& !onfir e& :" the Co ission on +ppoint entsH whether or not su!h person !o pletes his ter of offi!e' 3o hol& otherwise will lea& to a:sur&ities an& ne,ate the Presi&entBs power to aDe a& interi appoint ents' (8ati:a, %' 9enipa"oH $'1' No' 1#903)H +pril 2H 2002)

1e"esH a politi!al ri%alH file& a suit assailin, !ertain or&ers issue& :" Santos' @e also ?uestione& the %ali&it" of SantosB appoint ent' 1esol%e the followin, issues: (2N)
(a) -oes SantosB assu ption of offi!e on the :asis of the a& interi appoint ents

issue& :" the Presi&ent a ount to a te porar" appoint ent whi!h is prohi:ite& :" Se!tion 1(2)H +rti!le 5M*C of the ConstitutionL ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
NoH SantosB appoint ent &oes not a ount to a te porar" appoint ent' +n a& interi appoint ent is a per anent appoint ent :e!ause it taDes effe!t i e&iatel" an& !an no lon,er :e with&rawn :" the Presi&ent on!e the appointee has ?ualifie& into offi!e' 3he fa!t that it is su:;e!t to !onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents &oes not alter its per anent !hara!ter' 3he Constitution itself aDes an a& interi appoint ent per anent in !hara!ter :" aDin, it effe!ti%e until &isappro%e& :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents or until the ne0t

Cabinet Me1ber+8 'i1itati&n &n a((e*ting additi&na' d3tie+ 9!##?:


199) No' 7: Can the Se!retar" of Finan!e :e ele!te& Chair an of the 9oar& of -ire!tors of the San 8i,uel CorporationL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the Se!retar" of Finan!e !annot :e ele!te& Chair an of the 9oar& of -ire!tors of the San 8i,uel Corporation' <n&er Se!tion 13H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH e :ers of the Ca:inet !annot hol& an" other offi!e or e plo" ent &urin, their tenure unless it is otherwise pro%i&e& in the Constitution' 3he" shall not also &urin, sai& tenure parti!ipate in an" :usiness or :e finan!iall" intereste& in an" !ontra!t withH or in an" fran!hiseH or spe!ial pri%ile,e ,rante& :" the $o%ern ent or an"

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su:&i%isionH a,en!" or instru entalit" thereofH in!lu&in, ,o%ern ent*owne& or !ontrolle& !orporations or their su:si&iaries' 3he" shall stri!tl" a%oi& !onfli!t of interest in the !on&u!t of their offi!e' Ca''ing<&3t P&5er8 Pre+ident 9>!<"66?: 1' 6hat &o "ou ean :" the CCallin,*out PowerC of the Presi&ent un&er Se!tion 18H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: <n&er +rti!le E55H Se!' 18 of the 1987 ConstitutionH whene%er it :e!o es ne!essar"H the Presi&entH as Co an&er* in*ChiefH a" !all out the ar e& for!es to ai& hi in pre%entin, or suppressin, lawless %iolen!eH in%asion or re:ellion (-a%i& %' +rro"oH $'1' No' 17139)H 8a" 3H 200))' De('arati&n8 State &) Ca'a1ity8 Lega' E))e(t+ 9>!<"66@:
(:) 3o ,i%e the u!h nee&e& help to the Pro%in!e of +urora whi!h was &e%astate& :" t"phoons an& torrential rainsH the Presi&ent &e!lare& it in a Cstate of !ala it"'C $i%e at least four (#) le,al effe!ts of su!h &e!laration' (#N)

7' + !ri e !o itte& &urin, the state of !ala it" will :e !onsi&ere& a,,ra%ate& un&er +rt' 1#H par' 7 of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e' De('arati&n8 State &) Nati&na' E1ergen(y 9>!<"66?:
2' An Fe:ruar" 2#H 200)H Presi&ent $loria 8a!apa,al*+rro"o issue& Pro!la ation No' 1017 &e!larin, a state of national e er,en!"' 5s this Pro!la ation !onstitu*

tionalL /0plain' (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he pro!la ation is !onstitutional insofar as it !onstitutes a !all :" the Presi&ent for the +FP to pre%ent or suppress lawless %iolen!e as this is sustaine& :" Se!tion 18H +rti!le E55 of the Constitution'
@owe%erH PP 1017Bs pro%isions ,i%in, the Presi&ent e0press or i plie& power (1) to issue &e!rees; (2) to &ire!t the +FP to enfor!e o:e&ien!e to all laws e%en those not relate& to lawless %iolen!e as well as &e!rees pro ul,ate& :" the Presi&ent; an& (3) to i pose stan&ar&s on e&ia or an" for of prior restraint on the pressH are ultra %ires an& un!onstitutional' 7iDewiseH un&er Se!tion 17H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH the Presi&entH in the a:sen!e of le,islationH !annot taDe o%er pri%atel"*owne& pu:li! utilities an& :usinesses affe!te& with the pu:li! interest (-a%i& %' +rro"oH $'1' No' 17139)H 8a" 3H 200))' 3' -urin, the effe!ti%it" of this Pro!la ationH $enerH 7ito an& 9on, were arreste& :" the poli!e for a!ts of terroris ' 5s the

SUGGESTED ANSWER: -e!laration of a state of !ala it" pro&u!esH inter aliaH these le,al effe!ts within the Pro%in!e of +urora R 1' +uto ati! Pri!e Control R un&er 1'+' No' 7281H 3he Pri!e +!t; 2' +uthori=ation for the i portation of ri!e un&er 1'+' No' 8178H 3he +,ri!ultural 3arrifi!ation +!t; 3' +uto ati! appropriation un&er 1'+' No' 71)0 is a%aila:le for unforeseen e0pen&itures arisin, fro the o!!urren!e of !ala ities in areas &e!lare& to :e in a state of !ala it"; #' 7o!al ,o%ern ent units a" ena!t a supple ental :u&,et for supplies an& aterials or pa" ent of ser%i!es to pre%ent &an,er to or loss of life or propert"H un&er 1'+' No' 71)0;
2' /ntitle ent to ha=ar& allowan!e for Pu:li! @ealth 6orDers (un&er 1'+' No' 7302H 8a,na Carta for Pu:li! @ealth 6orDers)H who shall :e !o pensate& ha=ar& allowan!es e?ui%alent to at least twent"*fi%e per!ent (22N) of the onthl" :asi! salar" of health worDers re!ei%in, salar" ,ra&e 19 an& :elowH an& fi%e per!ent (2N) for health worDers with salar" ,ra&e 20 an& a:o%e;

arrest le,alL /0plain' (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he arrestH apparentl" &one without a %ali& warrantH is ille,al' @owe%erH a warrantless arrest woul& :e %ali& if those a!!use& are !au,ht !o ittin, !ri es en fla,rante &eli!to' An the other han&H if the arrest is a&e pursuant to a %ali& warrantH then it is lawful' 3he ter Ca!ts of terroris C has not :een le,all" &efine& an& a&e punisha:le :" Con,ress' No law has :een ena!te& to ,ui&e the law enfor!e ent a,entsH an& e%entuall" the !ourtsH to &eter ine the li its in aDin, arrests for the !o ission of sai& a!ts of terroris (-a%i& %' +rro"oH $'1' No' 17139)H 8a" 3H 200))'

Enter int& C&ntra(t &r G3arantee L&an+ 9!##;:


No' 13: authori=e& @i,hwa"s a,ree ent

&reign

)' /ntitle ent to ha=ar& allowan!e for s!ien!e an& te!hnolo,i!al personnel of the ,o%ern ent un&er 1'+' No' 8#39; an&

3he Presi&ent of the Philippines the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs an& to ne,otiate an& si,n a loan with the $er an $o%ern ent for

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the !onstru!tion of a &a ' 3he SenateH :" a resolutionH asDe& that the a,ree ent :e su: itte& to it for ratifi!ation' 3he Se!retar" of Forei,n +ffairs a&%ise& the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs an& @i,hwa"s not to !o pl" with the re?uest of the Senate' 2) 5s the Presi&ent :oun& to su: it the a,ree ent to the Senate for ratifi!ationL SUGGESTED ANSWER: NoH the Presi&ent is not :oun& to su: it the a,ree ent to the Senate for ratifi!ation' <n&er Se!tion 20H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH onl" the prior !on!urren!e of the 8onetar" 9oar& is re?uire& for the Presi&ent to !ontra!t forei,n loans on :ehalf of the 1epu:li! of the Philippines' Enter int& C&ntra(t &r G3arantee &reign L&an+ 9!###: No 5 * 6hat are the restri!tions pres!ri:e& :" the Constitution on the power of the Presi&ent to !ontra!t or ,uarantee forei,n loans on :ehalf of the 1epu:li! of the PhilippinesL /0plain' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
<n&er Se!tion 20H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH the power of the Presi&ent to !ontra!t or ,uarantee loans on :ehalf of the 1epu:li! of the Philippines is su:;e!t to the prior !on!urren!e of the 8onetar" 9oar& an& su:;e!t to su!h li itations as a" :e pres!ri:e& :" law'

No 5 * 6hat are the li itationsIrestri!tions pro%i&e& :" the Constitution on the power of Con,ress to authori=e the Presi&ent to fi0 tariff ratesH i port an& e0port ?uotasH tonna,e an& wharfa,e &ues' /0plain' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to Se!tion 28(2)H +rti!le E5 of the ConstitutionH Con,ress a"H :" lawH authori=e the Presi&ent to fi0 within spe!ifie& li itsH an& su:;e!t to su!h li itations an& restri!tions it a" i poseH tariff ratesH i port an& e0port ?uotasH tonna,e an& wharfa,e &ues an& other &uties or i posts within the fra eworD of the national &e%elop ent pro,ra of the $o%ern ent'

Martia' La5 B S3+*en+i&n &) Writ &) Habea+ C&r*3+ 9!#$%:


No' ME55: Ane of the features of the ,o%ern ent esta:lishe& un&er the 1987 Constitution is the restoration of the prin!iple of !he!Ds an& :alan!es' 3his is espe!iall" noteworth" in the Co an&er*in*Chief powers of the Presi&ent whi!h su:stantiall" affe!ts what was st"le& un&er the past &ispensation as the C!ali:rate& responseC to national e er,en!iesH (a) -is!uss full" the pro%isions of the 1987 ConstitutionH ,i%in, the s!opeH li its an& the role of the prin!iple of !he!Ds an& :alan!es on the Presi&entBs e0er!ise of the power:

Enter int& E2e(3ti0e Agree1ent+ 9"66-:


No MM * +n /0e!uti%e +,ree ent was e0e!ute& :etween the Philippines an& a nei,h:orin, State' 3he Senate of the Philippines tooD it upon itself to pro!ure a !ertifie& true !op" of the /0e!uti%e +,ree ent an&H after &eli:eratin, on itH &e!lare&H :" a unani ous %oteH that the a,ree ent was :oth unwise an& a,ainst the :est interest of the !ountr"' 5s the /0e!uti%e +,ree ent :in&in, (a) fro the stan&point of Philippine law an& (:) fro the stan&point of international lawL /0plain

3o suspen& the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus Pro!la ation of artial law'
(:) Consi&erin, the pressin, pro:le s of insur,en!"H re:el a!ti%itiesH li:eration o%e ents an& terrorist %iolen!eH whi!h in "our !onsi&ere& opinion a on, the options a%aila:le to the Presi&ent as Co an&er*in*Chief woul& :e the ost effe!ti%e in eetin, the e er,en!ies :" the nationL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) 3he Presi&entBs power to suspen& the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus an& to pro!lai artial law is su:;e!t to se%eral !he!Ds :" Con,ress an& :" the Supre e Court' 3he Presi&ent is re?uire& to report to Con,ress within #8 hours his a!tion in &e!larin, artial law or suspen&in, the pri%ile,e of the writH an& Con,ress is in turn re?uire& to !on%eneH if it is not in sessionH within 2# hours followin, the pro!la ation of artial law or the suspension of the pri%ile,e without nee& of an" !allH in a!!or&an!e with its rules' 3he pro!la ation of artial law or suspension of the writ is effe!ti%e for )0 &a"s onl"H :ut Con,ress !an !ut short its effe!ti%it" :" re%oDin, the pro!la ation :" the %ote of at least a a;orit" of

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) Fro the stan&point of Philippine lawH the /0e!uti%e +,ree ent is :in&in,' +!!or&in, to Co issioner of Custo s %' /astern Sea 3ra&in,' 3 SC1+ 321 P19)1QH the Presi&ent !an enter into an /0e!uti%e +,ree ent without the ne!essit" of !on!urren!e :" the Senate'

(:) fro

3he /0e!uti%e +,ree ent is also :in&in, the stan&point of international law'''

I1*&+e Tari)) Rate+7 I1*&rt and E2*&rt >3&ta+ 9!###:

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all its e :ersH %otin,H ;ointl"' +n" e0tension of the pro!la ation of artial law or suspension of the writ !an onl" :e ,rante& :" Con,ress whi!h will &eter ine also the perio& of su!h e0tension'
An the other han&H the Supre e Court e0er!ises a !he!D on /0e!uti%e a!tion in the for of ;u&i!ial re%iew at the instan!e of an" !iti=en' 3he Constitution e :o&ies in this respe!t the rulin, in $ar!ia %' 7ansan,H #2 SC1+ ##8 (1971) that the Court !an &eter ine the suffi!ien!" of the fa!tual :asis of the pro!la ation of artial law or the suspension of the pri%ile,e or the e0tension thereof not for the purpose of supplantin, the ;u&, ent of the Presi&ent :ut to &eter ine whether the latter &i& not a!t ar:itraril"' 5n&ee&H +rt' E555H Se!' 1 i poses upon the !ourts the &ut" of &eter inin, whether or not there has :een ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of the other :ran!hes of the ,o%ern entH in this !aseH the Presi&ent' 3he Presi&ent !annotH :" eans of the pro!la ation of artial lawH suspen& the Constitution or supplant the !ourts an& the le,islature' Neither !an he authori=e the trial of !i%ilians :" ilitar" tri:unals so lon, as !ourts are open an& fun!tionin,H thus o%errulin, the !ase of +?uino %' 8ilitar" Co ission No' 2H )3 SC1+ 2#) (1972)' @is pro!la ation of artial law &oes not !arr" with it the suspension of the writ of ha:eas !orpusH so that the &e!ision on +?uino %' Pon!e /nrileH 29 SC1+ 183 (1973) is now o%errule&' Nor &oes the suspension of the writ &epri%e !ourts of their power to a& it persons to :ailH where proper' 3he Constitution thus o%errules the !ases of $ar!ia*Pa&illa %' Pon!e /nrileH 121 SC1+ #72 (1983) an& 8orales %' Pon!e /nrile' 121 SC1+ 238 (1983)'

o%e entsH an& terroris is to si pl" !all out the ar e& for!es for the followin, reasons: 1) the e0i,en!ies to :e et are not solel" those !ause& :" in%asion or re:ellion :ut terroris an& other !ri es' 2) Suspension of the pri%ile,e will onl" :e for a li ite& perio& an& then the perio& of retention is li ite& to 3 &a"s whi!h a" not reall" :e effe!ti%e' An the other han&H pu:li! !riti!is of the a!tion a" onl" ero&e the Presi&entBs authorit"'
3) 3here is pra!ti!all" little &ifferen!eH as far as the a:ilit" of the Presi&ent to eet an e er,en!" is !on!erne&H :etween option 1H on the other han&H the options 2 an& 3'

3he Presi&ent a" well taDe !o fort in the followin, thou,ht: C$o%ern ent of li ite& power nee& not :e ane i! ,o%ern ent' +ssuran!e that ri,hts are se!ure ten&s to &i inish fear an& ;ealous" of stron, ,o%ern entH an&H :" aDin, us feel safe to li%e un&er it aDes for its :etter support'C (6est Es' State 9r&' of /&u!' %' 9arnetteH 319 <'S' )2# (19#3)) Martia' La58 Li1itati&n+ 9"666: No ME55' -e!larin, a re:ellionH hostile ,roups ha%e opene& an& aintaine& ar e& !onfli!ts on the 5slan&s of Sulu an& 9asilan' a) 3o ?uell thisH !an the Presi&ent pla!e un&er artial law the islan&s of Sulu an& 9asilanL $i%e "our reasonsL (3N)
:) 6hat are the !onstitutional safe,uar&s on the e0er!ise of the Presi&entBs power to

pro!lai artial lawL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


a) 5f pu:li! safet" re?uires itH the Presi&ent !an pla!e Sulu an& 9asilan un&er artial law sin!e there is an a!tual re:ellion' <n&er Se!tion 18H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH the Presi&ent !an pla!e an" part of the Philippines un&er artial law in !ase of re:ellionH when pu:li! safet" re?uires it'

(:) 3he Presi&ent has three options: (1) 3A C+77 A<3 the ar e& for!es to pre%ent or suppress lawless %iolen!eH in%asion or re:ellion; (2) 3A S<SP/N- the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus or (3) 3A P1AC7+58 artial law' 3he last two options !an :e resorte& to onl" in !ases of in%asion or re:ellion when pu:li! safet" re?uires either the supension of the pri%ile,e or the pro!la ation of artial law'
5t is su: itte& that the ost effe!ti%e eans of eetin, the !urrent e er,en!" whi!h is :rou,ht a:out :" re:ellionH li:eration

:) 3he followin, are the !onstitutional safe,uar&s on the e0er!ise of the power of the Presi&ent to pro!lai artial law: a) 3here ust :e a!tual in%asion or re:ellion;
:) 3he &uration of the pro!la ation shall not

e0!ee& si0t" &a"s: !) 6ithin fort"*ei,ht hoursH the Presi&ent shall report his a!tion to Con,ress' 5f Con,ress is not in sessionH it ust !on%ene within twent"*four hours; &) Con,ress a" :" a;orit" %ote of all its e :ers %otin, >ointl" re%oDe the pro!la ationH an& the Presi&ent !annot set asi&e the re%o!ation;

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e) 9" the sa e %ote an& in the sa e annerH upon 5nitiati%e of the Presi&entH Con,ress a" e0ten& the pro!la ation 5f the in%asion or re:ellion !ontinues an& pu:li! safet" re?uires the e0tension; f) 3he Supre e Court a" re%iew the fa!tual suffi!ien!" of the pro!la ationH an& the Supre e Court ust &e!i&e the !ase within thirt" &a"s fro the ti e it was file&; ,) 8artial law &oes not auto ati!all" suspen& the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus or the operation of the Constitution' h) 5t &oes not supplant the fun!tionin, of the !i%il !ourts an& of Con,ress' 8ilitar" !ourts ha%e no >uris&i!tion o%er !i%ilians where !i%il !ourts are a:le to fun!tion' (Cru=H Philippine Politi!al 7awH 1992 e&'H pp' 213* 21#') Martia' La58 S3))i(ien(y &) t,e a(t3a' Ba+i+ 9>-<"66?:
3he Presi&ent issue& a Pro!la ation No' 1018 pla!in, the Philippines un&er 8artial 7aw on the ,roun& that a re:ellion sta,e& :" lawless ele ents is en&an,erin, the pu:li! safet"' Pursuant to the Pro!la ationH suspe!te& re:els were arreste& an& &etaine& an& ilitar" tri:unals were set up to tr" the ' 1o:ert &ela Cru=H a !iti=enH file& with the Supre e Court a petition ?uestionin, the %ali&it" of Pro!la ation No' 1018'

suspen& the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus an& the power to i pose artial law in%ol%e the !urtail ent an& suppression of !ertain :asi! !i%il ri,hts an& in&i%i&ual free&o sH an& thus ne!essitate safe,uar&s :" Con,ress an& re%iew :" the Supre e Court (59P %' .a oraH $'1' No' 1#128#H +u,ust 12H 2000)' 3' 3he Soli!itor $eneral ar,ues thatH in an" e%entH the &eter ination of whether the re:ellion poses &an,er to pu:li! safet" in%ol%es a ?uestion of fa!t an& the

Supre e Court is not a trier of fa!ts' 6hat shoul& :e the rulin, of the CourtL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
>u&i!ial power in!lu&es the &ut" of the !ourts of ;usti!e to settle a!tual !ontro%ersies in%ol%in, ri,hts whi!h are le,all" &e an&a:le an& enfor!ea:leH an& to &eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the $o%ern ent (+rt' EinH Se!' 1H par' 2H1987 Constitution)' 6hen the ,rant of power is ?ualifie&H !on&itional or su:;e!t to li itationsH the issue of whether the pres!ri:e& ?ualifi!ations or !on&itions ha%e :een et or the li itations respe!te&H is ;usti!ia:le R the pro:le :ein, one of le,alit" or %ali&it"H not its wis&o ' +rti!le E55H Se!tion 18 of the 1987 Constitution spe!ifi!all" ,rants the Supre e Court the power to re%iewH in an appropriate pro!ee&in, file& :" an" !iti=enH the suffi!ien!" of the fa!tual :asis of the pro!la ation of artial law' 3husH in the atter of su!h &e!larationH two !on&itions ust !on!ur: (1) there ust :e an a!tual in%asion or re:ellion; an& (2) pu:li! safet" ust re?uire it' 3he Supre e Court !annot rene,e on its !onstitutional &ut" to &eter ine whether or not the sai& fa!tual !on&itions e0ist (59P %' .a oraH $'1' No' 1#128#H +u,ust 12H 2000)' #' Finall"H the Soli!itor $eneral aintains that the Presi&ent reporte& to Con,ress su!h pro!la ation of 8artial 7awH :ut Con,ress &i& not re%oDe the pro!la ation' 6hat is the effe!t of the ina!tion of Con,ress on the suit :rou,ht :" 1o:ert to

-oes 1o:ert ha%e a stan&in, to !hallen,e Pro!la ation No' 1018L /0plain' (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH 1o:ert has stan&in,' <n&er +rti!le E555H Se!tion 17 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the Supre e Court a" re%iewH in an appropriate pro!ee&in, file& :" an" !iti=enH the suffi!ien!" of the fa!tual :asis of the pro!la ation of artial law' +s !iti=en thereforeH 1o:ert a" file the petition ?uestionin, Pro!la ation No' 1018' 2' 5n the sa e suitH the Soli!itor $eneral !onten&s that un&er the ConstitutionH the Presi&ent as Co an&er*in*ChiefH &eter ines whether the e0i,en!" has arisen re?uirin, the e0er!ise of his power to &e!lare 8artial 7aw an& that his &eter ination is !on!lusi%e upon the !ourts' @ow shoul& the Supre e Court

1'

ruleL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he Supre e Court shoul& rule that his &eter* ination is not !on!lusi%e upon the !ourts' 3he 1987 Constitution allows a !iti=enH in an appropriate pro!ee&in,H to file a petition ?uestionin, the suffi!ien!" of the fa!tual :asis of sai& pro!la ation' 8oreo%erH the power to

the Supre e CourtL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he ina!tion of Con,ress has no effe!t on the suit :rou,ht :" 1o:ert to the Supre e Court as +rti!le E555H Se!tion 18 pro%i&es for !he!Ds on the Presi&entBs power to &e!lare artial law to :e e0er!ise& separatel" :" Con,ress an& the

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Supre e Court' <n&er sai& pro%isionH the &uration of artial law shall not e0!ee& si0t" &a"s :ut Con,ress has the power to re%oDe the pro!la ation or e0ten& the perio&' An the other han&H the Supre e Court has the power to re%iew the sai& pro!la ation an& pro ul,ate its &e!ision thereon within thirt" &a"s fro its filin, (+rti!le E555H Se!tion 18)'

#' NoH the a!!use& !annot a%ail of the :enefits of a nest" if he !ontinues to profess his inno!en!e' 5n Eera %s' PeopleH 7 SC1+ 122' sin!e a nest" presupposes the !o ission of a !ri e' 5t is in!onsistent for an a!!use& to seeD for,i%eness for so ethin, whi!h he !lai s he has not !o itte&' Pard&ning P&5er8 Brea(, &) C&nditi&n8 Re0&(ati&n 9>@<"66@:
(1) 9runo still ha& se%eral "ears to ser%e on his senten!e when he was !on&itionall" par&one& :" the Presi&ent' + on, the !on&itions i pose& was that he woul& Cnot a,ain %iolate an" of the penal laws of the Philippines'C 9runo a!!epte& all of the !on&itions an& was release&' Shortl" thereafterH 9runo was !har,e& with 2 !ounts of estafa' @e was then in!ar!erate& to ser%e the i e0pire& portion of his senten!e followin, the re%o!ation :" the Presi&ent of the par&on' 9runoBs fa il" file& a petition for ha:eas !orpusH alle,in, that it was error to ha%e hi re!o itte& as the !har,es were falseH in fa!tH half of the were alrea&" &is isse&'

Pard&ning P&5er8 A1ne+ty 9!##-:


No 20: * 3he National <nifi!ation Co ission has re!o en&e& the ,rant of a:solute an& un!on&itional a nest" to all re:els' 3here is the %iew that it is not ne!essar" for the re:els to a& it the !o ission of the !ri e !har,e&H it :ein, enou,h that the offense falls within the s!ope of the a nest" pro!la ation followin, the &o!trine lai& &own in 9arrio?uinto %s' Fernan&e=H 82 Phil' )#2' 5n other wor&sH a& ission of ,uilt is not a !on&ition sine ?ua non for the a%ail ent of a nest"' 5s this !orre!tL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he %iew that it is not ne!essar" for re:els to a& it the !o ission of the !ri e !har,e& in or&er to a%ail the sel%es of the :enefits of a nest" is not !orre!t' +s state& in Eera %' PeopleH 7 SC1+ 12)H the &o!trine lai& &own in 9orrio?uinto %s' Fernan&e=H 82 Phil' )#2 has :een o%erturne&' + nest" presupposes the !o ission of a !ri e' 5t is in!onsistent for so eone to seeD for for,i%eness for a !ri e whi!h he &enies ha%in, !o itte&' (People %s' PasilanH 1# SC1+ )9#)'

1esol%e the petition with reasons' (#N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he petition shoul& not :e ,i%en &ue !ourse' 3he ,rant of par&on an& the &eter ination of the ter s an& !on&itions of a !on&itional par&on are P<1/7O /M/C<35E/ +C3S whi!h are not su:;e!t to ;u&i!ial s!rutin"' 3he a!!eptan!e thereof :" the !on%i!t or prisoner !arrie& with it the authorit" or power of the /0e!uti%e to &eter ine whether a !on&ition or !on&itions of the par&on has or ha%e :een %iolate&' 6here the Presi&ent opts to re%oDe the !on&itional par&on ,i%enH no ;u&i!ial pronoun!e ent of ,uilt of a su:se?uent !ri e is ne!essar"H u!h less !on%i!tion therefor :" final ;u&, ent of a !ourtH in or&er that a !on%i!t a" :e re!o en&e& for the %iolation of his !on&itional par&on' 3he &eter ination of the o!!urren!e of a :rea!h of a !on&ition of a par&onH an& the proper !onse?uen!es of su!h :rea!hH is a purel" e0e!uti%e a!tH not su:;e!t to ;u&i!ial s!rutin"' (3orres %' $on=alesH $'1' No' 7)872H >ul" 23H 1987)

Pard&ning P&5er8 A1ne+ty 9!##@:


No' 2: 7u!asH a ranDin, e :er of the N-FH was !apture& :" poli!e en while a:out to :oar& a passen,er :us :oun& for Sorso,on' Char,e& with re:ellion he plea&e& not ,uilt" when arrai,ne&' 9efore trial he was ,rante& a:solute par&on :" the Presi&ent to allow hi to parti!ipate in the pea!e talDs :etween the ,o%ern ent an& the !o unist re:els' 3' 5nstea& of a par&onH a" the Presi&ent ,rant the a!!use& a nest" if fa%ora:l" re!o en&e& :" the National + nest" Co issionL /0plain'

#' 8a" the a!!use& a%ail of the :enefits of a nest" &espite the fa!t the he !ontinue& to profess inno!en!eL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3' 3he Presi&ent a" ,rant the a!!use& a nest"' +!!or&in, to 9arrio?uinto %s' Fernan&e=H 82 Phil' )#2H + nest" a" :e ,rante& :efore or after the institution of the !ri inal prose!ution'

Pard&ning P&5er8 E2e( C'e1en(y8 Pard&n 9!##@:


No' 2: 7u!asH a ranDin, e :er of was !apture& :" poli!e en while :oar& a passen,er :us :oun& for Char,e& with re:ellion he plea&e& not the N-FH a:out to Sorso,on' ,uilt"

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when arrai,ne&' 9efore trial he was ,rante& a:solute par&on :" the Presi&ent to allow hi to parti!ipate in the pea!e talDs :etween the ,o%ern ent an& the !o unist re:els'

(1) 5s the par&on of the Presi&ent %ali&L /0plain'


(2) +ssu in, that the par&on is %ali&H !an

in !ri inal !asesH it woul& ha%e :een unne!essar" to e0!lu&e i pea!h ent !ases fro this s!ope' 5f the Presi&ent !an ,rant par&ons in !ri inal !asesH with ore reason he !an ,rant e0e!uti%e !le en!" in a& inistrati%e !asesH whi!h are less serious'

7u!as re;e!t itL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1' 3he par&on is not %ali&' <n&er Se!tion 19H +rti!le E55 of the 1987 ConstitutionH par&on a" :e ,rante& onl" after !on%i!tion :" final >u&, ent'
2' OesH 7u!as !an re;e!t the par&on +s hel& in <nite& States %s' 6ilsonH 7 Pet' 120 an& 9ur&i!D %s' <nite& StatesH 27# <'S' #80' a!!eptan!e is essential to !o plete the par&on an& the par&on a" :e re;e!te& :" the person to who it is ten&ere&H for it a" infli!t !onse?uen!es of ,reater &is,ra!e than those fro whi!h it purports to relie%e'

Pard&ning P&5er8 E2e(3ti0e C'e1en(y 9!###: +' 6hat are the !onstitutional li itations on the par&onin, power of the Presi&entL (2N) 9' -istin,uish :etween par&on an& a nest"' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: +' 3he followin, are the li itations on the par&onin, power of the Presi&ent'
1) 5t !annot :e ,rante& in !ases of

2)

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: NoH 7u!as !annot re;e!t the par&on' +!!or&in, to 9i&&le %s' Pero%i!hH 27# <'S' #80H a!!eptan!e is not ne!essar"H for the ,rant of par&on in%ol%es a &eter ination :" the Presi&ent that pu:li! welfare will :e :etter ser%e& :" infli!tin, less than what the ;u&, ent fi0e&' Pard&ning 9!##%: P&5er8 E2e(3ti0e C'e1en(y

i pea!h ent; 1eprie%esH !o utationsH par&onH an& re ission of fines an& forfeitures !an :e ,rante& onl" after !on%i!tion :" final ;u&, ent'
3he fa%ora:le re!o en&ation of the CA8/7/C is re?uire& for %iolation of ele!tion lawsH rules an& re,ulations'

3)

9' +!!or&in, to 9arrio?uinto %' Fernan&e=H 82 Phil' )#2H the followin, are the &istin!tions :etween par&on an& a nest"'
1' Par&on is a pri%ate a!t an& ust :e plea&e& an& pro%e& :" the person par&one&; while a nest" is a pu:li! a!t of whi!h !ourts taDe ;u&i!ial noti!e;

No' 12; $o%ernor + was !har,e& a& inistrati%el" with oppression an& was pla!e& un&er pre%enti%e suspension fro offi!e &urin, the pen&en!" of his !ase' Foun& ,uilt" of the !har,eH the Presi&ent suspen&e& hi fro offi!e for ninet" &a"s' 7aterH the Presi&ent ,rante& hi !le en!" :" re&u!in, the perio& of his suspension to the perio& he has alrea&" ser%e&' 3he Ei!e $o%ernor ?uestione& the %ali&it" of the e0er!ise of e0e!uti%e !le en!" on the ,roun& that it !oul& :e ,rante& onl" in !ri inalH not a& inistrati%eH !ases'

@ow shoul& the ?uestion :e resol%e&L SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he ar,u ent of the Ei!e $o%ernor shoul& :e re;e!te&' +s hel& in 7la as %s' Ar:osH 202 SC1+ 8##' the power of e0e!uti%e !le en!" e0ten&s to a& inistrati%e !ases' 5n ,rantin, the power of e0e!uti%e !le en!" upon the Presi&entH Se!tion 19H +rti!le E55 of the Constitution &oes not &istin,uish :etween !ri inal an& a& inistrati%e !ases' Se!tion 19H +rti!le E55 of the Constitution e0!lu&es i pea!h ent !asesH whi!h are not !ri inal !asesH fro the s!ope of the power of e0e!uti%e !le en!"' 5f this power a" :e e0er!ise& onl"

2' Par&on &oes not re?uire the !on!urren!e of Con,ressH while a nest" re?uires the !on!urren!e of Con,ress; 3' Par&on is ,rante& to in&i%i&ualsH while a nest" is ,rante& to !lasses of persons or !o unities; #' Par&on a" :e ,rante& for an" offenseH while a nest" is ,rante& for politi!al offenses; 2' Par&on is ,rante& after final !on%i!tionH while a nest" a" :e ,rante& at an" ti e; an&
)' Par&on looDs forwar& an& relie%es offen&er fro the !onse?uen!es of offenseH while a nest" looDs :a!Dwar& an& person ,rante& it stan&s :efore the law thou,h he ha& !o itte& no offense' the his the as

Pard&ning P&5er8 Cind+ 9!#$$:


No' 2#: 3he first para,raph of Se!tion 19 of +rti!le E55 of the Constitution pro%i&in, for the par&onin, power of the Presi&entH entions reprie%eH !o utationH an& par&on' Please

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&efine the three of the H an& &ifferentiate one fro the others' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he ter s were &efine& an& &istin,uishe& fro one another in People %' EeraH )2 Phil' 2)H 111* 112 (1930)H as follows:
(1) 1/P15/E/ is a postpone ent of e0e!ution of a senten!e to a &a" !ertainH the

No' 7: Can the Presi&ent taDe a!ti%e part in the le,islati%e pro!essL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH 3he Presi&ent !an taDe a!ti%e part in the le,islati%e pro!ess to the e0tent allowe& :" the Constitution' @e !an a&&ress Con,ress at an" ti e to propose the ena!t ent of !ertain laws' @e re!o en&s the ,eneral appropriations :ill' @e !an !all a spe!ial session of Con,ress at an" ti e' @e !an !ertif" to the ne!essit" of the i e&iate ena!t ent of a :ill to eet a pu:li! !ala it" or e er,en!"' @e !an %eto a :ill'

(2) CA88<3+35AN is a re ission of a part of the punish entH a su:stitution of less penalt" for the one ori,inall" i pose&' (3) + P+1-ANH on the other han&H is an a!t of ,ra!eH pro!ee&in, fro the power entruste& with the e0e!ution of the laws whi!h e0e pts the in&i%i&ual on who it is :estowe& fro the punish ent the law infli!ts for a !ri e he has !o itte&' Pard&ning 9!##%: P&5er8 Pard&n7 C&nditi&na'

Pre+identia' I113nity )r&1 S3it 9!##%:


No' 13: <pon !o plaint of the in!u :ent Presi&ent of the 1epu:li!H C+C was !har,e& with li:el :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court' C+C o%e& to &is iss the infor ation on the ,roun& that the Court ha& no ;uris&i!tion o%er the offense !har,e& :e!ause the Presi&entH :ein, i une fro suitH shoul& also :e &is?ualifie& fro filin, a !ase a,ainst C+C in !ourt'

No' 1); + while ser%in, i prison ent for estafa' upon re!o en&ation of the 9oar& of Par&ons an& ParoleH was ,rante& par&on :" the Presi&ent on !on&ition that he shoul& not a,ain %iolate an" penal law of the lan&' 7aterH the 9oar& of Par&ons an& Parole re!o en&e& to the Presi&ent the !an!ellation of the par&on ,rante& hi :e!ause + ha& :een !har,e& with estafa on 20 !ounts an& was !on%i!te& of the offense !har,e& althou,h he tooD an appeal therefro whi!h was still pen&in,' +s re!o en&e&H the Presi&ent !an!ele& the par&on he ha& ,rante& to +' + was thus arreste& an& i prisone& to ser%e the :alan!e of his senten!e in the first !ase' + !lai e& in his petition for ha:eas !orpus file& in !ourt that his &etention was ille,al :e!ause he ha& not "et :een !on%i!te& :" final ;u&, ent an& was not ,i%en a !han!e to :e hear& :efore he was re!o itte& to prison'

1esol%e the otion' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he otion shoul& :e &enie& a!!or&in, Soli%en us' 8aDasiarH 1)7 SC1+ 393H i unit" of the Presi&ent fro suit is personal the Presi&ent' 5t a" :e in%oDe& :" Presi&ent onl" an& not :" an" other person' to the to the

Pr&,ibiti&n Again+t M3'ti*'e P&+iti&n+ B Additi&na' C&1*en+ati&n 9"66": No E5' 8 is the Se!retar" of the -epart ent of Finan!e' @e is also an e0*offi!io e :er of the 8onetar" 9oar& of the 9an,Do Sentral n, Pilipinas fro whi!h he re!ei%es an a&&itional !o pensation for e%er" 9oar& eetin, atten&e&'
NH a ta0pa"erH file& a suit in !ourt to &e!lare Se!retar" 8Bs e :ership in the 8onetar" 9oar& an& his re!eipt of a&&itional !o pensation ille,al an& in %iolation of the Constitution' N in%oDe& +rti!le E55H Se!tion 13 of the Constitution whi!h pro%i&es that the Presi&entH Ei!e*Presi&entH the 8e :ers of the Ca:inetH an& their &eputies or assistants shall notH unless otherwise pro%i&e& in the ConstitutionH hol& an" other offi!e or e plo" ent &urin, their tenure' N also !ite& +rti!le 5M*9H Se!tion 8 of the ConstitutionH whi!h pro%i&es that no ele!ti%e or appointi%e pu:li! offi!er or e plo"ee shall re!ei%e a&&itionalH &ou:leH or in&ire!t !o pensationH unless spe!ifi!all" authori=e& :" law'

5s +Bs ar,u ent %ali&L SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he ar,u ent of + is not %ali&' +s hel& in 3orres %s' $on=ales' 122 SC1+ 272 a ;u&i!ial pronoun!e ent that a !on%i!t who was ,rante& a par&on su:;e!t to the !on&ition that he shoul& not a,ain %iolate an" penal law is not ne!essar" :efore he !an :e &e!lare& to ha%e %iolate& the !on&ition of his par&on' 8oreo%erH a hearin, is not ne!essar" :efore + !an :e re!o itte& to prison' 9" a!!eptin, the !on&itional par&onH +H a,ree& that the &eter ination :" the Presi&ent that he %iolate& the !on&ition of his par&on shall :e !on!lusi%e upon hi an& an or&er for his arrest shoul& at on!e issue'

Pre+ident8 Parti(i*ati&n8 Legi+'ati0e Pr&(e++ 9!##?:

5f "ou were the ;u&,eH how woul& "ou &e!i&e the followin,:

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#%

a) the issue re,ar&in, the ultiple positionsL (3N)

hol&in,

of

:) the issue on the pa" ent of a&&itional or &ou:le !o pensationL(2N) /0plain "our answers full"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) 5f 5 were the ;u&,eH 5 woul& uphol& the %ali&it" of the &esi,nation of Se!retar" 8 as e0 offi!io e :er of the 8onetar" 9oar&H +s state& in Ci%il 7i:erties <nion %' /0e!uti%e Se!retar"H 19# SC1+ 317 (1991)H the prohi:ition a,ainst the hol&in, of ultiple positions :" Ca:inet 8e :ers in +rti!le E55H Se!tion 13 of the Constitution &oes not appl" to positions o!!upie& in an e0 offi!io !apa!it" as pro%i&e& :" law an& as re?uire& :" the pri ar" fun!tions of their offi!e' (:) 5f 5 were the >u&,eH 5 woul& rule that Se!retar" 8 !annot re!ei%e an" a&&itional !o pensation' +s state& in Ci%il 7i:erties <nion %' /0e!uti%e Se!retar"H 19# SC1+ 317 (1991)H a Ca:inet 8e :er hol&in, an e0*offi!io position has no ri,ht to re!ei%e a&&itional !o pensationH for his ser%i!es in that position are alrea&" pai& for :" the !o pensation atta!he& to his prin!ipal offi!e'

as Se!retar" of 3ra&e an& pro%ision of +rtH E55H Se!H Ca:inet e :ers fro hol&in, or e plo" entH is su:;e!t to in +rt' 5MH 9H Se!' 7'

5n&ustr"' 3he 13H prohi:itin, an" other offi!e the e0!eptions

:' -ean Sin!o :elie%es that e :ers of Con,ress !annot :e e :ers of the 9oar& of 1e,ents of the <ni%ersit" of the Philippines un&er the 5n!o pati:ilit" Clause of the 1932 Constitution whi!h is si ilar to the pro%ision of +rt' E5H Se!' 13 of the present Constitution' <n&er this %iewH the e :ership of the Chair an of the Senate Co ittee on 3ra&e an& 5n&ustr" in the /0port Control 9oar& !annot :e sustaine&' (Sin!oH Philippine Politi!al 7aw 13) (llth /&' 19)2)'

8oreo%erH sin!e the apparent ;ustifi!ation for the e :ership of the Chair an of the Senate Co ittee is to ai& hi in his le,islati%e fun!tionsH this purpose !an easil" :e a!hie%e& throu,h le,islati%e in%esti,ations un&er +rt' E5H Se!'21'
An the other han&H -ean Cortes appears to su,,est a !ontrar" %iewH notin, that after the &e!ision in $o%ern ent of the Philippine 5slan&s %' Sprin,er 20 Phil' 229 (1927)H in %ali&atin, the law &esi,natin, the Senate Presi&ent an& SpeaDer as e :ers of the 9oar& of Control of ,o%ern ent !orporationsH no other &e!ision has :een ren&ere&' An the !ontrar"H laws ha%e :een ena!te&H aDin, e :ers of Con,ress e :ers of %arious :oar&s'

Pr&,ibiti&n again+t M3'ti*'e P&+iti&n+ by G&0Jt O))i(ia'+ 9!#$%: No' 5: +ssu e that a law has :een passe& !reatin, the /0port Control 9oar& !o pose& of: a' 3he Se!retar" of 3ra&e an& 5n&ustr" as Chair an an& as 8e :ers: :' 3he Chair an of the Senate Co ittee on 3ra&e an& 5n&ustr" !' +n +sso!iate >usti!e of the Supre e Court &esi,nate& :" the Chief >usti!e &' 3he Co issioner of Custo sH an& e' 3he Presi&ent of the Philippine Cha :er of Co er!e an& 5n&ustr"H 3he National Constitutional +sso!iation of the Philippines has file& suit to !hallen,e the !onstitutionalit" of the law' -eter ine whether the e :ership of ea!h of the a:o%e in the 9oar& !an :e uphel&' Cite rele%ant !onstitutional pro%isions' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
a' 3he !hair anship of the Se!retar" of 3ra&e an& 5n&ustr" in the 9oar& !an :e uphel& on the :asis of +rt' 5MH 9H Se!' 7H whi!h allows appointi%e offi!ials to hol& other offi!es if allowe& :" law (su!h as the law in this !ase !reatin, the /0port Control 9oar&) or ;ustifie& :" the pri ar" fun!tions of their offi!es' 3he fun!tions of the 9oar& is relate& to his fun!tions

5n&ee&H the e :ership of the Chair an of the Senate Co ittee on 3ra&e an& 5n&ustr" a" :e uphel& as :ein, in ai& of his le,islati%e fun!tions sin!e what is prohi:ite& :" +rt' E5H Se!' 13 is the a!!eptan!e of an in!o pati:le offi!e or e plo" ent in the ,o%ern ent' (CortesH Philippine Presi&en!"H pp' 111* 112(19)))) (!) 3he &esi,nation of an +sso!iate >usti!e of the Supre e Court !annot :e sustaine& :ein, the i position on the e :ers of the CourtH of non*;u&i!ial &utiesH !ontrar" to the prin!iple of separation of powers' 5t is ;u&i!ial power an& ;u&i!ial power onl" whi!h the Supre e Court an& its e :ers a" e0er!ise' (+rt E555' Se!' 1; 8anila /le!tri! Co' %' Pasa" 3rans' Co'H 27 Phil' )00 (1932))
(&) a&e 3he Co issioner of Custo s a" :e e :er of the 9oar& for the sa e

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

#$

reason in the !ase of the Se!retar" of 3ra&e an& 5n&ustr"H un&er +rt' 5MH 9H Se!' 7'
(e) 3he e :ership of the Presi&ent of the Philippine Cha :er of Co er!e a" also :e uphel& on the ,roun& that Con,ress has the power to pres!ri:e ?ualifi!ations for the offi!e'

(#) (2)

Cases hear& :" a &i%ision when the re?uire& a;orit" is not o:taine&; Cases where a &o!trine or prin!iple of law pre%iousl" lai& &own will :e o&ifie& or re%erse&;
+& inistrati%e !ases a,ainst ;u&,es when the penalt" is &is issal; an&

())

S3+*en+i&n &) Writ &) Habea+ C&r*3+ 9!##%: (a) 6hen a" the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus :e suspen&e&L (:) 5f %ali&l" &e!lare&H what woul& :e the full !onse?uen!es of su!h suspensionL SUGGESTED ANSWER: (a) <n&er Se!tion 1)H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus a" :e suspen&e& when there is an in%asion or re:ellion an& pu:li! safet" re?uires it'
(:) +!!or&in, to Se!tion 18H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH the suspension of the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus shall appl" onl" to persons ;u&i!iall" !har,e& with re:ellion or offenses 5nherent to or &ire!tl" !onne!te& with in%asion' +n" person arreste& or &etaine& shoul& :e ;u&i!iall" !har,e& within three &a"s' AtherwiseH he shoul& :e release&' 8oreo%erH un&er Se!tion 13' +rti!le 555 of the ConstitutionH the ri,ht to :ail shall not :e i paire& e%en when the pri%ile,e of the writ of ha:eas !orpus is suspen&e&'

(7)

/le!tion !ontests Ei!e* Presi&ent'

for

Presi&ent

or

C&nte1*t P&5er+ 9!##?:


No' 3: 2) An the first &a" of the trial of a rape* ur&er !ase where the %i!ti was a popular 3E starH o%er a hun&re& of her fans rallie& at the entran!e of the !ourthouseH ea!h !arr"in, a pla!ar& &e an&in, the !on%i!tion of the a!!use& an& the i position of the &eath penalt" on hi ' 3he rall" was pea!eful an& &i& not &istur: the pro!ee&in,s of the !ase' a) Can the trial !ourt or&er the &ispersal of the rall"ists un&er pain of :ein, punishe& for !onte pt of !ourtH if the" fail to &o soL /0plain'

:) 5f instea& of a rall"H the fans of the %i!ti wrote letters to the newspaper e&itors &e an&in, the !on%i!tion of the a!!use&H !an the trial !ourt punish the for !onte ptL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2' a) OesH the trial !ourt !an or&er the &ispersal of the rall" un&er pain of :ein, !ite& for !onte pt' 3he purpose of the rall" is to atte pt to influen!e the a& inistration of >usti!e' +s state& in People %s' FloresH 239 SC1+ 83H an" !on&u!t :" an" part" whi!h ten&s to &ire!tl" or in&ire!tl" 5 pe&eH o:stru!t or &e,ra&e the a& inistration of ;usti!e is su:;e!t to the !onte pt powers of the !ourt' :) NoH the trial !ourt !annot punish for !onte pt the fans of the %i!ti who wrote letters to the newspaper e&itors asDin, for the !on%i!tion of the a!!use&' Sin!e the letters were not a&&resse& to the >u&,e an& the pu:li!ation of the letters o!!urre& outsi&e the !ourtH the fans !annot :e punishe& in the a:sen!e of a !lear an& present &an,er to the a& inistration of >usti!e' 5n Ca:ansa, %s' Fernan&e=H 102 Phil 122H it was hel& that a part" who wrote to the Presi&ential Co plaints an& +!tion Co ittee to !o plain a:out the &ela" in the &isposition of his !ase !oul& not :e punishe& for !onte pt in the a:sen!e of a !lear an& present &an,er to the fair a& inistration of >usti!e'

ARTICLE .III 43di(ia' De*art1ent


Ca+e+ t& be Heard En Ban(8 S3*re1e C&3rt 9!###: No M5 * /nu erate the !ases re?uire& :" the Constitution to :e hear& en :an! :" the Supre e CourtL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he followin, are the !ases re?uire& :" the Constitution to :e hear& en :an! :" the Supre e Court: (1) Cases in%ol%in, the !onstitutionalit" of a treat"H international or e0e!uti%e a,ree entH or law;
Cases whi!h un&er the 1ules of Court are re?uire& to :e hear& en :an!'

(2)

(3)

Cases in%ol%in, the !onstitutionalit"H appli!ationH or operation of presi&ential &e!reesH pro!la ationsH or&ersH instru!tionsH or&inan!esH an& other re,ulations;

ina'ity &) .&id 43dg1ent+ 9!##-:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

##

No' 8; 3he +9C 1ealt"H 5n!H file& a !o plaint a,ainst 1i!o for the !olle!tion of unpai& install ents on a su:&i%ision lot pur!hase& :" the latterH 1i!o faile& to file an answerH was &e!lare& in &efault; an& after re!eption of plaintiffs e%i&en!e e0 parteH ;u&, ent was ren&ere& a,ainst hi ' 3he &e!ision :e!a e finalH an& upon otion :" +9C 1ealt"H the ;u&,e issue& a writ of e0e!ution' 1i!o now files a otion to ?uash the writ an& to %a!ate the >u&, ent !onten&in, that it is the @ousin, an& 7an& <se 1e,ulator" 9oar& (@7<19) whi!h is %este& with ori,inal an& e0!lusi%e >uris&i!tion o%er !ases in%ol%in, the real estate :usiness' 1i!o pra"s for the &is issal of the !o plaint an& for the nullit" of the &e!ision' 3he realt" fir opposes the otion ar,uin, that un&er 9P 129H 13Cs ha%e e0!lusi%e an& ori,inal ;uris&i!tion o%er !ases in whi!h the a ount of !ontro%ers" e0!ee&s P20H000'00' +nswer the followin, ?ueries:

plans of the ,o%ern ent an& allo!ate an& &is:urse su!h su s as a" :e pro%i&e& :" law or pres!ri:e& :" it in the !ourse of the &is!har,e of its fun!tions' 3n(ti&n8 C&ntin3ing C&n0enti&n 9"666: C&n+tit3ti&na'

No 5' * * Ane Senator re arDe& that the Supre e Court is a !ontinuin, Constitutional Con%ention' -o "ou a,reeL /0plain' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5 &o not a,ree that the Supre e Court is a !ontinuin, Constitutional Con%ention' 3he !riti!is is :ase& on the assu ption that in e0er!isin, its power of ;u&i!ial re%iew the Supre e Court 5s not erel" interpretin, the Constitution :ut is tr"in, to re aDe the $o%ern ent on the :asis of the personal pre&ile!tions of the 8e :ers of the Supre e CourtH this is a power that properl" :elon,s to the people an& their ele!te& representati%es' 3he Supre e Court !annot &e!i&e !ases erel" on the :asis of the letter of the Constitution' 5t has to interpret the Constitution to ,i%e effe!t to the intent of its fra ers an& of the people a&optin, it' 5n 5nterpretin, the ConstitutionH the Supre e Court has to a&opt it to the e%er*!han,in, !ir!u stan!es of so!iet"' 6hen the Supre e Court striDes &own an a!t of the 7e,islati%e or the /0e!uti%e -epart entH it is erel" &is!har,in, its &ut" un&er the Constitution to &eter ine !onfli!tin, !lai s of authorit"'

1) 6ho has ;uris&i!tion o%er the !olle!tion suitL 2) 3he 13C &e!isionH ha%in, :e!o e final an& e0e!utor"H !an it still :e %a!ate&L SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1T 3he @7<19 2) OesH the &e!ision of the 1e,ional 3rial Court !an still :e %a!ate&H e%en if it has :e!o e final an& e0e!utor"' Sin!e the 1e,ional 3rial Court ha& no ;uris&i!tion o%er the !aseH the &e!ision is %oi&' i+(a' A3t&n&1y 9!###: No M5 * 6hat &o "ou un&erstan& :" the an&ate of the Constitution that the ;u&i!iar" shall en;o" fis!al autono "L Cite the !onstitutional pro%isions !al!ulate& to :rin, a:out the reali=ation of the sai& !onstitutional an&ate' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: <n&er Se!tion 3H +rti!le E555 of the ConstitutionH the fis!al autono " of the >u&i!iar" eans that appropriations for the >u&i!iar" a" not :e re&u!e& :" the le,islature :elow the a ount appropriate& for the pre%ious "ear an&H after appro%alH shall :e auto ati!all" an& re,ularl" release&'
5n 9en,=on %' -rilonH 208 SC1+ 133H the Supre e Court e0plaine& that fis!al autono " !onte plates a ,uarantee of full fle0i:ilit" to allo!ate an& utili=e resour!es with the wis&o an& &ispat!h that the nee&s re?uire' 5t re!o,ni=es the power an& authorit" to &en"H assess an& !olle!t feesH fi0 rates of !o pensation not e0!ee&in, the hi,hest rates authori=e& :" law for !o pensation an& pa" BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%) !66

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3o a !ertain e0tentH the Supre e Court is a !ontinuin, Constitutional Con%ention' 6hen a !ase is :rou,ht in !ourt in%ol%in, a !onstitutional issue' 5t :e!o es ne!essar" to interpret the ConstitutionH Sin!e the Supre e Court is supre e within its own sphereH its interpretation of the Constitution will for part of the law of the lan&'

I++3an(e &) Re+training and InE3n(ti&n+ 9!##":

Order+

No' 7: Con,ress is !onsi&erin, new easures to en!oura,e forei,n !orporations to :rin, their in%est ents to the Philippines' Con,ress has foun& that forei,n in%est ents are &eterre& :" the un!ertain in%est ent !li ate in the Philippines' Ane sour!e of su!h un!ertaint" is the hei,htene& ;u&i!ial inter%ention in in%est ent atters' Ane su!h easure pro%i&es that Cno !ourt or a& inistrati%e a,en!" shall issue an" restrainin, or&er or in;un!tion a,ainst the

!66

Central 9anDC in the 9anDBs e0er!ise of its re,ulator" power o%er spe!ifi! forei,n e0!han,e transa!tions' 6oul& this :e a %ali& easureL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH the easure is %ali&' 5n 8antruste S"ste sH 5n!' %s' Court of +ppealsH 179 SC1+ 13)H the Supre e Court hel& that a law prohi:itin, the issuan!e of an in;un!tion is %ali&H :e!ause un&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le E555 of the ConstitutionH the ;uris&i!tion of the !ourts a" :e &efine& :" law'

(#) 3he Se!retar" of >usti!e as e0 offi!io e :er; (2) + representati%e of Con,ress as e0 offi!io e :er; ()) + representati%e of the 5nte,rate& 9ar; (7) + professor of law; (8) + retire& >usti!e of the Supre e Court; an& (9) + representati%e of the pri%ate se!tor' (Se!tion 8 (1)H +rti!le E555 of the Constitution) 3he ter of offi!e of the re,ular e :ers is four (#) "ears' (Se!tion 8(2)H +rti!le E555 of the Constitution) 43di(ia' De*art1ent8 Writ &) A1*ar& 9!##!: No 1: 6hat is a Constitutional writ of + paro an& what is the :asis for su!h a re e&" un&er the ConstitutionL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he writ of + paro in 8e0i!an law is an e0traor&inar" re e&" where:" an intereste& part" a" seeD the in%ali&ation of an" e0e!uti%eH le,islati%e or ;u&i!ial a!t &ee e& in %iolation of a fun&a ental ri,ht' 3he a&option of su!h a re e&" in the Philippines a" :e :ase& on +rti!le E555H Se!' 2(2) of the ConstitutionH whi!h e powers the Supre e Court to pro ul,ate rules !on!ernin, the prote!tion an& enfor!e ent of !onstitutional ri,hts'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: Sin!e un&er Se!tions 1 an& 2(2)H +rti!le E555 of the ConstitutionH the !ourts are ,i%en the power of >u&i!ial re%iewH the easure is %oi&H Su!h power ust :e preser%e&' 3he issuan!e of restrainin, or&ers an& 5n;un!tions is in ai& of the power of ;u&i!ial re%iew' 43di(ia' B Bar C&3n(i' 9!#$$: No' 11: + no%el feature of the present Constitution is the >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il' Please state: 7' 5ts prin!ipal fun!tion; 8' 5ts !o position; an& 9' 6ho super%ises itH an& taDes !are of its appropriationsL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
11' 3he >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il has the prin!ipal fun!tion of re!o en&in, appointees to the >u&i!iar"' 5t a" e0er!ise su!h other fun!tions an& &uties as the Supre e Court a" assi,n to it' (+rt' E555H se!' 8(2))'

2' 3he >9C is !o pose& of the Chief >usti!e as e0 offi!io Chair anH the Se!retar" of >usti!e an& a representati%e of the Con,ress as e0 offi!io 8e :ersH a representati%e of the 5nte,rate& 9arH a professor of lawH a retire& 8e :er of the Supre e CourtH an& a representati%e of the pri%ate se!tor' (+rt' E555H se!' 8(1))'
3H 3he Supre e Court super%ises the >9C an& pro%i&es in the annual :u&,et of the Court the appropriations of the >9C' (+rt' E555H se!' 8(#))'

43di(ia' Inde*enden(e8 Sa)eg3ard 9"666: No 5' Na e at least three !onstitutional safe,uar&s to aintain ;u&i!ial in&epen&en!e' (3N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he followin, are the !onstitutional safe,uar&s to aintain ;u&i!ial in&epen&en!e: D' 3he Supre e Court is a !onstitutional :o&" an& !annot :e a:olishe& :" ere le,islation' 3he e :ers of the Supre e Court !annot :e re o%e& e0!ept :" i pea!h ent' 3he Supre e Court !annot :e &epri%e& of its ini u ;uris&i!tion pres!ri:e& in Se!tion 2H +rti!le M of the Constitution'
3he appellate ;uris&i!tion of the Supre e Court !annot :e in!rease& :" law without its a&%i!e an& !on!urren!e'

l'

'

n'

43di(ia' B Bar C&3n(i' 9!###: No M5 * 6hat is the !o position of the >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il an& the ter of offi!e of its re,ular e :ersL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il is !o pose& of the followin,: 1' 3he Chief >usti!e as e0 offi!io !hair an;

o'

+ppointees to the >u&i!iar" are no inate& :" the >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il an& are not su:;e!t to !onfir ation :" the Co ission on +ppoint ents'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!6!

!)

&)

e)

3he Supre e Court has a& inistrati%e super%ision o%er all lower !ourts an& their personnel' 3he Supre e Court has e0!lusi%e power to &is!ipline >u&,es of lower !ourts' 3he 8e :ers of the >u&i!iar" ha%e se!urit" of tenureH whi!h !annot :e un&er ine& :" a law reor,ani=in, the >u&i!iar"'
8e :ers of the >u&i!iar" !annot :e

Senator &e 7eon tooD the floor of the Senate to speaD on a C atter of personal pri%ile,eC to %in&i!ate his honor a,ainst those C:aseless an& ali!iousC alle,ations' 3he atter was referre& to the Co ittee on +!!ounta:ilit" of Pu:li! Affi!ersH whi!h pro!ee&e& to !on&u!t a le,islati%e in?uir"' 3he Co ittee asDe& 8r' Ein!e 7e&es aH a :usiness an linDe& to the transa!tion an& now a respon&ent :efore the San&i,an:a"anH to appear an& to testif" :efore the Co ittee'

f)

&esi,nate& to an" perfor in, ?uasi*>u&i!ial a& inistrati%e fun!tions' (3)

a,en!" or

(#) (2)

3he salaries of 8e :ers of the >u&i!iar" !annot :e &e!rease& &urin, their !ontinuan!e in offi!e' 3he >u&i!iar" has fis!al autono "' 3he Supre e Court has e0!lusi%e power to pro ul,ate rules of plea&in,H pra!ti!e an& pro!e&ure' Anl" the Supre e Court !an te poraril" assi,n ;u&,es to other stations' 5t is the Supre e Court who appoints all offi!ials an& e plo"ees of the >u&i!iar"' (Cru=H Philippine Politi!al 7awH 1992 e&' (pp' 229*31')

8r 7e&es a refuses to appear an& file suit :efore the Supre e Court to !hallen,e the le,alit" of the pro!ee&in,s :efore the Co ittee' @e also asDs whether the Co ittee ha& the power to re?uire hi to testif"' 5&entif" the issues 5n%ol%e& an& resol%e the ' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he issues in%ol%e& in this !ase are the followin,: (3) 6hether or not the Supre e Court has ;uris&i!tion to entertain the !ase;
(#) 6hether or not the Co ittee on +!!ounta:ilit" of Pu:li! Affi!ers has the power to in%esti,ate a atter whi!h is in%ol%e& in a !ase pen&in, in !ourt; an&

())

(7)

(2)

6hether or not the petitioner !an in%oDe his ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri ination'

43di(ia' P&5er 9!#$#: No' 10: 6here is ;u&i!ial power %este&L 6hat are in!lu&e& in su!h powerL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to Se!tion 1H +rti!le E555 of the 1987 ConstitutionH ;u&i!ial power is %este& in one Supre e Court an& in su!h lower !ourts as a" :e esta:lishe& :" law' 5t in!lu&es the &ut" of the !ourts of ;usti!e to settle a!tual !ontro%ersies in%ol%in, ri,hts whi!h are le,all" &e an&a:le an& enfor!ea:leH an& to &eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the $o%ern ent'

+ll these 5ssues were resol%e& in the !ase of 9en,=on %s' Senate 9lue 1i::on Co itteeH 203 SC1+ 7)7'
3he Supre e Court has ;uris&i!tion o%er the !aseH :e!ause it in%ol%es the ?uestion of whether or not the Co ittee on +!!ounta:ilit" of Pu:li! Affi!ers has the power to !on&u!t the in%esti,ation' <n&er Se!tion 1H +rti!le E555 of the ConstitutionH ;u&i!ial power in!lu&es the &ut" of the !ourts to &eter ine whether or not an" :ran!h of the ,o%ern ent is a!tin, with ,ra%e of a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D of ;uris&i!tion' 3he Co ittee on +!!ounta:ilit" of Pu:li! Affi!ers has no power to in%esti,ate the s!an&al' Sin!e the s!an&al is in%ol%e& in a !ase pen&in, in !ourtH the in%esti,ation will en!roa!h upon the e0!lusi%e &o ain of the !ourt' 3o allow the in%esti,ation will !reate the possi:ilit" of !onfli!tin, ;u&, ents :etween the !o ittee an& the !ourt' 5f the &e!ision of the !o ittee were rea!he& :efore that of the !ourtH it i,ht influen!e the ;u&, ent of the !ourt'

43di(ia' P&5er 9!##":


No' 8: + !ase was file& :efore the San&i,an:a"an re,ar&in, a ?uestiona:le ,o%ern ent transa!tion' 5n the !ourse of the pro!ee&in,sH newspapers linDe& the na e of Senator >' &e 7eon to the s!an&al'

3he petitioner !an in%oDe his ri,ht a,ainst self* in!ri inationH '''

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!6"

43di(ia' P&5er 9!##$:


5E' +n&res +n, was :orn of a Chinese father an& a Filipino other in Sorso,onH Sorso,on' on >anuar" 20H 1973' 5n 1988' his father was naturali=e&as a Filipino !iti=en' An 8a" 11H1998' +n&res +n, was ele!te& 1epresentati%e of the First -istri!t of Sorso,on' >uan 9onto who re!ei%e& the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otesH file& a petition for (uo 6arranto a,ainst +n,' 3he petition was file& with the @ouse of 1epresentati%e /le!toral 3ri:unal (@1/3)' 9onto !onten&s that +n, is not a natural :orn !iti=en of the Philippines an& therefore is &is?ualifie& to :e a e :er of the @ouse'

a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the $o%ern ent' +s hel& in 8ar!os us' 8an,lapusH 177 SC1+ ))8' this pro%ision li its resort to the politi!al ?uestion &o!trine an& :roa&ens the s!ope of ;uri&i!al in?uir" into areas whi!h the !ourts un&er the 1932 an& the 1973 Constitutions woul& nor all" ha%e left to the politi!al &epart ents to &e!i&e'

3he @1/3 rule& in fa%or of +n,' 9onto file& a petition for !ertiorari in the Supre e Court' 3he followin, issues are raise&:
(3) 6hether the !ase is ;usti!ia:le !onsi&erin, that +rti!le E5' Se!tion 17 of the Constitution &e!lares the @1/3 to :e the Csole >u&,eC of all !ontests relatin, to the ele!tion returns an& &is?ualifi!ations of e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' P2NQ 6hether +n, is a natural :o !iti=en of

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: <n&er the 1932 an& 1973 ConstitutionsH there was no pro%ision &efinin, the s!ope of ;u&i!ial power as %este& in the ;u&i!iar"' 6hile these ConstitutionsH :oth pro%i&e& for %esture of ;u&i!ial power Cin one Supre e Court an& in su!h inferior !ourts as a" :e esta:lishe& :" lawHC the" were silent as to the s!ope of su!h power' 3he 1987 ConstitutionH on the other han&H re* wrote the pro%isions on the %esture of ;u&i!ial power ori,inall" appearin, in the 1932 an& 1973 ConstitutionsH as follows: C3he ;u&i!ial power shall :e %este& in one Supre e Court an& in su!h lower !ourts as a" :e esta:lishe& :" law'
C>u&i!ial power in!lu&es the &ut" of the !ourts of ;usti!e to settle a!tual !ontro%ersies 5n%ol%in, ri,hts whi!h are le,all" &e an&a:le an& enfor!ea:leH an& to &eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of >uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the $o%ern ent'C (Se!' 1' +rt' E555) 3he se!on& para,raph of the !ite& pro%ision was not foun& in the 1932 an& 1973 ConstitutionH it !ontains a new &efinition of ;u&i!ial power parti!ularl" the s!ope thereof' 3he first portion thereof represents the tra&itional !on!ept of >u&i!ial powerH in%ol%in, the settle ent of !onfli!tin, ri,hts as :" lawH whi!h presu a:l" was i pli!it in the 1932 an& 1973 Constitutions' 3he se!on& (latter) portion of the &efinition represents a :roa&enin, of the s!ope of ;u&i!ial power orH in the lan,ua,e of the Supre e CourtH !onfer ent of Ce0pan&e& >uris&i!tionC on the >u&i!iar" (-a=a %' Sin,sonH 180 SC1+ #9)) to ena:le the !ourts to re%iew the e0er!ise of &is!retion :" the politi!al &epart ents of ,o%ern ent' 3his new prero,ati%e of the ;u&i!iar" as now re!o,ni=e& un&er the 1987 Constitution was not !onstitutionall" per issi:le un&er the 1932 an& 1973 Charters'

(#) @ow

the Philippines' W2NQ


shoul& this !ase :e &e!i&e&L

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3' 3he !ase is ;usti!ia:le' +s state& 5n 7a=atin %s' @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unal 1)8 SC1+ 391H #0#H sin!e ;u&i!ial power in!lu&es the &ut" to &eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the $o%ern entH the Supre e Court has the power to re%iew the &e!isions of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal in !ase of ,ra%e +:use of &is!retion on its part'

#' +n&res +n, shoul& :e !onsi&ere& a natural :orn !iti=en of the Philippines' '''' 43di(ia' P&5er8 S(&*e 9!##;: No' 2: 1T 6hat is the &ifferen!eH if an"' :etween the s!ope of >u&i!ial power un&er the 1987 Constitution on one han&H an& the 1932 an& 1973 Constitutions on the otherL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he s!ope of ;u&i!ial power un&er the 1987 Constitution is :roa&er than its s!ope un&er the 1932 an& 1973 Constitution :e!ause of the se!on& para,raph of Se!tion 1H +rti!le E555 of the 1987 ConstitutionH whi!h states that it in!lu&es the &ut" to &eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion

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43di(ia' Re0ie58 L&(3+ Standi 9!##":


No' ): 3he Philippine /n%iron entalistsB Ar,ani=ation for NatureH a &ul" re!o,ni=e& non* ,o%ern ental or,ani=ationH inten&s to file suit to en;oin the Philippine $o%ern ent fro allo!atin, fun&s to operate a power plant at 8ount 3u:a 5n a southern islan&' 3he" !lai that there was no !onsultation with the 5n&i,enous !ultural !o unit" whi!h will :e &ispla!e& fro an!estral lan&s essential to their li%elihoo& an& in&ispensa:le to their reli,ious pra!ti!es' 3) 3he or,ani=ation is :ase& in 8aDati' +ll its offi!ers li%e an& worD in 8aDati' Not one of its offi!ers or e :ers :elon, to the affe!te& in&i,enous !ultural !o unit"' -o the" ha%e the stan&in, in this &isputeL /0plain' #) 6oul& "our answer :e &ifferent if the Philippine Power CorporationH a pri%ate !o pan"H were to operate the plantL /0plain'

the power plantH :e!ause no pu:li! fun&s will :e spent for its operation' +s hel& in $on=ales %s' 8ar!osH )2 SC1+ )2#H a ta0pa"er has no stan&in, to file a !ase if no e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s is in%ol%e&'
Sin!e no e :er or offi!er of the Philippine /n%iron entalistsB Ar,ani=ation :elon,s to the affe!te& in&i,enous !o unit"H none of the ri,hts of the Philippine /n%iron entalistsB Ar,ani=ation an& of its offi!ers an& e :ers are affe!te&' 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in National /!ono i! Prote!tionis +sso!iation %s' An,pinH 171 SC1+ )27H the or,ani=ation has no stan&in, to file the !ase'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
a) <n&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH the State shoul& prote!t the ri,hts of !ultural 5n&i,enous !o unities to their an!estral lan&s to ensure their well*:ein,' <n&er Se!tion 17H +rti!le M5E of the ConstitutionH the State shoul& prote!t the ri,hts of in&i,enous !ultural !o unities to preser%e an& &e%elop this !ulturesH tra&itionsH an& institutions an& shoul& !onsi&er these ri,hts in the for ulation of national plans an& poli!ies' 3he ,o%ern ent %iolate& these pro%isionsH :e!ause it &e!i&e& to operate the power plant without !onsultin, the in&i,enous !ultural !o unit" an& the operation of the power plant will result in its &ispla!e ent' 5f the pro;e!te& lawsuit will :e :ase& on %iolation of the ri,hts of the in&i,enous !ultural !o unitiesH the Philippine /n%iron entalists Ar,ani=ation will ha%e no stan&in, to file the !ase' None of its offi!ers an& e :ers :elon, to the in&i,enous !ultural !o unit"' None of their ri,hts are affe!te&'

43di(ia' Re0ie58 ReF3i+ite+ 9!##;: No' 2: 2) +ssu e that the !onstitutional ?uestion raise& in a petition :efore the Supre e Court is the 5is ota of the !aseH ,i%e at least two other re?uire ents :efore the Court will e0er!ise its power of ;u&i!ial re%iewL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2) +!!or&in, to 8a!asiano %s' National @ousin, +uthorit"H 22# SC1+ 23)H in a&&ition to the re?uire ent that the !onstitutional ?uestion raise& :e the lis ota of the !aseH the followin, re?uisites ust :e present for the e0er!ise of the power of ;u&i!ial re%iew: (!) 3here ust :e an a!tual !ase or !ontro%ers" in%ol%in, a !onfli!t of le,al ri,hts sus!epti:le of >u&i!ial &eter ination;

(&) 3he !onstitutional ?uestion raise& :" the proper part"; an& (e) 3he !onstitutional ?uestion raise& at the earliest opportunit"' 43ri+di(ti&n &) HLURB 9!##-:

ust ust

:e :e

5f the lawsuit will seeD to en;oin the use of pu:li! fun&s to operate the power plantH the Philippine /n%iron entalistsB Ar,ani=ation !an file a ta0pa"erBs suit' +s hel& in 8a!e&a us' 8a!arai,H 197 SC1+ 771H a ta0pa"er has stan&in, to ?uestion the ille,al e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s'
:) 3he Philippine /n%iron entalists Ar,ani=ation will ha%e no stan&in, to file the !ase if it is a pri%ate !o pan" that will operate

No' 8; 3he +9C 1ealt"H 5n!H file& a !o plaint a,ainst 1i!o for the !olle!tion of unpai& install ents on a su:&i%ision lot pur!hase& :" the latterH 1i!o faile& to file an answerH was &e!lare& in &efault; an& after re!eption of plaintiffs e%i&en!e e0 parteH ;u&, ent was ren&ere& a,ainst hi ' 3he &e!ision :e!a e finalH an& upon otion :" +9C 1ealt"H the ;u&,e issue& a writ of e0e!ution' 1i!o now files a otion to ?uash the writ an& to %a!ate the >u&, ent !onten&in, that it is the @ousin, an& 7an& <se 1e,ulator" 9oar& (@7<19) whi!h is %este& with ori,inal an& e0!lusi%e >uris&i!tion o%er !ases in%ol%in, the real estate :usiness' 1i!o pra"s for the &is issal of the !o plaint an& for the nullit" of the &e!ision' 3he realt" fir opposes the

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!6;

otion ar,uin, that un&er 9P 129H 13Cs ha%e e0!lusi%e an& ori,inal ;uris&i!tion o%er !ases in whi!h the a ount of !ontro%ers" e0!ee&s P20H000'00' +nswer the followin, ?ueries: (!) 6ho has ;uris&i!tion o%er the !olle!tion suitL (&) 3he 13C &e!isionH ha%in, :e!o e final an& e0e!utor"H !an it still :e %a!ate&L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1T +s hel& in /state -e%elopers an& 5n%estors Corporation %s' Court of +ppealsH 213 SC1+ 323H pursuant to Presi&ential -e!ree No' 13##H it is the @ousin, an& 7an& <se 1e,ulator" 9oar& whi!h has ;uris&i!tion o%er the !lai of a &e%eloper a,ainst a :u"er for the pa" ent of the :alan!e of the pur!hase pri!e of a lot' 3he ;uris&i!tion of the 1e,ional 3rial Court o%er !ases in whi!h the a ount of !ontro%ers" e0!ee&s P20H000'00 e0ists onl" in all !ases where the !ase &oes not otherwise fall within the e0!lusi%e ;uris&i!tion of an" other !ourtH tri:unalH person or :o&" e0er!isin, >u&i!ial or ?uasi*;u&i!ial fun!tionsH

within three onths (+rt' MH Se!' 11)' 5n 8ar!elino %s' Cru=H 121 SC1+ 21 (1983) it was hel& that the perio&s pres!ri:e& are onl" &ire!tor"H not an&ator"' P&'iti(a' >3e+ti&n 9!##@:
No' 13: >u&i!ial power as &efine& in Se!' 1H 2n& par'H +rt' E555H 1987 ConstitutionH now Cin!lu&es the &ut" of the Courts of >usti!e to settle a!tual !ontro%ersies in%ol%in, ri,hts whi!h are le,all" &e an&a:le an& enfor!ea:leH an& to &eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D of e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the $o%ern ent' C3his &efinition is sai& to ha%e e0pan&e& the power of the ;u&i!iar" to in!lu&e politi!al ?uestions for erl" :e"on& its ;uris&i!tion' f) -o "ou a,ree with su!h as interpretation of the !onstitutional &efinition of ;u&i!ial power that woul& authori=e the !ourts to re%iew an&H if warrante&H re%erse the e0er!ise of &is!retion :" the politi!al &epart ents (e0e!uti%e an& le,islati%e) of the ,o%ern entH in!lu&in, the Constitutional Co issionsL -is!uss full"H ,) 5n "our opinionH how shoul& su!h &efinition :e !onstrue& so as not to ero&e !onsi&era:l" or &isre,ar& entirel" the

2) OesH :e!ause it is %oi&''''


Mandat&ry Peri&d &r De(iding Ca+e+ 9!#$#:

No' 10: (2) -espite the lapse of # onths fro the ti e that the trial was ter inate& an& the !ase su: itte& for &e!isionH the trial !ourt faile& to &e!i&e the !ase' 3he &efense !ounsel o%e& to &is iss the !ase on the ,roun& that after the lapse of 90 &a"sH the !ourt ha& lost ;uris&i!tion to &e!i&e the !ase' Shoul& the otion :e ,rante&L SUGGESTED ANSWER: NoH the otion shoul& not :e ,rante&' Se!tion 12 (#)H +rti!le E555 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es: C-espite the e0piration of the appli!a:le an&ator" perio&H the !ourtH without pre;u&i!e to su!h responsi:ilit" as a" ha%e :een in!urre& in !onse?uen!e thereofH shall &e!i&e or resol%e the !ase or atter su: itte& thereto for &eter inationH without further &ela"'C 3husH the failure of the trial !ourt to &e!i&e the !ase within ninet" &a"s &i& not oust it of ;uris&i!tion to &e!i&e the !ase' ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
3he 1973 Constitution pro%i&e& for !ertain !onse?uen!es on the &e!isions of !ourts in !ase of the failure of the Supre e Court an& other inferior !olle,iate !ourts to &e!i&e !ases within pres!ri:e& perio&s' 9ut it &i& not pro%i&e for !onse?uen!es on the &e!isions of trial !ourts as a result of their failure to &e!i&e !ases

e0istin, Cpoliti!al ?uestionC -is!uss full"' SUGGESTED ANSWER:

&o!trineL

!) OesH the se!on& para,raph of Se!tion 1H +rti!le E555 of the 1987 Constitution has e0pan&e& the power of the >u&i!iar" to in!lu&e politi!al ?uestions' 3his was not foun& in the 1932 an& the 1973 ConstitutionH Pre!isel"H the fra ers of the 1987 !onstitution inten&e& to wi&en the s!ope of ;u&i!ial re%iew' &) +s pointe& out in 8ar!os %s' 8an,lapusH 177 SC1+ ))8H so as not to &isre,ar& entirel" the politi!al ?uestion &o!trineH the e0tent of ;u&i!ial re%iew when politi!al ?uestions are in%ol%e& shoul& :e li ite& to a &eter ination of whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of the offi!ial whose a!t is :ein, ?uestione&' 5f ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion is not shownH the !ourts shoul& not su:stitute their ;u&, ent for that of the offi!ial !on!erne& an& &e!i&e a atter whi!h :" its nature or :" law is for the latter alone to &e!i&e'

P&'iti(a' >3e+ti&n D&(trine 9!##%: No' 2; 3o what e0tentH if at allH has the 1987 Constitution affe!te& the Cpoliti!al ?uestion &o!trineCL

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SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Se!tion 1H +rti!le E555 of the Constitution has e0pan&e& the s!ope of ;u&i!ial power :" in!lu&in, the &ut" of the !ourts of >usti!e to settle a!tual !ontro%ersies in%ol%in, ri,hts whi!h are le,all" &e an&a:le an& enfor!ea:leH an& to &eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the $o%ern ent' 5n 8ar!os %s' 8an,lapusH 177 SC1+ ))8H the Supre e Court state& that :e!ause of this !ourts of ;usti!e a" &e!i&e politi!al ?uestions if there was ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of the offi!ial whose a!tion is :ein, ?uestione&'

3he assault of a fellow Senator !onstitutes &isor&erl" :eha%ior' P&'iti(a' >3e+ti&n8 T& Sett'e A(t3a' C&ntr&0er+ie+ 9"66;: (a) 3he 1932H 1973 an& 1987 Constitutions !o onl" pro%i&e that C>u&i!ial power shall :e %este& in one Supre e Court an& in su!h lower !ourts as a" :e esta:lishe& :" law'C
6hat is the effe!t of the a&&ition in the 1987 Constitution of the followin, pro%ision: C>u&i!ial power in!lu&es the &ut" of the !ourts of ;usti!e to settle a!tual !ontro%ersies in%ol%in, ri,hts whi!h are le,all" &e an&a:le an& enfor!ea:leH an& to &eter ine whether or not there has :een ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the ,o%ern entCL -is!uss :riefl"H !itin, at least one illustrati%e !ase' (2N)

P&'iti(a' >3e+ti&n: Se*arati&n &) P&5er+ 9"66;:


(:) S-A was ele!te& Con,ress an' 9efore the en& of his first "ear in offi!eH he infli!te& ph"si!al in;uries on a !ollea,ueH /3H in the !ourse of a heate& &e:ate' Char,es were file& in !ourt a,ainst hi as well as in the @ouse /thi!s Co ittee' 7aterH the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH &i%i&in, alon, part" linesH %ote& to e0pel hi ' Clai in, that his e0pulsion was railroa&e& an& tainte& :" :ri:er"H he file& a petition seeDin, a &e!laration :" the Supre e Court that the @ouse ,ra%el" a:use& its &is!retion an& %iolate& the Constitution' @e pra"e& that his e0pulsion :e annulle& an& that he shoul& :e restore& :" the SpeaDer to his position as Con,ress an' 5s S-ABs petition :efore the Supre e Court ;usti!ia:leL Cite pertinent issues for !onsi&eration' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he effe!t of the se!on& para,raph of Se!tion 1H +rti!le E555 of the 1987 Constitution is to li it resort to the politi!al ?uestion &o!trine an& to :roa&en the s!ope of ;u&i!ial in?uir" into areas whi!h the >u&i!iar"H un&er the pre%ious ConstitutionsH woul& ha%e left to the politi!al &epart ents to &e!i&e' 5f a politi!al ?uestion is in%ol%e&H the >u&i!iar" !an &eter ine whether or not the offi!ial whose a!tion is :ein, ?uestione& a!te& with ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion (8ar!os %' 8an,lapusH 177 SC1+ ))8 P1989Q); (-a=a %' Sin,sonH 180 SC1+ #9) P1989Q)' 3husH althou,h the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal has e0!lusi%e ;uris&i!tion to &e!i&e ele!tion !ontests in%ol%in, e :ers of the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH the Supre e Court nullifie& the re o%al of one of its e :ers for %otin, in fa%or of the protestantH who :elon,e& to a &ifferent part"' (9on&o! %' Pine&aH 201 SC1+ 792 P1991Q)'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
6hile un&er Se!tion 1H +rti!le E555 of the 1987 Constitution the Supre e Court a" in?uire whether or not the &e!ision to e0pel S-A is tainte& with ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tionH the petition shoul& :e &is isse&' 5n +le;an&rino %' (ue=on (#) Phil' 83 P192#Q)H the Supre e Court hel& that it !oul& not !o pel the Senate to reinstate a Senator who assaulte& another Senator an& was suspen&e& for &isor&erl" :eha%iorH :e!ause it !oul& not !o pel a separate an& !o*e?ual &epart ent to taDe an" parti!ular a!tion' 5n As eXa %' Pen&atun (109 Phil' 8)3 P19)0Q)H it was hel& that the Supre e Court !oul& not interfere with the suspension of a Con,ress an for &isor&erl" :eha%iorH :e!ause the @ouse of 1epresentati%es is the ;u&,e of what !onstitutes &isor&erl" :eha%ior'

P&'iti(a' >3e+ti&n+ 9!#$$: No' 23: 5n a!!or&an!e with the opinion of the Se!retar" of >usti!eH an& :elie%in, that it woul& :e ,oo& for the !ountr"H the Presi&ent enters into an a,ree ent with the + eri!ans for an e0tension for another fi%e (2) "ears of their sta" at their ilitar" :ases in the PhilippinesH in !onsi&eration of: 2' + "earl" rental of one :illion <'S' &ollarsH pa"a:le to the Philippine ,o%ern ent in a&%an!e;
)' +n un&ertaDin, on the part of the + eri!an ,o%ern ent to i ple ent i e&iatel" the ini*8arshall plan for the !ountr" in%ol%in,

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ten :illion <'S' &ollars in ai&s an& !on!essional loans; an& 7' +n un&ertaDin, to help persua&e + eri!an :anDs to !on&one interests an& other !har,es on the !ountr"Bs out*stan&in, loans'
5n returnH the Presi&ent a,ree& to allow + eri!an nu!lear %essels to sta" for short %isits at Su:i!H an& in !ase of %ital ilitar" nee&H to store nu!lear weapons at Su:i! an& at ClarD Fiel&' + %ital ilitar" nee& !o esH un&er the a,ree entH when the sealanes fro the Persian $ulf to the Pa!ifi!H are threatene& :" hostile ilitar" for!es' 3he Nu!lear Free Philippine Coalition !o es to "ou for a&%i!e on how the" !oul& le,all" pre%ent the sa e a,ree ent entere& into :" the Presi&ent with the <S ,o%ern ent fro ,oin, into effe!t' 6hat woul& "ou a&%ise the to &oL $i%e "our reasons'

No' 11: @ow a" the followin, :e re o%e& fro offi!e: 2' Senators 4 Con,ress en )' >u&,es of lower !ourts 7' Affi!ers an& e plo"ees in the Ci%il Ser%i!e SUGGESTED ANSWER: (!) +s to Sen 4 Con,H +rt' 555H se!tion 1)(3)H of the ConstitutionH ''' (&) <n&er +rt' E555H se!' 11 of the ConstitutionH >u&,es of lower !ourts a" :e re o%e& :" &is issal :" the Supre e :" a %ote of a a;orit" of the 8e :ers who a!tuall" tooD part in the &eli:eration on the issues in the !ase an& %ote& thereon' (e) +s to Ci% Ser%i!e / plH +rt' 5M*9' Se!' 2(3) of the ConstitutionH ''' Re0ie5 E2e(3ti0e A(t+ 9!##?: No' 10: 1) MH a !lerD of !ourt of the 1e,ional 3rial Court of 8anilaH was foun& ,uilt" of :ein, a:sent without offi!ial lea%e for 90 &a"s an& !onsi&ere& &is isse& fro ser%i!e :" the Supre e Court' @e appeale& to the Presi&ent for e0e!uti%e !le en!"' +!tin, on the appealH the /0e!uti%e Se!retar"H :" or&er of the Presi&ent !o ute& the penalt" to a suspension of si0 onths' (3) Can the Supre e Court re%iew the !orre!tness of the a!tion of the Presi&ent in !o utin, the penalt" i pose& on ML /0plain' (#) 6as the a!tion of the Presi&ent !onstitutional an& %ali&L /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1' a) OesH the Supre e Court !an re%iew the !orre!tness of the a!tion of the Presi&ent 5n !o utin, the penalt" i pose& on M' 9" &oin, soH the Supre e Court is not &e!i&in, a politi!al ?uestion' 3he Supre e Court is not re%iewin, the wis&o of the !o utation of the penalt"' 6hat it is &e!i&in, is whether or not the Presi&ent has the power to !o ute the penalt" of MH +s state& in -a=a %s' Sin,son' 180 SC1+ #9)H it is within the s!ope of >u&i!ial power to pass upon the %ali&it" of the a!tions of the other &epart ents of the $o%ern ent' :) 3he !o utation :" the Presi&ent of the penalt" i pose& :" the Supre e Court upon M is un!onstitutional' Se!tion )' +rti!le E555 of the Constitution %ests the Supre e Court with the power of a& inistrati%e super%ision o%er all !ourts an& their personnel' 5n $ar!ia %s' -e la PenaH 229 SC1+ 7))H it was hel& that no other :ran!h of the $o%ern ent a" intru&e into this e0!lusi%e power of the Supre e Court'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5f the +,ree ent is not in the for of a treat"H it is not liDel" to :e su: itte& to the Senate for ratifi!ation as re?uire& in +rt' E55H se!' 21' 5t a" notH thereforeH :e oppose& in that :ran!h of the ,o%ern ent' Nor is ;u&i!ial re%iew feasi:le at this sta,e :e!ause there is no ;usti!ia:le !ontro%ers"' 6hile +rt' E555H se!' 1H par' 2 states that ;u&i!ial power in!lu&es the &ut" of !ourt of ;usti!e to C&eter ine whether or not there has :een a ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion a ountin, to la!D or e0!ess of ;uris&i!tion on the part of an" :ran!h or instru entalit" of the ,o%ern entHC it is !lear that this pro%ision &oes not &o awa" with the politi!al ?uestion &o!trine' 5t was inserte& in the Constitution to pre%ent !ourts fro aDin, use of the &o!trine to a%oi& what otherwise are ;usti!ia:le !ontro%ersiesH al:eit in%ol%in, the /0e!uti%e 9ran!h of the ,o%ern ent &urin, the artial law perio&' An the other han&H at this sta,eH no ;usti!ia:le !ontro%ers" !an :e fra e& to ;ustif" ;u&i!ial re%iewH 5 woul&H thereforeH a&%i!e the Nu!lear Free Philippine Coalition to resort to the e&ia to laun!h a !a pai,n a,ainst the +,ree ent'

Pr& Ha( .i(e Ca+e+ 9!###: No M5 6hat &oes if ean when a Supre e Court >usti!e !on!urs in a &e!ision pro ha! %i!eL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 6hen a &e!ision is pro ha! %i!eH it eans the rulin, will appl" to this parti!ular !ase onl"' Re1&0a' &) L&5er C&3rt 43dge+ 9!##-:

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!6%

S3*er0i+i&n8 C&3rt+ B it+ Per+&nne' 9>@< "66@:


(3) Pe&ro 8asipa, file& with the A :u&s an a !o plaint a,ainst 13C >u&,e >ose Pala!pa! with %iolation of +rti!le 20# of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e for Dnowin,l" ren&erin, an un;ust ;u&, ent in Cri inal Case No' )17' >u&,e Pala!pa! file& a otion with the A :u&s an to refer the !o plaint to the Supre e Court to &eter ine whether an a& inistrati%e aspe!t was in%ol%e& in the sai& !ase' 3he A :u&s an &enie& the otion on the ,roun& that no a& inistrati%e !ase a,ainst >u&,e Pala!pa! relati%e to the &e!ision in Cri inal Case No' )17 was file& an& pen&in, in his offi!e'

C' NoH the !ourt !annot taDe !o,ni=an!e of the !ase' +s hel& in >o"a %s' Presi&ential Co ission on $oo& $o%ern entH 222 SC1+ 2)9H sin!e the petitioners were not the le,al owners of paintin,s an& anti?ue sil%erwareH the" ha& no stan&in, to ?uestion their &isposition' 9esi&esH the paintin,s an& the anti?ue sil%erware &i& not !onstitute i portant !ultural properties or national !ultural treasuresH as the" ha& no e0!eptional histori!al an& !ultural si,nifi!an!e to the Philippines' -' Co +!!or&in, to >o"a us' Presi&ential ission on $oo& $o%ern entH 222 SC1+

C' for a ta0pa"erBs suit to four re?uisites ust :e !onsi&ere&:


(1) the ?uestion

prosperH

ust :e raise& :" the proper

State with reasons whether the A :u&s anBs rulin, is !orre!t' (#N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he A :u&s anBs rulin, is not !orre!t' <n&er Se!tion )H +rti!le E555 of the ConstitutionH it is the Supre e Court whi!h is %este& with e0!lusi%e a& inistrati%e super%ision o%er all !ourts an& its personnel' Pres!in&in, fro this pre iseH the A :u&s an !annot &eter ine for itself an& :" itself whether a !ri inal !o plaint a,ainst a ;u&,eH or !ourt e plo"eeH in%ol%es an a& inistrati%e atter' 3he A :u&s an is &ut" :oun& to ha%e all !ases a,ainst ;u&,es an& !ourt personnel file& :efore itH referre& to the Supre e Court for &eter ination as to whether an a& inistrati%e aspe!t is in%ol%e& therein' (>u&,e >ose Caoi:es %' A :u&s anH $'1' No' 132177H >ul" 19H 2001)

part"; (#) there ust :e an a!tual !ontro%ers"; (2) the ?uestion ust :e raise& at the earliest possi:le opportunit"; an& ()) the &e!ision on the !onstitutional or le,al ?uestion ust :e ne!essar" to the &eter ination of the !ase' 5n or&er that a ta0pa"er a" ha%e stan&in, to !hallen,e the le,alit" of an offi!ial a!t of the ,o%ern entH the a!t :ein, ?uestione& ust in%ol%e a &is:urse ent of pu:li! fun&s upon the theor" that the e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s for an un!onstitutional a!t is a isappli!ation of su!h fun&sH whi!h a" :e en;oine& at the instan!e of a ta0pa"er' Ter1 &) O))i(e8 43+ti(e+ 9!##?:
No' 9: +H an asso!iate ;usti!e of the Supre e Court rea!he& the a,e of se%ent" on >ul" 1H 199)' 3here was a !ase !alen&are& for &eli:eration on that &a" where the %ote of + was !ru!ial' Can + hol& o%er the position an& parti!ipate in the &eli:eration of the !ase on >ul" 1H 199)L /0plain'

Ta2*ayerG+ S3it8 L&(3+ Standi 9!##@:


No' 12: 6hen the 8ar!os a& inistration was topple& :" the re%olutionar" ,o%ern entH the 8ar!oses left :ehin& se%eral Al& 8astersB paintin,s an& anti?ue sil%erware sai& to ha%e :een a!?uire& :" the as personal ,ifts' Ne,otiations were then a&e with /llen 7a"ne of 7on&on for their &isposition an& sale at pu:li! au!tion' 7aterH the ,o%ern ent entere& into a CConsi,n ent +,ree entC allowin, /llen 7a"ne of 7on&on to au!tion off the su:;e!t art pie!es' <pon learnin, of the inten&e& saleH well*Dnown artistsH patrons an& ,uar&ians of the arts of the Philippines file& a petition in !ourt to en;oin the sale an& &isposition of the %alue& ite s assertin, that their !ultural si,nifi!an!e ust :e preser%e& for the :enefit of the Filipino people'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
No' + !annot hol& o%er his position as +sso!iate >usti!e of the Supre e Court an& parti!ipate in the &eli:erations of the !ase on >ul" 1H 199)' <n&er Se!tion 11H +rti!le E555 of the ConstitutionH 8e :ers of the Supre e Court hol& offi!e until the" rea!h the a,e of se%ent" "ears or :e!o e in!apa!itate& to &is!har,e their &uties' Constitutional offi!ers whose ter s are fi0e& :" the Constitution ha%e no ri,ht to hol& o%er their positions until their su!!essors shall ha%e :een appointe& an& ?ualifie& unless otherwise pro%i&e& in the Constitution' (8e!he H + 3reaties on the 7aw of Pu:li! Affi!es an& Affi!ersH p' 228')

3) Can the !ourt taDe !o,ni=an!e of the !aseL /0plain' #) 6hat are the re?uisites for a ta0pa"erBs suit to prosperL SUGGESTED ANSWER:

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!6$

.&te+ reF3ired )&r de('aring a 'a5 3n(&n+tit3ti&na' 9!##?: No' 7: Can fi%e e :ers of the Supre e Court &e!lare a uni!ipal or&inan!e un!onstitutionalL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Oes' fi%e 8e :ers of the Supre e Court sittin, en* :an! !an &e!lare a uni!ipal or&inan!e un!onstitutional' <n&er Se!tion #(2)' +rti!le E555 of the ConstitutionH a uni!ipal or&inan!e !an :e &e!lare& un!onstitutional with the !on!urren!e of a a;orit" of the 8e :ers of the Supre e Court who a!tuall" tooD part in the &eli:eration on the issues in the !ase an& %ote& thereon' 5f onl" ei,ht 8e :ers of the Supre e Court a!tuall" tooD part in &e!i&in, the !aseH there will still :e a ?uoru ' Fi%e 8e :ers will !onstitute a a;orit" of those who a!tuall" tooD part in &e!i&in, the !ase'

ARTICLE IX Ci0i' Ser0i(e C&11i++i&n


Career Ser0i(e8 C,ara(teri+ti(+ 9!###: No 5M * 6hat !hara!teri=es the !areer ser%i!e an& what are in!lu&e& in the !areer ser%i!eL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: +!!or&in, to Se!tion 7H Chapter 2H 3itle 5H 9ooD E of the +& inistrati%e Co&e of 1987H the !areer ser%i!e is !hara!teri=e& :" (1) /ntran!e :ase& on erit an& fitness to :e &eter ine& as far as pra!ti!a:le :" !o petiti%e e0a ination or :ase& on hi,hl" te!hni!al ?ualifi!ations; (2) opportunit" for a&%an!e ent to hi,her !areer positions; an& (3) se!urit" of tenure' 3he !areer ser%i!e in!lu&es:
(1) AP/N C+1//1 PAS535ANS for appoint ent to whi!h prior ?ualifi!ations in an appropriate e0a ination is re?uire&;

ARTICLE IX C&n+tit3ti&na' C&11i++i&n+


R&tati&na' S(,e1e 9!###: No M555 * 6hat are the re?uisites for the effe!ti%e operation of the so*!alle& C1otational S!he eC for Constitutional Co issionsL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: +s hel& in 1epu:li! %' 5 perialH 9) Phil' 770H for the effe!ti%e operation of the rotational s!he e of the Constitutional Co issionH the first Co issioner shoul& start on a !o on &ate an& an" %a!an!" :efore the e0piration of the ter shoul& :e fille& onl" for the une0pire& :alan!e of the ter ' C&n+tit3ti&na' C&11i++i&n+ B C&3n(i' 9>%< "66?: (3) 3he le,islature a" a:olish this :o&": (2N) 0 Co ission on +ppoint ents 1 A :u&s an 2 >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il 3 Court of 3a0 +ppeals # Co ission on +u&it SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he le,islature a" a:olish the &) CA<13 AF 3+M +PP/+7S sin!e it is erel" a !reation of law unliDe the Co ission on +ppoint entsH A :u&s anH >u&i!ial an& 9ar Coun!il an& Co ission on +u&it whi!h are all !onstitu* tional !reations' 3husH the latter a,en!ies a" onl" :e a:olishe& :" wa" of an a en& ent or re%ision of the Constitution'

(2) C7AS/- C+1//1 PAS535ANS whi!h are s!ientifi! or hi,hl" te!hni!al in nature; (3) Positions in the C+1//1 /M/C<35E/ S/1E5C/; (#) Career offi!ers other than those in the !areer e0e!uti%e ser%i!eH who are appointe& :" the Presi&ent; (2) Co issione& offi!ers an& enliste& en of the +r e& For!es; ()) Personnel of ,o%ern ent * owne& or !ontrolle& !orporationsH whether perfor in, ,o%ern ental or proprietar" fun!tionsH who &o not fall un&er the non*!areer ser%i!e; an& (7) Per anent la:orersH whether sDille&H se isDille&H or unsDille&'
Ci0i' Ser0i(e C&11i++i&n 0+= COA 9"66;: 9#<a: For er $o%ernor PP of +-S Pro%in!e ha& &is isse& se%eral e plo"ees to s!ale &own the operations of his Affi!e' 3he e plo"ees !o plaine& to the 8erit S"ste s Prote!tion 9oar&H whi!h rule& that the Ci%il Ser%i!e rules were %iolate& when the e plo"ees were &is isse&' 3he Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission (CSC) affir e& the 8SP9 &e!isionH an& or&ere& +-S to reinstate the e plo"ees with full :a!Dwa,es' +-S &i& not appeal an& the or&er :e!a e final' 5nstea& of !o pl"in, i e&iatel"H 9APH the in!u :ent $o%ernor of +-SH referre& the atter to the Co ission on +u&it (CA+)H

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!6#

whi!h rule& that the a ounts &ue are the personal lia:ilities of the for er $o%ernor who &is isse& the e plo"ees in :a& faith' 3husH +-S refuse& to pa"' 3he final CSC &e!isionH howe%erH &i& not fin& the for er $o%ernor in :a& faith' 3he for er $o%ernor was liDewise not hear& on the ?uestion of his lia:ilit"'

1'

3he rule prohi:itin, the appoint ent to !ertain ,o%ern ent positionsH of the spouse an& relati%es of the Presi&ent within the fourth &e,ree of !onsan,uinit" or affinit"' P2NQ
3he rule aDin, it in!o pati:le for e :ers of Con,ress to hol& offi!es or e plo" ent in the ,o%ern ent' P2NQ

2'

5s +-SB refusal ;ustifie&L Can CA+ &isallow the pa" ent of :a!Dwa,es :" +-S to the &is isse& e plo"ees &ue un&er a final CSC &e!isionL -e!i&e an& reason :riefl"' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+' 3he refusal of +-S is not ;ustifie&H an& the Co ission on +u&it !annot &isallow the pa" ent of :a!Dwa,es :" +-S to the &is isse& e plo"ee' 3he Co ission on +u&it !annot aDe a rulin, that it is the for er ,o%ernor who shoul& :e personall" lia:leH sin!e the for er ,o%ernor was not ,i%en the opportunit" to :e hear&' 5n a&&itionH the Co ission on +u&it !annot set asi&e a final &e!ision of the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission' 3he pa" ent of :a!Dwa,es to ille,all" &is isse& ,o%ern ent e plo"ee is not an irre,ularH unne!essar"H e0!essi%eH e0tra%a,ant or un!ons!iona:le e0pen&iture' (<" %' Co ission on +u&itH 328 SC1+ )07 P2000Q)'

3'

#'
2'

3he rule prohi:itin, e :ers of the Constitutional Co issionsH &urin, their tenureH to :e finan!iall" intereste& in an" !ontra!t with or an" fran!hise or pri%ile,e ,rante& :" the ,o%ern entH P2NQ 3he rule pro%i&in, for post au&it :" the CA+ of !ertain ,o%ern ent a,en!ies' P2NQ
3he rule re?uirin, Con,ress to pro%i&e for the stan&ar&i=ation of !o pensation of ,o%ern ent offi!ials an& e plo"ees' P2NQ Se!tion 13' +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH whi!h prohi:its the Presi&ent fro appointin, his spouse an& relati%es within the fourth &e,ree of !onsan,uinit" or affinit" &oes not &istin,uish :etween ,o%ern ent !orporations with ori,inal !harters an& their su:si&iariesH :e!ause the prohi:ition applies to :oth'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1'

3n(ti&n &) CSC 9!##;: No' 12 * 2) Can the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission re%oDe an appoint ent :" the appointin, power an& &ire!t the appoint ent of an in&i%i&ual of its !hoi!eL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to the rulin, in 8e&alla %s' Sto' 3o asH 208 SC1+ 321H the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission !annot &i!tate to the appointin, power who to appoint' 5ts fun!tion is li ite& to &eter inin, whether or not the appointee eets the ini u ?ualifi!ation re?uire ents pres!ri:e& for the position' AtherwiseH it woul& :e en!roa!hin, upon the &is!retion of the appointin, power'

2' Se!tion 13H +rti!le E55 of the ConstitutionH whi!h prohi:its 8e :ers of Con,ress fro hol&in, an" other offi!e &urin, their ter without forfeitin, their seatH does no+ dis+ing*is:etween ,o%ern ent !orporations with ori,inal !harters an& their su:si&iariesH :e!ause the prohi:ition applies to :oth'
3' Se!tion 2H +rti!le 5M*+ of the ConstitutionH whi!h prohi:its 8e :ers of the Constitutional Co issions fro :ein, finan!iall" intereste& in an" !ontra!t with or an" fran!hise or pri%ile,e ,rante& :" the $o%ern entH does no+ dis+ing*is- :etween ,o%ern ent !orporations with ori,inal !harters an& their su:si&iariesH :e!ause the prohi:ition applies to :oth' #' Se!tion 2(1)H +rti!le 5M*- of the Constitution whi!h pro%i&es for post au&it :" the Co ission on au&it of ,o%ern ent !orporationsH does no+ dis+ing*is- :etween ,o%ern ent !orporations with ori,inal !harters an& their su:si&iariesH :e!ause the pro%ision applies to :oth' 2' Se!tion 2H +rti!le 5M*9 of the ConstitutionH whi!h pro%i&es for the stan&ar&i=ation of the

GOCC+ Wit,&3t Origina' C,arter 0+= GOCC+ Wit, Origina' C,arter 9!##$:
No 55'* * 3he Constitution &istin,uishes :etween two t"pes of owne& an&Ior !ontrolle& !orporations: those with ori,inal !harters an& those whi!h are su:si&iaries of su!h !orporations' 5n whi!h of the followin, ruleIrules is su!h a &istin!tion a&eL Consi&er ea!h of the followin, ite s an& e0plain :riefl" "our answerH !itin, pertinent pro%isions of the Constitution'

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!!6

!o pensation of ,o%ern ent e plo"eesH :etween ,o%ern ent an& their su:si&iariesH for applies onl" to ,o%ern ent with ori,inal !harters'

offi!ials an& dis+ing*is-es !orporations the pro%ision !orporations

43ri+di(ti&n &0er t,e GOCC+ 9!###:


No 5M * 7u=%i in&a 8arfelH ;oine& :" ele%en other retren!he& e plo"eesH file& a !o plaint with the -epart ent of 7a:or an& / plo" ent (-A7/) for unpai& retren!h ent or separation pa"H un&erpa" ent of wa,es an& non*pa" ent of e er,en!" !ost of li%in, allowan!e' 3he !o plaint was file& a,ainst Foo& 3er inalH 5n!' Foo& 3er inal 5n!' o%e& to &is iss on the ,roun& of la!D of ;uris&i!tionH theori=in, that it is a ,o%ern ent*owne& an& !ontrolle& !orporation an& its e plo"ees are ,o%erne& :" the Ci%il Ser%i!e 7aw an& not :" the 7a:or Co&e' 8arfel oppose& the otion to &is issH !onten&in, that althou,h Foo& 3er inalH 5n!' is a !orporation owne& an& !ontrolle& :" the ,o%ern ent earlier !reate& an& or,ani=e& un&er the ,eneral !orporation law as C3he $reater 8anila Foo& 3er inalH 5n!'CH it has still the arDs of a pri%ate !orporation: it &ire!tl" hires its e plo"ees without seeDin, appro%al fro the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission an& its personnel are !o%ere& :" the So!ial Se!urit" S"ste an& not the $o%ern ent Ser%i!e 5nsuran!e S"ste H 3he ?uestion pose& in the petition for !ertiorari at :ar is whether or not a la:or law !lai a,ainst a ,o%ern ent*owne& or !ontrolle& !orporation liDe the Foo& 3er inalH 5n!' falls within the ;uris&i!tion of the -epart ent of 7a:or an& / plo" ent or the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co issionL -e!i&e an& ratio!inate' (#N)

e oran&u *or&erH &ire!ts the !orporation to !o pl" with Ci%il Ser%i!e 1ules in the appoint ent of all of its offi!ers an& e plo"ees' 3he e oran&u *or&er of the CSC is assaile& :" the !orporationH as well as :" its offi!ers an& e plo"eesH :efore the !ourt' @ow shoul& the !ase :e resol%e&L SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he e oran&u *or&er of the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission shoul& :e &e!lare& %oi&' +s hel& in $a o,a o %' PNAC Shippin, an& 3ransit Corporation' 381 SC1+ 7#2 (2002)' un&er +rti!le 5M*9H Se!tion 2(1) of the 1987 Constitution ,o%ern ent* owne& or !ontrolle& !orporations or,ani=e& un&er the Corporation Co&e are not !o%ere& :" the Ci%il Ser%i!e 7aw :ut :" the 7a:or Co&eH :e!ause onl" ,o%ern ent*owne& or !ontrolle& !orporations with ori,inal !harters are !o%ere& :" the Ci%il Ser%i!e' M&de+ &) Re1&0a' )r&1 O))i(e 9!##-: No' 11: @ow a" the followin, :e re o%e& fro offi!e: 1) Senators 4 Con,ress en 2) >u&,es of lower !ourts 3) Affi!ers an& e plo"ees in the Ci%il Ser%i!e SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1) SenatorsH Con,'H +rt' 555H se!tion 1)(3)H of the ConstitutionH ''' 2) >u&,esH +rt' E555H se!' 11 of the ConstitutionH 3) <n&er +rt' 5M*9' Se!' 2(3) of the ConstitutionH offi!ers an& e plo"ees in the Ci%il Ser%i!e a" onl" :e re o%e& for !ause as pro%i&e& :" law an& after o:ser%an!e of &ue pro!ess'
3heir re o%al ust :e effe!te& :" the appropriate &is!iplinar" authorit" in a!!or&an!e with Ch' 7 se!s' #7*#8 of 9ooD E of the +& inistrati%e Co&e of 1987 an& the Ci%il Ser%i!e 1ules an& 1e,ulations'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he !lai of the retren!he& e plo"ees falls un&er the ;uris&i!tion of the National 7a:or 1elations Co ission an& not un&er the ;uris&i!tion of the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission' +s hel& in 7u anta %' National 7a:or 1elations Co issionH 170 SC1+ 79H sin!e Foo& 3er inalH 5n!' was or,ani=e& un&er the Corporation 7aw an& was not !reate& :" a spe!ial law in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion 2(1)H +rti!le 5M*9 of the ConstitutionH it is not !o%ere& :" the !i%il ser%i!e'

Re(ei0ing &) Indire(t C&1*en+ati&n 9!##%: No' 18; +H while an in!u :ent $o%ernor of his pro%in!eH was in%ite& :" the $o%ern ent of Ca :o&ia as its offi!ial ,uest' 6hile thereH the so%erei,n Din, awar&e& $o%ernor + with a &e!oration of honor an& ,ifte& hi with a ,ol& rin, of insi,nifi!ant onetar" %alueH :oth of whi!h he a!!epte&' 6as $o%ernor +Bs a!!eptan!e of the &e!oration an& ,ift %iolati%e of the ConstitutionL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH it %iolate& Se!tion 8H +rti!le 5M*9 of the Constitution' For his a!!eptan!e of the

43ri+di(ti&n &0er t,e GOCC+ 9"66-:


No E55 * + !orporationH a hol&er of a !ertifi!ate of re,istration issue& :" the Se!urities an& /0!han,e Co issionH is owne& an& !ontrolle& :" the 1epu:li! of the Philippines' 3he Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission (CSC)H in a

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!!

&e!oration of honor an& the ,ol& rin, fro the $o%ern ent of Ca :o&ia to :e %ali&H $o%ernor + shoul& first o:tain the !onsent of Con,ress'

Se(3rity &) Ten3re 9!#$$:


No' 10: /0er!isin, power he !lai s ha& :een ,rante& hi :" the /0e!uti%e Ar&er on the reor,ani=ation of the ,o%ern entH the Co issioner of Custo s su aril" &is isse& two hun&re& si0t"*fi%e offi!ials an& e plo"ees of the 9ureau of Custo s' 8ost of the ouste& e plo"ees appeale& to the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission !lai in, their ouster ille,al' 3he Ci%il Ser%i!e Co issionH after hearin,H later or&ere& the Co issioner of Custo s to reinstate ost of those &is isse&' 5nstea& of followin, the or&er of the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co issionH Co issioner 8ison inten&s to :rin, for re%iew :efore the Supre e CourtH the sa e &e!ision of the Co ission'

1' 5f "ou were the !ounsel for the Co issioner of Custo sH how woul& "ou ;ustif" his &is issal of !usto s offi!ials an& e plo"eesL 2' 5f on the other han&H "ou were a !ounsel for the &is isse& offi!ials an& e plo"eesH how woul& "ou sustain the or&er of the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission reinstatin, ost of the L State "our reasons' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1' 5 woul& in%oDe the resolution in >ose %' +rro"oH $'1' No' 78#32H +u,' 11H 1987H in whi!h the Supre e Court hel& that un&er +rt' ME555H se!H 1) of the ConstitutionH !areer ser%i!e e plo"ees a" :e re o%e& Cnot for !ause :ut as a result of the reor,ani=ation pursuant to Pro!la ation No' 3 &ate& 8ar!h 22H 198) an& the reor,ani=ation followin, the ratifi!ation of this Constitution'C 9" %irtue of this pro%isionH it was hel& that the reor,ani=ation of the 9ureau of Custo s un&er /0e!uti%e Ar&er NoH 127 a" !ontinue e%en after the ratifi!ation of the ConstitutionH an& !areer ser%i!e e plo"ees a" :e separate& fro the ser%i!e without !ause as a result of su!h reor,ani=ation' 2' 5 woul& ar,ue that art' ME555H se!' 1) &oes not reall" authori=e the re o%al of !areer ser%i!e e plo"ees :ut si pl" pro%i&es for the pa" ent of separationH retire entH an& other :enefits a!!ruin, to the un&er the appli!a:le laws' 3he referen!e to !areer ser%i!e e plo"ees separate& Cas a result of the reor,ani=ation followin, the ratifi!ation of this ConstitutionC is onl" to those separate& as a result of reor,ani=ation of the stru!ture an& fun!tions of ,o%ern ent (e','H as a result of

a:olition of offi!es) as &istin,uishe& fro the reor,ani=ation of personnel whi!h is what is referre& to therein as Cthe reor,ani=ation pursuant to Pro!la ation No' 3 &ate& 8ar!h 22H 198)'C For the power of the ,o%ern ent to ter inate the e plo" ent of ele!ti%e an& appointi%e offi!ials pursuant to +rt' 555H se!' 2 of Pro!la ation No' 3 (otherwise Dnown as the Pro%isional Constitution)H throu,h the appoint ent or &esi,nation of their su!!essors has :een repeate&l" hel& to ha%e en&e& on Fe:ruar" 2H 1987H when the new Constitution tooD effe!t' (-e 7eon %' /s,uerraH 123 SC1+ )02 (1987); 1e"es %' Ferrer $'1' No' 77801H -e!' 11H 1987; Asias %' FerrerH $'1H No' 770#9H 8ar!h 28H 1988)H 8oreo%erH su!h repla!e ent of in!u :ents !an onl" :e for !ause as pres!ri:e& :" /0e!uti%e Ar&er No' 17H &ate& 8a" 28H 198)' Sin!e the su ar" &is issals in ?uestion are not for !auseH the re o%al of the 9ureau of Custo s offi!ials %iolates art' 5MH 9H se!H 2(3) of the Constitution'

Se(3rity &) Ten3re 9>@<"66@:


(3) 1i!ar&o was ele!te& -ean of the Colle,e of /&u!ation in a State <ni%ersit" for a ter of fi%e (2) "ears unless sooner ter inate&' 8an" were not please& with his perfor an!e' 3o appease those !riti!al of hi H the Presi&ent !reate& a new positionH that of Spe!ial +ssistant to the Presi&ent with the ranD of -eanH without re&u!tion in salar"H an& appointe& 1i!ar&o to sai& position in the interest of the ser%i!e' Conte poraneousl"H the <ni%ersit" Presi&ent appointe& Santos as +!tin, -ean in pla!e of 1i!ar&o' (2N) (a) -oes the phrase Cunless sooner ter inate&C ean that the position of 1i!ar&o is ter ina:le at willL

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: NoH the ter Cunless sooner ter inate&C !oul& not ean that his position is ter ina:le at will' Se!urit" of tenure eans that &is issal shoul& onl" :e for !auseH as pro%i&e& :" law an& not otherwise' (Pal era %' CSCH $'1' No' 1101)8H +u,ust #H 199#) ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
NoH his position is not ter ina:le at will' 1i!ar&oBs !ontra!t of e plo" ent has a fi0e& ter of fi%e "ears' 5t is not an appoint ent in an a!tin, !apa!it" or as offi!er*in*!har,e' + !olle,e &ean appointe& with a ter !annot :e separate& without !ause' 1i!ar&oH with a &efinite ter of e plo" entH a" not thus :e

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!"

re o%e& e0!ept for !ause' (Sta' 8aria %' 7ope=H $'1' No' 7*30773H Fe:ruar" 18H1970) (:) 6as 1i!ar&o re o%e& fro his position as -ean of the Colle,e of /&u!ation or erel" transferre& to the position of Spe!ial +ssistant to the

Presi&entL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


1i!ar&o was re o%e& fro his position as &ean' @a%in, an appoint ent with a fi0e& ter H he !annotH without his !onsentH :e transferre& :efore the en& of his ter ' @e !annot :e asDe& to ,i%e up his post nor appointe& as &ean of another !olle,eH u!h less transferre& to another position e%en if it :e &i,nifie& with a &eanBs ranD' 8ore than thisH the transfer was a &e otion :e!ause &eanship in a uni%ersit"H :ein, an a!a&e i! position whi!h re?uires learnin,H a:ilit" an& s!holarshipH is ore e0alte& than that of a spe!ial assistant who erel" assists the Presi&entH as the title in&i!ates' 3he spe!ial assistant &oes not aDe authoritati%e &e!isions unliDe the &ean who &oes so in his own na e an& responsi:ilit"' 3he position of &ean is !reate& :" lawH while the spe!ial assistant is not so pro%i&e& :" law; it was a !reation of the uni%ersit" presi&ent' (Sta' 8aria %' 7ope=H $'1' No' 7*30773H Fe:ruar" 18H 1970)

/a!h /le!toral 3ri:unal shall :e !o pose& of N5N/ 8e :ersH three of who shall :e >usti!es of the Supre e Court to :e &esi,nate& :" the Chief >usti!eH an& the re ainin, si0 shall :e 8e :ers of the Senate or the @ouse of 1epresentati%esH as the !ase a" :eH who shall :e !hosen on the :asis of proportional representation fro the politi!al parties an& the parties or or,ani=ations re,istere& un&er the part"*list s"ste represente& therein' 3he senior >usti!e in the /le!toral 3ri:unal shall :e its Chair an (+rti!le E5H Se!tion 17H1987 Constitution)'

air E'e(ti&n8 EF3a' S*a(e B Ti1e in Media 9!#$#:


No' 1): + CA8/7/C (CA8/7/C) resolution pro%i&es that politi!al parties supportin, a !o on set of !an&i&ates shall :e allowe& to pur!hase ;ointl" air ti e an& the a,,re,ate a ount of a&%ertisin, spa!e pur!hase& for !a pai,n purposes shall not e0!ee& that allotte& to other politi!al parties or ,roups that no inate& onl" one set of !an&i&ates' 3he resolution is !hallen,e& as a %iolation of the free&o of spee!h an& of the press' 5s the resolution !onstitutionall" &efensi:leL /0plain'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
OesH the resolution is !onstitutionall" &efensi:le' <n&er Se!tion #H +rti!le 5M*C of the 1987 ConstitutionH &urin, the ele!tion perio& the CA8/7/C a" super%ise or re,ulate the e&ia of !o uni!ation or infor ation to ensure e?ual opportunit"H ti eH an& spa!e a on, !an&i&ates with the o:;e!ti%e of hol&in, freeH or&erl"H honestH pea!efulH an& !re&i:le ele!tions' 3o allow !an&i&ates whi!h are supporte& :" ore than one politi!al part" to pur!hase ore air ti e an& a&%ertisin, spa!e than !an&i&ates supporte& :" one politi!al part" onl" will &epri%e the latter of e?ual ti e an& spa!e in the e&ia'

Se(3rity &) Ten3re8 Meaning 9!###: No 5M * *6hat is the eanin, an& ,uarantee of se!urit" of tenureL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to Pal era %' Ci%il Ser%i!e Co issionH 232 SC1+ 87H S/C<153O AF 3/N<1/ eans that no offi!er or e plo"ee in the Ci%il Ser%i!e shall :e suspen&e& or &is isse& e0!ept for !ause as pro%i&e& :" law an& after &ue pro!ess'

ARTICLE IX

COMELEC

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
No' +lthou,h the e0pen&iture li itation applies onl" to the pur!hase of air ti eH thus lea%in, politi!al parties free to spen& for other for s of !a pai,nH the li itation nonetheless results in a &ire!t an& su:stantial re&u!tion of the ?uantit" of politi!al spee!h :" restri!tin, the nu :er of issues that !an :e &is!usse&H the &epth of their &is!ussion an& the si=e of the au&ien!e that !an :e rea!he&H throu,h the :roa&!ast e&ia' Sin!e the purpose of the Free Spee!h Clause is to pro ote the wi&est possi:le &isse ination of infor ationH an& the realit" is that to &o this re?uires the e0pen&iture of one"H a li itation on e0pen&iture for this purpose !annot :e ;ustifie&H not e%en for the purpose of e?uali=in,

E'e(t&ra' Trib3na'8 3n(ti&n+ B C&1*&+iti&n 9>@<"66?: 1' 6hat is the fun!tion of the Senate /le!toral 3ri:unal an& the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unalL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: <n&er +rti!le E5H Se!tion 17 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the Senate an& @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unals shall :e the sole ;u&,e of all !ontests relatin, to the ele!tionH returnsH an& ?ualifi!ations of their respe!ti%e 8e :ers' 2' 6hat is the !o position of ea!hL (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!-

the opportunit" of politi!al !an&i&ates' 3his is the rulin, in 9u!Dle" %s' EaleoH #2# <'S' 1 (197))H whi!h in%ali&ate& a law li itin, the e0pen&itures of !an&i&ates for !a pai,nin, in the <nite& States' 5n the PhilippinesH a pro%ision of the 3aXa&a*Sin,son 7awH li itin, the perio& for !a pai,nin,H was nearl" in%ali&ate& on this sa e prin!ipleH e0!ept that the a;orit" of !ourt la!De& one ore %ote to aDe their &e!ision effe!ti%e' (See $on=ale= %s' Co ele!H 27 SC1+ 832 (19)9)'

CourtH fro the &e!ision of the CA8/7/C First -i%isionL 5f "es' 6h"L 5f not what pro!e&ural step ust he un&ertaDe firstL ( 2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
C+C !annot file a petition for !ertiorari with the Supre e Court' +s hel& in 8astura %s' CA8/7/CH 282 SC1+ #93 (1998)H the Supre e Court !annot re%iew the &e!isions or resolutions of a &i%ision of the CA8/7/C' C+C shoul& first file a otion for re!onsi&eration with the CA8/7/C en :an!'

Grant &) Pard&n in E'e(ti&n O))en+e+ 9!##!:


No' 11 * 5n !onne!tion with the 8a" 1987 Con,ressional ele!tionsH 7uis 8illanes was prose!ute& for an& !on%i!te& of an ele!tion offense an& was senten!e& to suffer i prison ent for si0 "ears' 3he !ourt &i& not i pose the a&&itional penalt" of &is?ualifi!ation to hol& pu:li! offi!e an& of &epri%ation of the ri,ht of suffra,e as pro%i&e& for in Se!tion 1)# of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e of the Philippines (9'P' 9l,' 881)'

Re1&0a' )r&1 O))i(e8 C&11i++i&ner+ 9!##$:


No 5M' * Suppose a Co issioner of the CA8/7/C is !har,e& :efore the San&i,an:a"an for alle,e&l" toleratin, %iolation of the ele!tion laws a,ainst proliferation of prohi:ite& :ill:oar&s an& ele!tion propa,an&a with the en& in %iew of re o%in, hi fro offi!e' 6ill the a!tion prosperL P2NQ

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the a!tion will not prosper' <n&er Se!tion 8H +rti!le M5 of the ConstitutionH the Co issioners of the CA8/7/C are re o%a:le :" 58P/+C@8/N3' +s hel& in the !ase of 5n re $on=ales' 1)0 SC1+ 771H 77#* 772H a pu:li! offi!er who is re o%a:le :" i pea!h ent !annot :e !har,e& :efore the San&i,an:a"an with an offense whi!h !arries with it the penalt" of re o%al fro offi!e unless he is first i pea!he&' AtherwiseH he will :e re o%e& fro offi!e :" a etho& other than 5 pea!h ent'

5n +pril 1991H the Presi&ent ,rante& hi a:solute par&on on the :asis of a stron, re!o en&ation of the 9oar& of Par&ons an& Parole' 3hen for the ele!tion in 8a" 1992H 7uis 8illanes files his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for the offi!e of 8a"or in his uni!ipalit"' (a) 6hat is the effe!t of the failure of the !ourt to i pose the a&&itional penalt"L (:) 5s the par&on %ali&L SUGGESTED ANSWER: (a) No nee& to e0pressl" i pose Y the" are a!!essor" penalties' (:) 3he par&on is %oi&H sin!e 7uis 8illanes was !on%i!te& for the !o ission of an ele!tion offense an& his par&on was not a&e upon the re!o en&ation of the CA8/7/C' <n&er +rti!le 5MH CH Se!' 2 of the ConstitutionH no par&on for %iolation of an ele!tion law a" :e ,rante& without the fa%ora:le re!o en&ation of the CA8/7/C 43di(ia' Re0ie5 &) De(i+i&n+ 9"66!:
No ME5 * 5n an ele!tion protest in%ol%in, the position of $o%ernor of the Pro%in!e of 7a,una :etween C+CH the protesteeH an& C9CH the protestantH the First -i%ision of the CA8/7/C ren&ere& a &e!ision uphol&in, 9Bs protest Can C+C file a petition for !ertiorari with the Supre e Court un&er 1ule )2 of the 1ules of

Rig,t t& .&te8 43ri+di(ti&n 9"66!:


No 55 * 7et us suppose that Con,ress ena!te& a law whi!h a en&e& the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e (parti!ularl" Se!tions 138H 139H 1#2H 1#3) :" %estin, H in the CA8/7/C the ;uris&i!tion o%er in!lusion an& e0!lusion !ases file& :" %otersH instea& of in the !ourts (83CH then 13C)'

5s the law %ali& or notH an& wh"L (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he law ,rantin, the CA8/7/C ;uris&i!tion o%er in!lusion an& e0!lusion !ases is un!onstitutional' <n&er Se!tion 2(3)H +rti!le 5M* C of the ConstitutionH the CA8/7/C !annot &e!i&e the ri,ht to %oteH whi!h refers to the in!lusion an& e0!lusion of %oters' <n&er Se!tion 2())H +rti!le 5M*C of the ConstitutionH it !an onl" file petitions in !ourt for in!lusion or e0!lusion of %oters'

E'e(ti&n La5+
"nd P'a(er R3'e 9"66-:
No E555 * 5n the uni!ipal a"oralt" ele!tions in 1980H the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the hi,hest nu :er of %otes was su:se?uentl" &e!lare& to

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!;

:e &is?ualifie& as a !an&i&ate an& so ineli,i:le for the offi!e to whi!h he was ele!te&' 6oul& this fa!t entitle a !o petin, !an&i&ate who o:taine& the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otes to asD an& to :e pro!lai e& the winner of the ele!ti%e offi!eL 1easons' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+!!or&in, to 3rini&a& %' CA8/7/C' 312 SC1+ 172 P1999QH if the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the hi,hest nu :er of %otes is &is?ualifie&H the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otes !annot :e pro!lai e& the winner' Sin!e he was not the !hoi!e of the peopleH he !annot !lai an" ri,ht to the offi!e'

:) 5f the se!on&*pla!er in the ,u:e atorial ele!tions files a ?uo warranto suit a,ainst Ni!asio an& he is foun& to :e &is?ualifie& fro offi!eH !an the se!on&*pla!er :e sworn into offi!e as ,o%ernorL !) 5fH instea&H Ni!asio ha& :een :orn (of the sa e set of parents) in the <nite& States an& he there:" a!?uire& + eri!an

!iti=enship :" :irthH woul& "our answer :e &ifferentL SUGGESTED ANSWER: a) NoH Ni!asio no lon,er possesses Philippine !iti=enship' ''' :) 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in +:ella us' CA8/7/CH 201 SC1+ 223H the se!on& pla!er !annot :e sworn to offi!eH :e!ause he lost the ele!tion' 3o :e entitle& to the offi!eH he ust ha%e ,arnere& the a;orit" or pluralit" of the %otes' !) Oes :e!ause he will :e a &ual !iti=en '''

"nd P'a(er R3'e 9!##6:


No' 7: + file& a protest with the @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unal ?uestionin, the ele!tion of 9 as 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es in the 1987 national ele!tions on the ,roun& that 9 is not a resi&ent of the &istri!t the latter is representin,' 6hile the !ase was pen&in,' 9 a!!epte& an a&*interi appoint ent as Se!retar" of the -epart ent of >usti!e'

(1) 8a" + !ontinue with his ele!tion protest in or&er to &eter ine the real winner in the sai& ele!tionsL State "our reason' (2) Can +H who ,ot the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otes in the ele!tionsH asD that he :e pro!lai e& ele!te& in pla!e of 9L /0plain "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER: (1) NoH + a" not !ontinue with his protest' ''''
(2) NoH + !annot asD that he :e pro!lai e& ele!te& in pla!e of 9' 3he %otes !ast for 9 were not in%ali& %otes' @en!eH + ,arnere& onl" the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otes' Anl" the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the a;orit" or pluralit" of the %otes is entitle& to :e pro!lai e& ele!te&' An this ,roun&H it was hel& in 7a:o %' CA8/7/CH 17) SC1+ 1H that the fa!t that the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the hi,hest nu :er of %otes is not eli,i:le &oes not entitle the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otes to :e pro!lai e& the winner'

"nd P'a(er R3'e8 R3'e &) S3((e++i&n 9!##?: No' 13: 1) + an& 9 were the onl" !an&i&ates for a"or of 9i,aaH 9ula!an in the 8a" 1992 lo!al ele!tions' + o:taine& 10H000 %otes as a,ainst 3H000 %otes for 9' 5n the sa e ele!tionsH M ,ot the hi,hest nu :er of %otes a on, the !an&i&ates for the San,,unian, 9a"an of the sa e town' + &ie& the &a" :efore his pro!la ation' a) 6ho shoul& the 9oar& of Can%assers pro!lai as ele!te& a"orH +H 9 or ML /0plainH :) 6ho is entitle& to &is!har,e the fun!tions of the offi!e of the a"orH 9 or ML /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5n a!!or&an!e with 9enito %s' CA8/7/CH 232 SC1+ #3)H it is + who shoul& :e pro!lai e& as winnerH :e!ause he was the one who o:taine& the hi,hest nu :er of %otes for the position of a"orH :ut a notation shoul& :e a&e that he &ie& for the purpose of appl"in, the rule on su!!ession to offi!e' 9 !annot :e pro!lai e&H :e!ause the &eath of the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the hi,hest nu :er of %otes &oes not entitle the !an&i&ate who o:taine& the ne0t hi,hest nu :er of %otes to :e pro!lai e& the winnerH sin!e he was not the !hoi!e of the ele!torate' M is not entitle& to :e pro!lai e& ele!te& as a"orH :e!ause he ran for the San,,unian, 9a"an' Neither 9 nor M is entitle& to &is!har,e the fun!tions of the offi!e of a"or' 9 is not entitle& to &is!har,e the offi!e of a"orH sin!e he was &efeate& in the ele!tion' M is not entitle& to

"nd P'a(er R3'e8 in >3& Warrant& Ca+e+ 9!##": No' 1): /&win Ni!asioH :orn in the Philippines of Filipino parents an& raise& in the pro%in!e of Nue%a /!i;aH ran for $o%ernor of his ho e pro%in!e' @e won an& he was sworn into offi!e' 5t was re!entl" re%eale&H howe%erH that Ni!asio is a naturali=e& + eri!an !iti=en'
a) -oes he still possess Philippine !iti=enshipL

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!@

&is!har,e the offi!e of a"or' <n&er Se!tion ## of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH it is the %i!e a"or who shoul& su!!ee& in !ase of per anent %a!an!" in the offi!e of the a"or' 5t is onl" when the position of the %i!e a"or is also %a!ant that the e :er of the San,,unian, 9a"an who o:taine& the hi,hest nu :er of %otes will su!!ee& to the offi!e of a"or' A**re(iati&n &) Ba''&t+ 9!##;: No' 3; 5f a !an&i&ate for town a"or is an en,ineer :" professionH shoul& %otes for hi with the prefi0 C/n,ineerC :e in%ali&ate& as C arDe& :allotsCL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3) NoH a :allot in whi!h the na e of a !an&i&ate for town a"or who is an en,ineer whi!h is prefi0e& with Cen,ineerC shoul& not :e in%ali&ate& as a arDe& :allot' <n&er 1ule No' 12 of the rules for the appre!iation of :allotsH :allots whi!h !ontain su!h prefi0es are %ali&'

an& he re!ei%es the winnin, nu :er of %otesH the hearin, on the ?uestion of &is?ualifi!ation shoul& !ontinue' <pon otion of the !o plainant or an" inter%enorH the !ourt or the CA8/7/C a" or&er the suspension of the pro!la ation of the winnin, !an&i&ate if the e%i&en!e of his ,uilt is stron,'

Di+3a'i)i(ati&n+ 9!###:
No E * +'2' <n&er the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH na e four persons who are &is?ualifie& fro runnin, for an" ele!ti%e position' (2N)

Di+F3a'i)i(ati&n8 Gr&3nd+ 9!##!:


No' 11 * 5n !onne!tion with the 8a" 1987 Con,ressional ele!tionsH 7uis 8illanes was prose!ute& for an& !on%i!te& of an ele!tion offense an& was senten!e& to suffer i prison ent for si0 "ears' 3he !ourt &i& not i pose the a&&itional penalt" of &is?ualifi!ation to hol& pu:li! offi!e an& of &epri%ation of the ri,ht of suffra,e as pro%i&e& for in Se!tion 1)# of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e of the Philippines (9'P' 9l,' 881)'

5n +pril 1991H the Presi&ent ,rante& hi a:solute par&on on the :asis of a stron, re!o en&ation of the 9oar& of Par&ons an& Parole' 3hen for the ele!tion in 8a" 1992H 7uis 8illanes files his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for the offi!e of 8a"or in his uni!ipalit"' (!) 5s a petition to &is?ualif" 8illanes %ia:leL (&) 6hat are the effe!ts of a petition to &is?ualif"L SUGGESTED ANSWER: (!) 5n a!!or&an!e with Se!' )8 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH 7uis 8illanes a" :e &is?ualifie& fro runnin, for a"or as he was !on%i!te& of an ele!tion offense'
(&) <n&er Se!' ) of the /le!toral 1efor s 7awH an" !an&i&ate who has :een &e!lare& :" final ;u&, ent to :e &is?ualifie& shall not :e %ote& forH an& %otes !ast for hi shall not :e !ounte&'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: +2') <n&er Se!tion #0 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the followin, are &is?ualifie& fro runnin, for an" lo!al ele!ti%e position: 1) 3hose senten!e& :" final ;u&, ent for an offense in%ol%in, oral turpitu&e or for an offense punisha:le :" one (1) "ear or ore of i prison entH within two (2) "ears after ser%in, senten!e; 2) 3hose re o%e& fro offi!e as a result of an a& inistrati%e !ase; 3) 3hose !on%i!te& :" final ;u&, ent for %iolatin, the oath of alle,ian!e to the 1epu:li! of the Philippines; #) 3hose with &ual !iti=enship; 2) Fu,iti%es fro ;usti!e in !ri inal or non* politi!al !ases here or a:roa&; )) Per anent resi&ents in a forei,n !ountr" or those who ha%e a!?uire& the ri,ht to resi&e a:roa& an& !ontinue to a%ail of the sa e ri,ht after the effe!ti%it" of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e; an& 7) 3he insane or fee:le* in&e&'
E))e(t &) i'ing &) Certi)i(ate &) Candida(y8 A**&inti0e O))i(er 0+ E'e(ti0e O))i(er 9"66":

5f :efore the ele!tion he is not &e!lare& :" final ;u&, ent to :e &is?ualifie& an& he is %ote& for

No M555' +H a Cit" 7e,al Affi!erH an& 9H a Cit" Ei!e*8a"orH file& !ertifi!ates of !an&i&a!" for the position of Cit" 8a"or in the 8a" 1#H 2001 ele!tions' a) 6as + ipso fa!to !onsi&ere& resi,ne& an&H if soH effe!ti%e on what &ateL (2N) :) 6as 9 ipso fa!to !onsi&ere& resi,ne& an&H if soH effe!ti%e on what &ateL (3N) 5n :oth !asesH state the reason or reasons for "our answer' SUGGESTED ANSWER: +) + was !onsi&ere& ipso fa!to resi,ne& upon the filin, of his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"H :e!ause :ein, a Cit" 7e,al Affi!erH he is an appointi%e offi!ial' Se!tion )) of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e pro%i&es that an" person hol&in, a pu:li! appointi%e offi!e shall :e !onsi&ere& ipso fa!to resi,ne& upon the filin, of his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!?

9) 9 is not !onsi&ere& ipso fa!to resi,ne&' Se!tion )7 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e !onsi&ers an" ele!ti%e offi!ial ipso fa!to resi,ne& fro offi!e upon his filin, of a !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for an" offi!e other than the one he is hol&in, e0!ept for Presi&ent an& Ei!e*Presi&entH was repeale& :" the Fair /le!tion +!t E))e(t &) i'ing &) Certi)i(ate &) Candida(y8 air E'e(ti&n A(t 9"66-:
No M * (a) Pe&ro 1e"es is an in!u :ent Ei!e* 8a"or of (ue=on Cit"' @e inten&s to run in the re,ular ele!tions for the position of Cit" 8a"or of (ue=on Cit" whose in!u :ent a"or woul& ha%e full" ser%e& three !onse!uti%e ter s :" 200#' 6oul& Pe&ro 1e"es ha%e to ,i%e up his position as Ei!e*8a"or*

(:) 3he answer is the sa e if Pe&ro 1e"es is a Con,ress an of (ue=on Cit"H :e!ause the repeal of Se!tion )7 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e !o%ers :oth ele!ti%e national an& lo!al offi!ials' E'e(ti&n O))en+e+8 C&n+*ira(y t& Bribe .&ter+ 9!##!: No' 12: -is!uss the &isputa:le presu ptions
(a) of !onspira!" to :ri:e %oters an& (:) of the in%ol%e ent of a !an&i&ate an& of his prin!ipal !a pai,n ana,ers in su!h !onspira!"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) <n&er Se!H 28 of the /le!toral 1efor s 7aw proof that at least one %oter in &ifferent pre!in!ts representin, at least twent" per !ent of the total pre!in!ts in an" uni!ipalit"H !it" or pro%in!e was offere&H pro ise& or ,i%en one"H %alua:le !onsi&eration or other e0pen&iture :" the relati%esH lea&er or s" pathi=er of a !an&i&ate for the purpose of pro otin, the !an&i&a!" of su!h !an&i&ateH ,i%es rise to a &isputa:le presu ption of !onspira!" to :ri:e %oters' (:) <n&er Se!' 28 if the proof affe!ts at least 20N of the pre!in!ts of the uni!ipalit"H !it" or pro%in!e to whi!h the pu:li! offi!e aspire& for :" the fa%ore& !an&i&ate relatesH this shall !onstitute a &isputa:le presu ption of the in%ol%e ent of the !an&i&ate an& of his prin!ipal !a pai,n ana,ers in ea!h of the uni!ipalities !on!erne&H in the !onspira!"'

(1) An!e he files his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"; or (2) 6hen the !a pai,n perio& starts; or (3) An!e an& if he is pro!lai e& winner in the ele!tion; or (#) <pon his assu ption to the ele!ti%e offi!e; or (2) None of the a:o%e' Choose the !orre!t answer
(:) 5f Pe&ro 1e"es wereH instea&H an in!u :ent Con,ress an of (ue=on Cit"H who inten&s to seeD the a"oralt" post in (ue=on Cit"H woul& "our !hoi!e of answer in no'(1) a:o%e :e the sa eL 5f notH whi!h woul& :e "our !hoi!eL

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(a) 3he !orre!t answer is (2)' Se!tion 1# of the Fair /le!tion +!t repeale& Se!tion )7 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH whi!h pro%i&e& that an" ele!te& offi!ialH whether national or lo!alH who runs for an" offi!e other than the one he is hol&in, in a per anent !apa!it"H e0!ept for Presi&ent an& Ei!e Presi&entH shall :e !onsi&ere& ipso fa!to resi,ne& fro his offi!e upon the filin, of his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"' Se!tion 1# of the Fair /le!tion +!t liDewise ren&ere& ineffe!ti%e the first pro%iso in the thir& para,raph of Se!tion 11 of 1epu:li! +!t No' 8#3)'

E'e(ti&n Pr&te+t 9!##6:


No' 7: + file& a protest with the @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unal ?uestionin, the ele!tion of 9 as 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es in the 1987 national ele!tions on the ,roun& that 9 is not a resi&ent of the &istri!t the latter is representin,' 6hile the !ase was pen&in,' 9 a!!epte& an a&*interi appoint ent as Se!retar" of the -epart ent of >usti!e'

(1) 8a" + !ontinue with his ele!tion protest in or&er to &eter ine the real winner in the sai& ele!tionsL State "our reason' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(1) NoH + a" not !ontinue with his protest' 3here is no &ispute as to who was the winner in the ele!tionH as it is not &ispute& that it was 9 who o:taine& the a;orit"' 3he purpose of the protest is si pl" to seeD the re o%al of 9 fro offi!e on the ,roun& that he is ineli,i:le' @owe%erH 9 forfeite& his !lai to the position of !on,ress an :" a!!eptin, an a& interi appoint ent as Se!retar" of >usti!eH the protest a,ainst hi has :e!o e oot' Nothin, will :e ,aine& :" resol%in, it' 5n the !ase of Purisi a %'

Conse?uentl"H Pe&ro 1e"es !an run for 8a"or without ,i%in, up his position as Ei!e* 8a"or' @e will ha%e to ,i%e up his position as Ei!e*8a"or upon e0piration of his ter as Ei!e*8a"or on >une 30H 200#'
(<o+eB T-e 2*es+ion did no+ asC +-e e>a0inee +o e>p'ain +-e reason )or -is c-oice and +-e genera' ins+r*c+ions re2*ires s*cdisc*ssion on'y +o a DyesD or DnoD ans&er.)

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!%

SolisH #3 SC1+ 123H it was hel& that where a protestant in an ele!tion !ase a!!epte& his appoint ent as ;u&,eH he a:an&one& his !lai to the pu:li! offi!e in%ol%e& in the protest' @en!eH the protest ust :e &is isse& for ha%in, :e!o e oot' Si ilarl"H in Pere= % Pro%in!ial 9oar& of Nue%a /!i;aH 113 SC1+ 187H it was hel& that the !lai of a petitioner to an appointi%e offi!e ha& :e!o e ootH :e!ause the petitioner ha& forfeite& his !lai to the offi!e :" filin, a !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for a"or'

a) the :aran,a"L :) the uni!ipalit"L !) the pro%in!eL &) the !it"L e) the @ouse of 1epresentati%esL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) 5n a!!or&an!e with Se!tion 2(2)H +rti!le 5M*C of the Constitution an ele!tion protest in%ol%in, the ele!ti%e position enu erate& :elow shoul& :e file& in the followin, !ourts or tri:unals:

E'e(ti&n Pr&te+t 0+= >3& Warrant& 9"66!: No ME55 * <n&er the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e (9'P' 881H as a en&e&)H :riefl" &ifferentiate an ele!tion protest fro a ?uo warranto !aseH as to who !an file the !ase an& the respe!ti%e ,roun&s therefor' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER8
+n /7/C35AN P1A3/S3 a":e file& :" a losin, !an&i&ate for the sa e offi!e for whi!h the winner file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"' + (<A 6+11+N3A C+S/ a" :e file& :" an" %oter who is a re,istere& %oter in the !onstituen!" where the winnin, !an&i&ate sou,ht to :e &is?ualifie& ran for offi!e' 5n an ele!tion !ontestH the issues are: (a) who re!ei%e& the a;orit" or pluralit" of the %otes whi!h were le,all" !ast an& (:) whether there were irre,ularities in the !on&u!t of the ele!tion whi!h affe!te& its results'

a) 9aran,a" * 8etropolitan 3rial CourtH 8uni!ipal Cir!uit 3rial CourtH or 8uni!ipal 3rial Court :) 8uni!ipalit" * 1e,ional 3rial Court !) Pro%in!e * CA8/7/C &) Cit" * CA8/7/C
e) <n&er Se!tion 17' +rti!le E5 of the ConstitutionH an ele!tion protest in%ol%in, the position of 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es shall :e file& in the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal'

E2*irati&n &) ter1 bar+ +er0i(e t,ere&) 9"666:


No ME5' 5n the ele!tions of 8a" 1992H Cru= an& Santos were the !an&i&ates for the offi!e of 8uni!ipal 8a"orH the ter of whi!h was to e0pire on >une 30H 1992' Fin&in, that he won :" a ar,in of 20 %otesH the 8uni!ipal 9oar& of Can%assers pro!lai e& Cru= as the &ul" ele!te& 8a"or' Santos file& an ele!tion protest :efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court (13C) whi!h &e!i&e& that it was Santos who ha& the pluralit" of 30 %otes an& pro!lai e& hi the winner' An otion a&eH the 13C ,rante& e0e!ution pen&in, the appeal of Cru= to the CA8/7/C (Co ele!) an& on this :asis' Santos assu e& offi!e an& ser%e& as 8uni!ipal 8a"or' 5n ti eH the Co ele! re%erse& the rulin, of the 13C an& instea& rule& that Cru= won :" a ar,in of #0 %otes an& pro!lai e& hi the &ul" ele!te& 8uni!ipal 8a"or'

5n a ?uo warranto !aseH the issue is whether the !an&i&ate who was pro!lai e& ele!te& shoul& :e &is?ualifie& :e!ause of ineli,i:ilit" or &islo"alt" to the Philippines' E'e(ti&n Pr&te+t 0+= >3& Warrant& 9>@<"66?: -ifferentiate an ele!tion protest fro an a!tion for ?uo warranto' (2'2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+n /7/C35AN P1A3/S3 is a pro!ee&in, where:" a losin, !an&i&ate for a parti!ular position !ontests the results of the ele!tion on ,roun&s of frau&H terroris H irre,ularities or ille,al a!ts !o itte& :eforeH &urin, or after the !astin, an& !ountin, of %otes' An the other han&H a P/3535AN FA1 (<A 6+11+N3A is file& :" an" re,istere& %oter to !ontest the ele!tion of an" !an&i&ate on ,roun&s of ineli,i:ilit" or &islo"alt" to the 1epu:li! of the Philippines'

a) 5t is now :e"on& >une 30H 1992' Can Cru= still hol& offi!e for the portion of the ter he has faile& to ser%eL 6h"L (3N) SUGGESTED ANSWER8 a) +s hel& in 8alaluan %' CA8/7/CH 22# SC1+ 397 (199))' Cru= !an no lon,er hol& offi!e for the portion of the ter he faile& to ser%e sin!e his ter has e0pire&' Petiti&n t& De('are ai'3re &) E'e(ti&n+8 ReF3i+ite+ B E))e(t+ 9!##@:
No' ): -ue to %iolen!e an& terroris atten&in, the !astin, of %otes in a uni!ipalit" in 7anao &el Sur &urin, the last 8 8a" 1992 ele!tionsH it :e!a e i possi:le to hol& therein freeH or&erl"

E'e(ti&n Pr&te+t8 43ri+di(ti&n 9!##?: NoH 1#: 1) +s !ounsel for the protestantH where will "ou file an ele!tion protest in%ol%in, a !onteste& ele!ti%e position in:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!!$

an& honest ele!tions' Se%eral !an&i&ates for uni!ipal positions with&rew fro the ra!e' Ane !an&i&ate for 8a"or petitione& the CA8/7/C for the postpone ent of the ele!tions an& the hol&in, of spe!ial ele!tions after the !auses of su!h postpone ent or failure of ele!tions shall ha%e !ease&'

pre%ente& fro !astin, their %otes' 3he CA8/7/C &is isse& the pre*pro!la ation !ontest on the ,roun& that all the returns appear !o plete an& unta pere&'

1' @ow an" %otes of CA8/7/C Co issioners a" :e to ,rant the petitionL /0plain'

the !ast

-eter ine if the CA8/7/C &e!i&e& !orre!tl" an& if C9C has an" re!ourse for !ontestin, C+BsC ele!tion' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he CA8/7/C !orre!tl" &is isse& C9BsC P1/* P1AC7+8+35AN CAN3/S3' Su!h a !ontest is li ite& to !lai s that the ele!tion returns are in!o plete or that the" !ontain aterial &efe!ts or that the" ha%e :een ta pere& withH falsifie& or prepare& un&er &uress or that the" !ontain &is!repan!ies in the %otes !re&ite& to the !an&i&atesH the &ifferen!e of whi!h affe!ts the result of the ele!tion' (A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH sees' 2#3H 23#*23)) An the other han&H the ?uestion whether or not there was terroris H %ote :u"in, an& other irre,ularities in the ele!tions !annot :e the su:;e!t of a pre*pro!la ation !ontest :ut ust :e raise& in a re,ular ele!tion protest' (San!he= %' CA8/7/CH $1' No' 78#)1; Pon!e /nrile %' CA8/7/CH $'1' Nos' 791#) 4 79212H +u,' 12H 1987; +:es %' CA8/7/CH 21 SC1+ 1222 (19)7) ) Sin!e the :asis of C9BsC petition is that his followers ha& :een :ou,ht while others ha& :een pre%ente& fro !astin, their :allotsH his re e&" is to file an ele!tion !ontest an& this shoul& :e :rou,ht in the @ouse or Senate /le!toral 3ri:unal whi!hH un&er +rt' E5H Se!' 17H is the sole ;u&,e of the ele!tionH returns an& ?ualifi!ations of e :ers of ea!h @ouse of Con,ress'

2' + person who was not a !an&i&ate at the ti e of the postpone ent of the ele!tions &e!i&e& to run for an ele!ti%e position an& file& a !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" prior to the spe!ial ele!tions' 8a" his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" :e a!!epte&L /0plain' 3' Suppose he ran as a su:stitute for a !an&i&ate who pre%iousl" with&rew his !an&i&a!"H will "our answer :e the sa eL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1' +!!or&in, to Se!tion 7H +rti!le 5M*+ of the 1987 ConstitutionH the CA8/7/C shall &e!i&e :" a 8+>A153O EA3/ of all its e :ers an" !ase or atter :rou,ht :efore it 5n Cua %s' CA8/7/CH 12) SC1+282H the Supre e Court state& that a two*to*one &e!ision ren&ere& :" a -i%ision of the CA8/7/C an& a three*to*two &e!ision ren&ere& :" the CA8/7/C en :an! was %ali& where onl" fi%e e :ers tooD part in &e!i&in, the !ase'

2' NoH his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" !annot :e a!!epte&' <n&er Se!tion 72 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH as a rule in !ases of postpone ent or failure of ele!tion no a&&itional !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" shall :e a!!epte&'
3' NoH the answer will :e &ifferent' <n&er Se!tion 72 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH an a&&itional !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" a" :e a!!epte& in !ases of postpone ent or failure of ele!tion if there was a su:stitution of !an&i&ates; :ut the su:stitute ust :elon, to an& ust :e en&orse& :" the sa e part"'

Pre<Pr&('a1ati&n C&nte+t 9!#$$: No' 18: 5n ele!tion lawH what is a pre* pro!la ation !ontro%ers"L 6here a" it :e liti,ate& with finalit"L +fter the ulti ate winner has :een &ul" pro!lai e&H &oes the loser still ha%e an" re e&" to the en& than he a" finall" o:tain the position he aspire& for in the ele!tionL /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+ P1/*P1AC7+8+35AN CAN31AE/1SO refers to an" ?uestion pertainin, to or affe!tin, the pro!ee&in,s of the :oar& of !an%assers whi!h a" :e raise& :" an" !an&i&ate or :" an" re,istere& politi!al part" or !oalition of politi!al parties :efore the :oar& or &ire!tl" with the CA8/7/CH or an" atter raise& un&er se!s' 233*23) of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e in relation to the preparationH trans issionH re!eiptH !usto&" or appre!iation of the ele!tion returns' (A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH se!H 2#1)'

Pre<Pr&('a1ati&n C&nte+t 9!#$%:


No' E55: C+C an& C9C were !an&i&ates for representati%es in the 1987 National /le!tionsH C9C file& a pre*pro!la ation !ontest with the CA8/7/C on the ,roun& that ra pant %ote :u"in, an& terroris a!!o panie& the ele!tions' Parti!ulars were supplie& of C9BsC followers :ou,ht*off an& other followers

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3he CA8/7/C has e0!lusi%e ;uris&i!tion of all pre*pro!la ation !ontro%ersies' (5&'H se!' 2#1) 5ts &e!isions :e!o e e0e!utor" after the lapse of 2 &a"s fro re!eipt :" the losin, part" of the &e!isionH unless restraine& :" the Supre e Court' (5&'H se!' 2#))
+ loser a" still :rin, an ele!tion !ontest !on!ernin, the ele!tionH returnsH an& ?ualifi!ations of the !an&i&ate pro!lai e&' 5n the !ase of ele!ti%e :aran,a" offi!ialsH the !ontest a" :e file& with the uni!ipal trial !ourts; in the !ase of ele!ti%e uni!ipal offi!ialsH in the 1e,ional 3rial Court; in the !ase of ele!ti%e pro%in!ial an& !it" offi!ialsH in the CA8/7/C (+rt' 5MH CH se!' 2(2)); in the !ase of Senators or Con,ress enH in the Senate or @ouse /le!toral 3ri:unals (+rt' E5H se!' 17); an& in the !ase of the Presi&ent an& Ei!e Presi&entH in the Presi&ential /le!toral 3ri:unal' (+rt' E55H se!' #)'

pre;u&i!e to the filin, of an ele!tion protest' @owe%erH the pro!ee&in,s a" !ontinue when on the :asis of the e%i&en!e presente& so farH the CA8/7/C or the Supre e Court &eter ines that the petition appears to :e eritorious' (Se!tion 1)H 1epu:li! +!t No' 71))) (9) /7/C35AN CAN3/S3S +n ele!tion protest is initiate& :" filin, a protest !ontainin, the followin, alle,ations: 1' 3he protestant is a !an&i&ate who &ul" file& a !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" an& was %ote& for in the ele!tion: 2' 3he protestee has :een pro!lai e&; an& 3' 3he &ate of the pro!la ationH (8iro %s' CA8/7/CH 121 SC1+ #))) 3he followin, ha%e ;uris&i!tion o%er ele!tion !ontests: a) 9aran,a" offi!ials * 5nferior Court; :) 8uni!ipal offi!ials * 1e,ional 3rial Court; !) 1e,ionalH pro%in!ialH an& !it" offi!ials * CA8/7/C (Se!tion 2(2)H +rt' 5M*C of the Constitution); &) Con,ress an * @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal' e) Senators * Senate /le!toral 3ri:unal' (Se!tion 1' +rti!le E5 of the Constitution); f) Presi&ent an& Ei!e Presi&ent * Supre e Court (Se!tion #H +rti!le E55 of the Constitution)'
3he &e!ision of the inferior !ourt in ele!tion !ontests in%ol%in, :aran,a" offi!ials an& of the 1e,ional 3rial Court in ele!tion !ontests in%ol%in, uni!ipal offi!ials are appeala:le to the CA8/7/C' (Se!tion 2(2)' +rti!le 5M*C of the Constitution') 3he &e!ision of the CA8/7/C a" :e :rou,ht to the Supre e Court on !ertiorari on ?uestions of law' (1i%era %s' CA8/7/CH 199 SC1+ 178) 3he &e!ision of the CA8/7/C in ele!tion !ontests in%ol%in, re,ionalH pro%in!ial an& !it" offi!ials a" :e :rou,ht to the Supre e Court on !ertiorari (Se!tion 7H +rti!le 5M*+ an& Se!tion 2(2)H +rti!le 5M*C of the Constitution')

Pre<Pr&('a1ati&n C&nte+t 0+= E'e(ti&n C&nte+t+ 9!##%: NoH 17: State how (a) pre* pro!la ation !ontro%ersiesH on the one han&H an& (:) ele!tion protestsH on the otherH are initiate&H hear& an& finall" resol%e&' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(+) P1/*P1AC7+8+35AN CAN31AE/1S5/S

a) (uestions affe!tin, the !o position or pro!ee&in,s of the :oar& of !an%assers a" :e initiate& in the :oar& of !an%assers or &ire!tl" with the CA8/7/C' :) (uestions in%ol%in, the ele!tion returns an& the !ertifi!ates of !an%ass shall :e :rou,ht in the first instan!e :efore the :oar& of !an%assers onl"H (Se!tion 17H 1epu:li! +!t NoH 21))') !) 3he :oar& of !an%assers shoul& rule on the o:;e!tions su aril"' (Se!tion 20H 1epu:li! +!t No' 71))') &) +n" part" a&%ersel" affe!te& a" appeal to the CA8/7/C' (Se!tion 20' 1epu:li! +!t No' 71))') e) 3he &e!ision of the Co ission on /le!tion a" :e :rou,ht to the Supre e Court on !ertiorari :" the a,,rie%e& part"H (Se!tion 7H +rti!le 5M*+ of the Constitution')
+ll pre*pro!la ation !ontro%ersies pen&in, :efore the CA8/7/C shall :e &ee e& ter inate& at the :e,innin, of the ter of the offi!e in%ol%e& an& the rulin,s of the :oar& of !an%assers shall :e &ee e& affir e&H without

3he &e!isions of the Senate /le!toral 3ri:unal an& of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal a" :e ele%ate& to the Supre e Court on !ertiorari if there was ,ra%e a:use of &is!retion' (7a=atin %s CA8/7/C 1)8 SC1+ 391)

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Pre<Pr&('a1ati&n C&nte+t8 Pr&*er I++3e+ 9!##?: NoH 1#: 2) $i%e three issues that !an :e properl" raise& an& :rou,ht in a pre* pro!la ation !ontest' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 2) +!!or&in, to Se!tion 2#3 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH the followin, issues !an :e properl" raise&' 1' 3he !o position or pro!ee&in,s of the :oar& of !an%assers are ille,al; 2' 3he !an%asse& ele!tion returns are in!o pleteH !ontain aterial &efe!tsH appro%e& to :e ta pere& withH or !ontain &is!repan!" in the sa e returns or in other authenti!ate& !opies; 3' 3he ele!tion returns were prepare& un&er &uressH threatsH !oer!ionH or inti i&ationH or the" are o:%iousl" anufa!ture& or not authenti!; an& #' Su:stitute or frau&ulent returns in !ontro%erte& pollin, pla!es were !an%asse&H the results of whi!h ateriall" affe!te& the stan&in, of the a,,rie%e& !an&i&ate or !an&i&ates'
@owe%erH a!!or&in, to Se!tion 12 of the S"n!hroni=e& /le!tion 7aw no pre*pro!la ation !ases shall :e allowe& on atters relatin, to the preparationH trans issionH re!eiptH !usto&" an& appre!iation of the ele!tion returns or the !ertifi!ates of !an%ass with respe!t to the positions of Presi&entH Ei!e*Presi&entH Senator an& 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es' No pre*pro!la ation !ase are allowe& in the !ase of :aran,a" ele!tions'

prepare the affi&a%it in a!!or&an!e with the &ata supplie& :" the appli!ant' (5&'H se!' 127) Pr&(e++8 Prin(i*'e &) Ide1 S&nan+ 9!##;: No' 3; 1) 6hat is "our un&erstan&in, of the prin!iple of i&e sonans as applie& in the /le!tion 7awL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
1) <n&er 1ule No' 7 of the rules for the appre!iation of :allots in Se!tion 211 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH the i&e sonans rule eans that a na e or surna e in!orre!tl" written whi!hH when rea&H has a soun& si ilar to the na e or surna e of a !an&i&ate when !orre!tl" written shall :e !ounte& in his fa%or'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWERS:
a) 5&e sonans literall" eans the sa e or si ilar soun&' 3his prin!iple is a&e anifest in one of the rules for the appre!iation of :allots e :o&ie& in the A ni:us /le!tion Co&e (Se!' 211H 9P 881) statin, that C+ na e or surna e in!orre!tl" written whi!h when rea&H has a soun& si ilar to the na e or surna e of a !an&i&ate when !orre!tl" written shall :e !ounte& in his fa%or' 3husH if the na e as spelle& in the :allotH thou,h &ifferent fro the !orre!t spellin, thereofH !on%e"s to the ears when pronoun!e& a!!or&in, to the !o onl" a!!epte& etho&sH a soun& pra!ti!all" 5&enti!al with the soun& of the !orre!t na e as !o onl" pronoun!e&H the na e thus ,i%en is a suffi!ient &esi,nation of the person referre& to' 3he ?uestion whether one na e is i&e sonans with another is not a ?uestion of spellin, :ut of pronun!iation' (8an&a! %' Sa onteH #9 Phil' 28#)' 5ts appli!ation is ai e& at reali=in, the o:;e!ti%e of e%er" ele!tion whi!h is to o:tain the e0pression of the %oters will'

Pr&(e++8 I''iterate .&ter+ 9!#$%:


No' M55: C+CH while of le,al a,e an& of soun& in&H is illiterate' @e has asDe& "our a&%i!e on how he !an %ote in the !o in, ele!tion for his :rotherH who is runnin, for a"or' 3his will :e the first ti e C+C will %ote an& he has ne%er re,istere& as a %oter :efore' 6hat a&%i!e will "ou ,i%e hi on the pro!e&ure he nee&s to follow in or&er to :e a:le to %oteL

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he Constitution pro%i&es that until Con,ress shall ha%e pro%i&e& otherwiseH illiterate an& &isa:le& %oters shall :e allowe& to %ote un&er e0istin, laws an& re,ulations (+rtH EH Se!' 2)' 5t is ne!essar" for an" ?ualifie& %oter to re,ister in or&er to %ote' (A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH Se!' 112) 5n the !ase of illiterate an& &isa:le& %otersH their %oterBs affi&a%it a" :e prepare& :" an" relati%e within the fourth !i%il &e,ree of !onsan,uinit" or affinit" or :" an" e :er of the :oar& of ele!tion inspe!tors who shall

:) 3he ter eans soun&in, the sa e or nearl" aliDe' 3he rule is :ase& on the 5&ea that the isspellin, of a na e or la!D of sDill in writin, shoul& not :e taDen as a ,roun& for re;e!tin, the %otes apparentl" inten&e& for a !an&i&ateH so lon, as the intention of the %oter appears to :e !lear' 3he Supre e Court has rule& that the prin!iple of i&e sonans is li:erall" !onstrue&' Corpu= %' 5:a"H 8# Phil' 18# (19#9)' Pr&(e++8 Stray Ba''&t 9!##;: No' 3; 2) 6hat is a Cstra" :allotCL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2) <n&er 1ule No' 19 of the rules appre!iation of :allots in Se!tion 211 A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH stra" :allot is one fa%or of a person who has not file& for the of the !ast in a

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!ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" or in fa%or of a !an&i&ate for an offi!e for whi!h he &i& not present hi self' +lthou,h the Co&e &oes not pro%i&e for stra" :allotH it is presu e& that stra" :allot refers to stra" %ote' Re(a'' 9"66": No ME5' Suppose the people of a pro%in!e want to re!all the pro%in!ial ,o%ernor :efore the en& of his three*"ear ter of offi!eH +' An what ,roun& or ,roun&s !an the pro%in!ial ,o%ernor :e re!alle&L (1N) 9' @ow will the re!all :e initiate&L (2N) C' 6hen will the re!all of an ele!ti%e lo!al offi!ial :e !onsi&ere& effe!ti%eL U2NT SUGGESTED ANSWER: 5n a!!or&an!e with Se!tion )9 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the $o%ernor !an :e re!alle& for 7ASS AF CANF5-/NC/'
<n&er Se!tion 70 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the re!all a" :e initiate& :" a resolution a&opte& :" a a;orit" of all the e :ers of the preparator" re!all asse :l"H whi!h !onsists of all the a"orsH the %i!e* a"orsH an& the san,,unian, e :ers of the uni!ipalities an& !o ponent !itiesH or :" a written petition si,ne& :" at least twent"*fi%e per !ent (22N) of the total nu :er of re,istere& %oters in the pro%in!e' +!!or&in, to Se!tion 72 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the re!all of an ele!ti%e lo!al offi!ial shall taDe effe!t upon the ele!tion an& pro!la ation of a su!!essor in the person of the !an&i&ate re!ei%in, the hi,hest nu :er of %otes !ast &urin, the ele!tion on re!all'

-e!i&e whether the &is?ualifi!ation !ase will prosper or not' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he &is?ualifi!ation !ase shoul& :e &is isse&' +s hel& in 9or;a %s' CA8/7/CH 292 SC1+127 (199))H in !o putin, the three*ter li itation i pose& upon ele!ti%e lo!al offi!ialsH onl" the ter for whi!h he was ele!te& to shoul& :e !onsi&ere&' 3he ter whi!h he ser%e& as a result of su!!ession shoul& not :e in!lu&e&' 5t is not enou,h that the offi!ial has ser%e& three !onse!uti%e ter s' @e ust ha%e :een ele!te& to the sa e position three !onse!uti%e ti es'

T,ree<Ter1 Li1it8 )r&1 M3ni(i*a'ity t& Ne5'y<Created City 9>#<"66@:


2' 8anuel was ele!te& 8a"or of the 8uni!ipalit" of 3u:a in the ele!tions of 1992H 1992 an& 1998' @e full" ser%e& his first two ter sH an& &urin, his thir& ter H the uni* !ipalit" was !on%erte& into the !o ponent Cit" of 3u:a' 3he sai& !harter pro%i&e& for a hol&* o%er an& so without interre,nu 8anuel went on to ser%e as the 8a"or of the Cit" of 3u:a' 5n the 2001 ele!tionsH 8anuel file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for Cit" 8a"or' @e &is!lose&H thou,hH that he ha& alrea&" ser%e& for three !onse!uti%e ter s as ele!te& 8a"or when 3u:a was still a uni!ipalit"' @e also state& in his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" that he is runnin, for the position of 8a"or for the first ti e now that 3u:a is a !it"' 1e"esH an a&%ersar"H ran a,ainst 8anuel an& petitione& that he :e &is?ualifie& :e!ause he ha& alrea&" ser%e& for three !onse!uti%e ter s as 8a"or' 3he petition was not ti el" a!te& uponH an& 8anuel was pro!lai e& the winner with 20H000 %otes o%er the 10H000 %otes re!ei%e& :" 1e"es as the onl" other !an&i&ate' 5t was onl" after 8anuel tooD his oath an& assu e& offi!e that the CA8/7/C rule& that he was &is?ualifie& for ha%in, ran an& ser%e& for three !onse!uti%e ter s' (2N)

T,ree<Ter1 Li1it R3'e 9"66!:


No M5M * 5n the 8a" 1992 ele!tionsH 8anuel 8analo an& Se,un&o Parate were ele!te& as 8a"or an& Ei!e 8a"orH respe!ti%el"' <pon the &eath of 8analo as in!u :ent uni!ipal a"orH Ei!e 8a"or Se,un&o Parate su!!ee&e& as a"or an& ser%e& for the re ainin, portion of the ter of offi!e' 5n the 8a" 1992 ele!tionH Se,un&o Parate ran for an& won as a"or an& then ser%e& for the full ter ' 5n the 8a" 1998 ele!tionsH Parate ran for reele!tion as 8a"or an& won a,ain' 5n the 8a" 2001 ele!tionH Se,un&o Parate file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for the sa e position of a"orH :ut his ri%al a"oralt" !an&i&ate sou,ht his &is?ualifi!ation alle,in, %iolation of the three* ter li it for lo!al ele!ti%e offi!ials pro%i&e& for in the Constitution an& in the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e'

(a) +s law"er of 8anuelH present the possi:le ar,u ents to pre%ent his &is?ualifi!ation an& re o%al' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+s law"er of 8anuelH 5 woul& ar,ue that he shoul& not :e &is?ualifie& an& re o%e& :e!ause he was a three*ter a"or of the uni!ipalit" of 3u:aH an&H with its !on%ersion to a !o ponent !it"H the latter has a totall" separate an& &ifferent !orporate personalit" fro that of the uni!ipalit"' 8oreo%erH as a

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ruleH in a representati%e &e o!ra!"H the people shoul& :e allowe& freel" to !hoose those who will ,o%ern the ' @a%in, won the ele!tionsH the !hoi!e of the people shoul& :e respe!te&' (:) @ow woul& "ou rule on whether or not 8anuel is eli,i:le to run as 8a"or of the newl"*!reate& Cit" of 3u:a i e&iatel" after ha%in, alrea&" ser%e& for three (3) !onse!uti%e ter s as 8a"or of the 8uni!ipalit" of 3u:aL

parti!ular ele!tion' 3he per anent %a!an!" in the !onteste& offi!e shoul& :e fille& :" su!!ession' (7a:o %' CA8/7/CH $'1' No' 102111H >ul" 3H1992) ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
1e"es !oul& not :e pro!lai e& as winner :e!ause he &i& not win the ele!tion' 3o allow the &efeate& !an&i&ate to taDe o%er the 8a"oralt" &espite his re;e!tion :" the ele!torate is to &isenfran!hise the ele!torate without an" fault on their part an& to un&er ine the i portan!e an& eanin, of &e o!ra!" an& the peopleBs ri,ht to ele!t offi!ials of their !hoi!e' (9enito %' CA8/7/CH $'1' No' 10)023H +u,ust 17H 199#)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
8anuel is not eli,i:le to run as a"or of the !it" of 3u:a' 3he 1987 Constitution spe!ifi!all" in!lu&e& an e0!eption to the peopleBs free&o to !hoose those who will ,o%ern the in or&er to a%oi& the e%il of a sin,le person a!!u ulatin, e0!essi%e power o%er a parti!ular territorial ;uris&i!tion as a result of a prolon,e& sta" in the sa e offi!e' 3o allow 8anuel to %ie for the position of !it" a"or after ha%in, ser%e& for three !onse!uti%e ter s as a uni!ipal a"or woul& o:%iousl" &efeat the %er" intent of the fra ers when the" wrote this e0!eption' Shoul& he :e allowe& another three !onse!uti%e ter s as a"or of the Cit" of 3u:aH 8anuel woul& then :e possi:l" hol&in, offi!e as !hief e0e!uti%e o%er the sa e territorial ;uris&i!tion an& inha:itants for a total of ei,hteen !onse!uti%e "ears' 3his is the %er" s!enario sou,ht to :e a%oi&e& :" the ConstitutionH if not a:horre& :" it' (7atasa %' CA8/7/CH $'1' No' 12#829H -e!e :er 10H 2003) (!) +ssu in, that 8anuel is not an eli,i:le !an&i&ateH re:ut 1e"esB !lai that he shoul& :e pro!lai e& as winner ha%in, re!ei%e& the ne0t hi,her nu :er of %otes'

.a(an(y8 E))e(t &) .i(e<May&r A(ting A+ May&r 9"66":


No M5E' Suppose +H a 8uni!ipal 8a"orH went on a si!D lea%e to un&er,o e&i!al treat ent for a perio& of four (#) onths' -urin, that ti e +' 6ill 9H the 8uni!ipal Ei!e*8a"orH :e perfor in, e0e!uti%e fun!tionsL 6h"L (2N)

9' 6ill 9 at the sa e ti e :e also perfor in, le,islati%e fun!tions as presi&in, offi!er of the San,,unian, 9a"anL 6h"L (3N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: +' Sin!e the 8uni!ipal 8a"or is te poraril" in!apa!itate& to perfor his &utiesH in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion #)(a) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the 8uni!ipal Ei!e*8a"or shall e0er!ise his powers an& perfor his &uties an& fun!tions' 3he 8uni!ipal Ei!e*8a"or will :e perfor in, e0e!uti%e fun!tionsH :e!ause the fun!tions of the 8uni!ipal 8a"or are e0e!uti%e'
9' 3he 8uni!ipal Ei!e*8a"or !annot !ontinue as presi&in, offi!er of the San,,unian, 9a"an while he is a!tin, 8uni!ipal 8a"or' 5n a!!or&an!e with $a :oa %' +,uirreH 310 SC1+ 8)7 (1999)H un&er the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the Ei!e*8uni!ipal 8a"or was &epri%e& of the power to presi&e o%er the San,,unian, 9a"an an& is no lon,er a e :er of it' 3he te porar" %a!an!" in the offi!e of the 8uni!ipal 8a"or !reates a !orrespon&in, te porar" %a!an!" in the Affi!e of the 8uni!ipal Ei!e*8a"or when he a!ts as 8uni!ipal 8a"or' 3his !onstitutes ina:ilit" on his part to presi&e o%er the sessions of the San,,unian, 9a"an'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
1e"es !annot :e pro!lai e& winner for re!ei%in, the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otes' 3he Supre e Court has !onsistentl" rule& that the fa!t that a pluralit" or a a;orit" of the %otes are !ast for an ineli,i:le !an&i&ate at a popular ele!tionH or that a !an&i&ate is later &e!lare& to :e &is?ualifie& to hol& offi!eH &oes not entitle the !an&i&ate who ,arnere& the se!on& hi,hest nu :er of %otes to :e &e!lare& ele!te&' 3he sa e erel" results in aDin, the winnin, !an&i&ateBs ele!tion a nullit"' 5n the present !aseH 10H000 %otes were !ast for pri%ate respon&ent 1e"es as a,ainst the 20H000 %otes !ast for petitioner 8anuel' 3he se!on& pla!er is o:%iousl" not the !hoi!e of the people in this

.a(an(y8 R3'e &) S3((e++i&n 9!##@:


No' 7: 3he Ei!e 8a"or of a uni!ipalit" file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for the sa e offi!e in the last ele!tions' 3he 8uni!ipal 8a"or was

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also runnin, for re*ele!tion' 9oth were offi!ial !an&i&ates of the sa e politi!al part"' +fter the last &a" for the filin, of !ertifi!ates of !an&i&a!"H the 8a"or &ie&' <n&er these fa!ts * a) Can the Ei!e 8a"or su!!ee& to the offi!e of 8a"or pursuant to the pro%isions of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eL /0plain' :) +ssu in, that the Ei!e 8a"or su!!ee&s to the position of 8a"or after the in!u :ent &ie&H whi!h position is now &ifferent fro the one for whi!h he has file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"H !an he still !ontinue to run as Ei!e 8a"orL /0plain' !) 5s there an" le,al i pe&i ent to the Ei!e 8a"or to repla!e the re*ele!tionist 8a"or who &ie&L /0plainH SUGGESTED ANSWER: OesH the %i!e a"or !an su!!ee& to the offi!e of a"or' <n&er Se!tion ## of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH he stan&s ne0t in line to the offi!e of a"or in !ase of a per anent %a!an!" in it' @is filin, of a Certifi!ate of Can&i&a!" for 8a"or &i& not auto ati!all" result to his :ein, !onsi&ere& resi,ne& (Se!' )7H A ni:us /le!tion Co&e)'
OesH the %i!e a"or !an !ontinue to run as %i!e a"or' +t the ti e that he file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!"H the %i!e a"or ran for the sa e offi!e he was hol&in,' 5n &eter inin, whether a !an&i&ate is runnin, for a position other than the one he is hol&in, in a per anent !apa!it" an& shoul& :e !onsi&ere& resi,ne&H it is the offi!e he was hol&in, at the ti e he file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" shoul& :e !onsi&ere&' 3here is no le,al i pe&i ent to the %i!e a"or runnin, as a"or to repla!e the %i!e a"or who &ie& un&er Se!tion 77 of the A ni:us /le!tion Co&eH if a !an&i&ate &ies after the last &a" for filin, !ertifi!ates of !an&i&a!"H he a" :e repla!e& :" a person :elon,in, to his politi!al part"' @owe%erH it is re?uire& that he shoul& first with&raw his Certifi!ate of Can&i&a!" for Ei!e*8a"or an& file a new Certifi!ate of Can&i&a!" for 8a"or'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+s hel& in Farinas %' 9ar:aH 22) SC1+ 39) (199))H neither of the appoint ents is %ali&' <n&er Se!tion #2 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH in !ase of a per anent %a!an!" in the San,,unian, 9a"an !reate& :" the !essation in offi!e of a e :er who &oes not :elon, to an" politi!al part"H the $o%ernor shall appoint a ?ualifie& person re!o en&e& :" the San,,unian, 9a"an' Sin!e + was not re!o en&e& :" the San,,unian, 9a"anH his appoint ent :" the $o%ernor is not %ali&' Sin!e 9 was not appointe& :" the $o%ernor :ut :" the 8uni!ipal 8a"orH his appoint ent is also not %ali&'

ARTICLE IX A3dit

C&11i++i&n &n

COA8 43ri+di(ti&n 9"66!: No E555 * 3he Philippine National 9anD was then one of the lea&in, ,o%ern ent*owne& :anDs an& it was un&er the au&it ;uris&i!tion of the Co ission on +u&it (CA+)' + few "ears a,oH it was pri%ati=e&' 6hat is the effe!tH if an"H of the pri%ati=ation of PN9 on the au&it >uris&i!tion of the CA+L (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in Philippine +irlines %s' Co ission on +u&itH 2#2 SC1+ 39H(1992)H sin!e the Philippine National 9anD is no lon,er owne& :" the $o%ern entH the Co ission on +u&it no lon,er has ;uris&i!tion to au&it it as an institution' <n&er Se!tion 2(2)H +rti!le 5M*of the ConstitutionH it is ,o%ern ent*owne& or !ontrolle& !orporations an& their su:si&iaries whi!h are su:;e!t to au&it :" the Co ission on +u&it' @owe%erH in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion 2(1)H +rti!le 5M*- of the ConstitutionH the Co ission on +u&it !an au&it the Philippine National 9anD with respe!t to its a!!ounts :e!ause the $o%ern ent still has e?uit" in it'

COA8 M&ney C'ai1+ 9!##$:


No 5' * 3he -epart ent of National -efense entere& into a !ontra!t with 1aintree Corporation for the suppl" of pon!hos to the +r e& For!es of the Philippines (+FP)H stipulatin, thatH in the e%ent of :rea!hH a!tion a" :e file& in the proper !ourts in 8anila'

.a(an(y8 SB8 R3'e &n S3((e++i&n 9"66": No ME' + %a!an!" o!!urre& in the san,,unian, :a"an of a uni!ipalit" when MH a e :erH &ie&' M &i& not :elon, to an" politi!al part"'
3o fill up the %a!an!"H the pro%in!ial ,o%ernor appointe& + upon the re!o en&ation of the san,,unian, panlalawi,an' An the other han&H for the sa e %a!an!"H the uni!ipal a"or appointe& 9 upon the re!o en&ation of the san,,unian, :a"an'

6hi!h of these appoint ents is %ali&L (2N)

Suppose the +FP fails to pa" for &eli%ere& pon!hosH where ust 1aintree Corporation file its !lai L 6h"L P 10NQ SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1aintree Corporation ust file its !lai with the Co ission on +u&itH <n&er Se!tion 2(1) 5M*-

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!";

of the ConstitutionH the Co ission on +u&it has the authorit" to settle all a!!ounts pertainin, to e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s' 1aintree Corporation !annot file a !ase in !ourt' 3he 1epu:li! of the Philippines &i& not wai%e its i unit" fro suit when it entere& into the !ontra!t with 1aintree Corporation for the suppl" of pon!hos for the use of the +r e& For!es of the Philippines' 3he !ontra!t in%ol%es the &efense of the Philippines an& therefore relates to a so%erei,n fun!tion' 5n <nite& States %s' 1ui=H 13) SC1+ #87H #92H the Supre e Court hel&; C3he restri!ti%e appli!ation of State i unit" is proper onl" when the pro!ee&in,s arise out of !o er!ial transa!tions of the forei,n so%erei,n' 5ts !o er!ial a!ti%ities or e!ono i! affairs' State& &ifferentl"H a State a" :e sai& to ha%e &es!en&e& to the le%el of an in&i%i&ual an& !an thus :e &ee e& to ha%e ta!itl" ,i%en its !onsent to :e sue& onl" when it enters into :usiness !ontra!ts' 5t &oes not appl" where the !ontra!t relates to the e0er!ise of its so%erei,n fun!tions' 5n this !ase the pro;e!ts are an inte,ral part of the na%al :ase whi!h is &e%ote& to the &efense of :oth the <nite& States an& the PhilippinesH in&isputa:l" a fun!tion of the ,o%ern ent of the hi,hest or&er; the" are not utili=e& for nor &e&i!ate& to !o er!ial or :usiness purposes'C

ARTICLE X

L&(a' G&0ern1ent

A**&int1ent &) B3dget O))i(er8 (&ntr&' 0+ +3*er0i+i&n 9!###:


No E * -' An 8a" 17H 1988H the position of Pro%in!ial 9u&,et Affi!er of Pro%in!e M :e!a e %a!ant' Pe&ro CastahonH ,o%ernor of the pro%in!eH pursuant to Se!' 1 of /'A' No' 112H su: itte& the na es of three no inees for the aforesai& position to the -epart ent of 9u&,et 8ana,e ent (-98)H one of who was that of 8arta 8ahonhon' + onth laterH Castahon infor e& the -98 that 8ahonhon ha& assu e& the offi!e of P9A an& re?ueste& that she :e e0ten&e& the appropriate appoint ent' 3he -98 Se!retar" appointe& >osefa Gala"on instea&' Castahon proteste& the appoint ent of Gala"on insistin, that it is he who ha& the ri,ht to !hoose the P9A :" su: ittin, the na es of his three no inees an& Gala"on was not one of the ' 3he -98 !ountere& that none of the ,o%ernorBs no inees ha%e the ne!essar" ?ualifi!ations for the position' Spe!ifi!all"H 8ahonhon la!De& the fi%e*"ear e0perien!e in :u&,etin,' @en!eH the -98 was left with no alternati%e :ut to na e one who possesses all the re?uisite ?ualifi!ations in the person of Gala"on' 5t !ite& Se!tion )'0 of the -98 7o!al 9u&,et Cir!ular No' 31 whi!h statesH C3he -98 reser%es the ri,ht to fill up an" e0istin, %a!an!" where none of the no inees of the lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e eet the pres!ri:e& re?uire ents'C

3he pro%ision for %enue in the !ontra!t &oes not !onstitute a wai%er of the State 5 unit" fro suitH :e!ause the e0press wai%er of this i unit" !an onl" :e a&e :" a statute'
5n 1epu:li! us' Purisi a 78 SC1+ #70H #7#H the Supre e Court rule&: C+pparentl" respon&ent >u&,e was isle& :" the ter s of the !ontra!t :etween the pri%ate respon&entH plaintiff in his sala an& &efen&ant 1i!e an& Corn +& inistration whi!hH a!!or&in, to hi H anti!ipate& the !ase of a :rea!h of !ontra!t :etween the parties an& the suits that a" thereafter arise' 3he !onsentH to :e effe!ti%e thou,hH ust !o e fro the State a!tin, throu,h a &ul" ena!te& statute as pointe& out :" >usti!e 9en,=on in 8o:il'C

(a)

6as the -98Bs appoint ent %ali&L (2N)

(:) 6hat !an "ou sa" re,ar&in, the a:o%e* ?uote& Se!tion )'0 of -98Bs 7o!al 9u&,et Cir!ular No' 31L /0plain "our answers' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
-' (a) <n&er Se!tion 1 of /0e!uti%e Ar&er No' 112H the Pro%in!ial 9u&,et Affi!er ust :e re!o en&e& :" the $o%ernor' Sin!e >osefa Gala"on was not re!o en&e& :" the $o%ernorH her appoint ent is not %ali&' +s hel& in San >uan %' Ci%il Ser%i!e Co issionH 19) SC1+ )9H if the person re!o en&e& :" the $o%ernor is not ?ualifie&H what the Se!retar" of 9u&,et an& 8ana,e ent shoul& &o is to asD hi to re!o en& so eone who is eli,i:le' (:) -98 7o!al 9u&,et Cir!ular No' 31 is not %ali&H sin!e it is in!onsistent with /0e!uti%e Ar&er No' 112H whi!h re?uires that the appointee for Pro%in!ial 9u&,et Affi!er :e re!o en&e& :" the $o%ernor' (<n&er the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH it is now the lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e who is e powere& to appoint the :u&,et offi!er)'

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:
5n a!!or&an!e with the &o!trine of e0haustion of a& inistrati%e re e&iesH 1aintree Corporation shoul& first file a !lai with the Co ission on +u&it' 5f the !lai is &enie&H it shoul& file a petition for !ertiorari with the Supre e Court'

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B&3ndary Di+*3te Re+&'3ti&n8 LGU8 RTCJ+ 43ri+di(ti&n 9>!6<"66@:


1 * 3here was a :oun&ar" &ispute :etween -uenasH a uni!ipalit"H an& PassiH an in&epen&ent !o ponent !it"H :oth of the sa e pro%in!e' State how the two lo!al ,o%ern ent units shoul& settle their :oun&ar" &ispute' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
9oun&ar" &isputes :etween lo!al ,o%ern ent units shoul&H as u!h as possi:leH :e settle& a i!a:l"' +fter efforts at settle ent failH then the &ispute a" :e :rou,ht to the appropriate 1e,ional 3rial Court in the sai& pro%in!e' Sin!e the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e is silent as to what :o&" has e0!lusi%e ;uris&i!tion o%er the settle ent of :oun&ar" &isputes :etween a uni!ipalit" an& an in&epen&ent !o ponent !it" of the sa e pro%in!eH the 1e,ional 3rial Courts ha%e ,eneral ;uris&i!tion to a&;u&i!ate the sai& !ontro%ers"' (8un' of Ganan,a %' 8a&ronaH $'1' No' 1#1372H +pril 30H 2003)

+ ple:is!ite is ne!essar"H :e!ause this is re?uire& for the !reation of a new uni!ipalit"' (Se!tion 10H +rti!le M of the 1987 Constitution') 3he %oters of :oth 8a&aDo an& 8asi,la shoul& parti!ipate in the ple:is!iteH :e!ause :oth are &ire!tl" affe!te& :" the !reation of 8asi,la' 3he territor" of 8a&aDo will :e re&u!e&' (3an %' CA8/7/CH 1#2 SC1+ 727 P198))'

De a(t& P3b'i( C&r*&rati&n+8 E))e(t 9"66;: NA' E55 * 8+-+GA is a uni!ipalit" !o pose& of 80 :aran,a"sH 30 west of 8a&aDo 1i%er an& 20 east thereof' 3he 30 western :aran,a"sH feelin, left out of e!ono i! initiati%esH wish to !onstitute the sel%es into a new an& separate town to :e !alle& 8asi,la' + law is passe& !reatin, 8asi,la an& a ple:is!ite is a&e in fa%or of the law'
9' Suppose that one "ear after 8asi,la was !onstitute& as a uni!ipalit"H the law !reatin, it is %oi&e& :e!ause of &efe!ts' 6oul& that in%ali&ate the a!ts of the uni!ipalit" an&Ior its uni!ipal offi!ersL /0plain :riefl"' (2N)

B&3ndary Di+*3te Sett'e1ent8 A3t,&rity8 43ri+di(ti&n 9!###: No E * C' 6hat :o&" or :o&ies are %este& :" law with the authorit" to settle &isputes in%ol%in,: (1) two or ore towns within the sa e pro%in!e; (1N) (2) two or ore hi,hl" ur:ani=e& !ities' (1N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 1') <n&er Se!tion 118(:) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH :oun&ar" &isputes in%ol%in, two or ore uni!ipalities within the sa e pro%in!e shall :e settle& :" the san,,unian, panlalawi,an !on!erne&' 2') <n&er Se!tion 118(&) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH :oun&ar" &isputes in%ol%in, two or ore hi,hl" ur:ani=e& !ities shall :e settle& :" the san,,unian, panlun,so& of the parties' Creati&n &) Ne5 L&(a' G&0ern1ent Unit+8 P'ebi+(ite ReF3ire1ent 9"66;:
NA' E55 * 8+-+GA is a uni!ipalit" !o pose& of 80 :aran,a"sH 30 west of 8a&aDo 1i%er an& 20 east thereof' 3he 30 western :aran,a"sH feelin, left out of e!ono i! initiati%esH wish to !onstitute the sel%es into a new an& separate town to :e !alle& 8asi,la' +' $rantin, that 8asi,laFs proponents su!!ee& to se!ure a law in their fa%orH woul& a ple:is!ite :e ne!essar" or notL 5f it is ne!essar"H who shoul& %ote or parti!ipate in the ple:is!iteL -is!uss :riefl"' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
+lthou,h the uni!ipalit" !annot :e !onsi&ere& as a &e fa!to !orporationH :e!ause there is no %ali& law un&er whi!h it was !reate&H the a!ts of the uni!ipalit" an& of its offi!ers will not :e in%ali&ate&H :e!ause the e0isten!e of the law !reatin, it is an operati%e fa!t :efore it was &e!lare& un!onstitutional' @en!eH the pre%ious a!ts of the uni!ipalit" an& its offi!ers shoul& :e ,i%en effe!t as a atter of fairness an& ;usti!e' (8uni!ipalit" of8ala:an, %' 9enitoH 27 SC1+ 233 P19)9Q

De0&'3ti&n &) P&5er 9!###: -efine &e%olution with respe!t to lo!al ,o%ern ent units' SUGGESTED ANSWER: Se!tion 17(e) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e &efines &e%olution as the a!t :" whi!h the National $o%ern ent !onfers power an& authorit" upon the %arious lo!al ,o%ern ent units to perfor spe!ifi! fun!tions an& responsi:ilities' ran(,i+e8 *ri&r a**r&0a' &) LGU ne(e++ary 9!#$$:
No' 9: 8a!a:e:eH Pa pan,a has se%eral :arrios alon, the Pa pan,a ri%er' 3o ser%i!e the nee&s of their resi&ents the uni!ipalit" has :een operatin, a ferr" ser%i!e at the sa e ri%erH for a nu :er of "ears alrea&"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

So eti e in 1987H the uni!ipalit" was ser%e& a !op" of an or&er fro the 7an& 3ansportation

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!"?

Fran!hisin, an& 1e,ulator" 9oar& (73F19)H ,rantin, a !ertifi!ate of pu:li! !on%enien!e to 8r' 1i!ar&o 8a!apinla!H a resi&ent of 8a!a:e:eH to operate ferr" ser%i!e a!ross the sa e ri%er an& :etween the sa e :arrios :ein, ser%i!e& presentl" :" the uni!ipalit"Bs ferr" :oats' + !he!D of the re!or&s of the appli!ation of 8a!apinla! shows that the appli!ation was file& so e onths :eforeH set for hearin,H an& noti!es of su!h hearin, were pu:lishe& in two newspapers of ,eneral !ir!ulation in the town of 8a!a:e:eH an& in the pro%in!e of Pa pan,a' 3he uni!ipalit" ha& ne%er :een &ire!tl" ser%e& a !op" of that noti!e of hearin, nor ha& the San,,unian, 9a"an :een re?ueste& :" 8a!apinla! for an" operate' 3he uni!ipalit" i e&iatel" file& a otion for re!onsi&eration with the 73F19 whi!h was &enie&' 5t the went to the Supre e Court on a petition for !ertiorari to nullif" the or&er ,rantin, a !ertifi!ate of pu:li! !on%enien!e to 8a!apinla! on two ,roun&s:

,oes a,ainst the aforesai& !onstitutional re?uire ent of three "ear ter s for lo!al offi!ials e0!ept for :aran,a" offi!ials' Ordinan(e8 U+e B Lea+e &) Pr&*ertie+8 P3b'i( U+e 9!##%:
No' 9: -ue to o%er*!row&in, in the pu:li! arDet in Pa!oH 8anilaH the Cit" Coun!il passe& an or&inan!e allowin, the lease to %en&ors of parts of the streets where the pu:li! arDet is lo!ate&H pro%i&e& that the lessees pa" to the !it" ,o%ern ent a fee of P20 per s?uare eter of the area o!!upie& :" the lessees' 3he resi&ents in the area !o plaine& to the 8a"or that the lease of the pu:li! streets woul& !ause serious traffi! pro:le s to the ' 3he 8a"or !an!elle& the lease an& or&ere& the re o%al of the stalls !onstru!te& on the streets'

(1) -enial of &ue pro!ess to the uni!ipalit"; an& (2) For failure of 8a!apinla! to se!ure appro%al of the San,,unian, 9a"an for hi to operate a ferr" ser%i!e in 8a!a:e:eH 1esol%e the two points in the petition with reasons' SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he petition for !ertiorari shoul& :e ,rante&H 1' +s a part" &ire!tl" affe!te& :" the operation of the ferr" ser%i!eH the 8uni!ipalit" of 8a!a:e:eH Pa pan,a was entitle& to :e &ire!tl" notifie& :" the 73F19 '''' 2' 5t has :een hel& that where a ferr" operation lies entirel" within the uni!ipalit"H the prior appro%al of the 8uni!ipal ,o%ern ent is ne!essar"' An!e appro%e&H the operator ust then appl" with the 73F19 for a !ertifi!ate of pu:li! !on%enien!e an& shall :e su:;e!t to 73F19 super%isionH (8uni!ipalit" of /!ha,ue %' +:elleraH supra)' La5 )i2ing t,e ter1+ &) '&(a' e'e(ti0e &))i(ia'+ 9>;<"66?: State whether or not the law is !onstitutional' /0plain :riefl"' 3' + law fi0in, the ter s of lo!al ele!ti%e offi!ialsH other than :aran,a" offi!ialsH to ) "ears' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he law is in%ali&' <n&er +rti!le MH Se!tion 8 of the 1987 ConstitutionH Cthe ter of offi!e of ele!ti%e lo!al offi!ialsH e0!ept :aran,a" offi!ialsH whi!h shall :e &eter ine& :" lawH shall :e three "ears an& no su!h offi!ial shall ser%e for ore than three !onse!uti%e ter s'C 3he law !learl"

6as the a!t of the 8a"or le,alL SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he !an!ellation of the lease an& the re o%al of the stalls are %ali&' +s hel& in 8a!asiano %s' -ioDnoH 212 SC1+ #)#H the lease of pu:li! streets is %oi&H sin!e the" are reser%e& for pu:li! use an& are outsi&e the !o er!e of an' Ordinan(e8 .a'idity8 C'&+3re &r Lea+e &) Pr&*ertie+ )&r P3b'i( U+e 9"66-:
No M5 * +n a,,rie%e& resi&ent of the Cit" of 8anila file& an&a us pro!ee&in,s a,ainst the !it" a"or an& the !it" en,ineer to !o pel these offi!ials to re o%e the arDet stalls fro !ertain !it" streets whi!h the" ha& &esi,nate& as flea arDets' Portions of the sai& !it" streets were lease& or li!ense& :" the respon&ent offi!ials to arDet stallhol&ers :" %irtue of a !it" or&inan!e' -e!i&e the &ispute'

IRST ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


3he petition shoul& :e ,rante&' 5n a!!or&an!e with 8a!asiano %' -ioDno' 212 SC1+ #)# P1992QH sin!e pu:li! streets are properties for pu:li! use an& are outsi&e the !o er!e of anH the Cit" 8a"or an& the Cit" /n,ineer !annot lease or li!ense portions of the !it" streets to arDet stallhol&ers'

SECOND ALTERNATI.E ANSWER:


3he petition shoul& :e &enie&' <n&er Se!tion 21(&)of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH a !it" a" :" or&inan!e te poraril" !lose a street so that a flea arDet a" :e esta:lishe&' Ordinan(e8 .a'idity8 C&1*en+ati&n8 T&rt3&3+ A(t &) an E1*'&yee 9!##;: No' ); >ohnn" was e plo"e& as a &ri%er :" the 8uni!ipalit" of Calu pitH 9ula!an' 6hile &ri%in, re!Dlessl" a uni!ipal &u p tru!D with its loa& of san& for the repair of uni!ipal streetsH

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!"%

>ohnn" hit a ;eepne"' 3wo passen,ers of the ;eepne" were Dille&' 3he San,,unian, 9a"an passe& an or&inan!e appropriatin, P300H000 as !o pensation for the heirs of the %i!ti s' 1) 5s the uni!ipalit" lia:le for the ne,li,en!e of >ohnn"L 2) 5s the uni!ipal or&inan!e %ali&L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
2) 3he or&inan!e appropriatin, P300H000'00 for the heirs of the %i!ti s of >ohnn" is %oi&' 3his a ounts to appropriatin, pu:li! fun&s for a pri%ate purpose' <n&er Se!tion 332 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH no pu:li! one" shall :e appropriate& for pri%ate purposes'

:e !har,e& to propert" owners :enefite& :" pu:li! worDsH :e!ause the essential &ifferen!e :etween a ta0 an& su!h assess ent is pre!isel" that the latter is :ase& wholl" on :enefits re!ei%e&' @owe%erH if the or&inan!e le%ies a ta0 on all :usiness esta:lish ents lo!ate& outsi&e the pri%ate su:&i%isionH then it is o:;e!tiona:le on the ,roun& that it appropriate pri%ate fun&s for a pu:li! purpose' (Pas!ual %' Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDsH supra) Ordinan(e8 .a'idity8 Pre0enting I11&ra'ity 9!#$%:
(!) +n or&inan!e prohi:itin, :ar:ershop operators fro ren&erin, assa,e ser%i!e to their !usto ers in a separate roo '

ALTERNATI.E ANSWER8
<pon the fore,oin, !onsi&erationsH the uni!ipal or&inan!e is null an& %oi& for :ein, ultra %ires' 3he uni!ipalit" not :ein, lia:le to pa" !o pensation to the heirs of the %i!ti sH the or&inan!e is utterl" &e%oi& of le,al :asis' 5t woul& in fa!t !onstitute an ille,al use or e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s whi!h is a !ri inal offense' 6hat is oreH the or&inan!e &oes not eet one of the re?uisites for %ali&it" of uni!ipal or&inan!esH ie'H that it ust :e in !onsonan!e with !ertain well*esta:lishe& an& :asi! prin!iples of a su:stanti%e natureH to wit: it &oes not !ontra%ene the Constitution or the lawH it is not unfair or oppressi%e' 5t is not partial or &is!ri inator"' 5t is !onsistent with pu:li! poli!"H an& it is not unreasona:le'

SUGGESTED ANSWER: (!) 3he or&inan!e is %ali&' 5n Eelas!o %H Eille,asH 120 SC1+ )28 (1983) su!h or&inan!e was uphel& on the ,roun& that it is a eans of ena:lin, the Cit" of 8anila to !olle!t a fee for operatin, assa,e !lini!s an& of pre%entin, i oralit" whi!h i,ht :e !o itte& :" allowin, the !onstru!tion of separate roo s in :ar:er shops' Ordinan(e8 .a'idity8 Uti'i/ati&n B De0e'&*1ent8 Nati&na' Wea't, 9!##!: No' 2; 3he pro%in!e of Palawan passes an or&inan!e re?uirin, all ownersIoperators of fishin, %essels that fish in waters surroun&in, the pro%in!e to in%est ten per!ent (10N) of their net profits fro operations therein in an" enterprise lo!ate& in Palawan' N+1CA Fishin, Corp'H a Filipino !orporation with hea& offi!e in Na%otasH 8etro 8anilaH !hallen,es the or&inan!e as un!onstitutional' -e!i&e the !ase' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he or&inan!e is in%ali&' 3he or&inan!e was apparentl" ena!te& pursuant to +rti!le MH Se!' 7 of the ConstitutionH whi!h entitles lo!al ,o%ern ents to an e?uita:le share in the pro!ee&s of the utili=ation an& &e%elop ent of the national wealth within their respe!ti%e areas' @owe%erH this shoul& :e a&e pursuant to law' + law is nee&e& to i ple ent this pro%ision an& a lo!al ,o%ern ent !annot !onstitute itself unto a law' 5n the a:sen!e of a law the or&inan!e in ?uestion is in%ali&'

Ordinan(e8 .a'idity8 L&(a' Ta2ati&n 0+= S*e(ia' A++e++1ent 9!#$%: 1987 No' E: State whether or not the followin, !it" or&inan!es are %ali& an& ,i%e reasons in support of "our answers: (:) +n or&inan!e on :usiness esta:lish ents to raise fun&s for the !onstru!tion an& aintenan!e of roa&s in pri%ate su:&i%isionsH whi!h roa&s are open for use :" se, ents of the pu:li! who a" ha%e :usiness insi&e the su:&i%ision' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(:) 3he or&inan!e is %ali&' 3he !har,e on the :usiness esta:lish ents is not a ta0 :ut a SP/C5+7 +SS/SS8/N3' @en!eH the hol&in, in Pas!ual %' Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDsH 110 Phil' 331 (19)0)H that pu:li! fun&s !annot :e appropriate& for the !onstru!tion of roa&s in a pri%ate su:&i%isionH &oes not appl"' +s hel& in +postoli! Prefe!t %' Cit" 3reasurer of 9a,uioH 71 Phil' 2#7 (19#1)H spe!ial assess ents a"

Ordinan(e+8 .a'idity8 A1ending NatJ' La5+ 9!#$$:


No' #: >ose O' Sa:ater is a real estate &e%eloper' @e a!?uires raw lan&s an& !on%erts

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!"$

the into su:&i%isions' +fter a!?uirin, a lot of aroun& 12 he!tares in Ca:anatuan Cit"H he !ause& the preparation of a su:&i%ision plan for the propert"' 9efore he was a:le to su: it the su:&i%ision plan to the 9ureau of 7an&s an&Ior 7an& 1e,istration Co ission for %erifi!ation an&Ior appro%alH he was infor e& that he ust first present the plan to the Cit" /n,ineer who woul& &eter ine whether the =onin, or&inan!e of the Ca:anatuan Cit" ha& :een o:ser%e&' @e was surprise& when he was asDe& to pa" the !it" ,o%ern ent a ser%i!e fee of P0'30 per s?uare eter of lan&H !o%ere& :" his su:&i%ision plan' @e was e%en ore surprise& when infor e& that a fine of P200'00 an&Ior i prison ent for not e0!ee&in, si0 onths or :othH ha%e :een fi0e& in the or&inan!e as penalt" for %iolation thereof' 9elie%in, that the !it" or&inan!e is ille,alH he file& suit to nullif" the sa e'

power of 3a!lo:an Cit" to suppress ,a :lin, an& prohi:ite& ,a es of !han!e e0!lu&es of !han!e per itte& :" law' 5 plie& repeals are not fa%ore&' (9as!o %' P+$CA1)

Ordinan(e+8 .a'idity8 Li1itati&n &) Pena'tie+ 9!##!:


No' 10: 3he uni!ipalit" of +l!o"H Ce:uH passe& Ar&inan!e No' 10H series of 1991H re?uirin, ownersH a& inistratorsH or tenants of :uil&in,s an& pre ises to Deep an& aintain the in sanitar" !on&itionH an& shoul& the" fail to &o soH !ause the to :e !leare& an& Dept in sanitar" !on&ition an& the !ost thereof to :e assesse& a,ainst the ownerH a& inistrator or tenantH as the !ase a" :eH whi!h !ost shall !onstitute a lien a,ainst the propert"' 5t further penali=es %iolation thereof with a fine not e0!ee&in, Ane 3housan& Pesos (P1H000'00) or i prison ent for one (1) "ear at the &is!retion of the !ourt' 5s the or&inan!e %ali&L

-e!i&e the !ase with reasons' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


3he or&inan!e is null an& %oi&' 5n Eilla!orta %' 9ernar&oH 1#3 SC1+ #80 (198)) the Supre e Court hel& that a uni!ipal or&inan!e !annot a en& a national law in the ,uise of i ple entin, it' 5n this !aseH the re?uire ent a!tuall" !onfli!ts with se!' ## of +!t No' #9) :e!ause the latter &oes not re?uire su:&i%ision plans to :e su: itte& to the Cit" /n,ineer :efore the" !an :e su: itte& for appro%al toH an& %erifi!ation :"H the 7an& 1e,istration Co ission an&Ior the 9ureau of 7an&s'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he or&inan!e is %ali& insofar as it re?uires ownersH a& inistratorsH or tenants of :uil&in,s an& pre ises to Deep an& aintain the in sanitar" !on&ition an& pro%i&es that shoul& the" fail to &o soH the uni!ipalit" shall !ause the to :e !leane& an& the !ost shall :e assesse& a,ainst the ownerH a& inistratorH or tenant an& shall :e a lien a,ainst the propert"' 3his is e0pressl" authori=e& :" Se!' 1#9(DD) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e' @owe%erH the penalt" for the %iolation of the or&inan!e is in%ali&H :e!ause it is e0!essi%e' 3he penalt" in this !ase is a fine not e0!ee&in, P1H000 or i prison ent for one "earH in the &is!retion of the !ourt' <n&er Se!' 1#9 (!) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH howe%erH the penalt" for the %iolation of a uni!ipal or&inan!e !an not e0!ee& a fine of P1H000'00 or 5 prison ent for si0 onthsH or :oth at the &is!retion of the !ourt'

Ordinan(e+8 .a'idity8 Ga1b'ing Pr&,ibiti&n 9!##@:


No' #: 2' P+$CA1 &e!i&e& to operate a !asino in 3a!lo:an Cit" un&er authorit" of P'-' No' 18)9' 5t lease& a portion of a :uil&in, :elon,in, to /llen 8!$uire reno%ate& an& e?uippe& it in preparation for its inau,uration' 3he San,,unian, Panlun,so& of 3a!lo:an Cit" ena!te& an or&inan!e prohi:itin, the operation of !asinos in the Cit" an& pro%i&in, penalt" for its %iolation' /llen 8!$uire an& P+$CA1 assaile& the %ali&it" of the or&inan!e in !ourt' @ow woul& "ou resol%e the issueL -is!uss full"'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
3he or&inan!e shoul& :e &e!lare& in%ali&' +s hel& in 8a,ta;as %s' Pr"!e Properties Corporation' 5n!'H 23# SC1+ 222' su!h an or&inan!e !ontra%enes Presi&ential -e!ree No' 18)9H whi!h authori=es the Philippine + use ent an& $a in, Corporation to operate !asinos within the territorial >uris&i!tion of the PhilippinesH :e!ause it pre%ents the sai& !orporation fro e0er!isin, the power !onferre& on it to operate a !asino in 3a!lo:an Cit"' 3he

Ordinan(e+8 .et& P&5er 9!##?: (1) @ow &oes the lo!al le,islati%e asse :l" o%erri&e the %eto :" the lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e of an or&inan!eL (2) An what ,roun&s !an a lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e %eto an or&inan!eL (3) @ow !an an or&inan!e %etoe& :" a lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e :e!o e a law without it :ein, o%erri&&en :" the lo!al le,islati%e asse :l"L SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(1) <n&er Se!tions 2# (a) an& 22 (!) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the lo!al le,islati%e asse :l" !an o%erri&e the %eto

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!"#

of the lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e :" two*thir&s %ote of all its e :ers'
(2) <n&er Se!tion 22PaQ of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e a" %eto an or&inan!e on the ,roun& that it is 6LTRA ?IR:7 or PR:E6;ICIAL TO T@: P6BLIC W:L8AR:. (3) Pursuant to Se!tion 2#(:) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH an or&inan!e %etoe& :" the lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e shall :e &ee e& appro%e& if he &oes not !o uni!ate his %eto to the lo!al le,islati%e asse :l" within 12 &a"s in the !ase of a pro%in!e an& 10 &a"s in the !ase of a !it" or a uni!ipalit"' 7iDewiseH if the %eto :" the lo!al e0e!uti%e has :een o%erri&&en :" the lo!al le,islati%e asse :l"H a se!on& %eto will :e %oi&' <n&er Se!tion 22(!) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the lo!al !hief e0e!uti%e a" %eto an or&inan!e onl" on!e'

7aDe -e%elop ent +uthorit" %s' Court of +ppealsH 231 SC1+ 292H un&er 1epu:li! +!t NoH #820H the 7a,una 7aDe -e%elop ent +uthorit" is an&ate& to pro ote the &e%elop ent of the 7a,una 7aDe areaH in!lu&in, the surroun&in, Pro%in!e of 1i=alH with &ue re,ar& to the pre%ention of pollution' 3he 7a,una 7aDe -e%elop ent +uthorit" is an&ate& to pass upon an& appro%e or &isappro%e all pro;e!ts propose& :" lo!al ,o%ern ent offi!es within the re,ion' 2' OesH the 7a,una 7aDe -e%elop ent +uthorit" !an ;ustif" its or&er' Sin!e it has :een authori=e& :" /0e!uti%e Ar&er No' 927 to aDe or&ers re?uirin, the &is!ontinuan!e of pollutionH its power to issue the or&er !an :e inferre& fro this' AtherwiseH it will :e a toothless a,en!"' 8oreo%erH the 7a,una 7aDe -e%elop ent +uthorit" is spe!ifi!all" authori=e& un&er its Charter to issue !ease an& &esist or&ers'

P&'i(e P&5er8 LLDA 9!##@:


No' 9: 3he 8uni!ipalit" of 9inan,onanH 1i=alH passe& a resolution authori=in, the operation of an open ,ar:a,e &u psite in a 9* he!tare lan& in the 1e"es /state within the 8uni!ipalit"Bs territorial li its' So e !on!erne& resi&ents of 9inan,onan file& a !o plaint with the 7a,una 7aDe -e%elop ent +uthorit" (77-+) to stop the operation of the &u psite &ue to its har ful effe!ts on the health of the resi&ents' 3he 77-+ !on&u!te& an on*site in%esti,ationH onitorin,H testin, an& water sa plin, an& foun& that the &u psite woul& !onta inate 7a,una &e 9a" an& the surroun&in, areas of the 8uni!ipalit"' 3he 77-+ also &is!o%ere& that no en%iron ental !learan!e was se!ure& :" the 8uni!ipalit" fro the -epart ent of /n%iron ent an& Natural 1esour!es (-/N1) an& the 77-+ as re?uire& :" law' 3he 77-+ therefore issue& to the 9inan,onan uni!ipal ,o%ern ent a !ease an& &esist or&er to stop the operation of the &u psite' 3he 8uni!ipalit" of 9inan,onan file& a !ase to annul the or&er issue& :" the 77-+'

P&5er t& I++3e S3b*&ena B Cite C&nte1*t 9!##-:

&r

No ): 8a"or +lfre&o 7i !lose& the funhouses in the /r ita &istri!t suspe!te& of :ein, fronts for prostitution' 3o &eter ine the feasi:ilit" of puttin, up a le,ali=e& re& li,ht &istri!tH the !it" !oun!il !on&u!te& an in?uir" an& in%ite& operators of the !lose& funhouses to ,et their %iews' No one honore& the 5n%itation' 3he !it" !oun!il issue& su:poenas to !o pel the atten&an!e of the operators :ut whi!h were !o pletel" &isre,ar&e&' 3he !oun!il &e!lare& the operators ,uilt" of !onte pt an& issue& warrants for their arrest'

3he operators !o e to "ou for le,al a&%i!eH asDin, the followin, ?uestions: (1) 5s the !oun!il e powere& to issue su:poenas to !o pel their atten&an!eL (2) -oes the !oun!il ha%e the power to !ite for !onte ptL SUGGESTED ANSWER:
i) 3he !it" !oun!il is not e powere& to issue su:poenas to !o pel the atten&an!e of the operators of the fun*houses 5n the /r ita &istri!t' 3here is no pro%ision in the ConstitutionH the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH or an" law e0pressl" ,rantin, lo!al le,islati%e :o&ies the power to su:poena witnesses' +s hel& in Ne,ros Ariental 55 /le!tri! Cooperati%eH 5n!' %s' San,,unian, Panlun,so& of -u a,ueteH 122 SC1+ #21H su!h power !annot :e i plie& fro the ,rant of &ele,ate& le,islate& power' Su!h power is >u&i!ial' 3o allow lo!al le,islati%e :o&ies to e0er!ise su!h power without

(1) Can the 8uni!ipalit" of 9inan,onan in%oDe poli!e power to pre%ent its resi&ents an& the 77-+ fro interferin, with the operation of the &u psite :" the 8uni!ipalit"L /0plain'
(2) Can the 77-+ ;ustif" its or&er :" assertin, that the health of the resi&ents will :e

a&%ersel" affe!te&' /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:


1' NoH the 8uni!ipalit" of 9inan,onan !annot in%oDe its poli!e power' +!!or&in, to 7a,una

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!-6

e0press statutor" :asis woul& %iolate the &o!trine of separation of powers'


(2) 3he !it" !oun!il &oes not ha%e the power to !ite for !onte pt' 3here is liDewise no pro%ision in the ConstitutionH the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH or an" other laws ,rantin, lo!al le,islati%e :o&ies the power to !ite for !onte pt' Su!h power !annot :e &ee e& i plie& in the &ele,ation of le,islati%e power to lo!al le,islati%e :o&iesH for the e0isten!e of su!h power poses a potential &ero,ation of in&i%i&ual ri,hts'

of +ppealsH $'1' No' 10791)H Fe:ruar" 20H 1997)


3he ?uestion of whether there is ,enuine ne!essit" for the e0propriation of ChristinaBs lot or whether the uni!ipalit" has other an& :etter lots for the purpose is a atter that will ha%e to :e resol%e& :" the Court upon presentation of e%i&en!e :" the parties to the !ase'

P&5er8 E1inent D&1ain8 LGU8 Rig,t t& E2er(i+e 9>!6<"66@: 3he San,,unian, 9a"an of the 8uni!ipalit" of SantaH 5lo!os Sur passe& 1esolution No' 1 authori=in, its 8a"or to initiate a petition for the e0propriation of a lot owne& :" Christina as site for its uni!ipal sports !enter' 3his was appro%e& :" the 8a"or' @owe%erH the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an of 5lo!os Sur &isappro%e& the 1esolution as there i,ht still :e other a%aila:le lots in Santa for a sports !enter'
NonethelessH the 8uni!ipalit" of SantaH throu,h its 8a"orH file& a !o plaint for e inent &o ain' Christina oppose& this on the followin, ,roun&s: (a) the 8uni!ipalit" of Santa has no power to e0propriate; (:) 1esolution No' 1 has :een %oi&e& sin!e the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an &isappro%e& it for :ein, ar:itrar"; an& (!) the 8uni!ipalit" of Santa has other an& :etter lots for that purpose'

P&5er+ &) Barangay A++e1b'y 9"66-: Can a 9aran,a" +sse :l" e0er!ise an" poli!e powerL SUGGESTED ANSWER: NoH the 9aran,a" +sse :l" !annot e0er!ise an" poli!e power' <n&er Se!tion 398 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH it !an onl" re!o en& to the San,,unian, 9aran,a" the a&option of easures for the welfare of the :aran,a" an& &e!i&e on the a&option of an initiati%e' P&5er+8 Liga ng 1ga Barangay 9"66-: Can the 7i,a n, ,a 9aran,a" e0er!ise le,islati%e powersL SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he 7i,a n, 8,a 9aran,a" !annot e0er!ise le,islati%e powers' +s state& in 9ito*Anon %' Fernan&e=' 320 SC1+ 732 P2001QH it is not a lo!al ,o%ern ent unit an& its pri ar" purpose is to &eter ine representation of the ,a in the san,,unians; to %entilateH arti!ulateH an& !r"stalli=e issues affe!tin, :aran,a" ,o%ern ent a& inistration; an& to se!ure solutions for the throu,h proper an& le,al eans' ReF3i+ite+8 C&ntra(t+ In0&'0ing LGU 9!##!: 3he 8uni!ipalit" of Si:on,aH Ce:uH wishes to enter into a !ontra!t in%ol%in, e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s' 6hat are the le,al re?uisites thereforL SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he followin, are the le,al re?uisites for the %ali&it" of a !ontra!t to :e entere& into :" the 8uni!ipalit" of Si:on,aH whi!h in%ol%es the e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&s: (1) 3he !ontra!t ust :e within the power of the uni!ipalit"; (2) 3he !ontra!t ust :e entere& into :" the proper offi!erH i'e'H the a"orH upon resolution of the San,,unian, 9a"an pursuant to Se!tion 1#2 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e;
(3) 5n a!!or&an!e with Se!' )0) of the 1e%ise& +& inistrati%e Co&eH there ust :e an appropriation of the pu:li! fun&s; an& in a!!or&an!e with Se!' )07H there ust :e a

1esol%e the !ase with reasons' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:


<n&er Se!tion 19 of 1'+' No' 71)0H the power of e inent &o ain is e0pli!itl" ,rante& to the uni!ipalit"H :ut ust :e e0er!ise& throu,h an or&inan!e rather than throu,h a resolution' (8uni!ipalit" ofParana?ue %' E'8' 1ealt" Corp'H $'1' No' 127820H >ul" 20H 1998) 3he San,,unian, Panlalawi,an of 5lo!os Sur was without the authorit" to &isappro%e 1esolution No' 1 as the uni!ipalit" !learl" has the power to e0er!ise the ri,ht of e inent &o ain an& its San,,unian, 9a"an the !apa!it" to pro ul,ate sai& resolution' 3he onl" ,roun& upon whi!h a pro%in!ial :oar& a" &e!lare an" uni!ipal resolutionH or&inan!e or or&er in%ali& is when su!h resolutionH or&inan!e or or&er is :e"on& the powers !onferre& upon the !oun!il or presi&ent aDin, the sa e' Su!h is not the situation in this !ase' (8o&a" %' Court

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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!ertifi!ate of a%aila:ilit" of fun&s issue& :" the uni!ipal treasurer; an& (#) 3he !ontra!t ust !onfor with the for al re?uisites of written !ontra!ts pres!ri:e& :" law' ReF3i+ite+8 C&ntra(t+ in0&'0ing LGU 9!##@: No' #: 1' 6hat are the !on&itions un&er whi!h a lo!al e0e!uti%e a" enter into a !ontra!t in :ehalf of his ,o%ern ent unitL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 1' 3he followin, are the !on&itions un&er whi!h a lo!al e0e!uti%e a" enter into a !ontra!t in :ehalf of the ,o%ern ent until:
(1) 3he lo!al ,o%ern ent unit ust ha%e the power to enter into the parti!ular !ontra!t; (2) Pursuant to Se!tion 22(!) of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH there ust :e a prior authori=ation :" the san,,unian, !on!erne&H an& a le,i:le !op" of the !ontra!t shall :e poste& at a !onspi!uous pla!e in the pro%in!ial !apitol or the !it"H uni!ipal or :aran,a" hall' (3) 5n a!!or&an!e with Se!tions #) an& #7H Chapter 8H Su:title 9' 9ooD E of the 1987 +& inistrati%e Co&eH if the !ontra!t 5n%ol%es the e0pen&iture of pu:li! fun&sH there ust :e an appropriation therefore an& a !ertifi!ate of a%aila:ilit" of fun&s :" the treasurer of the lo!al ,o%ern ent unit'

not lia:le for real estate ta0 on the propert" :elon,in, to the ,o%ern ent whi!h it o!!up"' @owe%erH Se!tion 23# of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e su:se?uentl" with&rew the e0e ption fro real propert" ta0es of ,o%ern ent*owne& or !ontrolle& !orporations' 5f 5 were the >u&,eH 5 woul& hol& the National -e%elop ent Co pan" lia:le for real estate ta0es'

Ta2ati&n8 S&3r(e+ &) Re0en3e 9!###: No E * <n&er the ConstitutionH what are the three ain sour!es of re%enues of lo!al ,o%ern ent unitsL (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he followin, are the ain sour!es of re%enues of lo!al ,o%ern ent units un&er the Constitution: 1' 3a0esH feesH an& !har,es' (Se!tion 2H +rti!le M) 2' Share in the national ta0es' (Se!tion )H +rti!le M) 3' Share in the pro!ee&s of the utili=ations an& &e%elop ent of the national wealth within their areas' (Se!tion 7H +rti!le MT Wit,dra5a' &) P3b'i( Pr&*erty )r&1 P3b'i( U+e 9!##6: No' 8: MO.H a !orporation or,ani=e& un&er the laws of @on,Don,H with 100N forei,n e?uit"H o:taine& fro the Se!urities an& /0!han,e Co ission a li!ense to operate a prawn hat!her" pro;e!t on a pie!e of lan& lease& fro the Cit" of -a,upan' 3he lan& was for erl" a parD an& pla=a :elon,in, to the Cit" an& was !on%erte& :" the Cit" to &eri%e u!h nee&e& fun&s' (1) 8a" the Cit" of -a,upan lawfull" !on%ert the parD to prawn pon&s an& lease the sa eL /0plain "our answer'
(2) 8a" the Cit" of -a,upan an& MO. !orporation %ali&l" enter into the lease !ontra!t for the prawn pon&sL +nswer with reasons'

(#) 3he !ontra!t ust !onfor with the for al re?uisites of written !ontra!ts pres!ri:e& :" law'
(2) Pursuant to Se!tion 20)8 of the 1e%ise& +& inistrati%e Co&eH if a pro%in!e is a part" to a !ontra!t !on%e"in, title to real propert"H the !ontra!t ust :e appro%e& :" the Presi&ent' <n&er Se!tion 219) of the 1e%ise& +& inistrati%e Co&eH if a uni!ipalit" is a part" to a !ontra!t !on%e"in, real propert" or an" 5nterest in it or !reatin, a lien upon itH the !ontra!t ust :e appro%e& :" the pro%in!ial ,o%ernor'

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(1) OesH the Cit" of -a,upan a" lawfull" !on%ert the parD into prawn pon&s an& lease the ' + !it" a" !lose a parD an& pla=a an& on!e the propert" has :een with&rawn fro pu:li! useH it falls within the !o er!e of an an& a" :e lease&' Se!tion 10 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e pro%i&es: C+ lo!al ,o%ern ent unit a" liDewiseH throu,h its hea& a!tin, pursuant to a resolution of its san,,unian an& in a!!or&an!e with e0istin, law an& the pro%isions of this Co&eH !lose an" :aran,a"H uni!ipalH !it" or pro%in!ial roa&H streetH alle" parD or s?uare' No su!h wa" or pla!e or an" part thereof

Ta2ati&n8 GOCC Liabi'ity &r Rea' E+tate Ta2 9!###: No E5 * C' 3he Pro%in!e of M re?uire& the National -e%elop ent Co pan" to pa" real estate ta0es on the lan& :ein, o!!upie& :" N-C an& the latter ar,ue& that sin!e it is a ,o%ern ent*owne& !orporationH its properties are e0e pt fro real estate ta0es' 5f "ou were the >u&,eH how woul& "ou &e!i&e the !aseL 1eason out' (2N) SUGGESTED ANSWER:
5n National -e%elop ent Co pan" %' Ce:u Cit"H 212 SC1+ 382H the Supre e Court hel& that the National -e%elop ent Co pan" was

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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shall :e !lose& without in&e nif"in, an" person pre;u&i!e& there:"' + propert" thus with&rawn fro pu:li! use a" :e use& or !on%e"e& for an" purpose for whi!h other real propert" :elon,in, to the lo!al unit !on!erne& i,ht :e lawfull" use& or !on%e"e&'C 5n Fa%is %' Cit" 9a,uioH 27 SC1+ 10)0H it was hel& that the Cit" of 9a,uio !oul& !lose a street an& lease it sin!e it ha& :e!o e patri onial propert"' 7iDewiseH in Ce:u A0",en an& +!et"lene Co pan"H 5n!' a 9er!elesH )) SC1+ #81H it was hel& that the Cit" of Ce:u !oul& !lose a street an& sell it thereafter' (2) Sin!e the Cit" of -a,upan has the power to !on%ert the parD into prawn pon&s it !an also lease it to MO. e%en thou,h MO. is a 100N* forei,n !orporation' 3he operation of a prawn hat!her" &oes not in%ol%e e0ploitation of natural resour!es within the eanin, of Se!tions 2 an& 3H +rti!le M55 of the 1987 Constitution' (Se!retar" of >usti!eH Ap' No' 3H s' 1988) Sin!e the portion of the parD ha& :een with&rawn fro pu:li! useH it !oul& :e &ispose& for an" lawful purpose in!lu&in, leasin, it to a forei,n !orporation'

+l!antara !annot reassu e offi!e as e :er of the San,,unian, 9a"an' +s hel& in San,,unian, 9a"an of San +n&res %' Court of +ppealsH 28# SC1+ 27) (1998)H +l!antara shoul& :e &ee e& to ha%e a:an&one& his position as e :er of the San,,unian, 9a"an' @is intention to a:an&on his position is shown :" his failure to perfor his fun!tion as e :er of the San,,unian, 9a"anH his failure to !olle!t the salar" for the positionH his failure to o:;e!t to the appoint ent of his repla!e entH an& his failure to initiate an" a!t to reassu e his post after the reor,ani=ation of the San,,unian, 9a"an was %oi&e&' +l!antara effe!te& his intention :" his letter of resi,nationH his assu ption of offi!e as e :er of the San,,unian, Panlalawi,anH his &is!har,e of his &uties as its e :erH an& his re!eipt of the salar" for su!h post' +l!antara !annot :e &ee e& to ha%e lost his offi!e as e :er of the San,,unian, 9a"an :" resi,nation' <n&er Se!tion 82 of the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&eH the resi,nation shoul& :e su: itte& to the San,,unian, 9a"an' @e su: itte& it to the 8a"or instea&H an& the resi,nation was not a!!epte&'

ARTICLE XI A((&3ntabi'ity &) P3b'i( O))i(er+


Aband&n1ent &) O))i(e 9"666:
No E55' +l!antara was ele!te& :aran,a" !hair an an& later presi&ent of the +sso!iation of 9aran,a" Coun!ils in his uni!ipalit"' 5n that !apa!it"H he was appointe& :" the Presi&ent as e :er of the San,,unian, 9a"an of his uni!ipalit"' 7aterH the Se!retar" of 5nterior an& 7o!al $o%ern ents appointe& +l!antara as e :er of the San,,unlan, Panlalawi,an of their pro%in!e to eet a reor,ani=ational !ontin,en!"H an& 8en&o=a tooD his pla!e in the San,,unian, 9a"an' +l!antara then wrote a letter of resi,nation fro the San,,unian, 9a"an a&&resse& to the 8a"or of the uni!ipalit"H !ease& fun!tionin, as e :er thereof an& assu e& offi!e an& perfor e& his fun!tions as e :er of the San,,unlan, Panlalawi,an' 7aterH the reor,ani=ation of the San,,unian, Panlalawi,an an& the appoint ent of 8en&o=a were %oi&e&' Can +l!antara reassu e offi!e as e :er of the San,,unian, 9a"an or has he lost it :e!ause of resi,nationL a:an&on entL /0plain' (2N)

Di+(i*'ine8 C'e1en(y8 C&nd&nati&n 9"666:

D&(trine

&)

No E5' + pro%in!ial ,o%ernor &ul" ele!te& to offi!e was !har,e& with &islo"alt" an& suspen&e& fro offi!e pen&in, the out!o e of the for al in%esti,ation of the !har,es a,ainst hi ' 3he Se!retar" of 5nterior an& 7o!al $o%ern ents foun& hi ,uilt" as !har,e& an& re o%e& hi fro offi!e' @e file& a petition :efore the Supre e Court ?uestionin, his re o%al' 6hile the !ase was pen&in, :efore the Supre e CourtH he file& his !ertifi!ate of !an&i&a!" for the position of $o%ernor an& wonH an& was pro!lai e& $o%ernor' @e !lai s his reele!tion to the position of $o%ernor has ren&ere& the pen&in, a& inistrati%e !ase a,ainst hi oot an& a!a&e i!' 5s he !orre!tL /0plain' (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:

SUGGESTED ANSWER: OesH the re*ele!tion of the ,o%ernor has ren&ere& the pen&in, a& inistrati%e !ase a,ainst hi oot' +s e0plaine& in +,uinal&o %' SantosH 212 SC1+ 7)8 (1992)H a lo!al ele!ti%e offi!ial !annot :e re o%e& fro offi!e for is!on&u!t !o itte& &urin, his pre%ious ter H :e!ause ea!h ter is separate an& the people :" re*ele!tin, hi are &ee e& to ha%e for,i%en his is!on&u!t'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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Di+(i*'ine8 E))e(t &) Pard&n Granted in a0&r &) P3b'i( O))i(er+ 9!###:
N& 5E * C' + Cit" +ssistant 3reasurer was !on%i!te& of /stafa throu,h falsifi!ation of pu:li! &o!u ent' 6hile ser%in, senten!eH he was ,rante& a:solute par&on :" the Presi&ent' 1' +ssu in, that the position of +ssistant Cit" 3reasurer has re aine& %a!antH woul& he :e entitle& to a reinstate ent without the nee& of a new appoint entL /0plain' (2N)

:) Can he !lai salar" for the perio& that his !ase was pen&in, appealL 6h"L (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1;
a) +lfonso 9eit !annot !lai an" salar" for the perio& of his pre%enti%e suspension &urin, the pen&en!" of the in%esti,ation' +s hel& in $loria %s' Court of +ppealsH 30) SC1+ 287 (1997)H un&er Se!tion

2' 5f later the sa e position :e!o es %a!antH !oul& he reappl" an& :e reappointe&L /0plain' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: C' 1') +s hel& in 8onsanto %' Fa!toranH
(!) SC1+ 190H par&on erel" frees the in&i%i&ual fro all the penalties an& le,al &isa:ilities i pose& upon hi :e!ause of his !on%i!tion' 5t &oes not restore hi to the pu:li! offi!e relin?uishe& :" reason of the !on%i!tion'

22 of the Ci%il Ser%i!e 7awH the pro%ision for pa" ent of salaries &urin, the perio& of pre%enti%e suspension &urin, the pen&en!" of the in%esti,ation has :een &elete&' 3he pre%enti%e suspension was not a penalt"' 5ts i position was lawfulH sin!e it was authori=e& :" law'
:) 5f the penalt" was o&ifie& :e!ause +lfonso 9eit was e0onerate& of the !har,e that was the :asis for the &e!ision or&erin, his &is issalH he is entitle& to :a!D wa,esH otherwiseH this woul& :e tanta ount to punishin, hi after e0oneration fro the !har,e whi!h !ause& his &is issal' P$loria %s' Court of +ppealsH 3A) SC1+ 287 (1997)Q' 5f he was repri an&e& for the sa e !har,e whi!h was the :asis of the &e!ision or&erin, his &is issalH +lfonso 9elt is not entitle& to :a!D wa,esH :e!ause he was foun& ,uilt"H an& the penalt" was erel" !o ute&' (-ela Cru= %s' Court of +ppealsH 302 SC1+ 303 (1998)Q'

F51S3 +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1: 2') 3he +ssistant Cit" 3reasurer !an reappl" an& :e appointe& to the positionH sin!e the par&on re o%e& the &is?ualifi!ation to hol& pu:li! offi!e' S/CAN- +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1: 2') 3he +ssistant Cit" 3reasurer !annot reappl" an& :e appointe& to the positionH <n&er +rti!le 3) of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&eH a par&on &oes not restore the ri,ht to hol& pu:li! offi!e unless su!h ri,ht :e e0pressl" restore& :" the par&on; Di+(i*'ine8 Pre0enti0e B A**ea'8 entit'e1ent *endente 9"66!: S3+*en+i&n t& +a'ary

Di+(i*'ine8 Pre0enti0e S3+*en+i&n 9!##6:


N&' ): 5n 198)H FH then the offi!er*in*!har,e of 9otolanH .a :alesH was a!!use& of ha%in, %iolate& the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t :efore the San&i,an:a"an' 9efore he !oul& :e arrain,e&H he was ele!te& $o%ernor of .a :alesH +fter his arrai,n entH he was put un&er pre%enti%e suspension :" the San&i,an:a"an Cfor the &uration of the trialC'

N& ME * +lfonso 9eitH a suppl" offi!er in the -epart ent of S!ien!e an& 3e!hnolo," (-AS3)H was !har,e& a& inistrati%el"' Pen&in, in%esti,ationH he was pre%enti%el" suspen&e& for 90 &a"s' 3he -AS3 Se!retar" foun& hi ,uilt" an& ete& hi the penalt" of re o%al fro offi!e' @e appeale& to the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission (CSC)' 5n the eanti eH the &e!ision was e0e!ute& pen&in, appeal' 3he CSC ren&ere& a &e!ision whi!h o&ifie& the appeale& &e!ision :" i posin, onl" a penalt" of repri an&H an& whi!h &e!ision :e!a e final'

3' Can F su!!essfull" !hallen,e the le,alit" of his pre%enti%e suspension on the ,roun& that the !ri inal !ase a,ainst hi in%ol%e& a!ts !o itte& &urin, his ter as offi!er*in*!har,e an& not &urin, his ter as $o%ernorL #' Can F %ali&l" o:;e!t to the aforestate& &uration of his suspensionL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
(1) NoH F !annot su!!essfull" !hallen,e the le,alit" of his pre%enti%e suspension on the ,roun& that the !ri inal !ase a,ainst hi in%ol%e a!ts !o itte& &urin, his ter as A5C an& not &urin, his ter as ,o%ernor :e!ause

a) Can +lfonso 9elt !lai salar" for the perio& that his !ase was pen&in, in%esti,ationL 6h"L (3N)

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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suspension fro offi!e un&er 1epu:li! +!t 3019 refers to an" offi!e that the respon&ent is presentl" hol&in, an& not ne!essaril" to the one whi!h he hol& when he !o itte& the !ri e with whi!h he is !har,e&' 3his was the rulin, in -eloso %' San&i,an:a"an 173 SC1+ #09' (2) OesH F !an %ali&l" o:;e!t to the &uration of the suspension' 5n -eloso u' San&i,an:a"anH 173 SC1+ #09H it was hel& that the i position of pre%enti%e suspension for an in&efinite perio& of ti e is unreasona:le an& %iolates the ri,ht of the a!!use& to &ue pro!ess' 3he people who ele!te& the ,o%ernor to offi!e woul& :e &epri%e& of his ser%i!es for an in&efinite perio&H an& his ri,ht to hol& offi!e woul& :e nullifie&' 8oreo%erH sin!e un&er Se!tion #2 of the Ci%il Ser%i!e -e!ree the &uration of pre%enti%e suspension shoul& :e li ite& to ninet" (90) &a"sH e?ual prote!tion &e an&s that the &uration of pre%enti%e suspension un&er the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t he also li ite& to ninet" (90) &a"s'

Se!tion 13 of the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!tH whi!h is not a penalt" :ut a pre%enti%e easure' Sin!e Se!tion 13 of the +nti*$raft an& Corruption Pra!ti!es +!t &oes not state that the pu:li! offi!er ust :e suspen&e& onl" in the offi!e where he is alle,e& to ha%e !o itte& the a!ts whi!h he has :een !har,e&H it applies to an" offi!e whi!h he a" :e hol&in,' E'e(ti0e A**&inti0e O))i(ia'+: and di+(i*'inary a3t,&rity 9"66;: "66; 9-<b: C3-H a Co issioner of the
National 7a:or 1elations Co ission (N71C)H sports a No' 10 !ar plate' + &is,runtle& liti,ant file& a !o plaint a,ainst hi for %iolation of the +nti* $raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t :efore the A :u&s an' C3- now seeDs to en;oin the A :u&s an in a petition for prohi:itionH alle,in, that he !oul& :e in%esti,ate& onl" :" the Supre e Court un&er its power of super%ision ,rante& in the Constitution' @e !onten&s that un&er the law !reatin, the N71CH he has the ranD of a >usti!e of the Court of +ppealsH an& entitle& to the !orrespon&in, pri%ile,es' @en!eH the A89 has no ;uris&i!tion o%er the !o plaint a,ainst hi '

Di+(i*'ine8 Pre0enti0e S3+*en+i&n 9"66":


N& 55' Si eon Ealera was for erl" a Pro%in!ial $o%ernor who ran an& won as a 8e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es for the Se!on& Con,ressional -istri!t of lloilo' For %iolation of Se!tion 3 of the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t (1'+' No'3019)H as a en&e&H alle,e&l" !o itte& when he was still a Pro%in!ial $o%ernorH a !ri inal !o plaint was file& a,ainst hi :efore the Affi!e of the A :u&s an for whi!hH upon a fin&in, of pro:a:le !auseH a !ri inal !ase was file& with the San&i,an:a"an' -urin, the !ourse of trialH the San&i,an:a"an issue& an or&er of pre%enti%e suspension for 90 &a"s a,ainst hi ' 1epresentati%e Ealera ?uestione& the %ali&it" of the San&i,an:a"an or&er on the ,roun& thatH un&er +rti!le E5 H Se!tion 1)(3) of the ConstitutionH he !an :e suspen&e& onl" :" the @ouse of 1epresentati%es an& that the !ri inal !ase a,ainst hi &i& not arise fro his a!tuations as a e :er of the @ouse of 1epresentati%es'

Shoul& C3-Bs petition :e ,rante& or &is isse&L 1eason :riefl"' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he petition of C3- shoul& :e &is isse&' Se!tion 21 of the A :u&s an +!t %ests the Affi!e of the A :u&s an with &is!iplinar" authorit" o%er all ele!ti%e an& appointi%e offi!ials of the ,o%ern entH e0!ept offi!ials who a" :e re o%e& onl" :" i pea!h entH 8e :ers of Con,ressH an& the >u&i!iar"' 6hile C3- has the ranD of a >usti!e of the Court of +ppealsH he &oes not :elon, to the >u&i!iar" :ut to the /0e!uti%e -epart ent' 3his si pl" eans that he has the sa e !o pensation an& pri%ile,es as a >usti!e of the Court of +ppeals' 5f the Supre e Court were to in%esti,ate C3-H it woul& :e perfor in, a non*;u&i!ial fun!tion' 3his will %iolate the prin!iple of separation of powers' (No:le;as %' 3eehanDeeH 23 SC1+ #02 P19)8Q)

5s 1epresentati%e EaleraBs !ontention !orre!tL 6h"L (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:


3he !ontention of 1epresentati%e Ealera is not !orre!t +s hel& in Santia,o %' San&i,an:a"anH 32) SC1+ )3)H the suspension !onte plate& in +rti!le E5H Se!tion 1)(3) of the Constitution is a punish ent that is i pose& :" the Senate or @ouse of 1epresentati%es upon an errin, e :erH it is &istin!t fro the suspension un&er

E'e(ti0e P3b'i( O))i(er8 De O))i(er 9"666:

a(t&

N& ME5' 5n the ele!tions of 8a" 1992H Cru= an& Santos were the !an&i&ates for the offi!e of 8uni!ipal 8a"orH the ter of whi!h was to e0pire on >une 30H 1992' Fin&in, that he won :" a ar,in of 20 %otesH the 8uni!ipal 9oar& of Can%assers pro!lai e& Cru= as the &ul" ele!te& 8a"or' Santos file& an ele!tion protest

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!-@

:efore the 1e,ional 3rial Court (13C) whi!h &e!i&e& that it was Santos who ha& the pluralit" of 30 %otes an& pro!lai e& hi the winner' An otion a&eH the 13C ,rante& e0e!ution pen&in, the appeal of Cru= to the CA8/7/C (Co ele!) an& on this :asis' Santos assu e& offi!e an& ser%e& as 8uni!ipal 8a"or' 5n ti eH the Co ele! re%erse& the rulin, of the 13C an& instea& rule& that Cru= won :" a ar,in of #0 %otes an& pro!lai e& hi the &ul" ele!te& 8uni!ipal 8a"or' &) 5t is now :e"on& >une 30H 1992' Can Cru= still hol& offi!e for the portion of the ter he has faile& to ser%eL 6h"L (3N)

9' +E/ !annot !olle!t salaries an& allowan!es fro the ,o%ern ent for the first two "ears of his ter H :e!ause in the eanwhile 9+13 !olle!te& the salaries an& allowan!es' 9+13 was a &e fa!to offi!er while he was in possession of the offi!e' 3o allow +E/ to !olle!t the salaries an& allowan!es will result in aDin, the ,o%ern ent pa" a se!on& ti e' (8e!he H + 3reatise on the 7aw of Pu:li! Affi!es an& Pu:li! Affi!ersH P1890Q pp' 222*223') 9+13 is not re?uire& to refun& to the ,o%ern ent the salaries an& allowan!es he re!ei%e&' +s a &e fa!to offi!erH he is entitle& to the salaries an& allowan!es :e!ause he ren&ere& ser%i!es &urin, his in!u :en!"' (1o&ri,ue= %' 3anH 91 Phil' 72# 119220' 3he :ills whi!h 9+13 alone authore& an& were appro%e& :" the @ouse of 1epresentati%es are %ali& :e!ause he was a &e fa!to offi!er &urin, his in!u :en!"' 3he a!ts of a &e fa!to offi!er are %ali& insofar as the pu:li! is !on!erne&' (People %' $ar!iaH 313 SC1+ 279 P19990'

e) 6as Santos a usurper an& shoul& he pa" :a!D what he has re!ei%e& while hol&in, the offi!e as 8uni!ipal 8a"orL 6h"L (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1; &) Cru= !an no lon,er hol& offi!e for the portion of the ter he faile& to ser%e sin!e his ter has e0pire&' e) Santos was not a usurper' @e was a &e fa!to offi!erH sin!e he ha& a !olor of ele!tion to the offi!e of 8uni!ipal 8a"or :" %irtue of the &e!ision in the ele!tion protest' @en!eH he is entitle& to the e olu ents of the offi!e' E'e(ti0e P3b'i( O))i(er+8 De e))e(t+ 9"66;: a(t& O))i(er8

X<9' +E/ ran for Con,ress an of (< pro%in!e' @owe%erH his opponentH 9+13H was the one pro!lai e& an& seate& as the winner of the ele!tion :" the CA8/7/C' +E/ file& seasona:l" a protest :efore @1/3 (@ouse of 1epresentati%es /le!toral 3ri:unal)' +fter two "earsH @1/3 re%erse& the CA8/7/CFs &e!ision an& +E/ was pro!lai e& finall" as the &ul" ele!te& Con,ress an' 3husH he ha& onl" one "ear to ser%e in Con,ress'

Gra)t and C&rr3*ti&n8 Pre+(ri*ti&n &) Cri1e 9"66": N& M55' Suppose a pu:li! offi!er has !o itte& a %iolation of Se!tion 3 (:) an& (!) of the +nti* $raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t U1+ NoH 3019)H as a en&e&H :" re!ei%in, onetar" an& other aterial !onsi&erations for !ontra!ts entere& into :" hi in :ehalf of the ,o%ern ent an& in !onne!tion with other transa!tionsH as a result of whi!h he has a asse& ille,all" a!?uire& wealth' 2' -oes the !ri inal offense itte& pres!ri:eL (2N) 3' -oes the ri,ht of the ,o%ern ent to re!o%er the ille,all" a!?uire& wealth pres!ri:eL (3N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: !o 3' + %iolation of Se!tion 3(:) an& (!) of the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t pres!ri:es' +s hel& in Presi&ential +&*@o! Fa!t* Fin&in, Co ittee on 9ehest 7oans %' -esiertoH 317 SC1+ 272 (1999)H +rti!le M5H Se!tion 12 of the Constitution &oes not appl" to !ri inal !ases for %iolation of the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t
#' +rti!le M5H Se!tion 12 of the Constitution pro%i&es that the ri,ht of the State to re!o%er properties unlawfull" a!?uire& :" pu:li! offi!ials or e plo"eesH or fro the or fro their

Can +E/ !olle!t salaries an& allowan!es fro the ,o%ern ent for the first two "ears of his ter as Con,ress anL Shoul& 9+13 refun& to the ,o%ern ent the salaries an& allowan!es he ha& re!ei%e& as Con,ress anL 6hat will happen to the :ills that 9+13 alone authore& an& were appro%e& :" the @ouse of 1epresentati%es while he was seate& as Con,ress anL 1eason an& e0plain :riefl"' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!-?

no inees or transfereesH shall not :e :arre& :" pres!ription' I1*ea(,1ent8 Cr&nyi+1 9"666:
N& 55' 5s !ron"is a le,al ,roun& for the i pea!h ent of the Presi&entL /0plain' (2N)

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 1' 5 pea!h ent is a etho& :" whi!h persons positions of hol&in, ,o%ern ent hi,h an& &i,nit" an& with authorit"H presti,eH &efinite tenure a" :e re o%e& fro offi!e for !auses !losel" relate& to their !on&u!t as pu:li! offi!ialsH (E'$' S5NCAH P@575PP5N/ PA7535C+7 7+6 373 (llth e&' 19)2))'
3he ,roun&s for i pea!h ent are !ulpa:le %iolation of the ConstitutionH treasonH :ri:er"H ,raft an& !orruptionH other hi,h !ri es an& :etra"al of pu:li! trust' (+rt' M5H se!' 2)'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
OesH !ron"is is a le,al ,roun& for the i pea!h ent of the Presi&ent' <n&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le M5 of the ConstitutionH :etra"al of pu:li! trust is one of the ,roun&s for 5 pea!h ent' 3his refers to %iolation of the oath of offi!e an& in!lu&es !ron"is whi!h in%ol%es un&ul" fa%orin, a !ron" to the pre;u&i!e of pu:li! interestH (1e!or& of the Constitutional Co issionH Eol' 55H p' 272)

3he offi!ials re o%a:le :" i pea!h ent are the Presi&entH Ei!e Presi&entH the 8e :ers of the Supre e CourtH 8e :ers of the Constitutional Co issions an& the A :u&s an' (5&')
2' P- No' 1)0)H se!' 1H in so far as it pro%i&es for the re o%al of the e :ers of the San&i,an:a"an onl" :" i pea!h ent ust :e &ee e& to ha%e :een ren&ere& inoperati%e :" the new Constitution whi!h pro%i&es that with the e0!eption of the offi!ials there entione&H C+ll other pu:li! offi!ers an& e plo"ees a" :e re o%e& fro offi!e as pro%i&e& :" lawH :ut not :" i pea!h ent'C 8oreo%erH un&er +rt' E555H se!H 11H the power to re o%e lower !ourt ;u&,es is %este& in the Supre e Court en :an! whi!hH :" the %ote of a a;orit" of the e :ers who a!tuall" taDe part in the &eli:eration on the issues in the !ase an& %ote thereonH !an &is iss lower !ourt ;u&,es'

I1*ea(,1ent8 Gr&3nd+ 9!###: N& ME * 6hat are the for i pea!h ent' /0plain' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: <n&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le M5 of the ConstitutionH the ,roun&s for i pea!h ent are (3) Culpa:le %iolation of the Constitution * eans intentional %iolation of the Constitution an& not %iolations !o itte& in ,oo& faith' (#) 3reason * the sa e eanin, as in the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e (2) 9ri:er" * the sa e eanin, as in the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e ()) $raft an& Corruption * refers to prohi:ite& a!ts enu erate& in the +nti* $raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t' (7) other @i,h Cri es * refer to offenses that striDe at the %er" life or or&erl" worDin, of the ,o%ern ent' (8) an& 9etra"al of Pu:li! 3rust * refers to an" %iolation of the oath of offi!e' (Cru=H Philippine Politi!al 7awH 1998 e&'H pp' 33)*337; 9ernasH 3he 1987 Constitution of the Philippines: + Co entar"H 199) e&'H pp' 991*992) I1*ea(,1ent8 Nat3re8 Gr&3nd+8 PD !?6? 9!#$$: N&' 1#: 1' 6hat is i pea!h entH what are the ,roun&s thereforH an& who are the hi,h offi!ials re o%a:le there:"L
2' Presi&ential -e!ree No' 1)0) pro%i&es that >usti!es of the San&i,an:a"an a" :e re o%e& onl" :" i pea!h ent' 5s this Presi&ential -e!ree still %ali&L 6h"L

,roun&s

La5 &) P3b'i( O))i(er+8 Ne2t<in<RanI R3'e 9!##;:


N&' 12 Pe&ro Cru=H 9a,uioH retire&' 3o fill Cit" 8a"or appointe& en,ineer who for erl" ha& :een assi,ne& to for the past fi%e "ears' the Cit" /n,ineer of the %a!ant positionH the >ose 1e"esH a !i%il worDe& un&er Cru= :ut the Affi!e of the 8a"or

Ei!ente /stra&aH the +ssistant Cit" /n,ineer file& a protest with the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission !lai in, that :ein, the offi!er ne0t in ranD he shoul& ha%e :een appointe& as Cit" /n,ineer' 1) 6ho has a :etter ri,ht to :e appointe& to the !onteste& positionL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1) possesses An the assu ption that >ose 1e"es the ini u ?ualifi!ation

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!-%

re?uire ents pres!ri:e& :" law for the positionH the appoint ent e0ten&e& to hi is %ali&' Conse?uentl"H he has a :etter ri,ht than Ei!ente /stra&a'
3he !lai of /stra&a that :ein, the offi!er ne0t in ranD he shoul& ha%e :een appointe& as Cit" /n,ineer is not eritorious' 5t is a settle& rule that the appointin, authorit" is not li ite& to pro otion in fillin, up %a!an!ies :ut a" !hoose to fill the :" the appoint ent of persons with !i%il ser%i!e eli,i:ilit" appropriate to the position' /%en if a %a!an!" were to :e fille& :" pro otionH the !on!ept of Cne0t in ranDC &oes not i port an" an&ator" re?uire ent that the person ne0t in ranD ust :e appointe& to the %a!an!"' 6hat the !i%il ser%i!e law pro%i&es is that if a %a!an!" is fille& :" pro otionH the person hol&in, the position ne0t in ranD thereto Cshall :e !onsi&ere& for pro otion'C /spanol %' Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission 20) SC1+ 712H

(1) NoH M !annot re!o%er &a a,es fro the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs' 3he Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs or&ere& the &e olition of the fishpon& in the perfor an!e of his offi!ial &uties' @e &i& not a!t in :a& faith or with ,ross ne,li,en!e' @e issue& the or&er onl" after &ue in%esti,ation' 5n 8a:utol %' Pas!ualH 12# SC1+ 87)H it was hel& that the e :ers of the +& @o! Co ittee !reate& to i ple ent Presi&ential -e!ree No' 29) an& 7etter of 5nstru!tion NoH 19H whi!h or&ere& the &e olition of stru!tures o:stru!tin, pu:li! waterwa"sH !oul&B not :e sue& for &a a,es althou,h the" or&ere& the &e olition of a :uil&in, that en!roa!he& upon a !reeDH :e!ause the pu:li! offi!ers !on!erne& &i& not a!t in :a& faith'

(2) NoH the li:el suit will not prosper' 3he report su: itte& :" the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs to the Presi&ent !onstitutes pri%ile,e& !o uni!ationH as it was sent in the perfor an!e of offi!ial &ut"' +rti!le 32# of the 1e%ise& Penal Co&e pro%i&es; C/%er" &efa ator" i putation is presu e& to :e ali!iousH e%en if it :e trueH if no ,oo& intention an& ;ustifia:le oti%e for aDin, it is shownH e0!ept in the followin, !ases: 1' + pri%ate !o uni!ation a&e :" an" person to another in the perfor an!e of an" le,alH oral or so!ial &ut";C 5n -eano %' $o&ine=H 12 SC1+ #83H it was hel& that a report sent :" a pu:li! offi!ial to his superior is pri%ile,e& !o uni!ationH :e!ause its su: ission is pursuant to the perfor an!e of a le,al &ut"'
9esi&esH in sen&in, his reportH the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs a!te& in the &is!har,e of his offi!ial &uties' @en!eH he was a!tin, in :ehalf of the 1epu:li! of the Philippines an& within the s!ope of his authorit" +!!or&in, to the rulin, in San&ers %' Eeri&ianoH 1)2 SC1+ 88H a suit :rou,ht a,ainst a pu:li! offi!ial for writin, a letter whi!h is alle,e& to :e li:elous :ut whi!h was written while he was a!tin, as a,ent of the ,o%ern ent an& within the s!ope of his authorit" is a!tuall" a suit a,ainst the State without its !onsent'

+73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1;
Neither >ose 1e"es nor Ei!ente /stra&a has a :etter ri,ht to :e appointe& Cit" /n,ineer' +s hel& in 9arro=o %s' Ci%il Ser%i!e Co issionH 198 SC1+ #87H the appointin, authorit" is not re?uire& to appoint the one ne0t*in*ranD to fill a %a!an!"' @e is allowe& to fill it also :" the transfer of an e plo"ee who possesses !i%il ser%i!e eli,i:ilit"'

Liabi'ity &r Da1age+ in Per)&r1an(e &) O))i(ia' 3n(ti&n+ 9!##6: N&' 10: 3he Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDsH after an in%esti,ationH or&ere& the &e olition of the fishpon& of M as a nuisan!e per se on the ,roun& that it en!roa!he& on na%i,a:le ri%ers an& i pe&e& the use of the ri%ers' 3he Se!retar" su: itte& to the Presi&ent of the Philippines a report of sai& in%esti,ationH whi!h report !ontaine& !learl" li:elous atters a&%ersel" affe!tin, the reputation of MH a well* Dnown !i%i! an& reli,ious lea&er in the !o unit"' 3he Supre e Court later foun& that the ri%ers were an* a&e an& were !onstru!te& on pri%ate propert" owne& :" M' 3' 8a" M re!o%er &a a,es fro the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs for the !ost in%ol%e& in re:uil&in, the fishpon&s an& for lost profitsL State "our reason' #' Suppose M files a li:el suit a,ainst the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs' 6ill the sai& li:el suit prosperL /0plain "our answer' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:

+73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
3he ?uestion &oes not spe!if" how the li:el was !o itte&' 5f the li:elous state ent was not rele%ant to the report on the alle,e& ille,al en!roa!h ent of the ri%erH the fa!t that it was a&e in the !ourse of an offi!ial report &oes not

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!-$

i uni=e the Se!retar" of Pu:li! 6orDs fro lia:ilit" for li:el' L&(a' E'e(ti0e O))i(ia'+8 Li1itati&n+ On Additi&na' D3tie+ 9!##@:
N&' 10: + Cit" 8a"or in 8etro 8anila was &esi,nate& as 8e :er of the 7o!al + nest" 9oar& (7+9) as allowe& un&er the 1ules an& 1e,ulations 5 ple entin, + nest" Pro!la ation Nos' 3#7 an& 3#8' as a en&e& :" Pro!la ation No' 377' 3he 7+9 is entruste& with the fun!tions of re!ei%in, an& pro!essin, appli!ations for a nest" an& re!o en&in, to the National + nest" Co ission appro%al or &enial of the appli!ations' 3he ter of the Co ission an&H ne!essaril"H the 7o!al + nest" 9oar&s un&er it e0pires upon the !o pletion of its assi,ne& tasDs as a" :e &eter ine& :" the Presi&ent' 8a" the Cit" 8a"or a!!ept his &esi,nation without forfeitin, his ele!ti%e position in the li,ht of the pro%ision of Se!' 7H 1st par' +rt' 5M*9 of the 1987 Constitution whi!h pertinentl" states that CPNQo ele!ti%e offi!ial shall :e eli,i:le for appoint ent or &esi,nation in an" !apa!it" to an" pu:li! offi!e or position &urin, his tenureLC -is!uss full"H

O1b3d+1an: P&5er t& S3+*end8 Pre0enti0e S3+*en+i&n 9"66;:


9?: -ire!tor 6A6 faile& the lifest"le !he!D !on&u!te& :" the A :u&s anBs Affi!e :e!ause 6A6s assets were ,rossl" &isproportionate to his salar" an& allowan!es' 8oreo%erH so e assets were not in!lu&e& in his State ent of +ssets an& 7ia:ilities' @e was !har,e& of ,raft an& !orrupt pra!ti!es an& pen&in, the !o pletion of in%esti,ationsH he was suspen&e& fro offi!e for si0 onths' (3) +,,rie%e&H 6A6 petitione& the Court of +ppeals to annul the pre%enti%e suspension or&er on the ,roun& that the A :u&s an !oul& onl" re!o en& :ut not i pose the suspension' 8oreo%erH a!!or&in, to 6A6H the suspension was i pose& without an" noti!e or hearin,H in %iolation of &ue pro!ess' 5s the petitionerBs !ontention eritoriousL -is!uss :riefl"' (2N)

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he !ontention of -ire!tor 6A6 is not eritorious' 3he suspension ete& out to hi is pre%enti%e an& not puniti%e' Se!tion 2# of 1epu:li! +!t No' )770 ,rants the A :u&s an the power to i pose pre%enti%e suspension up to si0 onths' Pre%enti%e suspension a":e i pose& without an" noti!e or hearin,' 5t is erel" a preli inar" step in an a& inistrati%e in%esti,ation an& is not the final &eter ination of the ,uilt of the offi!er !on!erne&' ($ar!ia %' 8o;i!aH 31# SC1+ 207 P1999Q)' 3' For his partH the A :u&s an o%e& to &is iss 6A6s petition' +!!or&in, to the A :u&s an the e%i&en!e of ,uilt of 6A6 is stron,H an& petitioner faile& to e0haust a& inistrati%e re e&ies' 6A6 a& itte& he file& no otion for re!onsi&erationH :ut onl" :e!ause the or&er suspen&in, hi was i e&iatel" e0e!utor"' Shoul& the otion to &is iss :e ,rante& or notL -is!uss :riefl"' (2N)

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
NoH the Cit" 8a"or a" not a!!ept his &esi,nation without forfeitin, his ele!ti%e positions' +s state& in Flores %s' -rilon 223 SC1+ 2)8H it is the intention of Se!tion 7H +rti!le M*9 of the 1987 Constitution that lo!al ele!ti%e offi!ials shoul& &e%ote their full ti e to their !onstituents' 6hile se!on& para,raph of Se!tion 7H +rti!le 5M*9 of the 1987 Constitution allows appointi%e offi!ials to hol& other offi!es when allowe& :" law or :" the pri ar" fun!tions of their positionsH no su!h e0!eption is a&e in the first para,raphH whi!h &eals with ele!ti%e offi!ials' 5t is the 5ntention of the 1987 Constitution to :e ore strin,ent with ele!ti%e lo!al offi!ials'

+73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
OesH he a" a!!ept su!h &esi,nation without forfeitin, his a"orship' 3he Constitutional pro%ision :ein, !ite& !onte plates a Cpu:li! offi!e or positionC' 5t is :elie%e& that the 7o!al + nest" 9oar& is not su!h an offi!e sin!e it is erel" an a& ho! :o&"' 9esi&esH it is :elie%e& that its fun!tions are not Cso%erei,nC in !hara!ter whi!h is one of the ele ents of a pu:li! offi!e'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
9' 3he otion to &is iss shoul& :e &enie&' Sin!e the suspension of -ire!tor 6A6 was i e&iatel" e0e!utor"H he woul& ha%e suffere& irrepara:le in;ur" ha& he trie& to e0haust a& inistrati%e re e&ies :efore filin, a petition in !ourt (<ni%ersit" of the Philippines 9oar& of 1e,ents %' 1asulH 200 SC1+ )82 P19910* 9esi&esH the ?uestion in%ol%e& is purel" le,al' (+=ar!on %' 9una,anH 399 SC1+ 3)2 P2003Q)'

O1b3d+1an8 P&5er t& In0e+tigate 9"66-:


BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!-#

N& 55 + ,roup of losin, liti,ants in a !ase &e!i&e& :" the Supre e Court file& a !o plaint :efore the A :u&s an !har,in, the >usti!es with Dnowin,l" an& &eli:eratel" ren&erin, an un;ust &e!ision in utter %iolation of the penal laws of the lan&' Can the A :u&s an %ali&l" taDe !o,ni=an!e of the !aseL /0plain'

his authorit"' Con,ress inten&e& to e power the A :u&s an to suspen& all offi!ersH e%en if the" are e plo"e& in other offi!es in the $o%ern ent' 3he wor&s Csu:or&inateC an& Cin his :ureauC &o not appear in the ,rant of su!h power to the A :u&s an'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
NoH the A :u&s an !annot entertain the !o plaint' +s state& in the !ase of 5n re: 7aureta' 1#8 SC1+ 382 P1987QH pursuant to the prin!iple of separation of powersH the !orre!tness of the &e!isions of the Supre e Court as final ar:iter of all ;usti!ia:le &isputes is !on!lusi%e upon all other &epart ents of the ,o%ern ent; the A :u&s an has no power to re%iew the &e!isions of the Supre e Court :" entertainin, a !o plaint a,ainst the >usti!es of the Supre e Court for Dnowin,l" ren&erin, an un;ust &e!ision'

P&5er t& I++3e S3b*&ena8 &) de'egati&n 9!#$#:

0a'idity

S/CAN- +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:


+rti!le M5H Se!tion 1 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es that pu:li! offi!ers ust at all ti es :e a!!ounta:le to the people' Se!tion 22 of the A :u&s an +!t pro%i&es that the Affi!e of the A :u&s an has the power to in%esti,ate an" serious is!on&u!t alle,e&l" !o itte& :" offi!ials re o%a:le :" i pea!h ent for the purpose of filin, a %erifie& !o plaint for i pea!h ent if warrante&' 3he A :u&s an !an entertain the !o plaint for this purpose'

N&' 17: +ssu e that un&er the !harter of the Cit" of 8anilaH the Cit" 8a"or has the power to in%esti,ate !it" offi!ials an& e plo"ees appointe& :" hi an& in !onne!tion therewithH a& inister oathH taDe testi on" an& issue su:poenas' 3he a"or issue& an e0e!uti%e or&er !reatin, a !o itteeH !haire& :" CMCH to in%esti,ate ano alies in%ol%in, li!ense& inspe!tors of the 7i!ense 5nspe!tion -i%ision of the Affi!e of the Cit" 3reasurerH 5n the !ourse of its in%esti,ationH CMC su:poenae& COCH a pri%ate !iti=en worDin, as :ooDDeeper of +sia @ar&ware' COC refuse& to appear !onten&in, that the Co ittee of CMC has no power to issue su:poenas' -e!i&e'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
OesH the !o ittee has no power to issue su:poenas a!!or&in, to Car elo %sH 1a osH ) SC1+ 83)' 5n !reatin, the !o itteeH the a"or &i& not ,rant it the power to issue su:poenas' 9esi&esH the a"or !annot &ele,ate his power to issue su:poenas'

O1b3d+1an8 P&5er t& S3+*end8 Pre0enti0e S3+*en+i&n 9!##?:


N&' 10: 2) +n a& inistrati%e !o plaint for %iolation of the +nti*$raft an& Corrupt Pra!ti!es +!t a,ainst M was file& with the A :u&s an' 5 e&iatel" after taDin, !o,ni=an!e of the !ase an& the affi&a%its su: itte& to hi H the A :u&s an or&ere& the pre%enti%e suspension of M pen&in, preli inar" in%esti,ation' M ?uestione& the suspension or&erH !onten&in, that the A :u&s an !an onl" suspen& pre%enti%el" su:or&inate e plo"ees in his own offi!e' 5s M !orre!tL /0plain' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: NoH M is not !orre!t' +s hel& in 9uenase&a %s' Fla%ierH 22) SC1+ )#2' un&er Se!tion 2# of 1epu:li! +!t No' )770H the A :u&s an !an pla!e un&er pre%enti%e suspension an" offi!er un&er his &is!iplinar" authorit" pen&in, an in%esti,ation' 3he o ent a !o plaint is file& with the A :u&s anH the respon&ent is un&er

Pr&,ibiti&n On E'e(ti0e O))i(er t& H&'d P3b'i( O))i(e 9"66": N& E55' M was ele!te& pro%in!ial ,o%ernor for a ter of three "ears' @e was su:se?uentl" appointe& :" the Presi&ent of the Philippines ser%in, at her pleasureH as !on!urrent Presi&ential +ssistant for Politi!al +ffairs in the Affi!e of the Presi&entH without a&&itional !o pensation' 5s MBs appoint ent %ali&L (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he appoint ent of M is not %ali&H :e!ause the position of Presi&ential +ssistant for Politi!al +ffairs is a pu:li! offi!e' +rti!le 5M*9 Se!tion 7 of the Constitution pro%i&es that no ele!ti%e offi!ial shall :e eli,i:le for appoint ent or &esi,nation in an" !apa!it" to an" pu:li! offi!e or position &urin, his tenure' +s hel& in Flores %' -rilonH 223 SC1+ 2)8 (1993)H sin!e an ele!ti%e offi!ial is ineli,i:le for an appointi%e positionH his appoint ent is not %ali&'

P3b'i( O))i(e8 P3b'i( Tr3+t 9!##$:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;6

N& E' * Suppose Con,ress passe& a law to 5 ple ent the Constitutional prin!iple that a pu:li! offi!e is a pu:li! trustH :" pro%i&in, as follows:
CNo e plo"ee of the Ci%il Ser%i!e shall :e e0!use& fro atten&in, an& testif"in, or fro pro&u!in, :ooDsH re!or&sH !orrespon&en!eH &o!u ents or other e%i&en!e in an" a& inistrati%e in%esti,ation !on!ernin, the offi!e in whi!h he is e plo"e& on the ,roun& that his testi on" or the e%i&en!e re?uire& of hi a" ten& to in!ri inate hi or su:;e!t hi to a penalt" or forfeiture; :ut his testi on" or an" e%i&en!e pro&u!e& :" hi shall not :e use& a,ainst hi in !ri inal prose!ution :ase& on the transa!tionH atter or thin, !on!ernin, whi!h is !o pelle&H after in%oDin, his pri%ile,e a,ainst self*in!ri inationH to testif" or pro&u!e e%i&en!e' Pro%i&e&H howe%erH that su!h in&i%i&ual so testif"in, shall not :e e0e pt fro prose!ution an& punish ent for per;ur" !o itte& in so testif"in, nor shall he :e e0e pt fro &e otion or re o%al fro offi!e' +n" e plo"ee who refuses to testif" or pro&u!e an" &o!u ents un&er this +!t shall :e &is isse& fro the ser%i!eHC

in!ri ination seeDs to pre%ent is the !on%i!tion of the witness on the :asis of testi on" eli!ite& fro hi ' 3he rule is satisfie& when he is ,rante& i unit"' +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
1' 5n a!!or&an!e with /%an,elista %s' >aren!ioH )8 SC1+ 99H 107*108H 5f An, is :ein, !ite& erel" as a witnessH he a" not refuse to answer' @owe%erH if the ?uestion ten&s to %iolate his ri,ht a,ainst self*in!ri inationH he a" o:;e!t to it' An the other han&H un&er the rulin, in Cha%e= %s' Court of +ppealsH 2# SC1+ ))3H )80H 5f he is a respon&entH An, a" refuse to answer an" ?uestion :e!ause of his ri,ht a,ainst self* in!ri ination'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 2' No An, !annot ar,ue that the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission inferre& his ,uilt fro his refusal to answer' @e was not &is isse& :e!ause of his in%ol%e ent in the leaDa,e in the e&i!al e0a ination :ut for his refusal to answer' 3his is a %iolation of the law' @e !oul& :e !o pelle& to answer the ?uestion on pain of :ein, &is isse& in !ase of his refusalH :e!ause he was ,rante& 5 unit"' 5n 7efDowit= %s' 3urle"' #1# <'S' 70H 8#H the <nite& States Supre e Court hel&:
CFurther oreH the a!!o o&ation :etween the interest of the State an& the Fifth + en& ent re?uires that the State ha%e eans at its &isposal to se!ure testi on" if i unit" is supplie& an& testi on" is still refuse&' 3his is re!o,ni=e& :" the power of !ourts to !o pel testi on"H after a ,rant of i unit"H :" use of !i%il !onte pt an& !oer!e& i prison ent' Shilitani %' <nite& StatesH 38# <S 3)#' 1) 7 /& 2& )22' 8) 2 Ct 1231 (19)))' +lsoH ,i%en a&e?uate i unit" the State a" plainl" insist that e plo"ees either answer ?uestions un&er oath a:out the perfor an!e of their ;o: or suffer the loss of e plo" ent'C

Suppose furtherH that An,H a e :er of the Professional 1e,ulator" 9oar&H is re?uire& to answer ?uestions in an in%esti,ation re,ar&in, a 7/+G+$/ in a e&i!al e0a ination' (2) Can An, refuse to answer ?uestions on the ,roun& that he woul& in!ri inate hi selfL P#NQ (3) Suppose he refuses to answerH an& for that reasonH is &is isse& fro the ser%i!eH !an he pausi:l" ar,ue that the Ci%il Ser%i!e Co ission has inferre& his ,uilt fro his refusal to answer in %iolation of the ConstitutionL W3NQ (#) SupposeH on the other han&H he answers the ?uestion an& on the :asis of his answersH he is foun& ,uilt" an& is &is isse&' Can he plausi:l" assert that his &is issal is :ase& on !oer!e& !onfessionL 53NQ S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3' >es An, !an ar,ue that his &is issal was :ase& on !oer!e& !onfession' 5n $arrit" %s' New >erse"H 382 <'S' #93H 200H the <nite& States Supre e Court hel&: C6e now hol& the prote!tion of the in&i%i&ual un&er the Fourteenth + en& ent a,ainst !oer!e& state ents prohi:its use in su:se?uent !ri inal pro!ee&in,s of state ents o:taine& un&er threat of re o%al fro offi!eH an& that it e0ten&s to allH whether the" are poli!e en or other e :ers of the :o&" politi!'C

1' NoH An, !annot refuse to answer the ?uestion on the ,roun& that he woul& in!ri inate hi selfH sin!e the law ,rants hi i unit" an& prohi:its the use a,ainst hi in a !ri inal prose!ution of the testi on" or e%i&en!e pro&u!e& :" hi ' +s state& :" the <nite& States Supre e Court in 9rown %s' 6alDer' 1)1 <'S' 291H 297H what the !onstitutional prohi:ition a,ainst self* Retire1ent Bene)it+ 9!##?: BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;!

N&' 9: 2) +H an e plo"ee of the National 3reasurerH retire& on >anuar" 10H 199)' 9efore she !oul& !olle!t her retire ent :enefitsH the National 3reasurer &is!o%ere& that + ha& :een ne,li,ent in the en!ash ent of falsifie& treasur" warrants' 5t appearsH howe%erH that + ha& re!ei%e& all one" an& propert" !learan!es fro the National 3reasurer :efore her retire ent' Can the National 3reasurer withhol& the retire ent of + pen&in, &eter ination of her ne,li,en!e in the en!ash ent of the falsifie& treasur" warrantsL /0plain' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
2) 5n a!!or&an!e with 3antui!o %s' -o in,oH 230 SC1+ 391 an& Cru= us' 3antui!oH 1)) SC1+ )70H the National 3reasurer !annot withhol& the pa" ent of the retire ent :enefits of + pen&in, &eter ination of her lia:ilit" for ne,li,en!e in the en!ash ent of the falsifie& treasur" warrantsH :e!ause her retire ent :enefits are e0e pt fro e0e!ution'

1' 5 &isa,ree' <n&er Se!tion 7H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH a !orporation or asso!iation whi!h is si0t" per!ent owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens !an a!?uire pri%ate lan&H :e!ause it !an lease pu:li! lan& an& !an therefore hol& pu:li! lan&' @owe%erH it !annot a!?uire pu:li! lan&' <n&er Se!tion 3H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH pri%ate !orporations an& asso!iations !an onl" lease an& !annot a!?uire pu:li! lan&'

<n&er Se!tion 8H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH a natural*:orn Filipino !iti=en who lost his Philippine !iti=enship a" a!?uire pri%ate lan& onl" an& !annot a!?uire pu:li! lan&'
(3) 5 &isa,ree' 3he ere fa!t that a !orporation is reli,ious &oes not entitle it to own pu:li! lan&' +s hel& 5n 1e,ister of -ee&s %s' <n, Siu Si 3e pleH 97 Phil' 28H )1H lan& tenure is not in&ispensa:le to the free e0er!ise an& en;o" ent of reli,ious profession of worship' 3he reli,ious !orporation !an own pri%ate lan& onl" if it is at least si0t" per !ent owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens' (#) 5 &isa,ree' <n&er Se!tion 1 of Presi&ential -e!ree No' #71H !orporations an& asso!iations owne& :" aliens are allowe& to lease pri%ate lan&s up to twent"*fi%e "earsH renewa:le for another perio& of twent"*fi%e "ears upon a,ree ent of the lessor an& the lessee' @en!eH e%en if the reli,ious !orporation is owne& :" aliensH it !an lease pri%ate lan&s'

ARTICLE XII Nati&na' E(&n&1y and Patri1&ny


A(F3i+iti&n and Lea+e &) P3b'i( Land+ 9!##$:
/0press "our a,ree ent or &isa,ree ent with an" of the followin, state ents' 9e,in "our answer with the state ent: C5 +$1//C or C-5S+$1//C as the !ase a" :e' (3) +n"oneH whether 5n&i%i&ualH !orporation or asso!iationH ?ualifie& to a!?uire pri%ate lan&s is also ?ualifie& to a!?uire pu:li! lan&s in the Philippines' P2NQ (#) + reli,ious !orporation is ?ualifie& t o ha%e lan&s in the Philippines on whi!h it a" :uil& 5ts !hur!h an& aDe other i pro%e ents pro%i&e& these are a!tuall"H &ire!tl" an& e0!lusi%el" use& for reli,ious purposes' P2NQ

(2) 5 &isa,ree' For a !orporationB to ?ualif" to a!?uire pri%ate lan&s in the PhilippinesH un&er Se!tion 7H +rti!le Mn of the Constitution in relation to Se!tion 2H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH onl" si0t" per !ent ()0N) of the !orporation is re?uire& to :e owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens for it to ?ualif" to a!?uire pri%ate lan&s'
()) 5 a,ree' + forei,n !orporation !an lease pri%ate lan&s onl" an& !annot lease pu:li! lan&' <n&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH the e0plorationH &e%elop ent an& utili=ation of pu:li! lan&s a" :e un&ertaDen throu,h !o*pro&u!tion' >oint %enture or pro&u!tion*sharin, a,ree ents onl" with Filipino !iti=en or !orporations or asso!iations whi!h are at least si0t" per !ent owne& :" Filipino !iti=en'

(2) + reli,ious !orporation !annot lease pri%ate lan&s 5n the Philippines' P2NQ
()) + reli,ious !orporation !an a!?uire pri%ate lan&s in the Philippines pro%i&e& all its e :ers are !iti=ens of the Philippines' P2NQ

(7) + forei,n !orporation !an onl" lease pri%ate lan&s in the Philippines' P2NQ S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:

A(F3i+iti&n &) Land+ 9!#$%: N&' ME: An 8ar!h 1H 1987H C+9CC CorporationH a !o pan" en,a,e& in the e0port tra&eH applie&

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;"

for ;u&i!ial !onfir ation of its title o%er ten he!tares of ti :er lan&s' 3he !o pan" :ou,ht the lan& fro CMC who in turn inherite& it fro his father COC' 3he latter ha& :een in openH notoriousH pu:li! an& !ontinue& possession of the lan& sin!e 1922' An what %ali& ,roun&s !an "ouH as Soli!itor $eneralH oppose the appli!ationL

a!!i&ent without an& testa ent'

lea%in,

last

will

ANSWER:
+s Soli!itor $eneralH 5 !an oppose the appli!ation for !onfir ation of title on the ,roun& that un&er +rt' M55H Se!' 3 ti :er lan&s !annot :e alienate&' 3he rulin, in -ire!tor of 7an&s %' 5+CH 1#) SC1+ 209 (198))H an& -ire!tor of 7an&s %H 9en,=onH No' 2#0#2H >ul" 28H 1987H reiterate& in -ire!tor of 7an&s %' 8anila /le!tri! Co'H $'1H No' 27#)1H Sept' 11H 1987H to the effe!t that a !orporation is entitle& to the !onfir ation of i perfe!t title to lan&s a!?uire& :" it fro pri%ate in&i%i&uals who ha%e possesse& the sa e for 30 "earsH un&er :ona fi&e !lai of ownershipH for the reason that su!h persons are presu e& to ha%e perfor e& all !on&itions essential to a ,o%ern ent ,rant an&H thereforeH are entitle& to the issuan!e of a !ertifi!ate of titleH applies onl" to a,ri!ultural lan&s'

NowH M :rou,ht suit to re!o%er the lan& on the ,roun& that 9H :ein, an alienH was not ?ualifie& to :u" the lan& when 9 an& + ;ointl" :ou,ht the lan& fro hi an& thatH upon the &eath of CH the lan& was inherite& :" his parents :ut 9 !annot le,all" a!?uire an&Ior inherit it'
@ow shoul& the !ase :e &e!i&e&L 5f M file& the suit a,ainst C when the latter was still ali%eH woul& "our answer :e the sa eL 6h"L (2N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER:
M !annot re!o%er the lan& whether fro C or + an& 9' <n&er +rti!le 5EH Se!tion 1 (2) of the ConstitutionH C is a Filipino !iti=en sin!e his father is a Filipino' 6hen + an& 9 &onate& the lan& to CH it :e!a e propert" of a Filipino !iti=en' +s hel& in @alili %' Court of +ppealsH 287 SC1+ #)2 (1998)H the sale of lan& to an alien !an no lon,er :e annulle& if it has :een !on%e"e& to a Filipino !iti=en' Sin!e C left no will an& his parents are his heirsH in a!!or&an!e with +rti!le M55H Se!tion 7 of the ConstitutionH 9 !an a!?uire the lan& :" here&itar" su!!ession'

A(F3i+iti&n &) Land+ 9"666:


N& ME555' * a) +n&" 7i H an ethni! ChineseH :e!a e a naturali=e& Filipino in 1932' 9ut later he lost his Filipino !iti=enship when he :e!a e a !iti=en of Cana&a in 1971' 6antin, the :est of :oth worl&sH he :ou,htH in 1987H a resi&ential lot in For:es ParD an& a !o er!ial lot in 9inon&o' +re these sales %ali&L 6h"L (3N)

SUGGESTED ANSWER: NoH the sales are not %ali&' <n&er Se!tion 8H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH onl" a natural* :orn !iti=en of the Philippines who lost his Philippine !iti=enship a" a!?uire pri%ate lan&' Sin!e +n&" 7i was a for er naturali=e& Filipino !iti=enH he is not ?ualifie& to a!?uire pri%ate lan&s' A(F3i+iti&n &) Land+ S3((e++i&n 9"66": by Hereditary

A(F3i+iti&n &) Land+8 Citi/en+,i* i++3e 9!#$#: N&' 1: 8ariaH a natural*:orn Filipino !iti=enH went to the <nite& States in 19)2 to worD as a nurse' 6ith her sa%in,sH she :ou,ht a par!el of lan& !onsistin, of 1H000 s?uare eters in a resi&ential su:&i%ision in 8etro 8anila' She ha& the sai& propert" title& in her na e in 1970' 5n >ul"H 1972H 8aria a!?uire& + eri!an !iti=enship :" naturali=ation' 3wo onths laterH she arrie& her Cana&ian :o"frien&' #' Can 8aria %ali&l" sell this par!el of lan& to the "oun,er sister of her hus:an& who is also a Cana&ian !iti=enL 2' Supposin, 8ariaBs hus:an& &ies an& she &e!i&es to resi&e in the Philippines per anentl"H !an 8aria :u" the par!el of lan& !onsistin, of #00 s?uare eters nei,h:orin, her ownL ANSWER:
(1) NoH 8aria !annot %ali&l" sell the par!el of lan& to the "oun,er sister of her hus:an& who is a Cana&ian !iti=en' <n&er Se!tion 7H +rti!le M55 of the 1987 ConstitutionH as a ,eneral ruleH aliens !annot a!?uire pri%ate lan& sin!e pursuant to Se!tion 2H in relation to Se!tion 3H +rti!le M55H of the 1987 Constitution the" are not ?ualifie& to a!?uire or hol& lan&s of the pu:li!

N& M5' * +H a Filipino !iti=enH an& his wife 9H a >apanese nationalH :ou,ht a fi%e*he!tare a,ri!ultural lan& fro MH a Filipino !iti=en' 3he !ouple later e0e!ute& a &ee& of &onation o%er the sa e lan& in fa%or of their onl" !hil& C' + "ear laterH howe%erH C &ie& in %ehi!ular

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;-

&o ain' <n&er Se!tion 7H +rti!le M55 of the 1987 ConstitutionH an alien !an a!?uire pu:li! lan& :" here&itar" su!!ession' <n&er Se!tion 8H +rti!le M55 of the 1987 ConstitutionH a natural*:orn Philippine !iti=en who lost his Philippine !iti=enship a" :e a transferee of pri%ate lan&' 3he "oun,er sister of the hus:an& of 8aria is not a!?uirin, the pri%ate lan& :" here&itar" su!!ession :ut :" sale' Neither is she a for er natural*:orn Philippine !iti=en who lost her Philippine !iti=enship' Conse?uentl"H neither of the e0!eptions foun& in the a:o%e* entione& pro%isions is appli!a:le to her'

Se!tion 7H +rti!le M55 of the Constitution a,ainst the a!?uisition of pri%ate lan&s :" aliens'
2) 9e!ause of the naturali=ation of Peter Co as a Filipino !iti=enH he !an e0er!ise the option to pur!hase the lan&' 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in Oap %s' $ra,e&aH 121 SC1+ 2##' sin!e he is ?ualifie& to own lan&H the poli!" to preser%e lan&s for Filipinos will :e a!hie%e&'

A(F3i+iti&n &) Land+8 Citi/en+,i* i++3e 9!##@:


N& 11; 5n >une 1978 spouses >oel an& 8i!helle pur!hase& a par!el of lan&' 7ot No' 1#3H Ca&astral Sur%e" No' 38*-H with an area of )00 s?uare eters for their resi&en!e in CaintaH 1i=alH fro Ce!ille who :" herself an& her pre&e!essor*in*interest ha& :een in openH pu:li!H pea!efulH !ontinuous an& e0!lusi%e possession of the propert" un&er a :ona fi&e !lai of ownership lon, :efore 12 >une 19#2' +t the ti e of pur!haseH the spouses >oel an& 8i!helle were then natural :orn Filipino !iti=ens' 5n Fe:ruar" 1987 the spouses file& an appli!ation for re,istration of their title :efore the proper !ourt' 3his ti e howe%er >oel an& 8i!helle were no lon,er Filipino !iti=ens' 3he ,o%ern ent oppose& their appli!ation for re,istration alle,in, that the" ha%e not a!?uire& proprietar" ri,hts o%er the su:;e!t lot :e!ause of their su:se?uent a!?uisition of Cana&ian !iti=enshipH an& that unre,istere& lan&s are presu e& to :e pu:li! lan&s un&er the prin!iple that lan&s of whate%er !lassifi!ation :elon, to the State un&er the 1e,alian &o!trineH hen!eH the" still pertain to the State'

(2) NoH 8aria !annot :u" the a&;oinin, par!el of lan&' <n&er Se!tion 2 of 9atas Pa :ansa 9l,' 182H a natural*:orn Philippine !iti=en who lost his Philippine !iti=enshipH a" a!?uire onl" up to 1H000 s?uare eters of pri%ate ur:an lan&' Sin!e 8aria has pre%iousl" a!?uire& a par!el of lan& with an area of 1H000 s?uare etersH she !an no lon,er pur!hase an" a&&itional par!el of ur:an lan&' +lternati%e +nswer:
OesH she !an a!?uire the a&;a!ent lan& whi!h has an area of #00 s?uare eters sin!e the law li its a!?uisition of lan&s to 1H000 s?uare eters after the loss of Philippine !iti=enship'

A(F3i+iti&n &) Land+8 Citi/en+,i* i++3e 9!##;:


N&' 17: + an& 9 lease& their resi&ential lan& !onsistin, of one thousan& (1H000) s?uare eters to Peter CoH a Chinese !iti=enH for a perio& of fift" (20) "ears' 5n 1992H :efore the ter of the lease e0pire&' Co asDe& + an& 9 to !on%e" the lan& to hi as the !ontra!t ,a%e hi the option to pur!hase sai& lan& if he :e!a e a naturali=e& Filipino !iti=en' Co tooD his oath as a Filipino !iti=en in 1991'

@ow will "ou resol%e the issues raise& :" the appli!ants an& the oppositorL -is!uss full"' ANSWER:
3he ar,u ent of the ,o%ern ent that unre,istere& lan&s are presu e& to :e pu:li! lan&s is utterl" un eritorious' +s hel& in 1epu:li! %s' Court of +ppeals' 232 SC1+ 2)2H in a!!or&an!e with Se!tion #8 of the Pu:li! 7an& +!tH sin!e the pre&e!essors*in* interest of >oel an& 8i!helle ha& :een in openH pu:li!H pea!efulH !ontinuous an& e0!lusi%e possession of the lan& un&er a :ona fi&e !lai of ownership lon, :efore >une 12' 19#2H their pre&e!essors* in*interest ha& a!?uire& the lan&H :e!ause the" were !on!lusi%el" presu e& to ha%e perfor e& all !on&itions essential to a ,o%ern ent ,rant' 3he lan& !ease& to :e a part

C' 6as the !ontra!t of lease for a perio& of fift" (20) "ears %ali& !onsi&erin, that the lessee was an alienL -' 6hat is the effe!t of the naturali=ation of Peter Co as a Filipino !iti=en on the %ali&it" of the option to pur!hase ,i%en hi L ANSWER:
1) +s hel& in Philippine 9anDin, Corporation %s' 7ui She' 21 SC1+ 22H the lease of a par!el of lan& with an option to :u" to an alien is a %irtual transfer of ownership to the alien an& falls within the s!ope of the prohi:ition in

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;;

of the pu:li! &o ain' 5t is aliena:le an& &isposa:le lan&' >oel an& 8i!helle a!?uire& the ri,hts of their pre&e!essors*in*interest :" %irtue of the sale to the '
>oel an& 8i!helle !an ha%e the lan& re,istere& in their na es' 3he" were natural*:orn Filipino !iti=ens at the ti e of their a!?uisition of the lan&' 5n an" e%ent the" were Filipino !iti=ens at the ti e of their a!?uisition of the lan&' 3heir :e!o in, Cana&ian !iti=ens su:se?uentl" is i aterial' +rti!le M55H Se!' 8 of the 1987 Constitution presupposes that the" pur!hase& the lan& after the" lost Filipino !iti=enship' 5t &oes not appl" in this !ase at all'

2) 3he -ee& of Sale !annot :e annulle&' +s hel& in Chees an %s' 5nter e&iate +ppellate CourtH 193 SC1+ 93' to a!!or& to >ohn S ithH an alienH the ri,ht to ha%e a &e!isi%e %ote as to the &isposition of the lan& woul& per it an in&ire!t !ontro%ersion of the !onstitutional prohi:ition a,ainst the a!?uisition of pri%ate lan&s :" aliens'

Citi/en+,i* ReF3ire1ent in Manage1ent &) Ad0erti+ing Ind3+try 9!#$#:


N&' 11: (2) 8a" a forei,ner who owns su:stantial sto!Dhol&in,s in a !orporation en,a,e& in the a&%ertisin, in&ustr" sit as a treasurer of sai& !orporationL Cite the !onstitutional pro%ision in point'

A(F3i+iti&n &) Land+8 Pr&,ibiti&n8 a(F3i+iti&n &) *ri0ate 'and+ by a'ien+ 9!##;:
N&'18; >ohn S ithH a <S nationalH was arrie& to Petra &e >esusH a Filipino !iti=enH on >une 2H 1980' 3wo (2) "ears laterH Petra pur!hase& a par!el of resi&ential lan& fro >ose Cru= usin, her own fun&s' 3he -ee& of Sale states that the lan& was sol& to CPetra arrie& to >ohn S ithC an& was re,istere& as su!h' 6ith the Dnowle&,e of >ohn S ithH Petra a& inistere& the lan&H leasin, parts thereof to se%eral in&i%i&uals' 3hree (3) "ears laterH PetraH without the Dnowle&,e of >ohn S ithH sol& the lan& to -a%i& Pere=' <pon learnin, of the transa!tionH >ohn S ith file& a !ase to annul the -ee& of Sale' Citin, +rt' 1)0 of the Ci%il Co&eH he ar,ue& that sai& sale was without his !onsentH the propert" :ein, !on;u,al as it was pur!hase& at the ti e he was arrie& to Petra' @e presente& the -ee& of Sale e0e!ute& :" Petra statin, that she is arrie& to >ohn S ith' @e wants to re!o%er at least his !on;u,al share'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: Se!tion 11(1)H +rti!le ME5 1987 Constitution pro%i&es; of the

(2) NoH a forei,ner who owns shares of sto!D in a !orporation en,a,e& in the a&%ertisin, in&ustr" !annot ser%e as treasurer in the !orporationH for a treasurer is an e0e!uti%e or ana,in, offi!er' Se!tion 11(2)H +rti!le ME5 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es:
C3he parti!ipation of forei,n in%estors in the ,o%ernin, :o&" of entities in su!h in&ustr" shall :e li ite& to their proportionate share in the !apital thereofH an& all the e0e!uti%e an& ana,in, offi!ers of su!h entities ust :e !iti=ens of the Philippines'C

C' 5s >ohn S ith entitle& to his !on;u,al shareL -' 8a" the -ee& of Sale e0e!ute& :" Petra 5n fa%or of -a%i& Pere= :e annulle&L ANSWER:
1) NoH >ohn S ith is not entitle& to his !on;u,al share in the lan&' Firstl"H sin!e it was a!?uire& with the personal fun&s of Petra &e >esusH in a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in 8irasol %s' 7i H 29 Phil' 701H the presu ption that the propert" is !on;u,al has :een re:utte&' Se!on&l"H a &e!laration that >ohn S ith is entitle& to a !on;u,al share in the lan& will %iolate the prohi:ition a,ainst the !on%e"an!e of pri%ate lan&s to aliens e :o&ie& in Se!tion 7H +rti!le M55 of the Constitution'

Engage1ent in B3+ine++ B E2er(i+e &) Pr&)e++i&n 9!#$%: N&' 5M: 3he Philippine entere& into a 3reat" of Frien&shipH Co it" an& Co er!e with 5n&onesia with the followin, pro%isions:
(1 ) 3he nationals of ea!h !ontra!tin, State a& itte& to the pra!ti!e of law in sai& StateH to pra!ti!e law without taDin, the :ar e0a inations in the other !ontra!tin, State' (2) 3he nationals of ea!h !ontra!tin, State to en,a,e in retail tra&e :usiness in the territor" of the other !ontra!tin, State' 5s the treat" %ali&L S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 3he treat" is %ali&' (1) +rt' M55H Se!' 1# pro%i&es that the pra!ti!e of all professions in the Philippines shall :e

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;@

li ite& to Filipino !iti=ensH sa%e in !ases pres!ri:e& :" law' @ere the treat" has the for!e of law'
(2) +rt' M55' Se!' 10 pro%i&es that Con,ress shall reser%e to !iti=ens of the Philippines or to !orporations or asso!iations at least )0N of the !apital of whi!h is owne& :" su!h !iti=ens !ertain areas of in%est ent' 3here !an :e no ?uestion then as to the %ali&it" of the Nationali=ation of 1etail 3ra&e 7awH the !onstitutionalit" of whi!h was sustaine& in 5!hon, %' @ernan&e=H 101 Phil' 1122 (1927) e%en in the a:sen!e of a si ilar e0press ,rant of power to Con,ress un&er the 1932 Constitution' +lthou,h Con,ress !an repeal or a en& su!h lawH it a" not :e a en&e& :" a treat" in %iew of +rt' M55H Se!' 22 whi!h &e!lares a!ts of !ir!u %ent or ne,ate an" pro%isions of this +rt' M55 to :e ini i!al to national interest an& su:;e!t the offen&ers to !ri inal an& !i%il san!tions' For then the 1etail 3ra&e Nationali=ation 7aw :e!o es part of +rt' M55H ha%in, :een passe& pursuant to the an&ate in Se!' 10'

!orporation in%ol%in, te!hni!al an& finan!ial assistan!e for the e0ploration an& e0ploitation of ineralsH :ut there shoul& :e no >oint %enture' Se!tion 2H +rti!le M55 of the Constitution authori=es the Presi&ent to enter into a,ree ents with forei,n*owne& !orporations in%ol%in, te!hni!al or finan!ial assistan!e for the e0plorationH &e%elop entH an& utili=ation of inerals' @owe%erH the sa e pro%ision states the ;oint %enture for the e0plorationH &e%elop ent an& utili=ation of natural resour!es a" :e un&ertaDen onl" with Filipino !iti=ensH or !orporations or asso!iations at least si0t" per !ent of whose !apital is owne& :" Filipino !iti=en'

E2*r&*riati&n &) P3b'i( Uti'itie+ 9!##":


N&' 11 * 3he Philippine Co o&ities Affi!e (PCA)H a ,o%ern ent a,en!"H wishes to esta:lish a &ire!t !o puter an& fa0 linDup with tra&in, !enters in the <nite& States' 3he a&%an!e& te!hnolo," of a pri%ate !o pan"H Philippine Pa!ifi! 3ele!o uni!ationsH is ne!essar" for that purpose :ut ne,otiations :etween the parties ha%e faile&' 3he 1epu:li!H in :ehalf of the PCAH files suit to !o pel the tele!o uni!ations !o pan" to e0e!ute a !ontra!t with PCA for PCABs a!!ess an& use of the !o pan"Bs fa!ilities' -e!i&e' 5f the !ase will not prosperH what alternati%e will "ou propose to the 1epu:li!L

@owe%erH it a" also :e plausi:l" ar,ue& that a treat" a" a en& a prior law an& treat" of frien&shipH !o it" an& !o er!e with 5n&onesia a" :e &ee e& to ha%e !reate& an e0!eption in the Nationali=ation of 1etail 3ra&e 7aw in fa%or of 5n&onesian !iti=en' E2*'&rati&n and De0e'&*1ent &) Minera'+ 9!##;:
N&' 11: 5n the &esire to i pro%e the fishin, etho&s of the fisher enH the 9ureau of FisheriesH with the appro%al of the Presi&entH entere& into a e oran&u of a,ree ent to allow 3hai fisher en to fish within 200 iles fro the Philippine sea !oasts on the !on&ition that Filipino fisher en :e allowe& to use 3hai fishin, e?uip ent an& %esselsH an& to learn o&ern te!hnolo," in fishin, an& !annin,'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he a!tion will not prosper' +s hel& in 1epu:li! of the P-i'ippines /s. P-i'ippine Long ;is+ance Te'ep-one Co0panyH 2) SC1+ )20H parties !annot :e !o pelle& to enter into a !ontra!t' @owe%erH sin!e un&er Se!tion 18H +rti!le M55 of the ConstitutionH the State a" e0propriate pu:li! utilitiesH the 1epu:li! of the Philippines a" !o pel the Philippine Pa!ifi! 3ele!o uni!ations to allow a!!ess to its fa!ilities' 5f the 1epu:li! of the Philippines !an taDe title to the fa!ilities of Philippine Pa!ifi! 3ele!o uni!ations :" its power of e0propriationH there is no reason wh" it !annot use su!h power to i pose onl" a :ur&en upon Philippine Pa!ifi! 3ele!o uni!ation without loss of title'

(2) 5s the a,ree ent %ali&L


(3) Suppose the a,ree ent is for a ;oint %enture on the sa e area with a 3hai oil !orporation for the e0ploration an& e0ploitation of inerals with the 3hai !orporation pro%i&in, te!hni!al an& finan!ial assistan!e' 5s the a,ree ent %ali&L

+NS6/1; #) No' Anl" Filipinos e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one'''


2) 3he Presi&ent !an e oran&u

Lea+e &) Pri0ate Agri(3't3ra' Land+ 9"66!: a"


enter

fish
into

in
a

N& 5E * + is an alien' State whetherH in the PhilippinesH he: a) Can :e a lessee of a pri%ate a,ri!ultural lan&H (3N)

of a,ree ent with a 3hai oil

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;?

SUGGESTED ANSWER8
OesH an alien !an :e a lessee of pri%ate a,ri!ultural lan&' +s state& in Gri%enDo %s' 1e,ister of -ee&s of 8anilaH 79 Phil' #)1 (19#7)H aliens !an lease pri%ate a,ri!ultural lan&H :e!ause the" are ,rante& te porar" ri,hts onl" an& this is not prohi:ite& :" the Constitution'

+!!or&in, to Aani'a Prince @o+e' /. 3o/ern0en+ 7er/ice Ins*rance 7ys+e0H 2)7 SC1+ #08H the national patri on" refers not onl" to our natural resour!es :ut also to our !ultural herita,e' Nati&na'i/ed A(ti0itie+ 9!##;: 2) $i%e a :usiness a!ti%it" the e?uit" of whi!h ust :e owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens: 0 at least )0N 1 2 at least 70N 100N

Nati&na'

B E(&n&1y Patri1&ny8 C&n+tit3ti&na' Pr&,ibiti&n 9"66;: 9$<b: 9' /+P is a ,o%ern ent !orporation !reate& for the purpose of re!lai in, lan&s in!lu&in, foreshore an& su: er,e& areasH as well as to &e%elopH i pro%eH a!?uireH lease an& sell an" an& all Din&s of lan&s' + law was passe& transferrin, title to /+P of lan&s alrea&" re!lai e& in the foreshore an& offshore areas of 88 9a"H parti!ularl" the so*!alle& 7i:ert" 5slan&sH as aliena:le an& &isposa:le lan&s of the pu:li! &o ain' 3itles were &ul" issue& in /+PBs na e'
Su:se?uentl"H /+P entere& into a ;oint %enture a,ree ent (>E+) with +15H a pri%ate forei,n !orporationH to &e%elop 7i:ert" 5slan&s' +&&itionall"H the >E+ pro%i&e& for the re!la ation of 220 he!tares of su: er,e& lan& in the area surroun&in, 7i:ert" 5slan&s' /+P a,ree& to sell an& transfer to +15 a portion of 7i:ert" 5slan&s an& a portion of the area to :e re!lai e& as the !onsi&eration for +15Bs role an& parti!ipation in the ;oint %entureH upon appro%al :" the Affi!e of the Presi&ent' 5s there an" !onstitutional o:sta!le to the sale an& transfer :" /+P to +15 of :oth portions as pro%i&e& for in the >E+L (2N)

3) $i%e two !ases in whi!h aliens a" :e allowe& to a!?uire e?uit" in a :usiness a!ti%it" :ut !annot parti!ipate in the ana,e ent thereofL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 1) a) +t least si0t" per !ent ()0N) of the e?uit" of the entities en,a,e& in the followin, :usiness ust :e owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens un&er the Constitution' 1' Co*pro&u!tionH >oint %entureH or pro&u!tion*sharin, a,ree ent with the State for the e0plorationH &e%elop entH an& utili=ation of natural resour!es (Se!tion 2H +rti!le M55) 2' Aperation of a pu:li! utilit" (Se!tion 11H +rti!le M55) 3' /&u!ation (Se!tion #(2)H +rti!le M5E)
:) +t least se%ent" per!ent (70N) of the e?uit" of :usiness entities en,a,e& in a&%ertisin, ust :e owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens un&er the Constitution' (Se!tion 11(2)H +rti!le ME5)

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
9' +15 !annot a!?uire a portion of 7i:ert" 5slan&s :e!auseH althou,h /+P has title to 7i:ert" 5slan&s an& thus su!h lan&s are aliena:le an& &isposa:le lan&H the" !annot :e sol&H onl" lease&H to pri%ate !orporations' 3he portion of the area to :e re!lai e& !annot :e sol& an& transferre& to +15 :e!ause the sea:e& is inaliena:le lan& of the pu:li! &o ain' (Se!tion 3H +rti!le M55 of the 1987 Constitution; Cha%e= %' Pu:li! /states +uthorit"H 38# SC1+ 122 P2002Q)'

!) 8ass e&ia ust :e wholl" owne& :" Filipino !iti=ens un&er the Constitution (Se!tion 11(1)H +rti!le ME5)' 2) <n&er the ConstitutionH aliens a" a!?uire e?uit" :ut !annot parti!ipate in the ana,e ent of :usiness entities en,a,e& in the followin, a!ti%ities: (3) Pu:li! utilities (Se!tion 11H +rti!le M55)
(#) /&u!ation (Se!tion #(2) '+rti!le M5E)

Nati&na' Patri1&ny8 de)initi&n 9!###: No M55 * 6hat is eant :" National Patri on"L /0plain the !on!ept of National Patri on"L (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

(2) +&%ertisin, +rti!le ME5)

(Se!tion

11(2)H

!;%

O5ner+,i* ReF3ire1ent &) Ma++ Media 9!#$#: N&' 11: (1) + &o esti! !orporation with 30N forei,n e?uit" proposes to pu:lish a weeDl" a,a=ine for ,eneral !ir!ulation in 8etro 8anila whi!h will feature the lifest"les of the ri!h an& the fa ous' 8a" this :e &oneL Cite the !onstitutional pro%ision in point' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: (1) NoH the !orporation !annot pu:lish a weeDl" a,a=ine sin!e it is en,a,e& in the operation of a ass e&ia an& is not wholl" owne& :" Philippine !iti=ens'
Se!tion 11(1)H +rti!le ME5 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es; C3he ownership an& ana,e ent of ass e&ia shall :e li ite& to !iti=ens of the PhilippinesH or to !orporationsH !ooperati%es or asso!iationsH wholl"*owne& an& ana,e& :" su!h !iti=ens'C

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he law is %ali& as un&er +rti!le M55H Se!tion 2 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the e0plorationH &e%elop entH an& utili=ation of natural resour!es shall :e un&er the full !ontrol an& super%ision of the State' 5t is also pro%i&e& that the State a" &ire!tl" un&ertaDe su!h a!ti%ities or it a" enter into !o*pro&u!tionH ;oint %enture or sharin, a,ree ents with Filipino !iti=ens or !orporations or asso!iationsH at least )0N Filipino*owne&' Further oreH the Presi&ent a" enter into a,ree ents with forei,n*owne& !orporations in%ol%in, te!hni!al or finan!ial assistan!e for lar,e*s!ale e0plorationH &e%elop entH an& utili=ation of ineralsH petroleu an& other ineral oilsH a!!or&in, to ter s an& !on&itions pro%i&e& :" law' + state !orporationH unliDe a pri%ate !orporationH a" :e !reate& :" spe!ial law an& pla!e& un&er the !ontrol of the Presi&entH su:;e!t to su!h !on&itions as the !reatin, statute a" pro%i&e'

C,ine+e (iti/en+8 engaging in retai' trade 9>;<"66?: State whether or not the followin, laws are !onstitutional' /0plain :riefl"' 3' + law prohi:itin, Chinese !iti=ens fro en,a,in, in retail tra&e' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he law is in%ali& as it sin,les out an& &epri%es Chinese !iti=ens fro en,a,in, in retail tra&e' 5n 5!hon, %' @ernan&e=H $'1' No' 7*7992H 8a" 31H1927H the !ourt hel& that the 3reat" of + it" :etween the 1epu:li! of the Philippines an& the 1epu:li! of China ,uarantees e?ualit" of treat ent to the Chinese nationals Cupon the sa e ter s as the nationals of an" other !ountr"'C 3husH the !ourt rule& therein that the nationals of China are not &is!ri inate& a,ainst :e!ause nationals of all other !ountriesH e0!ept those of the <nite& StatesH who are ,rante& spe!ial ri,hts :" the ConstitutionH are all prohi:ite& fro en,a,in, in the retail tra&e' 5n the !ase at :arH the law &is!ri inates onl" a,ainst Chinese !iti=ens an& thus %iolates the e?ual prote!tion !lause'

ARTICLE XIII S&(ia' 43+ti(e and H31an Rig,t+


Agrarian Re)&r1 La58 C&0erage 9!##": N&' 12: 3eo&oro 7u=un, is en,a,e& in the :usiness of prawn far in,H 3he prawns are nurture& in his fishpon&s in 8in&oro an&H upon har%estH are i e&iatel" fro=en for e0port'
Con,ress passe& the Co prehensi%e +,rarian 1efor 7aw of 1988 whi!h pro%i&es a on, others that all pri%ate lan&s &e%ote& to a,ri!ulture shall :e su:;e!t to a,rarian refor ' 3he law in!lu&es un&er the ter Ca,ri!ultureC the followin, a!ti%ities: !ulti%ation of the soilH plantin, of !ropsH ,rowin, of fruit treesH raisin, of li%esto!DH poultr" or fish' 3he -epart ent of +,rarian 1efor issue& an i ple entin, or&er whi!h pro%i&es that !o er!ial far s use& for a?ua*!ultureH in!lu&in, salt*:e&sH fishpon&s an& prawn far s are within the s!ope of the law'

Can the law :e &e!lare& un!onstitutionalL -e!i&e' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:


+s hel& in L*= 8ar0s /s. 7ecre+ary o) +-e ;epar+0en+ o) Agrarian Re)or0H 192 SC1+ 21H the law is un!onstitutional insofar as it in!lu&e& li%esto!DH poultr" an& swine raisin,' 5n the &efinition of the a,ri!ultural lan& whi!h the Constitutional Co ission a&opte& in

E2*'&rati&n7 de0e'&*1ent7 and 3ti'i/ati&n &) nat3ra' re+&3r(e+ 9>;<"66?: State whether or not the law is !onstitutional' /0plain :riefl"' 2' + law !reatin, a state !orporation to e0ploitH &e%elopH an& utili=e !o presse& natural ,as' (2N)

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!;$

!onne!tion with a,rarian refor H lan&s &e%ote& to su!h purposes were not in!lu&e&' @owe%erH :oth the law an& the i ple entin, or&er are !onstitutional insofar as the" in!lu&e& fishpon&s' 3he &efinition of a,ri!ultural lan& whi!h the Constitutional Co ission a&opte& in!lu&e& fishpon&s'

C&11i++i&n &n H31an Rig,t+8 P&5er t& in0e+tigate 9!##":


N&' 12 * 6alan, Su,atH a %i,ilante ,roup !o pose& of pri%ate :usiness en an& !i%i! lea&ers pre%iousl" %i!ti i=e& :" the Nationalist Patrioti! +r " (NP+) re:el ,roupH was i pli!ate& in the torture an& Di&nappin, of -r' 8en,eleH a Dnown NP+ s" pathi=er'

the o!!upants to %a!ate the stru!tures within fi%e &a"s fro noti!eH otherwise the" woul& :e e%i!te& an& relo!ate& an& their shanties re o%e&H in or&er that the par!el of lan& !oul& :e !on%erte& into a parD for pu:li! use an& en;o" ent' 3he inha:itants of the par!el of lan& !o plaine& to the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts ur,in, that the 8a"or of (ue=on Cit" :e stoppe& fro &oin, what he has threatene& to &o' 3he Co ission on @u an 1i,htsH after !on&u!tin, an in%esti,ation an& fin&in, that the shanties of petitioners were alrea&" :ein, &e olishe& :" thenH or&ere& the (ue=on Cit" 8a"or an& persons 5 ple entin, his or&er to !ease an& &esist fro &e olishin, petitionersB shanties un&er pain of !onte pt' 6hat ha%e "ou to sa" on the %ali&it" of the a!tuation of the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts in relation to that of the (ue=on Cit" 8a"orL

:) -oes the Co ission @u an 1i,hts ha%e the power in%esti,ate an& a&;u&i!ate the atterL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1;

on to

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he a!tuation of the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts is %oi&' 5n 7i0on /s. Co00ission on @*0an Rig-+sH 229 SC1+ 117' the Court hel& that the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts has no power to issue a restrainin, or&er or a writ of in;un!tion an& has no power to !ite for !onte pt for %iolation of the restrainin, or&er or a writ of preli inar" in;un!tion' 3he !ease an& &esist or&erH a!!or&in, to the CourtH is a se anti! 5nterpla" for a restrainin, or&er' 5ts power to !ite for !onte pt shoul& :e un&erstoo& to appl" onl" to %iolations of its a&opte& operational ,ui&elines an& rules of pro!e&ure essential to !arr" out its in%esti,atorial powersH whi!h it is !onstitutionall" authori=e& to a&opt'

:) <n&er Se!tion 18H +rti!le M555 of the ConstitutionH the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts has the power to in%esti,ate all for s of hu an ri,hts %iolations in%ol%in, !i%il an& politi!al ri,hts an& to onitor the !o plian!e :" the ,o%ern ent with international treat" o:li,ations on hu an ri,hts' +s hel& in Carino %s' Co ission on @u an 1i,htsH 20# SC1+ #83H the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts has no power to &e!i&e !ases in%ol%in, %iolations of !i%il an& politi!al ri,hts' 5t !an onl" in%esti,ate the an& then refer the atter to the appropriate ,o%ern ent a,en!"'

+73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
5f what is referre& to in the pro:le is the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts un&er the <nite& National /!ono i! an& So!ial Coun!ilH the !ase a" :e in%esti,ate& :" the Co ission :ase& on a spe!ial pro!e&ure for fa!t*fin&in, an& in?uir" :ase& on the !onsent of the States !on!erne&' @owe%erH this &oes not !onstitute in%esti,ation in the usual sense of the ter H with no o:;e!ti%e of esta:lishin, !ulpa:ilit"' 3he Co ission on @u an 1i,hts is not e powere& to aDe a&;u&i!ations'

C&11i++i&n &n H31an Rig,t+8 P&5er t& i++3e TRO 9"66!:


N& E5 * 5n or&er to i ple ent a :i, ,o%ern ent floo& !ontrol pro;e!tH the -epart ent of Pu:li! 6orDs an& @i,hwa"s (-P6@) an& a lo!al ,o%ern ent unit (7$<) re o%e& s?uatters fro the :anD of a ri%er an& !ertain esteros for relo!ation to another pla!e' 3heir shanties were &e olishe&' 3he Co ission on @u an 1i,hts (C@1) !on&u!te& an in%esti,ation an& issue& an or&er for the -P6@ an& the 7$< to !ease an& &esist fro effe!tin, the re o%al of the s?uatters on the ,roun& that the hu an ri,hts of the s?uatters were :ein, %iolate&' 3he -P6@ an& the 7$< o:;e!te& to the or&er of the C@1

C&11i++i&n &n H31an Rig,t+8 P&5er t& i++3e TRO 9!##%:


N&' 8 * +:out a hun&re& people o!!upie& a par!el of lan& in (ue=on Cit" :elon,in, to the !it" ,o%ern ent an& :uilt shanties thereon whi!h the" utili=e& for &wellin,H sari*sari storesH et!' 3he Cit" 8a"or issue& an or&er &ire!tin,

1esol%e whi!h position is !orre!t' 1easons (2N)

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!;#

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1;
3he position of the -epart ent of Pu:li! 6orDs an& @i,hwa"s an& of the lo!al ,o%ern ent unit is !orre!t' +s hel& in /0port Pro!essin, .one +uthorit" %' Co ission on @u an 1i,htsH 208 SC1+122 (1992)H no pro%ision in the Constitution or an" law !onfers on the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts ;uris&i!tion to issue te porar" restrainin, or&ers or writs of preli inar" in;un!tion' 3he Co ission on @u an 1i,hts has no ;u&i!ial power' 5ts powers are erel" in%esti,ator"'

!onse?uent &an,er to life an& li : !annot :e i,nore&' 5t is para&o0i!al that a ri,ht whi!h is !lai e& to ha%e :een %iolate& is one that !annotH in the first pla!eH e%en :e in%oDe&H if it isH in fa!tH e0tant' 9ase& on the !ir!u stan!es o:tainin, in this instan!eH the C@1 or&er for &e olition &o not fall within the !o part ent of hu an ri,hts %iolations in%ol%in, !i%il an& politi!al ri,hts inten&e& :" the Constitution' (Si on %' Co ission on @u an 1i,htsH $'1' No' 100120H >anuar" 2H 199#)

C&11i++i&n &n H31an Rig,t+8 P&5er8 Li1itati&n+ 9>;<"66@:


!) S?uatters an& %en&ors ha%e put up stru!tures in an area inten&e& for a PeopleBs ParDH whi!h are i pe&in, the flow of traffi! in the a&;oinin, hi,hwa"' 8a"or Cru= ,a%e noti!e for the stru!tures to :e re o%e&H an& the area %a!ate& within a onthH or elseH fa!e &e olition an& e;e!t ent' 3he o!!upants file& a !ase with the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts (C@1) to stop the 8a"orBs o%e'

(:) Can the C@1 issue an Cor&er to &esistC or restrainin, or&erL S<$$/S3/+NS6/1:
3he C@1 a" not issue an Cor&er to &esistC or restrainin, or&er' 3he !onstitutional pro%ision &ire!tin, the C@1 to pro%i&e for pre%enti%e easures to those whose hu an ri,hts ha%e :een %iolate& or nee& prote!tion a" not :e !onstrue& to !onfer ;uris&i!tion on the Co ission to issue a restrainin, or&er or writ of in;un!tion forH it that were the intentionH the Constitution woul& ha%e e0pressl" sai& so' >uris&i!tion is !onferre& onl" :" the Constitution or :" law' 5t is ne%er &eri%e& :" i pli!ation' (/0port Pro!essin, .one +uthorit" %' Co ission on @u an 1i,htsH $'1' No' 101#7)H +pril 1#H 1992)

3he C@1 then issue& an Cor&er to &esistC a,ainst 8a"or Cru= with warnin, that he woul& :e hel& in !onte pt shoul& he fail to !o pl" with the &esistan!e or&er' 6hen the allotte& ti e lapse&H 8a"or Cru= !ause& the &e olition an& re o%al of the stru!tures' +!!or&in,l"H the C@1 !ite& hi for !onte pt' (2N) 0 6hat is "our !on!ept of @u an 1i,htsL -oes this !ase in%ol%e %iolations of hu an ri,hts within the s!ope of the C@1Bs ;uris&i!tionL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
<n&er the <ni%ersal -e!laration of @u an 1i,htsH the 5nternational Co%enant on /!ono i!H So!ial an& Cultural 1i,hts an& 5nternational Co%enant on Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,htsH the s!ope of hu an ri,hts in!lu&es C+-ose +-a+ re'a+e +o an indi/id*a'Fs socia'( econo0ic( c*'+*ra'( po'i+ica' and ci/i' re'a+ions... a'ong &i+- &-a+ is genera''y considered +o be -is in-eren+ and ina'ienab'e rig-+s( enco0passing a'0os+ a'' aspec+s o) 'i)e'C 5n the !ase at :arH the lan& a&;oins a :us" national hi,hwa" an& the !onstru!tion of the s?uatter shanties i pe&es the flow of traffi!' 3he

(!) 5s the C@1 e powere& to &e!lare 8a"or Cru= in !onte ptL -oes it ha%e !onte pt powers at allL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he C@1 &oes not possess a&;u&i!ati%e fun!tions an& thereforeH on its ownH is not e powere& to &e!lare 8a"or Cru= in !onte pt for issuin, the Cor&er to &esist'C @owe%erH un&er the 1987 ConstitutionH the C@1 is !onstitutionall" authori=e&H in the e0er!ise of its in%esti,ati%e fun!tionsH to Ca&opt its operational ,ui&elines an& rules of pro!e&ureH an& !ite for !onte pt for %iolations thereof in a!!or&an!e with the 1ules of Court'C +!!or&in,l"H the C@1H in the !ourse of an in%esti,ationH a" onl" !ite or hol& an" person in !onte pt an& i pose the appropriate penalties in a!!or&an!e with the pro!e&ure an& san!tions pro%i&e& for in the 1ules of Court' (Carino %' Co ission on

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@6

@u an

1i,htsH

$'1'

No'

9))81H

-e!e :er 2H 1991) Lab&r8 Rig,t t& Se')<Organi/ati&n 9!#$$:


N&' 2: 9e!ause of the arDe& in!rease in the in!i&en!e of la:or striDes an& of worD stoppa,es in in&ustrial esta:lish entsH Con,ress inten&in, to help pro ote in&ustrial pea!eH passe&H o%er the o:;e!tions of ilitant la:or unionsH an a en& ent to the 7a:or Co&eH pro%i&in, that no person who is or has :een a e :er of the Co unist Part" a" ser%e as an offi!er of an" la:or or,ani=ation in the !ountr"' +n asso!iation of for er NP+s (New Peoples +r ") who ha& surren&ere&H a%aile& of a nest"H an& are presentl" lea&in, ?uiet an& pea!eful li%esH !o es to "ou asDin, what !oul& :e &one a,ainst the a en& ent' 6hat woul& "ou a&%ise the asso!iation to &oL /0plain'

For these reasonsH 5 woul& a&%ise the asso!iation to worD for the %eto of the :ill an&H if it is not %etoe& :ut :e!o es a lawH to !hallen,e it in !ourt' Lab&r8 Rig,t t& StriIe 9!#$$:
N&= !: @earin,s :efore a !on,ressional !o ittee ha%e esta:lishe& that an" fir s at the 9ataan /0port Pro!essin, .one ha& !lose& &own or pulle& out :e!ause of unsta:le la:or !on&itions resultin, in so an" striDes' 3o re e&" the situation an& in;e!t %italit" to the e0port e0pansion pro,ra H so e !on,ressional lea&ers an& :usiness e0e!uti%es propose that striDe*free e0port =ones :e esta:lishe&'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
5n PA8L6 /. 7ecre+ary o) Labor H 27 SC1+ #0 (19)9) the Supre e Court uphel& the %ali&it" of se!' 23 of the 5n&ustrial Pea!e +!t re?uirin, la:or unions to su: itH within )0 &a"s of the ele!tion of its offi!ersH affi&a%its of the latter that the" are not e :ers of the Co unist Part"H a,ainst the !lai that the re?uire ent un&ul" !urtaile& free&o of asse :l" an& asso!iation' 3he Court pointe& out that the filin, of the affi&a%its was erel" a !on&ition for the a!?uisition :" a la:or or,ani=ation of le,al personalit" an& the en;o" ent of !ertain ri,hts an& pri%ile,es whi!h the Constitution &oes not ,uarantee' An the other han&H the re?uire ent !onstitutes a %ali& e0er!ise of the StateBs poli!e power to prote!t the pu:li! a,ainst a:useH frau& an& i postors' 9ut the &is?ualifi!ation of e :ers of the CPP an& its ilitar" ar H the NP+H fro :ein, offi!ers of a la:or union woul& (1) nullif" the a nest" ,rante& :" the Presi&ent with the !on!urren!eH it a" :e assu e&H of the a;orit" of the e :ers of Con,ress an& (2) per it the !on&e nation of the for er NP+ e :ers without ;u&i!ial trial in a wa" that aDes it !ontrar" to the prohi:ition a,ainst the ena!t ent of :ill of attain&er an& e0 post fa!to law' 3he a nest" ,rante& to the for er NP+s o:literate& their offense an& relie%e& the of the punish ent i pose& :" law' (9arrio?uinto %H Fernan&e=H 82 Phil' )#2 (19#9))' 3he a en& ent woul& aDe the ,uilt" of an a!tH that of ha%in, :een for er e :ers of the NP+H for whi!h the" ha%e alrea&" :een for,i%en :" Presi&ential a nest"'

-o "ou :elie%e that un&er the present ConstitutionH it is le,all" possi:le to put up su!h a striDe*free e0port pro!essin, =one in the !ountr"L 6h" or wh" notL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
No' 3he fa!t that an" fir s at the 9ataan /P.+ ha%e :een for!e& to !lose &own :" unsta:le la:or !on&ition :rou,ht a:out :" striDe &oes not ;ustif" the :an on striDe' 3he Constitution ,uarantees the ri,hts of worDers to en,a,e in Cpea!eful !on!erte& a!ti%itiesH in!lu&in, the ri,ht to striDe in a!!or&an!e with law'C (+rt' M555H se!' 3)' 5t is ille,al striDes whi!h !an :e prohi:ite& :ut not all striDes' For striDe is la:orBs le,iti ate weapon' 5n the a:sen!e of a !o pellin, interest of the state (su!h as health an& safet"H e','H the prohi:ition of striDe in hospitals an& in&ustries in&ispensa:le to the national interest) it !annot :e prohi:ite&'

Lab&r8 Rig,t t& StriIe 9!##-:


N&' 12: Con,ress an Chen, sa"s he is one of the !o*authors of the Su:i! 9a" 8etropolitan +uthorit" Charter' @e &e!lares that the S98+ is the answer to rapi& e!ono i! ,rowth an& the attain ent of the Presi&entBs Philippine 2000C &rea ' @owe%erH Chen, is worrie& that forei,n !apital i,ht :e slow in !o in, in &ue to unsta:le worDin, !on&itions resultin, fro too an" striDes' 3o re e&" this situation' Chen, proposes an a en& ent to S98+ law &e!larin, it as a striDe*free =one or total :an on striDes' 5s this proposal le,all" &efensi:leL /0plain :riefl"'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
+rt' M555' se!' 3 of the Constitution ,uarantees the ri,ht of all worDers to en,a,e in pea!eful !on!erte& a!ti%itiesH in!lu&in, the ri,ht to striDe

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@!

in a!!or&an!e with law' 3husH a law !annot totall" prohi:it the ri,ht to striDe :ut !an onl" re,ulate the e0er!ise thereof' @is proposal to :an striDes totall" in the Su:i! Spe!ial /!ono i! an& Freeport .one isH therefore un!onstitutional' +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
6hile the Constitution ,uarantees to worDers the ri,ht to en,a,e in pea!eful !on!erte& a!ti%itiesH 5n!lu&in, the ri,ht to striDeH su!h ri,ht !an onl" :e e0er!ise& in a!!or&an!e with law' 3he phrase Cin a!!or&an!e with lawC was 5nserte& pre!isel" to 5n&i!ate that in so e e0!eptional !ases worDers woul& not ha%e the ri,ht to striDe if it is prohi:ite& :" law' @en!eH the proposal to :an striDes totall" in the Su:i! Spe!ial /!ono i! an& Freeport .one is !onstitutional' (So!ial Se!urit" S"ste / plo"ees +sso!iation %s' Court of +ppealsH 172 SC1+ )8)H >ul" 28' 1989; 8anila Pu:li! S!hool 3ea!hers +sso!iation %' 7a,uioH 200 SC1+ 323 (1991))'

State to alle%iate the pli,ht of the un&erpri%ile,e& :" re o%in, 5ne?uitiesH it si pl" a&e a ,eneral poli!" &e!laration an& fo!use& on so!ial an& e!ono i! ine?uitiesH

:) 5n the 1987 ConstitutionH so!ial >usti!e is !on!eptuali=e& as a set of spe!ifi! e!ono i!H so!ial an& !ultural ri,hts' !) 3he 1987 Constitutional pro%ision on so!ial ;usti!e in!lu&es all phases of national &e%elop ent' 5t in!lu&es e!ono i!H politi!alH so!ial an& !ultural ri,hts' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1
2' 5n Calalan, %' 6illia sH et' al'' 70 Phil' 72)H so!ial ;usti!e was &efine& as Cneither !o unis nor &espotis H nor ato is H nor anar!h"H :ut the hu ani=ation of laws an& the e?uali=ation of so!ial an& e!ono i! for!es :" the State so that ;usti!e in its rational an& o:;e!ti%el" se!ular !on!eption a" at least :e appro0i ate&' So!ial ;usti!e eans the pro otion of the welfare of all the peopleH the a&option :" the ,o%ern ent of easures !al!ulate& to insure e!ono i! sta:ilit" of all the !o petent ele ents of so!iet"H throu,h the aintenan!e of a proper e!ono i! an& so!ial e?uili:riu in the interrelations of the e :ers of the !o unit"HC An the other han&H Se!tion )H +rti!le 55 of the 1973 Constitution pro%i&e&' 3he State shall pro ote so!ial ;usti!e to ensure the &i,nit"H welfareH an& se!urit" of all the people' 3owar& this en&' the State shall re,ulate the a!?uisitionH ownershipH useH en;o" entH an& &isposition of pri%ate propert"H an& e?uita:l" &iffuse propert" ownership an& profits'C 3his pro%ision e0poun&e& on the !on!ept of so!ial ;usti!e :" e0pressl" entionin, the re,ulation of propert" an& the e?uita:le &iffusion of ownership' Note: 5t is su,,este& that the e0a iner shoul& !orrelate the answers to :oth ?uestions an& ,i%e !re&it to answers whi!h state that there is an e0pansion of the ran,e of so!ial >usti!e in the 1987 Constitution !o pare& to the 1932 an& the 1973 Constitution'

S&(ia' 43+ti(e 3nder t,e Pre+ent C&n+tit3ti&n 9!##@: N&' 1* 1' -is!uss the !on!ept of so!ial ;usti!e un&er the 1987 ConstitutionH 2' @ow &oes it !o pare with the ol& !on!ept of so!ial >usti!e un&er the 1973 ConstitutionL <n&er the 1932 ConstitutionL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1
1' Se!tion 10H +rti!le 55 of the 1987 Constitution pro%i&es' C3he State shall pro ote so!ial ;usti!e in all phases of national &e%elop entC' +s state& in 8ar?ue= %s' Se!retar" of 7a:orH 171 SC1+ 337H so!ial ;usti!e eans that the State shoul& assist the un&erpri%ile,e&' 6ithout su!h helpH the" i,ht not :e a:le to se!ure ;usti!e for the sel%es' Sin!e the pro%ision on so!ial ;usti!e in the 1987 Constitution !o%ers all phases of national &e%elop entH it is not li ite& to the re o%al of so!io*e!ono i! ine?uities :ut also in!lu&es politi!al an& !ultural ine?uities' 3he 1987 Constitution ela:orate& on the !on!ept of so!ial ;usti!e :" &e%otin, an entire arti!leH +rti!le M555H to it'

W&1en 9"666:
N& 5M' :) 6hat are the pro%isions of the

+lternati%e +nswers:
a) Se!tion 2H +rti!le 55 of the 1932 Constitution pro%i&e&H C3he pro otion of so!ial ;usti!e to 5nsure the well*:ein, an& e!ono i! se!urit" of all the people shoul& :e the !on!ern of the State'C 6hile this pro%ision e :o&ie& the !on!ept of so!ial ;usti!e as an o:li,ation of the

Constitution on wo enL (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: :) 3he followin, are the pro%isions of the Constitution on wo en:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@"

1) C5t (the State) shall e?uall" prote!t the life of the other an& the life of the un:orn fro !on!eption'C (Se!tion 12H +rti!le 55) 2) 3he State re!o,ni=es the role of wo en in nation*:uil&in,H an& shall ensure the fun&a ental e?ualit" :efore the law of wo en an& en'C (Se!tion 1#H +rti!le 55)
3) C3he State shall prote!t worDin, wo en :" pro%i&in, safe an& healthful worDin, !on&itionsH taDin, into a!!ount their aternal fun!tionsH an& su!h fa!ulties an& opportunities that will enhan!e their welfare an& ena:le the to reali=e their full potential in the ser%i!e of the nation'C (Se!tion 1#H +rti!le M555)

(!) 3he preferen!e ,i%en to the poor anBs son is ;ustifie&' Not onl" is the se inar" entitle& to !hoose who it will a& it :e!ause it en;o"s institutional autono " (+rt' M5EH Se!' 2(2) ) :ut the !hoi!e a&e in this !ase is a wise an& ;u&i!ious one' 3he ri!h anBs son ha& :een e0pelle& fro another s!hool :e!ause of a!a&e i! &elin?uen!"' -espite the e!ono i! a&%anta,e an& opportunit" he ha&H he still faile& in his s!hool worDH warrantin, a fin&in, that he !annot reall" &o s!hool worD' An the other han&H the poor anBs son a" :e a!a&e i!all" &efi!ient pre!isel" as a result of po%ert" so that if relie%e& of its effe!ts it is pro:a:le he will &o :etter in s!hool' 3he &e o!rati=ation of wealth an& powerH i pli!it in +rt' M555H Se!' 1H an& ;ustifies the &e!ision of the 1e!tor in this !ase'

ARTICLE XI. Ed3(ati&n7 S(ien(e and Te(,n&'&gy7 Art+


Ed3(ati&n8 A(ade1i( reed&1 9!#$%:
N&' M: CMCH a son of a ri!h fa il"H applie& for enrol ent with the San Carlos Se inar" in 8an&alu"on,H 8etro 8anila' 9e!ause he ha& :een pre%iousl" e0pelle& fro another se inar" for s!holasti! &efi!ien!"H the 1e!tor of San Carlos Se inar" &enie& the appli!ation without ,i%in, an" ,roun&s for the &enial' +fter CMC was refuse& a& issionH the 1e!tor a& itte& another appli!antH who is the son of a poor far er who was also a!a&e i!all" &efi!ient'

Ed3(ati&n8 A(ade1i( reed&1 9!#$#: N&' 9: 6hat &o "ou un&erstan& :" a!a&e i! free&o L S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
+!!or&in, to Si&ne" @ooDH a!a&e i! free&o is the free&o of professionall" ?ualifie& persons to in?uireH &is!o%erH pu:lish an& tea!h the truth as the" see it in the fiel& of their !o peten!e without :ein, su:;e!t to an" !ontrol or authorit" e0!ept the !ontrol or authorit" of the rational etho&s :" whi!h truths or !on!lusions are sou,ht an& esta:lishe& in these &is!iplines' 5n $ar!ia %s' Fa!ult" +& ission Co itteeH )8 SC1+ 277H it was hel& that the a!a&e i! free&o of institutions of hi,her learnin, in%ol%es a wi&e sphere of autono " in &e!i&in, their o:;e!ti%es an& the :est eans of attainin, the without outsi&e interferen!e e0!ept when o%erri&in, pu:li! welfare !alls for so e restraint' 3husH a s!hool !an &eter ine for itself who a" tea!hH who a" :e tau,htH how it shall :e tau,htH an& who a" :e a& itte& to stu&"' 5n 3an,onon %s' PanoH 137 SC1+ 2#2H it was hel& that the a!a&e i! free&o of an institution of hi,her learnin, in!lu&es the ri,ht to pres!ri:e a!a&e i! stan&ar&s an& to refuse re*enroll ent to stu&ents for a!a&e i! &efi!ien!ies an& %iolation of &is!iplinar" re,ulations' +!!or&in, to <ni%ersit" of San Carlos %s' Court of +ppealsH $'1' No' 79237H A!to:er 18H 1988H a!a&e i! free&o in!lu&es the ri,ht to pres!ri:e re?uire ents for the !onfer ent of honors'

000 (:) Prepare a :rief ar,u ent !itin, rulesH lawsH or Constitutional pro%isions in support of the 1e!torBs &enial of the otion for re!onsi&eration' (!) $i%e "our &e!ision on the appeal of CMC fro the 1e!torBs &enial of CMBsC appli!ationH S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
(:) 3he se inar" has institutional autono " whi!h ,i%es it the ri,htH all thin,s :ein, e?ualH to !hoose who it will a& it as stu&ent' ($ar!ia %' Fa!ult" of +& issionH 7o"ola S!hool of 3heolo,"H )8 SC1+ 277 (1972); Eillar %' 3e!hnolo,i!al 5nstitute of the PhilippinesH 132 SC1+ 70) (1982); 3an,onan %' Cru= PanoH 137 SC1+ 2#2 (1982) ) 3his autono " is suffi!ientl" lar,e to per it in this !ase the se inar" to !hoose :etween the ri!h anBs son an& the poor anBs son'

Ed3(ati&n8 A(ade1i( reed&1 9!##-:


BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@-

N&' 18: 3in,H a stu&ent of 9an,Derohan <ni%ersit"H was ,i%en a failin, ,ra&e :" Professor 8ahi,pit' 3in, !onfronte& Professor 8ahi,pit at the !orri&or after !lass an& a heate& ar,u ent ensue&' Cooler hea&s pre%ente& the %er:al war en&in, in ph"si!al !onfrontation' 8ahi,pit left the !a pus an& went shoppin, 5n a &epart ent store' 3in, saw 8ahi,pit an& without an" warnin, aule& the latter' 8ahi,pit file& an a& inistrati%e !o plaint a,ainst 3in, :efore the -ean of Stu&ents for :rea!h of uni%ersit" rules an& re,ulations' 3he -ean set the !o plaint for hearin,' @owe%erH 3in, file& a petition :efore the 13C to prohi:it the -ean an& the s!hool fro in%esti,atin, hi !onten&in, that the aulin, in!i&ent happene& outsi&e the s!hool pre ises an& thereforeH outsi&e the s!hoolBs ;uris&i!tion' 3he s!hool an& the -ean answere& that the s!hool !an in%esti,ate 3in, sin!e his !on&u!t outsi&e s!hool hours an& e%en outsi&e of s!hool pre ises affe!t the welfare of the s!hool; an& further oreH the !ase in%ol%es a stu&ent an& fa!ult" e :er' 5f "ou were the ;u&,eH how woul& "ou &e!i&e the !aseL

a!a&e i! free&o of an institution of hi,her learnin, in!lu&es the free&o to &eter ine who a" tea!hH what a" :e tau,htH how it shall :e tau,htH an& who a" :e a& itte& to stu&"' 9e!ause of a!a&e i! free&o H an institution of hi,her learnin, !an refuse to re*enroll a stu&ent who is a!a&e i!all" &efi!ient or who has %iolate& the rules of &is!ipline' +!a&e i! free&o ,rants institutions of hi,her learnin, the &is!retion to for ulate rules for the ,rantin, of honors' 7iDewiseH :e!ause of a!a&e i! free&o H an institution of hi,her learnin, !an !lose a s!hool'

Ed3(ati&n8 A'ien Enr&''ee+ B D&n&r+ 9!###: N& 55 * C' 6hat is the rule on the nu :er of aliens who a" enroll in e&u!ational institutions in the Philippines' $i%e the e0!eption to the rule' 8a" su!h institutions a!!ept &onations fro forei,n stu&ents un&er the prete0t that su!h &onations are to :e use& to :u" e?uip ent an& i pro%e s!hool fa!ilitiesL /0plain' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: C' <n&er Se!tion #(2)H +rti!le M5E of the ConstitutionH no ,roup of aliens shall !o prise ore than one*thir& of the enroll ent in an" s!hool' 3he e0!eption refers to s!hools esta:lishe& for forei,n &iplo ati! personnel an& their &epen&ents an&H unless otherwise pro%i&e& :" lawH for other forei,n te porar" resi&ents'
/&u!ational institutions a" a!!ept &onations fro forei,n stu&ents' No pro%ision in the Constitution or an" law prohi:its it'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
5f 5 were the >u&,eH 5 woul& &is iss the petition' 5n Ange'es / 7isonH 112 SC1+ 2)H it was hel& that a s!hool !an su:;e!t to &is!iplinar" a!tion a stu&ent who assaulte& a professor outsi&e the s!hool pre isesH :e!ause the is!on&u!t of the stu&ent in%ol%es his status asH a stu&ent or affe!ts the ,oo& na e or reputation of the s!hool' 3he is!on&u!t of 3in, &ire!tl" affe!ts his suita:ilit" as a stu&ent'

Ed3(ati&n8 9!###:

A(ade1i(

reed&18

E2tent

N& 55 * +' 6hat is +!a&e i! Free&o L -is!uss the e0tent of +!a&e i! Free&o en;o"e& :" institutions of hi,her learnin,' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
+' +!!or&in, to Reyes /. Co*r+ o) Appea'sH 19# SC1+ #02H a!a&e i! free&o is the free&o of a fa!ult" e :er to pursue his stu&ies in his parti!ular spe!ialt" an& thereafter to aDe Dnown or pu:lish the result of his en&ea%ors without fear that retri:ution woul& :e %isite& on hi in the e%ent that his !on!lusions are foun& &istasteful or o:;e!tiona:le :" the powers that :eH whether in the politi!alH e!ono i!H or a!a&e i! esta:lish ents' 5n 3arcia /. 8ac*'+y Ad0ission Co00i++eeH )8 SC1+ 277H it was hel& that the

Ed3(ati&n8 D3tie+ &) State in Re Ed3(ati&n 9!###: N& 55 * 9' $i%e two &uties of the state an&ate& :" the Constitution re,ar&in, e&u!ation' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 9' +rti!le M5E of the Constitution i poses the followin, &uties re,ar&in, e&u!ation upon the State: 1' 3he State shall prote!t an& pro ote the ri,ht of all !iti=ens to ?ualit" e&u!ation at all le%els an& shall taDe appropriate steps to aDe su!h e&u!ation a!!essi:le to all' (Se!tion 1)

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@;

2' 3he State shall esta:lishH aintain an& support a !o pleteH a&e?uateH an& inte,rate& s"ste of e&u!ation rele%ant to the nee&s of the people an& so!iet"' PSe!tion 2(1)Q

Ed3(ati&n8 'ag Sa'3te 9!#$%: N&' M555: 3he re?uire ent that s!hool !hil&ren parti!ipate in fla, !ere onies has :een the su:;e!t of !ontro%ers"' An the one han& it is the %iew that the re?uire ent %iolates reli,ious free&o ; on the other is the Supre e Court &e!ision that :e!ause of rele%ant pro%isions of the 1932 Constitution the fla, salute a" :e %ali&l" re?uire&' 6hi!h of the a:o%e fin&s support on 1987 ConstitutionH Cite at least two pro%isions to pro%e "our point' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 3he %iew that fla, salute a" %ali&l" :e re?uire& fin&s support in the followin, pro%isions of the 1987 Constitution:
(a) +rtH M5EH Se!' 3(2)H whi!h pro%i&es that all e&u!ational institutions shall in!ul!ate in stu&entsH a on, other !i%il %irtuesH patriotis an& nationalis an& tea!h the the ri,hts an& &uties of !iti=enship' 3hus !onsi&era:l" :roa&enin, the ai s of s!hools is ori,inall" state& in the 1932 Constitution whi!h the Supre e Court relie& upon for its &e!ision in $erona %' Se!retar" of /&u!ationH 10) Phil' 2 (1929)H uphol&in, the fla, salute in the Philippines' 3he 1932 Constitution si pl" entione& the &e%elop ent of !i%i! !ons!ien!e an& the tea!hin, of the &uties of !iti=enship' (:) +rt 55H Se!H 13 an&ates the State to Cin!ul!ate in the "outh patriotis an& nationalis HC while Se!' 17 re?uires the State to ,i%e priorit" to e&u!ationH a on, other !on!ernsH Cto foster patriotis an& nationalis 'C

3' 3he State shall esta:lish an& aintain a s"ste of free pu:li! e&u!ation in the ele entar" an& hi,h s!hool le%els' PSe!tion 2(2)Q
#' 3he State shall esta:lish an& aintain a s"ste of s!holarship ,rantsH stu&ent loan pro,ra sH su:si&iesH an& other in!enti%es whi!h shall :e a%aila:le to &eser%in, stu&ents in :oth pu:li! an& pri%ate s!hoolsH espe!iall" to the un&erpri%ile,e&' PSe!tion 2(3)Q 2' 3he State shall en!oura,e non* for alH infor al an& in&i,enous learnin, s"ste sH as well as self* learnin,H in&epen&ent an& out*of* s!hool stu&" pro,ra parti!ularl" those that respon& to !o unit" nee&sH PSe!tion 2W#WQ

)' 3he State shall pro%i&e a&ult !iti=ensH the &isa:le&H an& out*of*s!hool "outh with trainin, in !i%i!sH %o!ational effi!ien!" an& other sDills' PSe!tion 2(2)Q
7' 3he State shall taDe into a!!ount re,ional an& se!toral nee&s an& !on&itions an& shall en!oura,e lo!al plannin, in the &e%elop ent of e&u!ational poli!ies an& pro,ra s' PSe!tion 2(1WQ 8' 3he State shall enhan!e the ri,hts of tea!hers to professional a&%an!e ent' Non*tea!hin, a!a&e i! an& non*a!a&e i! personnel shall en;o" the prote!tion of the State' PSe!tion 2(#)Q 9' 3he State shall assi,n the hi,hest :u&,etar" priorit" to e&u!ation an& ensure that tea!hin, will attra!t an& retain its ri,htful share of the :est a%aila:le talents throu,h a&e?uate re uneration an& other eans of ;o: satisfa!tion an& fulfill ent' PSe!tion 2(2)Q

Ed3(ati&n8 Rig,t t& C,&&+e Pr&)e++i&n 9"666:


N& 5E' <n&aunte& :" his three failures in the National 8e&i!al +& ission 3est (N8+3)H Cru= applie& to taDe it a,ain :ut he was refuse& :e!ause of an or&er of the -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports (-/CS) &isallowin, flunDers fro taDin, the test a fourth ti e' Cru= file& suit assailin, this rule raisin, the !onstitutional ,roun&s of a!!essi:le ?ualit" e&u!ationH a!a&e i! free&o an& e?ual prote!tion' 3he ,o%ern ent opposes thisH uphol&in, the !onstitutionalit" of the rule on the ,roun& of e0er!ise of poli!e power' -e!i&e the !ase &is!ussin, the ,roun&s raise&' (2N)

PNote: 3he ?uestion two !onstitutional &uties of re,ar&in, e&u!ation'Q

asDs for the state

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: +s hel& in -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports %' San -ie,oH180 SC1+

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@@

233 (1989)H the rule is a %ali& e0er!ise of poli!e power to ensure that those a& itte& to the e&i!al profession are ?ualifie&' 3he ar,u ents of Cru= are not eritorious' 3he ri,ht to ?ualit" e&u!ation an& a!a&e i! free&o are not a:solute' <n&er Se!tion 2(3)H +rti!le M5E of the ConstitutionH the ri,ht to !hoose a profession is su:;e!t to fairH reasona:le an& e?uita:le a& ission an& a!a&e i! re?uire ents' 3he rule &oes not %iolate e?ual prote!tion' 3here is a su:stantial &istin!tion :etween e&i!al stu&ents an& other stu&ents' <nliDe other professionsH the e&i!al profession &ire!tl" affe!ts the li%es of the people'

pu:li! ele entar" an& hi,h s!hools within the re,ular !lass hours :" instru!tors &esi,nate& or appro%e& :" the reli,ious authorities to whi!h the !hil&ren or war&s :elon,H without a&&itional !ost to the $o%ern ent'

.a'idity ReF3ire1ent+ 9!##;:


Ed3(ati&n8

&)

A(ade1i(

N&' 12; 3he -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports 5ssue& a !ir!ular &is?ualif"in, an"one who fails for the fourth ti e in the National /ntran!e 3ests fro a& ission to a Colle,e of -entistr"' M who was thus &is?ualifie&H ?uestions the !onstitutionalit" of the !ir!ular' 1) -i& the !ir!ular &epri%e her of her !onstitutional ri,ht to e&u!ationL 2) -i& the !ir!ular %iolate the e?ual prote!tion !lause of the ConstitutionL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1) NoH the !ir!ular &is?ualif"in, an"one who fails for the fourth ti e in the National /ntran!e 3ests fro a& ission to the Colle,e of -entistr" &i& not &epri%e M of her !onstitutional ri,ht to e&u!ation' +s hel& in -epart ent of /&u!ationH Culture an& Sports %s' San -ie,oH 180 SC1+ 233H this ri,ht is not a:solute' Se!tion 2(3)' +rti!le M5E of the Constitution pro%i&es that the ri,ht to !hoose a profession or !ourse of stu&" is su:;e!t to fairH reasona:le an& e?uita:le a& ission an& a!a&e i! re?uire ents' 1e?uirin, that those who will enroll in a Colle,e of -entistr" shoul& pass the National /ntran!e 3est is %ali&H :e!ause it is inten&e& to ensure that onl" those who are ?ualifie& to :e &entists are a& itte& for enroll ent'

Ed3(ati&n8 Rig,t t& >3a'ity Ed3(ati&n 9"66-:


N& 555 * Chil&ren who are e :ers of a reli,ious se!t ha%e :een e0pelle& fro their respe!ti%e pu:li! s!hools for refusin,H on a!!ount of their reli,ious :eliefsH to taDe part in the fla, !ere on" whi!h in!lu&es pla"in, :" a :an& or sin,in, the national anthe H salutin, the Philippine fla, an& re!itin, the patrioti! ple&,e' 3he stu&ents an& their parents assail the e0pulsion on the ,roun& that the s!hool authorities ha%e a!te& in %iolation of their ri,ht to free pu:li! e&u!ationH free&o of spee!hH an& reli,ious free&o an& worship' -e!i&e the !ase'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he stu&ents !annot :e e0pelle& fro s!hool' +s hel& in :bra'inag /. T-e ;i/ision 7*perin+enden+ o) 7c-oo's o) Ceb*. 219 SC1+ 22) P1993QH to !o pel stu&ents to taDe part in the fla, !ere on" when it is a,ainst their reli,ious :eliefs will %iolate their reli,ious free&o ' 3heir e0pulsion also %iolates the &ut" of the State un&er +rti!le M5EH Se!tion 1 of the Constitution to prote!t an& pro ote the ri,ht of all !iti=ens to ?ualit" e&u!ation an& aDe su!h e&u!ation a!!essi:le to all'

2) NoH the !ir!ular &i& not %iolate the e?ual prote!tion !lause of the Constitution' '''

Ed3(ati&n8 Tea(,ing &) Re'igi&n 9!###: N& 55 * -' 6hat is the !onstitutional pro%ision !on!ernin, the tea!hin, of reli,ion in the ele entar" an& hi,h s!hools in the PhilippinesL /0plain' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
-' <n&er Se!tion 3(3)H +rti!le M5E of the ConstitutionH at the option e0presse& in writin, :" the parents or ,uar&iansH reli,ion shall :e allowe& to :e tau,ht to their !hil&ren or war&s in

ARTICLE X.I Genera' Pr&0i+i&n+


Genera' Pr&0i+i&n+8 L&(a' Dia'e(t 9!#$%: No' E: State whether or not the followin, !it" or&inan!es are %ali& an& ,i%e reasons in support of "our answers: (a) +n or&inan!e pres!ri:in, the use of the lo!al &iale!t as e&iu of instru!tion in the pri ar" ,ra&es' SUGGESTED ANSWER:

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@?

(a) 3he or&inan!eH whi!h pres!ri:es the use of the lo!al &iale!t as e&iu of instru!tion in the pri ar" ,ra&esH is in%ali&' 3he Constitution pro%i&es in +rt M5EH Se!' 7 for the use of re,ional &iale!t as au0iliar" e&iu of instru!tion' 5f the or&inan!e pres!ri:es the use of lo!al &iale!t not as au0iliar"H :ut as e0!lusi%e lan,ua,e of instru!tionH then it is %iolati%e of the Constitution for this a&&itional reason' 3he or&inan!e woul& thus allow ore &iale!ts to :e use& than it is &esira:le an& aDe the ?uest for national unit" ore &iffi!ult'

N&' 20: State the %arious o&es ofH an& steps inH re%isin, or a en&in, the Philippine Constitution' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 3here are three Constitution' o&es of a en&in, the

A P8 'i1itati&n &n a((e*ting additi&na' d3tie+ 9!##?: No' 7: Can the >u&,e*+&%o!ate $eneral of the +r e& For!es of the Philippines :e appointe& a 3rustee of the $o%ern ent Ser%i!e 5nsuran!e S"ste L /0plain' SUGGESTED ANSWER:
NoH the >u&,e +&%o!ate $eneral of the +r e& For!es of the Philippines !annot :e appointe& as trustee of the $o%ern ent Ser%i!e 5nsuran!e S"ste ' <n&er Se!tion 2(#)' +rti!le ME5 of the ConstitutionH no e :er of the +r e& For!es of the Philippines in the a!ti%e ser%i!e shall at an" ti e :e appointe& or &esi,nate& in an" !apa!it" to a !i%ilian position in the $o%ern entH in!lu&in, ,o%ern ent*owne& or !ontrolle& !orporations'

1' <n&er Se!tion 1H +rti!le ME555 of the Constitution' Con,ress a" :" three*fourths %ote of all its 8e :ers propose an" a en& ent to or re%ision of the Constitution' 2' <n&er the sa e pro%isionH a !onstitutional !on%ention a" propose an" a en& ent to or re%ision of the Constitution' +!!or&in, to Se!tion 3H +rti!le ME55 of the Constitution' Con,ress a" :" a two*thir&s %ote of all its 8e :ers !all a !onstitutional !on%ention or :" a a;orit" %ote of all its 8e :ers su: it the ?uestion of !allin, su!h a !on%ention to the ele!torate' 3' <n&er Se!tion 2' +rti!le ME55 of the ConstitutionH the people a" &ire!tl" propose a en& ents to the Constitution throu,h initiati%e upon a petition of at least twel%e per !ent of the total nu :er of re,istere& %otersH of whi!h e%er" le,islati%e &istri!t ust :e represente& :" at least three per !ent of the re,istere& %oters therein' +!!or&in, to Se!tion #H +rti!le ME55 of the ConstitutionH to :e %ali& an" a en& ent to or re%ision of the Constitution ust :e ratifie& :" a a;orit" of the %otes !ast 5n a ple:is!ite'

ARTICLE X.II A1end1ent+ &r Re0i+i&n+


Pe&*'eJ+ Initiati0e 9"66;: 9;<b: +n a en& ent to or a re%ision of the present Constitution a" :e propose& :" a Constitutional Con%ention or :" the Con,ress upon a %ote of three*fourths of all its e :ers' 5s there a thir& wa" of proposin, re%isions of or a en& ents to the ConstitutionL 5f soH howL (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3here is no thir& wa" of proposin, re%isions to the Constitution; howe%erH the people throu,h initiati%e upon petition of at least twel%e per !ent of the total nu :er of re,istere&H %otersH of whi!h e%er" le,islati%e &istri!t ust :e represente& :" at least three per !ent of the re,istere& %oters in itH a" &ire!tl" propose a en& ents to the Constitution' 3his ri,ht is not operati%e without an i ple entin, law' (Se!tion 2H +rti!le ME55 of the 1987 Constitution')

RE ERENDUM 0+= INITIATI.E 9>!<"66@: (a) 3he present Constitution intro&u!e& the !on!epts an& pro!esses of 5nitiati%e an& 1eferen&u ' Co pare an& &ifferentiate one fro the other' (3N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
5N535+35E/ is the power of the people to propose a en& ents to the Constitution or to propose an& ena!t le,islations throu,h an ele!tion !alle& for the purpose' <n&er the 1987 ConstitutionH the people throu,h initiati%e !an propose a en& ents to the Constitution upon a petition of at least twel%e per !entu of the total nu :er of re,istere& %otersH of whi!h e%er" le,islati%e &istri!t ust :e represente& :" at least three per !entu of the re,istere& %oters therein' 1/F/1/N-<8 is the power of the ele!torate to appro%e or re;e!t a le,islation throu,h an ele!tion !alle& for the purpose' (Se!' 3H 1'+' No' )732 P1989Q)'

A1end1ent+ and Re0i+i&n+8 M&de+ 9!##%:


BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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An the other han&H the 7o!al $o%ern ent Co&e (1'+' No' 71)0) &efines 7AC+7 5N535+35E/ as the le,al pro!ess where:" the re,istere& %oters of a lo!al ,o%ern ent unit a" &ire!tl" proposeH ena!tH or a en& an" or&inan!e (Se!' 120) an& 7AC+7 1/F/1/N-<8 as the le,al pro!ess where:" the re,istere& %oters of the lo!al ,o%ern ent units a" appro%eH a en& or re;e!t an" or&inan!e ena!te& :" the San,,unian' (Se!' 12))

the other han&H le& :" the Senate Presi&entH are sDepti!alH an& ha& e%en warne& that no treat" or international a,ree ent a" ,o into effe!t without the !on!urren!e of two*thir&s of all e :ers of the Senate'

ARTICLE X.III Tran+it&ry Pr&0i+i&n+


Tran+it&ry Pr&0i+i&n+8 Ba+e+ 9!##?: &reign Mi'itary
N&' # * 1) <n&er the e0e!uti%e a,ree ent entere& into :etween the Philippines an& the other e :ers of the +S/+NH the other e :ers will ea!h sen& a :attalion*si=e unit of their respe!ti%e ar e& for!es to !on&u!t a !o :ine& ilitar" e0er!ise in the Su:i! 9a" +rea' + ,roup of !on!erne& !iti=ens sou,ht to en;oin the entr" of forei,n troops as %iolati%e of the 1987 Constitution that prohi:ite& the stationin, of forei,n troops an& the use :" the H of lo!al fa!ilities'

+ for er senator ha& sai&H Cit is !o pletel" wron,H if not erroneousHC an& Cis an a en& ent of the Constitution :" isinterpretation'C So e e :ers of the 7ower @ouse a,ree with Se!retar" Ar&one=H while others la ent the latterBs opinion as C?uestiona:leH unfortunateH an& without an" :asis at all'C -o "ou or &o "ou not a,ree with the afore entione& rulin, of the -epart ent of >usti!eL 6h"L S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
No' 3he Constitution pro%i&es that if forei,n ilitar" :asesH troops or fa!ilities are to :e allowe& after the e0piration of the present Philippine*+ eri!an 8ilitar" 9ases +,ree ent in 1991H it ust :e Cun&er a treat" &ul" !on!urre& in :" the Senate an&H when the Con,ress so re?uiresH ratifie& :" a a;orit" of the %otes !ast :" the people in a national referen&u 'C (+rt' ME555H se!' 22) + ere a,ree entH thereforeH not a treat"H without the !on!urren!e of at least 2I3 of all the e :ers of the Senate will not :e %ali& (+rt' E55H se!' 21H +rt' ME555H se!' #)' 6ith respe!t to the pro%ision allowin, nu!lear weapons within the :asesH the Constitution appears to :an su!h weapons fro the Philippine territor"' 5t &e!lares as a state poli!" that Cthe PhilippinesH !onsistent with the national interestH a&opts an& pursues a poli!" of free&o fro nu!lear weapons in its territor"'C (+rtH 55H se!' 8) @owe%erH the &eli:erations of the Constitutional Co ission woul& see to in&i!ate that this pro%ision of the Constitution is Cnot so ethin, a:solute nor 100 per!ent without e0!eption'C 5t a" therefore :e that !ir!u stan!es a" ;ustif" a pro%ision on nu!lear weapons'

+s the >u&,eH &e!i&e the !ase' /0plain' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:


1) +s a ;u&,eH 5 shall &is iss the !ase' 6hat Se!tion 22H +rti!le ME55 of the Constitution prohi:its in the a:sen!e of a treat" is the stationin, of troops an& fa!ilities of forei,n !ountries in the Philippines' 5t &oes not in!lu&e the te porar" presen!e in the Philippines of forei,n troops for the purpose of a !o :ine& ilitar" e0er!ise' 9esi&esH the hol&in, of the !o :ine& ilitar" e0er!ise is !onne!te& with &efenseH whi!h is a so%erei,n fun!tion' 5n a!!or&an!e with the rulin, in 9aer %s' 3i=onH 27 SC1+ 1H the filin, of an a!tion interferin, with the &efense of the State a ounts to a suit a,ainst the State without its !onsent'

Tran+it&ry Pr&0i+i&n+8 Ba+e+ 9!#$$:

&reign

Mi'itary

PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW


Ba+i( Prin(i*'e+ in P3b'i( IntJ' La5 9!##!: Sele!t an" fi%e (2) of the followin, an& e0plain ea!hH usin, e0a ples: (a) (:) 1eprisal 1etorsion

N&' 22: 3he Se!retar" of >usti!e ha& re!entl" rule& that the Presi&ent a" ne,otiate for a o&ifi!ation or e0tension of ilitar" :ases a,ree ent with the <nite& States re,ar&less of the Cno nuDesC pro%isions in the 1987 Constitution' 3he Presi&ent forthwith announ!e& that she fin&s the sa e opinion Ca!!epta:leC an& will a&opt it' 3he Senators on BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19

!"#$$%)

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(!) -e!larator" 3heor" of Prin!iple (&) 1e!o,nition of 9elli,eren!" (e) (f) (,) (i) (;) Continental Shelf /0e?uatur Prin!iple of -ou:le Cri inalit" 5nno!ent Passa,e

1e!o,nition

(h) Prote!ti%e Personalit" >us !o,ens in 5nternational

(e) CAN35N/N3+7 S@/7F of a !oastal state !o prises the sea*:e& an& su:soil of the su: arine areas that e0ten& :e"on& its territorial sea throu,hout the natural prolon,ation of its lan& territor" to the outer e&,e of the !ontinental ar,inH or to a &istan!e of 200 nauti!al iles fro the C:aselines fro whi!h the :rea&th of the territorial sea is easure& where the outer e&,e of the !ontinental shelf &oes not e0ten& up to that &istan!e'
(f) /M/(<+3<1 is an authori=ation fro the re!ei%in, state a& ittin, the hea& of a !onsular post to the e0er!ise of his fun!tions' For e0a pleH if the Philippines appoints a !onsul ,eneral for New OorDH he !annot start perfor in, his fun!tions unless the Presi&ent of the <nite& States issues an e0e?uatur to hi H

7aw S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: (a) 1/P15S+7 is a !oer!i%e easure short of warH &ire!te& :" a state a,ainst anotherH in retaliation for a!ts of the latter an& as eans of o:tainin, reparation or satisfa!tion for su!h a!ts' 1eprisal in%ol%es retaliator" a!ts whi!h :" the sel%es woul& :e ille,al' For e0a pleH for %iolation of a treat" :" a stateH the a,,rie%e& state sei=es on the hi,h seas the ships of the offen&in, state'
(:) 1/3A1S5AN is a le,al :ut &eli:eratel" unfrien&l" a!t &ire!te& :" a state a,ainst another in retaliation for an unfrien&l" thou,h le,al a!t to !o pel that state to alter its unfrien&l" !on&u!t' +n e0a ple of retorsion is :annin, e0ports to the offen&in, state' (!) 3he -/C7+1+3A1O 3@/A1O AF 1/CA$N535AN is a theor" a!!or&in, to whi!h re!o,nition of a state is erel" an a!Dnowle&, ent of the fa!t of its e0isten!e' 5n other wor&sH the re!o,ni=e& state alrea&" e0ists an& !an e0ist e%en without su!h re!o,nition' For e0a pleH when other !ountries re!o,ni=e& 9an,la&eshH 9an,la&esh alrea&" e0iste& as a state e%en without su!h re!o,nition' (&) 1/CA$N535AN AF 9/775$/1/NCO is the for al a!Dnowle&, ent :" a thir& part" of the e0isten!e of a state of war :etween the !entral ,o%ern ent an& a portion of that state' 9elli,eren!" e0ists when a si=ea:le portion of the territor" of a state is un&er the effe!ti%e !ontrol of an insur,ent !o unit" whi!h is seeDin, to esta:lish a separate ,o%ern ent an& the insur,ents are in &e fa!to !ontrol of a portion of the territor" an& populationH ha%e a politi!al or,ani=ationH are a:le to aintain su!h !ontrolH an& !on&u!t the sel%es a!!or&in, to the laws of war' For e0a pleH $reat 9ritain re!o,ni=e& a state of :elli,eren!" in the <nite& States &urin, the Ci%il 6arH

(,) 3he prin!iple of -A<97/ C1585N+753O is the rule in e0tra&ition whi!h states that for a re?uest to :e honore& the !ri e for whi!h e0tra&ition is re?ueste& ust :e a !ri e in :oth the re?uestin, state an& the state to whi!h the fu,iti%e has fle&' For e0a pleH sin!e ur&er is a !ri e :oth in the Philippines an& in Cana&aH un&er the 3reat" on /0tra&ition :etween the Philippines an& Cana&aH the Philippines !an re?uest Cana&a to e0tra&ite a Filipino who has fle& to Cana&a'
(h) P1A3/C35E/ P/1SAN+753O prin!iple is the prin!iple :" whi!h the state e0er!ise ;uris&i!tion o%er the a!ts of an alien e%en if !o itte& outsi&e its territor"H if su!h a!ts are a&%erse to the interest of the national state' (i) 5NNAC/N3 P+SS+$/ eans the ri,ht of !ontinuous an& e0pe&itious na%i,ation of a forei,n ship throu,h the territorial sea of a state for the purpose of tra%ersin, that sea without enterin, the internal waters or !allin, at a roa&stea& or port fa!ilit" outsi&e internal watersH or pro!ee&in, to or fro internal waters or a !all at su!h roa&stea& or port fa!ilit"' 3he passa,e

is inno!ent so lon, as it is not pre;u&i!ial to the pea!eH ,oo& or&er or se!urit" of the !oastal state'
(;) ><S CA$/NS is a pere ptor" nor of ,eneral international law a!!epte& an& re!o,ni=e& :" the international !o unit" as a whole as a nor fro whi!h no &ero,ation is per itte& an& whi!h !an :e o&ifie& onl" :" a su:se?uent nor of ,eneral international law ha%in, the sa e !hara!terH +n e0a ple is the prohi:ition a,ainst the use of for!e'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!@#

C&n+tit3ti0e T,e&ry 0+= De('arat&ry T,e&ry 9"66;: (2*a*#) -istin,uish: 3he !onstituti%e theor" an& the &e!larator" theor" !on!ernin, re!o,nition of states' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: +!!or&in, to the CANS353<35E/ 3@/A1OH re!o,nition is the last in&ispensa:le ele ent that !on%erts the state :ein, re!o,ni=e& into an international person' +!!or&in, to the -/C7+1+3A1O 3@/A1OH re!o,nition is erel" an a!Dnowle&, ent of the pre*e0istin, fa!t that the state :ein, re!o,ni=e& is an international person'(Cru=H 5nternational 7awH 2003 e&') C&ntig3&3+ A&ne 0+= E2('3+i0e E(&n&1i( A&ne 9"66;: II<+' -istin,uish :riefl" :ut !learl" :etween: 2) 3he !onti,uous =one an& the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: (2) CAN35$<A<S .AN/ is a =one !onti,uous to the territorial sea an& e0ten&s up to t5e'0e na3ti(a' 1i'e+ fro the territorial sea an& o%er whi!h the !oastal state a" e0er!ise !ontrol ne!essar" to pre%ent infrin,e ent of its !usto sH fis!alH i i,ration or sanitar" laws an& re,ulations within its territor" or territorial sea' (+rti!le 33 of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea') 3he /MC7<S5E/ /CANA85C .AN/ is a =one e0ten&in, up to 200 nauti!al iles fro the :aselines of a state o%er whi!h the !oastal state has so%erei,n ri,hts for the purpose of e0plorin, an& e0ploitin,H !onser%in, an& ana,in, the natural resour!esH whether li%in, or nonli%in,H of the waters super;a!ent to the sea:e& an& of the sea:e& an& su:soilH an& with re,ar& to other a!ti%ities for the e!ono i! e0ploitation an& e0ploration of the =one' (+rti!les 2) an& 27 of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea') Di*'&1ati( I113nity 9"666: N& MM * + forei,n a :assa&or to the Philippines lease& a %a!ation house in 3a,a"ta" for his personal use' For so e reasonH he faile& to pa" rentals for ore than one "ear' 3he lessor file& an a!tion for the re!o%er" of his propert" in !ourt'

a) Can the forei,n a :assa&or in%oDe his &iplo ati! i unit" to resist the lessorBs a!tionL (3N) :) 3he lessor ,ets hol& of e%i&en!e that the a :assa&or is a:out to return to his ho e !ountr"' Can the lessor asD the !ourt to stop the a :assa&orBs &eparture fro the PhilippinesL (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
a) NoH the forei,n a :assa&or !annot in%oDe his &iplo ati! i unit" to resist the a!tionH sin!e he is not usin, the house in 3a,a"ta" Cit" for the purposes of his ission :ut erel" for %a!ation' <n&er +rti!le 3(l)(a) of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elationsH a &iplo ati! a,ent has no i unit" in !ase of a real a!tion relatin, to pri%ate i o%a:le propert" situate& in the territor" of the re!ei%in, State unless he hol&s it on :ehalf of the sen&in, State for purposes of the ission' :) NoH the lessor !annot asD the !ourt to stop the &eparture of the a :assa&or fro the Philippines' <n&er +rti!le 29 of the Eienna Con%entionH a &iplo ati! a,ent shall not :e lia:le to an" for of arrest or &etention' (per -on&ee) 3he ,roun&s !ite& :" O. is tena:le on the :asis that the pre!ept that a State !annot :e sue& in the !ourts of a forei,n state is a lon,* stan&in, rule of !usto ar" international law then !losel" i&entifie& with the personal i unit" of a forei,n so%erei,n fro suit an&H with the e er,en!e of &e o!rati! statesH a&e to atta!h not ;ust to the person of the hea& of stateH or his representati%eH :ut also &istin!tl" to the state itself in its so%erei,n !apa!it"' 5f the a!ts ,i%in, rise to a suit are those of a forei,n ,o%ern ent &one :" its forei,n a,entH althou,h not ne!essaril" a &iplo ati! persona,eH :ut a!tin, in his offi!ial !apa!it"H the !o plaint !oul& :e :arre& :" the i unit" of the forei,n so%erei,n fro suit without its !onsent' Suin, a representati%e of a state is :elie%e& to :eH in effe!tH suin, the state itself' (G@AS1A6 85N<C@/1 %s' CA<13 AF +PP/+7SH $'1' No' 1#239)' Fe:ruar" 11H 2003)

Di*'&1ati( I113nity 9"66!:


N& MM * -r' EelenH an offi!ial of the 6orl& @ealth Ar,ani=ation (6@A) assi,ne& in the PhilippinesH arri%e& at the Nino" +?uino 5nternational +irport with his personal effe!ts !ontaine& in twel%e !rates as una!!o panie& :a,,a,e' +s su!hH his personal effe!ts were allowe& free entr" fro &uties an& ta0esH an& were &ire!tl" store& at +rshaine CorporationBs

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!?6

warehouse at 8aDatiH pen&in, -r' EelenBs relo!ation to his per anent ?uarters'
+t the instan!e of poli!e authoritiesH the 1e,ional 3rial Court (13C) of 8aDati issue& a warrant for the sear!h an& sei=ure of -r' EelenBs personal effe!ts in %iew of an alle,e& %iolation of the 3ariff an& Custo Bs Co&e' +!!or&in, to the poli!eH the !rates !ontaine& !ontra:an& ite s' <pon protest of 6@A offi!ialsH the Se!retar" of Forei,n +ffairs for all" a&%ise& the 13C as to -r' EelenBs i unit"' 3he Soli!itor $eneral liDewise ;oine& -r' EelenBs plea of i unit" an& otion to ?uash the sear!h warrant' 3he 13C &enie& the otion'

<n&er +rti!le 37 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elationsH e :ers of the a& inistrati%e an& te!hni!al staff of the &iplo ati! issionH shallH if the" are not nationals of or per anent resi&ents in the re!ei%in, StateH en;o" the pri%ile,es an& i unities spe!ifie& in +rti!le 29'

<n&er +rti!le 9 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elationsH the re e&" is to &e!lare the hi,h*ranDin, offi!ials an& ranD*an&*file e plo"ees personae non ,ratae an& asD the to lea%e' +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1: <n&er the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elationsH a &iplo ati! a,ent Cshall not :e lia:le to an" for of arrest or &etention (+rti!le 29) an& he en;o"s i unit" fro !ri inal ;uris&i!tion (+rti!le 31)'
3his i unit" a" !o%er the Chi,h*ranDin, offi!ialsC in ?uestionH who are assu e& to :e &iplo ati! offi!ers or a,ents' 6ith respe!t to the CranD*an&*file e plo"eesC the" are !o%ere& :" the i unit" referre& to a:o%eH pro%i&e& the" are not nationals or per anent resi&ents of the PhilippinesH pursuant to +rti!le 37(2) of the sai& Con%ention' 5f the sai& ranD*an&*file e plo"ees :elon, to the ser%i!e staff of the &iplo ati! ission (su!h as &ri%ers) the" a" :e !o%ere& :" the i unit" (e%en if the" are not Philippine nationals or resi&ents) as set out in +rti!le 37(3)H if at the ti e of the arrest the" were in Ca!ts perfor e& in the !ourse of their &uties'C 5f a &ri%er was a on, the sai& ranD*an&*file e plo"ees an& he was arreste& while &ri%in, a &iplo ati! %ehi!le or en,a,e& in relate& a!tsH still he woul& :e !o%ere& :" i unit"'

5s the &enial of the properL (2N)

otion to ?uash

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he &enial of the otion is i proper' +s hel& in 6orl& @ealth Ar,ani=ation %s' +?uinoH #8 SC1+ 2#2 (1972)' as an offi!ial of the 6orl& @ealth Ar,ani=ationH -r' Eelen en;o"e& &iplo ati! i unit" an& this in!lu&e& e0e ption fro &uties an& ta0es' Sin!e &iplo ati! i unit" in%ol%es a politi!al ?uestionH where a plea of &iplo ati! i unit" is re!o,ni=e& an& affir e& :" the /0e!uti%e -epart entH it is the &ut" of the !ourt to a!!ept the !lai of i unit"'

Di*'&1ati( I113nity 9"66-: N& ME555 * + ,roup of hi,h*ranDin, offi!ials an& ranD*an&*file e plo"ees statione& in a forei,n e :ass" in 8anila were arreste& outsi&e e :ass" ,roun&s an& &etaine& at Ca p Cra e on suspi!ion that the" were a!ti%el" !olla:oratin, with CterroristsC out to o%erthrow or &esta:ili=e the Philippine $o%ern ent' 3he Forei,n + :assa&or sou,ht their i e&iate releaseH !lai in, that the &etaine& e :ass" offi!ials an& e plo"ees en;o"e& &iplo ati! i unit"' 5f in%ite& to e0press "our le,al opinion on the atterH what a&%i!e woul& "ou ,i%eL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 5 shall a&%i!e that the hi,h*ranDin, offi!ials an& ranD*an&*file e plo"ees :e release& :e!ause of their &iplo ati! i unit"' +rti!le 29 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elations pro%i&es: C3he person of a &iplo ati! a,ent shall :e in%iola:le' @e shall not :e lia:le to an" for of arrest or &etention'C

Di*'&1ati( I113nity 9"66;:


9$<a: +' 89CH an alien :usiness an &ealin, in !arpets an& !a%iarH file& a suit a,ainst poli!e en an& O.H an atta!he of MM / :ass"H for &a a,es :e!ause of ali!ious prose!ution' 89C alle,e& that O. !on!o!te& false an& ali!ious !har,es that he was en,a,e& in &ru, traffi!Din,H whereupon nar!oti!s poli!e en !on&u!te& a C:u"*:ustC operation an& without warrant arreste& hi H sear!he& his houseH an& sei=e& his one" an& ;ewelr"H then &etaine& an& torture& hi in %iolation of his !i%il an& hu an ri,hts as well as !ausin, hi H his fa il" an& :usiness serious &a a,es a ountin, to two illion pesos' 89C a&&e& that the trial !ourt a!?uitte& hi of the &ru, !har,es'

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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+ssailin, the !ourtBs ;uris&i!tion: O. now o%es to &is iss the !o plaintH on the ,roun& that (1) he is an e :ass" offi!er entitle& to &iplo ati! i unit"; an& that (2) the suit is reall" a suit a,ainst his ho e state without its !onsent' @e presents &iplo ati! notes fro MM / :ass" !ertif"in, that he is an a!!re&ite& e :ass" offi!er re!o,ni=e& :" the Philippine ,o%ern ent' @e perfor s offi!ial &utiesH he sa"sH on a ission to !on&u!t sur%eillan!e on &ru, e0porters an& then infor lo!al poli!e offi!ers who aDe the a!tual arrest of suspe!ts' +re the two ,roun&s !ite& :" O. to &is iss the suit tena:leL (2N)

(a) +s

!ounsel of +:a&H refute the &efenses of Cso%erei,n i unit"C an& C&iplo ati! i unit"C raise& :" the State of 5tal" an& its + :assa&or'
S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: +s !ounsel for +:a&H 5 will ar,ue that so%erei,n i unit" will not lie as it is an esta:lishe& rule that when a State enters into a !ontra!tH it wai%es its i unit" an& allows itself to :e sue&' 8oreo%erH there is a pro%ision in the !ontra!t that an" suit arisin, therefro shall :e file& with the proper !ourts of the Cit" of 8anila' An the issue of &iplo ati! i unit"H 5 will assert that the a!t of the + :assa&or unilaterall" ter inatin, the a,ree ent is tortuous an& &one with ali!e an& :a& faith an& not a so%erei,n or &iplo ati! fun!tion'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
+' 3he !lai of &iplo ati! i unit" of O. is not tena:leH :e!ause he &oes not possess an a!Dnowle&,e& &iplo ati! title an& is not perfor in, &uties of a &iplo ati! nature' @owe%erH the suit a,ainst hi is a suit a,ainst MM without its !onsent' O. was a!tin, as an a,ent of MM an& was perfor in, his offi!ial fun!tions when he !on&u!te& sur%eillan!e on &ru, e0porters an& infor e& the lo!al poli!e offi!ers who arreste& 89C' @e was perfor in, su!h &uties with the !onsent of the Philippine ,o%ern entH thereforeH the suit a,ainst O. is a suit a,ainst MM without its !onsent' (8inu!her %' Court of +ppealsH 397 SC1+ 2## P1992Q)'

(:) +t an" rateH what shoul& :e the !ourtBs rulin, on the sai& &efensesL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he !ourt shoul& rule a,ainst sai& &efenses' 3he aintenan!e !ontra!t an& repair of the / :ass" an& + :assa&orBs 1esi&en!e is a !ontra!t in ;us i periiH :e!ause su!h repair of sai& :uil&in,s is in&ispensa:le to the perfor an!e of the offi!ial fun!tions of the $o%ern ent of 5tal"' @en!eH the !ontra!t is in pursuit of a so%erei,n a!ti%it" in whi!h !aseH it !annot :e &ee e& to ha%e wai%e& its i unit" fro suit' An the atter of whether or not the + :assa&or a" :e sue&H +rti!le 31 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elations pro%i&es that a &iplo ati! a,ent en;o"s i unit" fro the !ri inalH !i%il an& a& inistrati%e ;uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, state e0!ept if the a!t perfor e& is outsi&e his offi!ial fun!tionsH in a!!or&an!e with the prin!iple of fun!tional ne!essit"' 5n this !aseH the a!t of enterin, into the !ontra!t :" the + :assa&or was part of his offi!ial fun!tions an& thusH he is entitle& to &iplo ati! i unit"' (1epu:li! of 5n&onesia %' Ein=onsH $'1' No' 12#702H >une 2)H 2003)

+73/1N+35E/ S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: Di*'&1ati( 9>-< "66@: I113nity8 A1ba++ad&r

(1) 5tal"H throu,h its + :assa&orH entere& into a !ontra!t with +:a& for the aintenan!e an& repair of spe!ifie& e?uip ent at its / :ass" an& + :assa&orBs 1esi&en!eH su!h as air !on&itionin, unitsH ,enerator setsH ele!tri!al fa!ilitiesH water heatersH an& water otor pu ps' 5t was stipulate& that the a,ree ent shall :e effe!ti%e for a perio& of four "ears an& auto ati!all" renewe& unless !an!elle&' FurtherH it pro%i&e& that an" suit arisin, fro the !ontra!t shall :e file& with the proper !ourts in the Cit" of 8anila' Clai in, that the 8aintenan!e Contra!t was unilaterall"H :aselessl" an& ar:itraril" ter inate&H +:a& sue& the State of 5tal" an& its + :assa&or :efore a !ourt in the Cit" of 8anila' + on, the &efensesH the" raise& were Cso%erei,n i unit"C an& C&iplo ati! i unit"'C (2N)

Di*'&1ati( I113nity8 A1ba++ad&r+ 9!##6:


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N&' 2: -H the + :assa&or of the Gin,&o Nepal to the PhilippinesH lease& a house 9a,uio Cit" as his personal %a!ation ho e' a!!ount of ilitar" &istur:an!e in NepalH not re!ei%e his salar" an& allowan!es fro ,o%ern ent an& so he faile& to pa" his rentals ore than one "ear' /H the lessorH file& a!tion for re!o%er" of his propert" with 1e,ional 3rial Court of 9a,uio Cit"'

of in An &i& his for an the

(1) Can the a!tion a,ainst - prosperL (2) Can / asD for the atta!h ent of the furniture an& other personal properties of after ,ettin, hol& of e%i&en!e that - is a:out to lea%e the !ountr"L (3T Can / asD for the !ourt to stop -Bs &eparture fro the PhilippinesL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: (1) OesH the a!tion !an prosper' +rti!le 31 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elations pro%i&es: C1' + &iplo ati! a,ent shall en;o" i unit" fro the !ri inal ;uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, State' @e shall also en;o" i unit" fro its !i%il an& a& inistrati%e ;uris&i!tionH e0!ept in the !ase of:
(a) + real a!tion relatin, to pri%ate i o%a:le propert" situate& in the territor" of the re!ei%in, StateH unless he hol&s it on :ehalf of the sen&in, State for the purposes of the ission;C

an& 31 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elations pro%i&es that the papersH !orrespon&en!e an& the propert" of &iplo at a,ents shall :e in%iola:le' 3hereforeH a writ of atta!h ent !annot :e issue& a,ainst his furniture an& an" personal properties' 8oreo%erH on the assu ption that the Gin,&o of Nepal ,rants si ilar prote!tion to Philippine &iplo ati! a,ents' Se!tion # of 1epu:li! +!t No' 72 pro%i&es that an" writ or pro!ess issue& :" an" !ourt in the Philippines for the atta!h ent of the ,oo&s or !hattels of the a :assa&or of a forei,n State to the Philippines shall :e %oi&'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
(3) NoH / !annot asD the !ourt to stop the &eparture of the + :assa&or of the Gin,&o of Nepal fro the Philippines' +rti!le 29 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elations pro%i&es: C3he person of a &iplo ati! a,ent shall :e in%iola:le' @e shall not :e lia:le to an" for of arrest or &etention'C

Di*'&1ati( I113nity8 C&0erage 9>-<"66@: (2) +&a s an& 9aDer are + eri!an !iti=ens resi&in, in the Philippines' +&a s :efrien&e& 9aDer an& :e!a e a fre?uent %isitor at his house' Ane &a"H +&a s arri%e& with 30 e :ers of the Philippine National Poli!eH ar e& with a Sear!h 6arrant authori=in, the sear!h of 9aDerBs house an& its pre ises for &an,erous &ru,s :ein, traffi!De& to the <nite& States of + eri!a'
3he sear!h purporte&l" "iel&e& positi%e resultsH an& 9aDer was !har,e& with Eiolation of the -an,erous -ru,s +!t' +&a s was the prose!utionBs prin!ipal witness' @owe%erH for failure to pro%e his ,uilt :e"on& reasona:le &ou:tH 9aDer was a!?uitte&' 9aDer then sue& +&a s for &a a,es for filin, tru pe&*up !har,es a,ainst hi ' + on, the &efenses raise& :" +&a s is that he has &iplo ati! i unit"H !onfor a:l" with the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elations' @e presente& -iplo ati! Notes fro the + eri!an / :ass" statin, that he is an a,ent of the <nite& States -ru, /nfor!e ent +,en!" tasDe& with C!on&u!tin, sur%eillan!e operationsC on suspe!te& &ru, &ealers in the Philippines :elie%e& to :e the sour!e of prohi:ite& &ru,s :ein, shippe& to the <'S' 5t was also state& that after ha%in, as!ertaine& the tar,etH +&a s woul& then

3he a!tion a,ainst the + :assa&or is a real a!tion in%ol%in, pri%ate i o%a:le propert" situate& within the territor" of the Philippines as the re!ei%in, state' 3he a!tion falls within the e0!eption to the ,rant of i unit" fro the !i%il an& a& inistrati%e ;uris&i!tion of the Philippines' +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1;
NoH the a!tion will not prosper' +lthou,h the a!tion is a real a!tion relatin, to pri%ate i o%a:le propert" within the territor" of the PhilippinesH nonethelessH the %a!ation house a" :e !onsi&ere& propert" hel& :" the + :assa&or 5n :ehalf of his state (the Gin,&o of Nepal) for the purposes of the ission an&H thereforeH su!h is :e"on& the !i%il an& a& inistrati%e ;uris&i!tion of the PhilippinesH in!lu&in, its !ourtsH

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
(2) NoH / !annot asD for the atta!h ent of the personal properties of the + :assa&or' +rts' 30

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infor the Philippine nar!oti! a,ents to aDe the a!tual arrest' (2N)
a) +s !ounsel of plaintiff 9aDerH ar,ue wh" his !o plaint shoul& not :e &is isse& on the ,roun& of &efen&ant +&a sB &iplo ati! i unit" fro suit'

3' Suppose after he was !har,e&H he was appointe& as his !ountr"Bs a :assa&or to the Philippines' Can his newl"*,aine& &iplo ati! status :e a ,roun& for &is issal of his !ri inal !aseL /0plain' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1' <n&er +rti!le 32 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elationsH a &iplo ati! a,ent shall en;o" i unit" fro the !ri inal ;uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, State' @e shall also en;o" i unit" fro its !i%il an& a& inistrati%e ;uris&i!tion e0!ept in the !ase of:

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1'
+s !ounsel for 9aDerH 5 woul& ar,ue that +&a s is not a &iplo ati! a,ent !onsi&erin, that he is not a hea& of ission nor is he part of the &iplo ati! staff that is a!!or&e& &iplo ati! ranD' 3husH the suit shoul& not :e &is isse& as +&a s has no &iplo ati! i unit" un&er the 19)1 Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elations'

:) +s !ounsel of &efen&ant +&a sH ar,ue for the &is issal of the !o plaint' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1
+s !ounsel for +&a sH 5 woul& ar,ue that he worDe& for the <nite& States -ru, /nfor!e ent +,en!" an& was tasDe& to !on&u!t sur%eillan!e of suspe!te& &ru, a!ti%ities within the !ountr" with the appro%al of the Philippine ,o%ern ent' <n&er the &o!trine of State 5 unit" fro SuitH if the a!ts ,i%in, rise to a suit are those of a forei,n ,o%ern ent &one :" its forei,n a,entH althou,h not ne!essaril" a &iplo ati! persona,eH :ut a!tin, in his offi!ial !apa!it"H the !o plaint !oul& :e :arre& :" the i unit" of the forei,n so%erei,n fro suit without its !onsent' +&a s a" not :e a &iplo ati! a,ent :ut the Philippine ,o%ern ent has ,i%en its i pri aturH if not !onsentH to the a!ti%ities within Philippine territor" of +&a s an& thus he is entitle& to the &efense of state i unit" fro suit' (8inu!her %' C+H $'1' No' 1#239)H Fe:ruar" 11H 2003)

(a) + real a!tion relatin, to pri%ate i o%a:le propert" situate& in the territor" of the re!ei%in, StateH unless he hol&s it on :ehalf of the sen&in, State for the purposes of the ission; (:) +n a!tion relatin, to su!!ession in whi!h the &iplo ati! a,ent is in%oDe& as e0e!utorH a& inistratorH heir or le,atee as a pri%ate person an& not on :ehalf of the sen&in, State; (!) +n a!tion relatin, to an" professional or !o er!ial a!ti%it" e0er!ise& :" the &iplo ati! a,ent in the re!ei%in, State outsi&e his offi!ial fun!tions'
An the other han&H un&er +rti!le #1 of the Eienna Con%ention on Consular 1elationsH a !onsular offi!er &oes not en;o" 5 unit" fro the Cri inal ;uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, State' <n&er +rti!le #3 of the Eienna Con%ention on Consular 1elationsH !onsular offi!ers are not a ena:le to the >uris&i!tion of the >u&i!ial or a& inistrati%e authorities of the re!ei%in, State in respe!t of a!ts perfor e& in the e0er!ise of !onsular fun!tions' @owe%erH this &oes not appl" in respe!t of a !i%il a!tion either:

Di*'&1ati( I113nity8 Di*'&1ati( En0&y and C&n+3'ar O))i(er+ 9!##@: N&' 3: 1' -is!uss the &ifferen!esH if an"H in the pri%ile,es or i unities of &iplo ati! en%o"s an& !onsular offi!ers fro the !i%il or !ri inal ;uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, state'
2' + !onsul of a South + eri!an !ountr" statione& in 8anila was !har,e& with serious ph"si!al in;uries' 8a" he !lai 5 unit" fro ;uris&i!tion of the lo!al !ourtL /0plain'

(a) arisin, out of a !ontra!t !on!lu&e& :" a !onsular offi!er in whi!h he &i& not !ontra!t e0pressl" or i plie&l" as an a,ent of the sen&in, State; or (:) :" a thir& part" for &a a,e arisin, fro an a!!i&ent in the re!ei%in, State !ause& :" a %ehi!leH %esselH or air!raft' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
2' NoH he a" not !lai i unit" fro the ;uris&i!tion of the lo!al !ourt' <n&er +rti!le #1 of the Eienna Con%ention of Consular 1elationsH !onsuls &o not en;o" i unit" fro the !ri inal >uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, State' @e is not lia:le to arrest or &etention pen&in, trial unless the offense was !o itte& a,ainst his fatherH

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!?;

otherH !hil&H as!en&antH &es!en&ant or spouse' Consuls are not lia:le to arrest an& &etention pen&in, trial e0!ept in the !ase of a ,ra%e !ri e an& pursuant to a &e!ision :" the !o petent ;u&i!ial authorit"' 3he !ri e of ph"si!al 5n;uries is not a ,ra%e !ri e unless it :e !o itte& a,ainst an" of the a:o%e* entione& persons' (S!hne!Den:ur,er %' 8oran )3 Phil' 2#9)'

was hel& that a !onsul is not e0e pt fro !ri inal prose!ution in the !ountr" where he is assi,ne&' @owe%erH as se!retar" in the + eri!an / :ass"H M en;o"s &iplo ati! i unit" fro !ri inal prose!ution +s se!retar"H he is a &iplo ati! a,ent' <n&er Para,raph 1 of +rti!le 31 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elationsH a &iplo ati! a,ent en;o"s i unit" fro the !ri inal ;uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, State'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 3' OesH the !ase shoul& :e &is isse&' <n&er +rti!le #0 of the Eienna Con%ention on -iplo ati! 1elationsH if a &iplo ati! a,ent is in the territor" of a thir& StateH whi!h has ,rante& hi a passport %isa if su!h %isa was ne!essar"H while pro!ee&in, to taDe up his postH the thir& State shall a!!or& hi in%iola:ilit" an& su!h other i unities as a" :e re?uire& to ensure his transit' Di*'&1ati( I113nity8 Di*'&1ati( En0&y and C&n+3'ar O))i(er+ 9!##%:
N& 19: MH a Se!retar" an& Consul in the + eri!an / :ass" in 8anilaH :ou,ht fro 9 a &ia on& rin, in the a ount of P20H000'00 whi!h he later ,a%e as a :irth&a" present to his Filipino ,irlfrien&' 3he pur!hase pri!e was pai& in !he!D &rawn upon the Citi:anD' <pon present ent for pa" entH the !he!D was &ishonore& for insuffi!ien!" of fun&s' 9e!ause of MBs failure to aDe ,oo& the &ishonore& !he!DH 9 file& a !o plaint a,ainst M in the Affi!e of the Cit" Prose!utor of 8anila for %iolation of 9atas Pa :ansa 9i,' 22' +fter preli inar" in%esti,ationH the infor ation was file& a,ainst M in the Cit" Court of 8anila' M file& a otion to &is iss the !ase a,ainst hi on the ,roun& that he is a Se!retar" an& Consul in the + eri!an / :ass" en;o"in, &iplo ati! i unit" fro !ri inal prose!ution in the Philippines'

E2('3+i0e E(&n&1i( A&ne 9"666: N& M5M' :) 6hat is the !on!ept of the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one un&er the <N Con%ention on the 7aw of the SeaL (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
:) 3he e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one un&er the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea is an area :e"on& an& a&;a!ent to the territorial seaH whi!h shall not e0ten& :e"on& 200 nauti!al iles fro the :aselines fro whi!h the territorial sea is easure&' 3he !oastal State has in the e0!lusi%e e!ono i! =one:

(a) So%erei,n ri,hts for the purpose of e0plorin, an& e0ploitin,H !onser%in, an& ana,in, the natural resour!esH whether li%in, or non*li%in,H if the waters super;a!ent to the sea*:e& an& of the sea:e& an& su:soilH an& with re,ar& to other a!ti%ities for the e!ono i! e0ploitation an& e0ploration of the =oneH su!h as the pro&u!tion of ener," fro the waterH !urrents an& win&s; (:) >uris&i!tion as pro%i&e& in the rele%ant pro%isions of the Con%ention with re,ar& to: (i) the esta:lish ent an& use of artifi!ial islan&sH installations an& stru!tures; (ii) arine s!ientifi! resear!h; an&
(iii) the prote!tion arine en%iron ent; an& preser%ation of the

5f "ou were the >u&,eH how woul& "ou resol%e the otion to &is issL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 5f 5 were the >u&,eH 5 woul& ,rant the &is iss' otion to

(!) Ather ri,hts an& &uties pro%i&e& for the Con%ention' P+rti!le 2) of the Con%ention of the 7aw of the Sea') E2e(3ti0e Agree1ent+8 Binding E))e(t 9"66-:
N& MM +n /0e!uti%e +,ree ent was e0e!ute& :etween the Philippines an& a nei,h:orin, State' 3he Senate of the Philippines tooD it

+s !onsulH M is not i une fro !ri inal prose!ution' <n&er Para,raph 3 of +rti!le #1 of the Eienna Con%ention on Consular 1elationsH a !onsular offi!er is not i une fro the !ri inal ;uris&i!tion of the re!ei%in, state' 5n S!hne!Den:ur,er %s' 8oronH )3 Phil' 2#9H it

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

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upon itself to pro!ure a !ertifie& true !op" of the /0e!uti%e +,ree ent an&H after &eli:eratin, on itH &e!lare&H :" a unani ous %oteH that the a,ree ent was :oth unwise an& a,ainst the :est interest of the !ountr"' 5s the /0e!uti%e +,ree ent :in&in, (a) fro the stan&point of Philippine law an& (:) fro the stan&point of international lawL /0plain

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: (a) +s to Philippine lawH /0e!uti%e +,ree ent is :in&in,'''' the

N&' 10: 2) Patri!D is !har,e& with ille,al re!ruit ent an& estafa :efore the 13C of 8anila' @e ;u pe& :ail an& ana,e& to es!ape to + eri!a' +ssu e that there is an e0tra&ition treat" :etween the Philippines an& + eri!a an& it &oes not in!lu&e ille,al re!ruit ent as one of the e0tra&ita:le offenses' <pon surren&er of Patri!D :" the <'S' $o%ern ent to the PhilippinesH Patri!D proteste& that he !oul& not :e trie& for ille,al re!ruit ent' -e!i&e'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
2) <n&er the prin!iple of spe!ialt" in e0tra&itionH Patri!D !annot :e trie& for ille,al re!ruit entH sin!e this is not in!lu&e& in the list of e0tra&ita:le offenses in the e0tra&ition treat" :etween the Philippines an& the <nite& StatesH unless the <nite& States &oes not o:;e!t to the trial of Patri!D for 5lle,al re!ruit ent'

(:) 3he /0e!uti%e +,ree ent is also :in&in, fro the stan&point of international law' +s hel& in 9a%an %' .a ora' 3#2 SC1+ ##9 P2000QH in international law e0e!uti%e a,ree ents are e?uall" :in&in, as treaties upon the States who are parties to the ' +&&itionall"H un&er +rti!le 2U1)(a) of the Eienna Con%ention on the 7aw of 3reatiesH whate%er a" :e the &esi,nation of a written a,ree ent :etween StatesH whether it is in&i!ate& as a 3reat"H Con%ention or /0e!uti%e +,ree entH is not le,all" si,nifi!ant' Still it is !onsi&ere& a treat" an& ,o%erne& :" the international law of treaties'

E2traditi&n8 E))e(ti0ity &) treaty 9!##?: N&' ); 1) 3he /0tra&ition 3reat" :etween Fran!e an& the Philippines is silent as to its appli!a:ilit" with respe!t to !ri es !o itte& prior to its effe!ti%it"' a) Can Fran!e &e an& the e0tra&ition of +H a Fren!h national resi&in, in the PhilippinesH for an offense !o itte& in Fran!e prior to the effe!ti%it" of the treat"L /0plain' :) Can + !ontest his e0tra&ition on the ,roun& that it %iolates the e0 post fa!to pro%ision of the Philippine ConstitutionL /0plain' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1' a) OesH Fran!e !an asD for the e0tra&ition of + for an offense !o itte& in Fran!e :efore the effe!ti%it" of the /0tra&ition 3reat" :etween Fran!e an& the Philippines' 5n Cleu,h %s' StraDosh' 109 F2& 330H it was hel& that an e0tra&ition treat" applies to !ri es !o itte& :efore its effe!ti%it" unless the e0tra&ition treat" e0pressl" e0e pts the ' +s 6hite an points outH e0tra&ition &oes not &efine !ri es :ut erel" pro%i&es a eans :" whi!h a State a" o:tain the return an& punish ent of persons !har,e& with or !on%i!te& of ha%in, !o itte& a !ri e who fle& the ;uris&i!tion of the State whose law has :een %iolate&' 5t is therefore i aterial whether at the ti e of the !o ission of the !ri e for whi!h e0tra&ition is sou,ht no treat" was in e0isten!e' 5f at the ti e e0tra&ition is re?ueste& there is in for!e :etween the re?uestin, an& Cthe re?ueste& States a treat" !o%erin, the offense on whi!h

E2traditi&n 0+= De*&rtati&n 9!##-: N&' 10: 1) 6hat is the &ifferen!e if an" :etween e0tra&ition an& &eportationL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 1) 3he followin, are the &ifferen!es :etween e0tra&ition an& &eportation:
a' /M31+-535AN is effe!te& for the :enefit of the state to whi!h the person :ein, e0tra&ite& will :e surren&ere& :e!ause he is a fu,iti%e !ri inal in that stateH while -/PA13+35AN is effe!te& for the prote!tion of the State e0pellin, an alien :e!ause his presen!e is not !on&u!i%e to the pu:li! ,oo&'

:' /M31+-535AN is effe!te& on the :asis of an e0tra&ition treat" or upon the re?uest of another stateH while -/PA13+35AN is the unilateral a!t of the state e0pellin, an alien' !' 5n /M31+-535ANH the alien will :e surren&ere& to the state asDin, for his e0tra&itionH while in -/PA13+35AN the un&esira:le alien a" :e sent to an" state willin, to a!!ept hi ' E2traditi&n8 D&(trine &) S*e(ia'ty 9!##-:

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!??

the re?uest is :ase&H the treat" is appli!a:le' (6hite anH -i,est of 5nternational 7awH Eol' )H pp' 723*72#') :) NoH + !annot !ontest his e0tra&ition on the ,roun& that it %iolates the e0 post fa!to pro%ision of the Constitution' +s hel& in 6ri,ht %s' Court of +ppealsH 232 SC1+ 3#1H the prohi:ition a,ainst e0 post fa!to laws in Se!tion 22H +rti!le 555 of the Constitution applies to penal laws onl" an& &oes not appl" to e0tra&ition treaties' E2traditi&n8 Gr&3nd+ 9"66":
N& ME555' >ohn is a for er Presi&ent of the 1epu:li! MH :ent on re,ainin, power whi!h he lost to Presi&ent @arr" in an ele!tion' Full" !on%in!e& that he was !heate&H he set out to &esta:ili=e the ,o%ern ent of Presi&ent @arr" :" eans of a series of protest a!tions' @is plan was to weaDen the ,o%ern ent an&H when the situation :e!a e ripe for a taDe*o%erH to assassinate Presi&ent @arr"' 6illia H on the other han&H is a :elie%er in hu an ri,hts an& a for er follower of Presi&ent @arr"' Notin, the s"ste ati! a!ts of harass ent !o itte& :" ,o%ern ent a,ents a,ainst far ers protestin, the sei=ure of their lan&sH la:orers !o plainin, of low wa,esH an& stu&ents seeDin, free tuitionH 6illia or,ani=e& ,roups whi!h hel& pea!eful rallies in front of the Presi&ential Pala!e to e0press their ,rie%an!es' An the e%e of the assassination atte ptH >ohnBs en were !au,ht :" e :ers of the Presi&ential Se!urit" $roup' Presi&ent @arr" went on air threatenin, to prose!ute plotters an& &issi&ents of his a& inistration' 3he ne0t &a"H the ,o%ern ent !har,e& >ohn with assassination atte pt an& 6illia with in!itin, to se&ition'

the plan of >ohn to assassinate Presi&ent @arr" was part of su!h plan' @owe%erH if the e0tra&ition treat" !ontains an attentat !lauseH 1epu:li! + !an e0tra&ite >ohnH :e!ause un&er the attentat !lauseH the taDin, of the life or atte pt a,ainst the life of a hea& of state or that of the e :ers of his fa il" &oes not !onstitute a politi!al offense an& is therefore e0tra&ita:le'

F51S3 +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1: 1epu:li! + a" or !an refuse the re?uest of e0tra&ition of 6illia :e!ause he is not in its territor" an& thus it is not in the position to &eli%er hi to 1epu:li! M'
/%en if 6illia were in the territorial ;uris&i!tion of 1epu:li! +H he a" not :e e0tra&ite& :e!ause in!itin, to se&itionH of whi!h he is !har,e&H !onstitutes a politi!al offense' 5t is a stan&ar& pro%ision of e0tra&ition treatiesH su!h as the one :etween 1epu:li! + an& 1epu:li! MH that politi!al offenses are not e0tra&ita:le'

S/CAN- +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1: 1epu:li! 9 !an &en" the re?uest of 1epu:li! M to e0tra&ite 6illia H :e!ause his offense was not a politi!al offense' An the :asis of the pre&o inan!e or proportionalit" test his a!ts were not &ire!tl" !onne!te& to an" purel" politi!al offense' E2traditi&n8 Retr&a(ti0e A**'i(ati&n 9>"< "66@: (1) 3he Philippines an& +ustralia entere& into a 3reat" of /0tra&ition !on!urre& in :" the Senate of the Philippines on Septe :er 10H 1990' 9oth ,o%ern ents ha%e notifie& ea!h other that the re?uire ents for the entr" into for!e of the 3reat" ha%e :een !o plie& with' 5t tooD effe!t in 1990'
3he +ustralian ,o%ern ent is re?uestin, the Philippine ,o%ern ent to e0tra&ite its !iti=enH $i:sonH who has !o itte& in his !ountr" the in&i!ta:le offense of A:tainin, Propert" :" -e!eption in 1982' 3he sai& offense is a on, those enu erate& as e0tra&ita:le in the 3reat"' For his &efenseH $i:son asserts that the retroa!ti%e appli!ation of the e0tra&ition treat" a ounts to an e0 post fa!to law' 1ule on $i:sonBs !ontention' (2N)

>ohn fle& to 1epu:li! +' 6illia H who was in 1epu:li! 9 atten&in, a le!ture on &e o!ra!"H was a&%ise& :" his frien&s to sta" in 1epu:li! 9' 9oth 1epu:li! + an& 1epu:li! 9 ha%e !on%entional e0tra&ition treaties with 1epu:li! M' 5f 1epu:li! M re?uests the e0tra&ition of >ohn an& 6illia H !an 1epu:li! + &en" the re?uestL 6h"L State "our reason full"' (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1epu:li! + !an refuse to e0tra&ite >ohnH :e!ause his offense is a politi!al offense' >ohn was plottin, to taDe o%er the ,o%ern ent an&

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
$i:son is in!orre!t' 5n 6ri,ht %' Court of +ppealsH $'1' No'113213H +u,ust 12H199#H it was hel& that the retroa!ti%e appli!ation of the 3reat" of /0tra&ition &oes not %iolate

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the prohi:ition a,ainst e0 post fa!to lawsH :e!ause the 3reat" is neither a pie!e of !ri inal le,islation nor a !ri inal pro!e&ural statute' 5t erel" pro%i&e& for the e0tra&ition of persons wante& for offenses alrea&" !o itte& at the ti e the treat" was ratifie&'

/urope :efore 6orl& 6ar 55) were e0ter inate& :" the Na=is' +lon, with the >ewsH another 9 to 10 illion people ($"psies an& Sla%s) were assa!re&' (6A17- +78+N+C 120 (#0th e&'H 1987))' H31an Rig,t+ 9!###:
!### N& M * +' $i%e three ultilateral !on%entions on @u an 1i,hts a&opte& un&er the &ire!t auspi!es of the <nite& NationsL (2N)

'ag State 0+= 'ag &) C&n0enien(e 9"66;: II<+' -istin,uish :riefl" :ut !learl" :etween: (3) 3he fla, state an& the fla, of !on%enien!e' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: F7+$ S3+3/ eans a ship has the nationalit" of the fla, of the state it fliesH :ut there ust :e a ,enuine linD :etween the state an& the ship' (+rti!le 91 of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea') F7+$ AF CANE/N5/NC/ refers to a state with whi!h a %essel is re,istere& for %arious reasons su!h as low or non*e0istent ta0ation or low operatin, !osts althou,h the ship has no ,enuine linD with that state' (@arrisH Cases an& 8aterials on 5nternational 7awH 2th e&'H 1998H p' #22') Gen&(ide 9!#$$: 6hat is C$eno!i&eHC an& what is the fore ost e0a ple thereof in re!ent histor"L S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: C$eno!i&eC refers to an" of the followin, a!tsH whether !o itte& in ti e of war or pea!eH with intent to &estro" in whole or in part nationalH ethni!H ra!ial or reli,ious ,roup: (a) Gillin, e :ers of a ,roup; (:) Causin, :o&il" or ental har to its e :ers; (!) -eli:eratel" infli!tin, on the ,roup !on&itions of life !al!ulate& to :rin, a:out its ph"si!al &estru!tion in whole or in part; (&) 5 posin, easures to pre%ent :irths within the ,roup; an&
(e) For!i:l" transfor in, !hil&ren of the ,roup to another ,roup' (>' S+7AN$+ 4 P' O+PH P<975C 5N3/1N+35AN+7 7+6 399*#00 (19))))' 3he fore ost e0a ple of ,eno!i&e is the @olo!aust (1933*19#2) where a:out ) illion >ews (two thir&s of the >ewish population of

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: +' 3he followin, are ultilateral !on%entions on @u an 1i,hts a&opte& un&er the &ire!t auspi!es of the <nite& Nations: 1' 5nternational Co%enant on Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,hts; 2' Con%ention on the /li ination of +ll For s of -is!ri ination a,ainst 6o en; 3' Con%ention on the 1i,hts of the Chil&; #' Con%ention a,ainst 3orture an& Ather CruelH 5nhu an or -e,ra&in, 3reat ent or Punish ent; 2' 5nternational Con%ention on the /li ination of +ll For s of 1a!ial -is!ri ination; )' Con%ention on the Pre%ention an& Punish ent of the Cri e of $eno!i&e; an& 7' 5nternational Con%ention on /!ono i!H So!ialH an& Cultural 1i,hts H31an Rig,t+8 Ci0i' and P&'iti(a' Rig,t+ 9!##":
N&' 12: 6alan, Su,atH a %i,ilante ,roup !o pose& of pri%ate :usiness en an& !i%i! lea&ers pre%iousl" %i!ti i=e& :" the Nationalist Patrioti! +r " (NP+) re:el ,roupH was i pli!ate& in the torture an& Di&nappin, of -r' 8en,eleH a Dnown NP+ s" pathi=er'

a) <n&er pu:li! international lawH what rules properl" appl"L 6hat lia:ilitiesH if an"H arise thereun&er if 6alan, Su,atBs in%ol%e ent is !onfir e&' :) -oes the Co ission on @u an 1i,hts ha%e the power to in%esti,ate an& a&;u&i!ate the atterL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
a) An the assu ption that -r' 8en,ele is a forei,nerH his torture %iolates the 5nternational Co%enant on Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,htsH to whi!h the Philippine has a!!e&e&' +rti!le 7 of the

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Co%enant on Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,hts pro%i&es: CNo one shall :e su:;e!te& to torture or to !ruelH inhu an or &e,ra&in, treat ent or punish ent'C 5n a!!or&an!e with +rti!le 2 of the Co%enant on Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,htsH it is the o:li,ation of the Philippines to ensure that -r' 8en,ele has an effe!ti%e re e&"H that he shall ha%e his ri,ht to su!h a re e&" &eter ine& :" !o petent authorit"H an& to ensure the enfor!e ent of su!h re e&" when ,rante&' +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1: An the assu ption that -r' 8en,ele is a forei,nerH his !lai will ha%e to :e &ire!te& a,ainst the e :ers of 6alan, Su,at on the :asis of the Philippine law an& :e a&&resse& to the ;uris&i!tion of Philippine !ourts' @is !lai a" :e :ase& on the ,enerall" a!!epte& prin!iples of international lawH whi!h for part of Philippine law un&er Se!tion 2H +rti!le 55 of the Constitution' @is !lai a" :e pre ise& on rele%ant nor s of international law of hu an ri,hts'
<n&er international lawH -r' 8en,ele ust first e0haust the re e&ies un&er Philippine law :efore his in&i%i&ual !lai !an :e taDen up :" the State of whi!h he is a national unless the sai& State !an satisfa!toril" show it is its own interests that are &ire!tl" in;ure&' 5f this !on&ition is fulfille&H the sai& StateBs !lai will :e &ire!te& a,ainst the Philippines as a su:;e!t of international law' 3hus it woul& !ease to :e an in&i%i&ual !lai of -r' 8en,ele' -r' 8en,eleBs !ase a" !on!ern international law nor s on State responsi:ilit"' 9ut the appli!ation of these nor s re?uire that the :asis of responsi:ilit" is the rele%ant a!ts that !an :e attri:ute& to the Philippines as a State'

:) Can onl" a&;u&i!ation

in%esti,ateH

no

power

of

H31an Rig,t+8 Ci0i' and P&'iti(a' Rig,t+ 9!##?: !##? N&' 1: 1) -istin,uish !i%il ri,hts fro politi!al ri,hts an& ,i%e an e0a ple of ea!h ri,ht' 2) 6hat are the relations of !i%il an& politi!al ri,hts to hu an ri,htsL /0plain' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1) 3he ter CC5E57 15$@3SC refers to the ri,hts se!ure& :" the !onstitution of an" state or !ountr" to all its 5nha:itants an& not !onne!te& with the or,ani=ation or a& inistration of ,o%ern entH P9la!DH @an&:ooD of + eri!an Constitutional 7awH #th e&'H 22)') PA7535C+7 15$@3S !onsist in the power to parti!ipateH &ire!tl" or in&ire!tl"H in the ana,e ent of the ,o%ern ent' 3husH !i%il ri,hts ha%e no relation to the esta:lish entH ana,e ent or support of the ,o%ern ent' (+nthon" %s' 9urrowH 129 F 783)'

C5E57 15$@3S &efines the relations of in&i%i&ual a on,st the sel%es while PA7535C+7 15$@3S &efines the relations of 5n&i%i&uals %is*a*%is the state' C5E57 15$@3S e0ten& prote!tion to all inha:itants of a stateH while PA7535C+7 15$@3S prote!t erel" its !iti=ens'
/0a ples of !i%il ri,hts are the ri,hts a,ainst in%oluntar" ser%itu&eH reli,ious free&o H the ,uarantee a,ainst unreasona:le sear!hes an& sei=uresH li:ert" of a:o&eH the prohi:ition a,ainst i prison ent for &e:tH the ri,ht to tra%elH e?ual prote!tionH &ue pro!essH the ri,ht to arr"H ri,ht to return to this !ountr" an& ri,ht to e&u!ation'

@en!eH un&er the prin!iple of attri:ution it is ne!essar" to show that the a!ts of the %i,ilante ,roup 6alan, Su,at !an :e le,all" attri:ute& to the Philippines :" the State of whi!h -r' 8en,ele is a national'
3he appli!ation of treat" nor s of international law on hu an ri,htsH su!h as the pro%ision a,ainst torture in the 5nternational Co%enants in Ci%il an& Politi!al 1i,hts pertain to States' 3he a!ts of pri%ate !iti=ens !o posin, 6alan, Su,at !annot the sel%es !onstitute a %iolation :" the Philippines as a State'

/0a ples of politi!al ri,hts are the ri,ht of suffra,eH the ri,ht of asse :l"H an& the ri,ht to petition for re&ress of ,rie%an!es'
2) @u an ri,hts are :roa&er in s!ope than !i%il an& politi!al ri,hts' 3he" also in!lu&e so!ialH e!ono i!H an& !ultural ri,hts' @u an ri,hts are inherent in persons fro the fa!t of their hu anit"' /%er" an possesses the e%er"where an& at all ti es si pl" :e!ause he is a hu an :ein,' An the other han&H so e !i%il an& politi!al ri,hts are not natural ri,hts' 3he" e0ist :e!ause the" are prote!te& :" a

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:

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!onstitution or ,rante& :" law' For e0a pleH the li:ert" to enter into !ontra!ts is not a hu an ri,ht :ut is a !i%il ri,ht' IntJ' C&3rt &) 43+ti(e8 43ri+di(ti&n O0er State+ !##; N&' 20: 3he so%erei,nt" o%er !ertain islan&s is &ispute& :etween State + an& State 9' 3hese two states a,ree& to su: it their &isputes to the 5nternational Court of >usti!e P5C>Q' 1) -oes the 5C> ha%e ;uris&i!tion to taDe !o,ni=an!e of the !aseL 2) 6ho shall represent the parties :efore the CourtL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1) 3he 5nternational Court of >usti!e has ;uris&i!tion o%er the !aseH :e!ause the parties ha%e ;ointl" su: itte& the !ase to it an& ha%e thus in&i!ate& their !onsent to its ;uris&i!tion'

2) Parties to a !ase a" appoint a,ents to appear :efore the 5nternational Court of >usti!e in their :ehalfH an& these a,ents nee& not :e their own nationals' @owe%erH un&er +rti!le 1) of the Statutes of the 5nternational Court of >usti!eH no e :er of the !ourt a" appear as a,ent in an" !ase' IntJ' C&3rt &) 43+ti(e8 43ri+di(ti&n O0er State+ 9!##;:
N&' 19; 3he State of No%aH !ontrolle& :" an authoritarian ,o%ern entH ha& unfrien&l" relations with its nei,h:orin, stateH + eri!a' 9reslaH another nei,h:orin, stateH ha& :een shippin, ar s an& a unitions to No%a for use in atta!Din, + eria'

1) 5f No%a an& + eria are e :ers of the <nite& NationsH No%a !an pre ise its !ause of a!tion on a %iolation of +rti!le 2(#) of the <nite& Nations CharterH whi!h re?uires e :ers to refrain fro the threat or use of for!e ''' 2) 9" %irtue of the prin!iple of so%erei,n i unit"H no so%erei,n state !an :e a&e a part" to a pro!ee&in, :efore the 5nternational Court of >usti!e unless it has ,i%en its !onsent' 5f + eria has not a!!epte& the >uris&i!tion of the 5nternational Court of >usti!e' + eria !an in%oDe the &efense of la!D of ;uris&i!tion' /%en if + eria has a!!epte& the ;uris&i!tion of the !ourt :ut the a!!eptan!e is li ite& an& the li itation applies to the !aseH it a" in%oDe su!h li itation its !onsent as a :ar to the assu ption of ;uris&i!tion' 5f ;uris&i!tion has :een a!!epte&H + eria !an in%oDe the principle of anticipatory self-defenseH re!o,ni=e& un&er !usto ar" international lawH :e!ause No%a is plannin, to laun!h an atta!D a,ainst + eria :" usin, the ar s it :ou,ht fro 9resia'

3) 5f ;uris&i!tion o%er + eria is esta:lishe&H the !ase shoul& :e &e!i&e& in fa%or of No%aH '''' if ;uris&i!tion o%er + eria is not esta:lishe&H the !ase shoul& :e &e!i&e& in fa%or of + eria :e!ause of the prin!iple of so%erei,n i unit"' IntJ' C&3rt &) 43+ti(e8 Li1itati&n+ On 43ri+di(ti&n 9!###: N& M * 9' <n&er its StatuteH ,i%e two li itations on the ;uris&i!tion of the 5nternational Court of >usti!eL (2N) S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: 9' 3he followin, are the li itations on the ;uris&i!tion of the 5nternational Court of >usti!e un&er its Statute: 1' Anl" states a" :e parties in !ases :efore it' (+rti!le 3#) 2' 3he !onsent of the parties is nee&e& for the !ourt to a!?uire ;uris&i!tion o%er a !ase' (+rti!le 3)) IntJ' C&3rt &) 43+ti(e8 Partie+8 P'eading+ and Ora' Arg31ent 9!##;:
N&' 20: 3he so%erei,nt" o%er !ertain islan&s is &ispute& :etween State + an& State 9' 3hese two states a,ree& to su: it their &isputes to the 5nternational Court of >usti!e P5C>Q'

3o forestall an atta!DH + eria pla!e& floatin, ines on the territorial waters surroun&in, No%a' + eria supporte& a ,roup of re:els or,ani=e& to o%erthrow the ,o%ern ent of No%a an& to repla!e it with a frien&l" ,o%ern ent'
No%a &e!i&e& to file a !ase a,ainst + eria in the 5nternational Court of >usti!e

1) An what ,roun&s a" No%aBs !auses of a!tion a,ainst + eria :e :ase&L 2) An what ,roun&s a" + eria o%e to &is iss the !ase with the 5C>L
-e!i&e the !ase' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:

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!%6

3) 6hat lan,ua,e shall :e use& in the plea&in,s an& oral ar,u entL #) 5n !ase State +H the petitionerH falls to appear at the oral ar,u entH !an State 9H the respon&entH o%e for the &is issal of the petitionL S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3) <n&er +rti!le 39 of the Statutes of the 5nternational Court of >usti!eH the offi!ial lan,ua,es of the !ourt are /n,lish an& Fren!h' 5n the a:sen!e of an a,ree entH ea!h part" a" use the lan,ua,e it prefers' +t the re?uest of an" part"H the !ourt a" authori=e a part" to use a lan,ua,e other than /n,lish or Fren!h'

1'

6here is the seat of the 5nternational Court of >usti!eL 11N) 3he seat of the 5nternational Court of >usti!e is at the @a,ue or elsewhereH as it a" &e!i&eH e0!ept &urin, the ;u&i!ial %a!ations the &ates an& &uration of whi!h it shall fi0 (5'C'>' StatuteH +rt' 22)' @ow an" are its e :ersL (1N) 3he Court is !o pose& of fifteen e :ers who ust :e of hi,h oral !hara!ter an& possess the ?ualifi!ations re?uire& in their respe!ti%e !ountries for appoint ent to the hi,hest ;u&i!ial offi!e or are ;uris!onsults of re!o,ni=e& !o peten!e in international law (5'C'>' StatuteH +rt' 2)'
6hat is the ter of their offi!eL (1N) 3he" are ele!te& for a ter of nine "earsH sta,,ere& at three*"ear inter%als :" &i%i&in, the ;u&,es first ele!te& into three e?ual ,roups an& assi,nin, the :" lotter" ter s of threeH si0 an& nine "ears respe!ti%el"' 5 e&iate re*ele!tion is allowe& (5'C'>' StatuteH +rt' 13)'

2'

#) <n&er +rti!le 23 of the Statutes of the 5nternational Court of >usti!eH whene%er one of the parties &oes not appear :efore the !ourt or fails to &efen& its !aseH the other part" a" asD the !ourt to &e!i&e in fa%or of its !lai ' @owe%erH the !ourt ustH :efore &oin, soH satisf" itself it has >uris&i!tion an& that the !lai is well foun&e& in fa!t an& law' Internati&na' C&n0enti&n8 La5 &) t,e Sea 9"66;:
(2*:) /n route to the tuna fishin, ,roun&s in the Pa!ifi! A!eanH a %essel re,istere& in Countr" 36 entere& the 9alintan, Channel north of 9a:u"an 5slan& an& with spe!ial hooDs an& nets &ra,,e& up re& !orals foun& near 9atanes' 9" international !on%ention !ertain !orals are prote!te& spe!iesH ;ust :efore the %essel rea!he& the hi,h seasH the Coast $uar& patrol inter!epte& the %essel an& sei=e& its !ar,o in!lu&in, tuna' 3he aster of the %essel an& the owner of the !ar,o proteste&H !lai in, the ri,hts of transit passa,e an& inno!ent passa,eH an& sou,ht re!o%er" of the !ar,o an& the release of the ship' 5s the !lai eritorious or notL 1eason :riefl"' (2N)

3'

#'

6ho is its in!u :ent presi&entL (1N) 3he in!u :ent Presi&ent is 1osal"n @i,,ins' 6hat is hisIher nationalit"L (1 N) She is a national of the <nite& Gin,&o or a 9ritish su:;e!t' (NA3/: Sin!e ?uestions 5M(#) an& 5M(2) &o not test the e0a ineesB Dnowle&,e of the lawH it is su,,este& that the" :e &isre,ar&e&)
5n 1980H the <nite& States file& with the 5nternational Court of >usti!e a !o plaint a,ainst 5ran alle,in, that the latter is &etainin, + eri!an &iplo ats in %iolation of 5nternational 7aw' /0plain how the 5nternational Court of >usti!e !an a!?uire ;uris&i!tion o%er these !onten&in, !ountries' (2N)

2'

)'

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1;
3he !lai of inno!ent passa,e is not eritorious' 6hile the %essel has the ri,ht of inno!ent passa,eH it shoul& not !o it a %iolation of an" international !on%ention' 3he %essel &i& not erel" na%i,ate throu,h the territorial seaH it also &ra,,e& re& !orals in %iolation of the international !on%ention whi!h prote!te& the re& !orals' 3his is pre;u&i!ial to the ,oo& or&er of the Philippines' (+rti!le 19(2) of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea)

<n&er +rti!le 3) of the 5'C'>' StatutesH :oth parties ust a,ree to su: it the sel%es to the ;uris&i!tion of the 5nternational Court of >usti!e' Internati&na' La5 0+= La58 Territ&ria' Prin(i*'e8 Cri1e+ 9>"<"66@: M3ni(i*a' Internati&na'

Internati&na' C&3rt &) 43+ti(e 9>#<"66?:

(2) Poli!e Affi!er @enr" 8a,itin, of the Nar!oti!s Se!tion of the 6estern Poli!e -istri!t applie& for a sear!h warrant in the 1e,ional 3rial Court of 8anila for %iolation

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of Se!tion 11H +rti!le 55 (Possession of Prohi:ite& -ru,s) of 1epu:li! +!t (1'+') No' 91)2 (Co prehensi%e -an,erous -ru,s +!t of 2002) for the sear!h an& sei=ure of heroin in the !a:in of the Captain of the 8SS SeastarH a forei,n*re,istere& %essel whi!h was oore& at the South @ar:orH 8anilaH its port of &estination' 9ase& on the affi&a%its of the appli!antBs witnesses who were !rew e :ers of the %esselH the" saw a :o0 !ontainin, ten (10) Dilo,ra s of heroin un&er the :e& in the CaptainBs !a:in' 3he 13C foun& pro:a:le !ause for the issuan!e of a sear!h warrant; ne%erthelessH it &enie& the appli!ation on the ,roun& that Philippine !ourts ha%e no !ri inal ;uris&i!tion o%er %iolations of 1'+' No' 91)2 !o itte& on forei,n*re,istere& %essels foun& in Philippine waters'

or&er to esta:lish pro:a:le !auseH as re?uire& :" Se!tions 3 an& # of 1ule 12)' 5n an" e%entH there is no showin, that the re?uisite ?uantu of pro:a:le !ause was esta:lishe& :" ere referen!e to the affi&a%its an& other &o!u entar" e%i&en!e presente&' Mandate+ and Tr3+t Territ&rie+ 9"66-: N& ME55 * 6hat are the so*!alle& 8an&ates an& 3rust 3erritoriesL -oes the <nite& Nations e0er!ise so%erei,nt" o%er these territoriesL 5n the affir ati%eH how is this ;uris&i!tion e0er!ise&L S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he 8an&ates were the o%erseas possessions of the &efeate& states of $er an" an& 3urDe" whi!h were pla!e& :" the 7ea,ue of Nations un&er the a& inistration of an&atories to pro ote their &e%elop ent an& ulti ate in&epen&en!e' (@arrisH Cases an& 8aterials on 5nternational 7awH 2th e&'H p' 131') 6hen the <nite& Nations repla!e& the 7ea,ue of NationsH the s"ste of 8an&ates was repla!e& :" the S"ste of 3rust 3erritories' 3he <nite& Nations e0er!ise& resi&uar" so%erei,nt" o%er the 3rust 3erritories throu,h the 3rustee PowersH who e0er!ise& the powers of so%erei,nt" su:;e!t to super%ision :" an& a!!ounta:ilit" to the <nite& Nations' (Appenhei * 7auterpa!htH 5nternational 7awH Eol' 5H 7th e&'H pp' 213*21#') (Sin!e there are no ore 3rust 3erritoriesH this is ;ust a atter of histori!al interest')

5s the rulin, of the !ourt !orre!tL Support "our answer with reasons' (2N) +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1: 3he !ourtBs rulin, is not !orre!t' 3he forei,n*re,istere& %essel was not in transit' 5t was oore& in South @ar:orH 8anilaH its port of &estination' @en!eH an" !ri e !o itte& on :oar& sai& %esselH liDe possession of heroinH is tria:le :" our !ourts (<'S' %' +h Sin,H $'1' No' 13002H A!to:er 10H 1917)H e0!ept if the !ri e in%ol%es the internal ana,e ent of the %essel' +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
3he 13C a" assert its ;uris&i!tion o%er the !ase :" in%oDin, the territorial prin!ipleH whi!h pro%i&es that !ri es !o itte& within a stateBs territorial :oun&aries an& persons within that territor"H either per anentl" or te poraril"H are su:;e!t to the appli!ation of lo!al law' >uris&i!tion a" also :e asserte& on the :asis of the uni%ersalit" prin!ipleH whi!h !onfers upon all states the ri,ht to e0er!ise ;uris&i!tion o%er &eli!ta ;uris ,entiu or international !ri esH su!h as the international traffi! nar!oti!s' 3he possession of 10 D,s' of heroin !onstitutes !o er!ial ?uantit" an& therefore ?ualifies as traffi!Din, of nar!oti!s' Conse?uentl"H the &enial of the sear!h warrant shoul& ha%e :een an!hore& on the failure of the !ourt to !on&u!t personal e0a ination of the witnesses to the !ri e in

+73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
8an&ates pertains to the an&ate s"ste esta:lishe& un&er +rti!le 22 of the Co%enant of the 7ea,ue of Nations for the tutela,e an& ,uar&ianship of !olonies an& territories for erl" hel& :" $er an" an& 3urDe" :efore the First 6orl& 6arH :" a %i!torious power on :ehalf of the 7ea,ue of Nations until the" were prepare& for in&epen&en!e' 3erritories un&er an&ate were not un&er the so%erei,nt" of an" State; the" were a& inistere& :" a an&ator" power whi!h was responsi:le to the 7ea,ue of Nations for the &e%elop ent an& welfare of the &isa&%anta,e& su:;e!t peoples towar&s in&epen&en!e' 3husH an&ate& territories were un&er the ;uris&i!tion of the an&ator" powerH su:;e!t to the super%ision of the 7ea,ue of Nations' 3he ,eneral le,al fra eworD of the an&ate s"ste passe& into the trusteeship s"ste of the <nite& NationsH to,ether with

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!%"

an&ate& territories whi!h &i& not attain in&epen&en!e status :" the en& of the Se!on& 6orl& 6ar' 3rust territories an& the 3rusteeship Coun!il are !reate& :" the <N Charter' 3he trusteeship s"ste un&er Chapters M55 an& M555 of the <N Charter is esta:lishe& un&er the super%ision of the <N 3rusteeship Coun!il un&er the authorit" of the $eneral +sse :l" for the pro otion of politi!al an& so!io* e!ono i! &e%elop ent of peoples in trust territories towar&s in&epen&ent status' + new feature of the <N trusteeship s"ste is the !reation of a new !ate,or" of territoriesH the strate,i! trust territoriesH whi!h is un&er the super%ision of the Se!urit" Coun!il instea& of the 3rusteeship Coun!il' <n&er the fore,oin, !on&itionsH the <nite& Nations a" not :e sai& to e0er!ise so%erei,nt" o%er trust territoriesH the fun!tions an& powers of the 3rusteeship Coun!il an& the $eneral +sse :l" :ein, li ite& to a& inistration an& super%ision un&er the prin!iple of self*&eter ination as set forth in in&i%i&ual trust a,ree ents !on!lu&e& in a!!or&an!e with the <N Charter' <N ;urisi&i!tion is e0er!ise& throu,h the 3rusteeship Coun!il un&er the authorit" of the $eneral +sse :l"H e0!ept with respe!t to strate,i! areas or territories whi!h are pla!e& un&er the ;uris&i!tion of the Se!urit" Coun!il'

it is Philippine !ourts that will &e!i&e the !aseH the" will uphol& the Constitution o%er international law' 5f it is an international tri:unal that will &e!i&e the !aseH it will uphol& international law o%er uni!ipal law' +s hel& :" the Per anent 5nternational Court of >usti!e in the !ase of the Polish Nationals in -an=i,H a State !annot in%oDe its own Constitution to e%a&e o:li,ations in!u :ent upon it un&er international law'

+73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1 5 woul& taDe the proposition assi,ne& to 3ea CCC as :ein, nearer to the le,al realit" in the PhilippinesH na el"H C+ !ountr"Bs Constitution pre%ails o%er international law :ut international law pre%ails o%er uni!ipal statutesC'
3his isH howe%erH su:;e!t to the pla!e of international law in the Philippine Constitutional settin, in whi!h treaties or !usto ar" nor s in international law stan& in parit" with statutes an& in !ase of irre!on!ila:le !onfli!tH this a" :e resol%e& :" Ie0 posteriori &ero,at le0 priori as the Supre e Court o:iter &i!tu in +::as %' CA8/7/C hol&s' @en!eH a statute ena!te& later than the !on!lusion or effe!ti%it" of a treat" a" pre%ail' 5n the Philippine le,al s"ste H there are no nor s hi,her than !onstitutional nor s' 3he fa!t that the Constitution aDes ,enerall" a!!epte& prin!iples of international law or !on%entional international law as part of Philippine law &oes not aDe the superior to statutor" lawH as !larifie& in Se!retar" of >usti!e %' 7antion an& Philip 8orris &e!isions'

M3ni(i*a' La5 0+= Internati&na' La5 9"66-: N& ME5* +n or,ani=ation of law stu&ents sponsore& an inter*s!hool &e:ate a on, three tea s with the followin, assi,n ents an& propositions for ea!h tea to &efen&: 3ea C+C * 5nternational law pre%ails o%er uni!ipal law' 3ea C9C * 8uni!ipal law pre%ails o%er international law' 3ea CCC * + !ountr"Bs Constitution pre%ails o%er international law :ut international law pre%ails o%er uni!ipal statutes' 5f "ou were ,i%en a !han!e to !hoose the !orre!t propositionH whi!h woul& "ou taDe an& wh"L S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
5 shall taDe the proposition for 3ea C' 5nternational 7aw an& uni!ipal law are supre e in their own respe!ti%e fiel&s' Neither has he,e on" o%er the other' (9rownlieH Prin!iples of Pu:li! 5nternational 7awH #th e&' p' 127') <n&er +rti!le 55H Se!tion 2 of the 1987 ConstitutionH the ,enerall" a!!epte& prin!iples of international law for part of the law of the lan&' Sin!e the" erel" ha%e the for!e of lawH if

Ne3tra'ity &) State+ 9!#$$:


N&' 20: Swit=erlan& an& +ustralia are outstan&in, e0a ples of neutrali=e& statesH

1' 6hat are the !hara!teristi!s of a neutrali=e& stateL 2' 5s neutralit" s"non" ous with neutrali=ationL 5f notH &istin,uish one fro the other' S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
1' 6hether si ple or !o positeH a State is sai& to :e neutrali=e& where its in&epen&en!e an& inte,rit" are ,uarantee& :" an international !on%ention on the !on&ition that su!h State o:li,ates itself ne%er to taDe up ar s a,ainst an" other StateH e0!ept for self*&efenseH or enter into su!h international o:li,ations as woul& in&ire!tl" in%ol%e it in war' + State seeDs neutrali=ation where it is weaD an& &oes not

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wish to taDe an a!ti%e part in international politi!s' 3he power that ,uarantee its neutrali=ation a" :e oti%ate& either :" :alan!e of power !onsi&erations or :" the &esire to aDe the weaD state a :uffer :etween the territories of the ,reat powers' (>' S+7AN$+ 4 P' O+PH P<975C 5N3/1N+35AN+7 7+6 7) (19))))' 2' Firstl"H neutralit" o:tains onl" &urin, warH whereas neutrali=ation is a !on&ition that applies in pea!e or in war' Se!on&l"H neutrali=ation is a status !reate& :" eans of treat"H whereas neutralit" is a status !reate& un&er international lawH :" eans of a stan& on the part of a state not to si&e with an" of the parties at war' 3hir&l"H neutralit" is :rou,ht a:out :" a unilateral &e!laration :" the neutral StateH while neutrali=ation !annot :e effe!te& :" unilateral a!tH :ut ust :e re!o,ni=e& :" other States' (5&')

Auter spa!e in this esti ate :e,ins fro the lowest altitu&e an artifi!ial satellite !an re ain in or:it' <n&er the 8oon 3reat" of 1979 the oon an& the other !elestial :o&ies for part of outer spa!e'
5n outer spa!eH the spa!e satellites or o:;e!ts are un&er the ;uris&i!tion of States of re,istr" whi!h !o%ers astronauts an& !os onauts' 3his atter is !o%ere& :" the 1e,istration of A:;e!ts in Spa!e Con%ention of 197# an& the 7ia:ilit" for -a a,e Cause& :" Spa!e& A:;e!ts Con%ention of 1972'

Prin(i*'e &) A3t&<Li1itati&n 9>!6<"66?: 1' 6hat is the prin!iple of auto*li itationL (2'2N) +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
<n&er the prin!iple of auto*li itationH an" state a" :" its !onsentH e0press or i plie&H su: it to a restri!tion of its so%erei,n ri,hts' 3here a" thus :e a !urtail ent of what otherwise is a plenar" power (1ea,an %' C51H $'1' 7*2)379H -e!e :er 27H 19)9)'

O3ter S*a(e8 43ri+di(ti&n 9"66-: N& M5M * 6hat is outer*spa!eL 6ho or whi!h !an e0er!ise ;uris&i!tion o%er astronauts while in outer spa!eL +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
3here are se%eral s!hools of thou,ht re,ar&in, the &eter ination of outer spa!eH su!h as the li it of air fli,htH the hei,ht of at ospheri! spa!eH infinit"H the lowest altitu&e of an artifi!ial satelliteH an& an altitu&e appro0i atin, aero&"na i! lift' +nother s!hool of thou,ht pro!ee&s :" analo," to the law of the sea' 5t proposes that a State shoul& e0er!ise full so%erei,nt" up to the hei,ht to whi!h an air!raft !an as!en&' Non* ilitant fli,ht instru entalities shoul& :e allowe& o%er a se!on& areaH a !onti,uous =one of 300 iles' A%er that shoul& :e outer spa!e' 3he :oun&ar" :etween airspa!e an& outer spa!e has not "et :een &efine&' (@arrisH Cases an& 8aterials on 5nternational 7awH 2th e&'' pp' 221*223') <n&er +rti!le 8 of the 3reat" on the Prin!iples $o%ernin, the +!ti%ities of States in the /0ploration an& <se of Auter Spa!eH 5n!lu&in, the 8oon an& Ather Celestial 9o&iesH a State on whose re,istr" an o:;e!t laun!he& into outer spa!e retains ;uris&i!tion o%er the astronauts while the" are in outer spa!e'

Re(i*r&(ity 0= Prin(i*'e &) A3t&<Li1itati&n 9>!6<"66?: 2' 6hat is the relationship :etween re!ipro!it" an& the prin!iple of auto* li itationL (2'2N) +73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
6hen the Philippines enters into treatiesH ne!essaril"H these international a,ree ents a" !ontain li itations on Philippine so%erei,nt"' 3he !onsi&eration in this partial surren&er of so%erei,nt" is the re!ipro!al !o it ent of other !ontra!tin, states in ,rantin, the sa e pri%ile,e an& i unities to the Philippines' For e0a pleH this Din& of re!ipro!it" in relation to the prin!iple of auto*li itation !hara!teri=es the Philippine !o it ents un&er 63A*$+33' 3his is :ase& on the !onstitutional pro%ision that the Philippines Ca&opts the ,enerall" a!!epte& prin!iples of international law as part of the law of the lan& an& a&heres to the poli!" of '''

!ooperation an& a it" with all nationsC (3ana&a %' +n,araH $'1' No' 118292H 8a" 2H 1997)'

+73/1N+35E/ +NS6/1:
Auter spa!e is the spa!e :e"on& the airspa!e surroun&in, the /arth or :e"on& the national airspa!e' 5n lawH the :oun&ar" :etween outer spa!e an& airspa!e has re aine& un&eter ine&' 9ut in theor"H this has :een esti ate& to :e :etween 80 to 90 Dilo eters'

Re(&gniti&n &) State+8 De a(t& 0+= De 43re Re(&gniti&n 9!##$: N& M55' -istin,uish :etween &e fa!to re!o,nition an& &e ;ure re!o,nition of states' P2N)

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SUGGESTED ANSWER: 3he followin, are the &istin!tions :etween &e fa!to re!o,nition an& &e >ure re!o,nition of a ,o%ern ent: 1' -e fa!to re!o,nition is pro%isionalH &e >ure re!o,nition is relati%el" per anent; 2' -e fa!to re!o,nition &oes not %est title in the ,o%ern ent to its properties a:roa&; &e >ure re!o,nition &oes; 3' -e fa!to re!o,nition is li ite& to !ertain ;uri&i!al relations; &e ;ure re!o,nition :rin,s a:out full &iplo ati! relations' (Cru=' 5nternational 7aw' 199) e&'' p' 83') ALTERNATI.E ANSWER: 3he &istin!tion :etween &e fa!to re!o,nition an& &e ;ure re!o,nition of a State is not !lear in international law' 5t isH howe%erH usuall" assu e& as a point of &istin!tion that while &e fa!to re!o,nition is pro%isional an& hen!e a" :e with&rawnH &e ;ure re!o,nition is final an& !annot :e with&rawn'
Confronte& with the e er,en!e of a new politi!al entit" in the international !o unit"H a State a" e0perien!e so e &iffi!ult" in respon&in, to the ?uestion whether the new politi!al or&er ?ualifies to :e re,ar&e& as a state un&er international lawH in parti!ular fro the %iewpoint of its effe!ti%eness an& in&epen&en!e on a per anent :asis' 3he re!o,ni=in, State a" !onsi&er its a!t in re,ar& to the new politi!al entit" as erel" a &e fa!to re!o,nitionH i pl"in, that it a" with&raw it if in the en& it turns out that the !on&itions of statehoo& are not fulfille& shoul& the new authorit" not re ain in power'

%arious parts of +sia' 3he >apanese $o%ern ent has a!!or&in,l" laun!he& a ,oo&will !a pai,n an& has offere& the Philippine $o%ern ent su:stantial assistan!e for a pro,ra that will pro ote R throu,h ,o%ern ent an& non*,o%ern ental or,ani=ations R wo ensB ri,htsH !hil& welfareH nutrition an& fa il" health !are' +n e0e!uti%e a,ree ent is a:out to :e si,ne& for that purpose' 3he a,ree ent in!lu&es a !lause where:" the Philippine $o%ern ent a!Dnowle&,es that an" lia:ilit" to the C!o fort wo enC or their &es!en&ants are &ee e& !o%ere& :" the reparations a,ree ents si,ne& an& i ple ente& i e&iatel" after the Se!on& 6orl& 6ar' >uliano 5,lesiasH a &es!en&ant of a now &e!ease& !o fort wo anH seeDs "our a&%i!e on the %ali&it" of the a,ree ent' +&%ise hi '

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1:
3he a,ree ent is %ali&' 3he !o fort wo en an& their &es!en&ants !annot assert in&i%i&ual !lai s a,ainst >apan' +s state& in -a%is 4 8oore %s' 1e,anH #23 <'S' )2#H the so%erei,n authorit" of a State to settle !lai s of its nationals a,ainst forei,n !ountries has repeate&l" :een re!o,ni=e&' 3his a" :e a&e without the !onsent of the nationals or e%en without !onsultation with the ' Sin!e the !ontinue& a it" :etween a State an& other !ountries a" re?uire a satisfa!tor" !o pro ise of utual !lai sH the ne!essar" power to aDe su!h !o pro ises has :een re!o,ni=e&' 3he settle ent of su!h !lai s a" :e a&e :" e0e!uti%e a,ree ent'

Rig,t t& Inn&(ent Pa++age 9!###:


N& M * C' State /psilonH &urin, pea!e ti eH has allowe& forei,n ships inno!ent passa,e throu,h 8antranas StraitH a strait within /psilonBs territorial sea whi!h has :een use& :" forei,n ships for international na%i,ation' Su!h passa,e ena:le& the sai& ships to tra%erse the strait :etween one part of the hi,h seas to another' An >une 7H 1997H a warship of State 9eta passe& throu,h the a:o%e*na e& strait' 5nstea& of passin, throu,h !ontinuousl" an& e0pe&itiousl"H the ship &ela"e& its passa,e to ren&er assistan!e to a ship of State $a a whi!h was &istresse& with no one near:" to assist' 6hen !onfronte& :" /psilon a:out the &ela"H 9eta e0plaine& that the &ela" was &ue to for!e a;eure in !onfor it" with the pro%ision of +rti!le 18(2) of the 1982 Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea (<NC7AS)' Se%en onths laterH /psilon suspen&e& the ri,ht of inno!ent

9ut e%en thenH a &e fa!to re!o,nition in this !onte0t pro&u!es le,al effe!ts in the sa e wa" as &e ;ure re!o,nition' 6hether re!o,nition is &e fa!to or &e ;ureH steps a" :e taDen to with&raw re!o,nition if the !on&itions of statehoo& in international law are not fulfille&' 3husH fro this stan&pointH the &istin!tion is not le,all" si,nifi!ant' Note: 3he ?uestion shoul& refer to re!o,nition of ,o%ern ent not re!o,nition of state :e!ause there is no su!h &istin!tion in re!o,nition of state' Re*arati&n+ Agree1ent8 .a'idity 9!##":
N&' 1#: 3he >apanese $o%ern ent !onfir e& that &urin, the Se!on& 6orl& 6arH Filipinas were a on, those !ons!ripte& as C!o fort wo enC (or prostitutes) for >apanese troops in

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passa,e of warships throu,h 8antranas Strait without ,i%in, an" reason therefor' Su:se?uentl"H another warship of 9eta passe& throu,h the sai& straitH an& was fire& upon :" /psilonBs !oastal :atter"' 9eta proteste& the aforesai& a!t of /psilon &rawin, attention to the e0istin, !usto ar" international law that the re,i e of inno!ent passa,e (e%en of transit passa,e) is non*suspen&a:le' /psilon !ountere& that 8antranas Strait is not a ne!essar" routeH there :ein, another suita:le alternati%e route' 1esol%e the a:o%e* entione& !ontro%ers"H /0plain "our answer' (#N)

9atanes' 9" international !on%ention !ertain !orals are prote!te& spe!ies' >ust :efore the %essel rea!he& the hi,h seasH the Coast $uar& patrol inter!epte& the %essel an& sei=e& its !ar,o in!lu&in, tuna' 3he aster of the %essel an& the owner of the !ar,o proteste&H !lai in, the ri,hts of transit passa,e an& inno!ent passa,eH an& sou,ht re!o%er" of the !ar,o an& the release of the ship' 5s the !lai eritorious or notL 1eason :riefl"' (2N)

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1;
3he !lai of inno!ent passa,e is not eritorious' 6hile the %essel has the ri,ht of inno!ent passa,eH it shoul& not !o it a %iolation of an" international !on%ention' 3he %essel &i& not erel" na%i,ate throu,h the territorial seaH it also &ra,,e& re& !orals in %iolation of the international !on%ention whi!h prote!te& the re& !orals' 3his is pre;u&i!ial to the ,oo& or&er of the Philippines' (+rti!le 19(2) of the Con%ention on the 7aw of the Sea)

S<$$/S3/- +NS6/1: +ssu in, that /psilon an& 9eta are parties to the <NC7ASH the !ontro%ers" a":e resol%e& as follows:
<n&er the <NC7ASH warships en;o" a ri,ht of inno!ent passa,e' 5t appearin, that the portion of /psilonBs territorial sea in ?uestion is a strait use& for international na%i,ationH /psilon has no ri,ht un&er international law to suspen& the ri,ht of inno!ent passa,e' +rti!le #2(2) of the <NC7AS is !lear in pro%i&in, that there shall :e no suspension of inno!ent passa,e throu,h straits use& for international na%i,ation' An the assu ption that the straits in ?uestion is not use& for international na%i,ationH still the suspension of inno!ent passa,e :" /psilon !annot :e effe!ti%e :e!ause suspension is re?uire& un&er international law to :e &ul" pu:lishe& :efore it !an taDe effe!t' 3here :ein, no pu:li!ation prior to the suspension of inno!ent passa,e :" 9etaBs warshipH /psilonBs a!t a!?uires no %ali&it"'

Rig,t+ and Ob'igati&n 3nder UN C,arter 9!##!:


N&' 1#: State M in%a&es an& !on?uers State O' 3he <nite& Nations Se!urit" Coun!il &e!lares the in%asion an& !on?uest ille,al an& or&ers an international e :ar,o a,ainst State M' Su:se?uentl"H the sa e <'N' :o&" a&opts a resolution !allin, for an enfor!e ent a!tion a,ainst State M un&er Chapter E55 of the <'N' Charter' State .H a <'N' e :erH reli,iousl" !o plies with the e :ar,o :ut refuses to taDe part in the enfor!e ent a!tionH sen&in, a e&i!al ission instea& of fi,htin, troops to the trou:le& area'

8oreo%erH /psilonBs suspension of inno!ent passa,e a" not :e %ali& for the reason that there is no showin, that it is essential for the prote!tion of its se!urit"' 3he a!tuation of 9etaBs warship in resortin, to &ela"e& passa,e is for !ause re!o,ni=e& :" the <NC7AS as e0!usa:leH i'e'H for the purpose of ren&erin, assistan!e to persons or ship in &istressH as pro%i&e& in +rti!le 18(2) of the <NC7AS' @en!eH 9etaBs warship !o plie& with the international law nor s on ri,ht of inno!ent passa,e' Rig,t t& Tran+it and Inn&(ent Pa++age 9"66;:
II<9' :n ro*+e to the tuna fishin, ,roun&s in the Pa!ifi! A!eanH a %essel re,istere& in Countr" 36 entere& the 9alintan, Channel north of 9a:u"an 5slan& an& with spe!ial hooDs an& nets &ra,,e& up re& !orals foun& near

(a) -i& State . %iolate its o:li,ations un&er the <'N' CharterL (:) 5f soH what san!tions a" :e taDen a,ainst itL (!) 5f notH wh" notL ANSWER: (a) NoH State . &i& not %iolate its o:li,ations un&er the <nite& Nations Charter' 5t !o plie& with the resolution !allin, for enfor!e ent a!tion a,ainst State MH :e!ause it sent a e&i!al tea ' (:) No san!tions a" :e taDen a,ainst State .' :e!ause it &i& not %iolate its o:li,ation un&er the <nite& Nations Charter'
(!) Co plian!e with the resolution !allin, for enfor!e ent a!tion a,ainst Slate M &oes not ne!essaril" !all for the sen&in, of

BAR Q&A (as arranged by Topics) POLITICAL LAW (19 !"#$$%)

!%?

fi,htin, troops' <n&er +rt #3 of the <nite& Nations CharterH !o plian!e with the !all for enfor!e ent a!tion a,ainst State M has to :e a&e in a!!or&an!e with a spe!ial a,ree ent with the Se!urit" Coun!il an& su!h a,ree ent shall ,o%ern the nu :ers an& t"pes of for!esH their &e,ree of rea&iness an& ,eneral lo!ationsH an& the nature of the fa!ilities an& assistan!e to :e supplie& :" e :ers of the <nite& Nations'

pro!e&ures an& a !usto ar" nor is the pro&u!t of the for ation of ,eneral pra!ti!e a!!epte& as law'
9" wa" of illustratin, 5nternational Con%ention as a sour!e of lawH we a" refer to the prin!iple e :o&ie& in +rti!le ) of the Eienna Con%ention on the 7aw of 3reaties whi!h rea&s: C/%er" State possesses !apa!it" to !on!lu&e treatiesC' 5t tells us what the law is an& the pro!ess or etho& :" whi!h it !a e into :ein,' 5nternational Custo a" :e !on!retel" illustrate& :" pa!ta sunt ser%an&aH a !usto ar" or ,eneral nor whi!h !a e a:out throu,h e0tensi%e an& !onsistent pra!ti!e :" a ,reat nu :er of states re!o,ni=in, it as o:li,ator"' 3he su:si&iar" eans ser%es as e%i&en!e of law' + &e!ision of the 5nternational Court of >usti!eH for e0a pleH a" ser%e as aterial e%i&en!e !onfir in, or showin, that the prohi:ition a,ainst the use of for!e is a !usto ar" nor H as the &e!ision of the Court has &e onstrate& in the Ni!ara,ua Case' 3he status of a prin!iple as a nor of international law a" fin& e%i&en!e in the worDs of hi,hl" ?ualifie& pu:li!ists in international lawH su!h as 8!NairH Gelsen or Appenhei '

S&3r(e+ &) Internati&na' La58 Pri1ary B S3b+idiary S&3r(e+ 9"66-:


N& ME * State "our ,eneral un&erstan&in, of the pri ar" sour!es an& su:si&iar" sour!es of international lawH ,i%in, an illustration of ea!h'

SUGGESTED ANSWER: <n&er +rti!le 38 of the Statute of the 5nternational Court of >usti!eH the P158+1O SA<1C/S of international law are the followin,: 1' 5nternational !on%entionsH e','H Eienna Con%ention on the 7aw of 3reaties' 2' 5nternational !usto sH e','H sa:ota,eH the prohi:ition a,ainst sla%er"H an& the prohi:ition a,ainst torture' 3' $eneral prin!iples of law re!o,ni=e& :" !i%ili=e& nationsH e','H pres!riptionH res ;u&i!ataH an& &ue pro!ess'
3he S<9S5-5+1O SA<1C/S of international law are ;u&i!ial &e!isionsH su:;e!t to the pro%isions of +rti!le 29H e','H the &e!ision in the +n,lo*Norwe,ian Fisheries Case an& Ni!ara,ua %' <nite& StatesH an& 3/+C@5N$S of the ost hi,hl" ?ualifie& pu:li!ists of %arious nationsH e','H @u an 1i,hts in 5nternational 7aw :" 7auterpa!ht an& 5nternational 7aw :" Appenhe i *7auterpa!ht'

S&0ereign I113nity &) State+8 Ab+&'3te 0+= Re+tri(ti0e 9!##$: N& M555' 6hat is the &o!trine of So%erei,n i unit" in international 7awL P2NQ SUGGESTED ANSWER: 9" the &o!trine of so%erei,n i unit"H a StateH its a,ents an& propert" are i une fro the ;u&i!ial pro!ess of another StateH e0!ept with its !onsent' 3husH i unit" a" :e wai%e& an& a State a" per it itself