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Decay time of the blue luminescence in ZnSe at room temperature Zheng, J.Z., Allen, J.W., Spence, D.E.

., Sleat, W.E., Sibbett, W. 1993 Applied Physics Letters 62 (1) , pp. 63-65

Blue-green laser emission from ZnSe quantum well microresonators Hovinen, M., Ding, J., Nurmikko, A.V., Grillo, D.C., Han, J., He, L., Gunshor, R.L. 1993 Applied Physics Letters 63 (23) , pp. 31283130 Periodic-cluster calculations of the valence states and native defects in diamond, silicon, germanium, ZnS, ZnSe, and SiC MacHado, W.V.M., Kintop, J.A., De Siqueira, M.L., Ferreira, L.G. 1993 Physical Review B 47 (20) , pp. 1321913232 Facile synthesis of highly luminescent ZnSe(S) alloyed quantum dot for biomedical imaging Saikia, K., Deb, P., Kalita, E. 2013 Current Applied Physics 13 (5) , pp. 925930

Photoluminescence in ZnSe-based quantum well wire structures Ding, J., Nurmikko, A.V., Grillo, D.C., He, L., Han, J., Gunshor, R.L. 1993 Applied Physics Letters 63 (16) , pp. 22542256

Ab initio calculation of phonon dispersions in II-VI semiconductors Dal Corso, A., Baroni, S., Resta, R., De Gironcoli, S. 1993 Physical Review B 47 (7) , pp. 35883592

Anion vacancies in II-VI chalcogenides: Review and critical analysis Babentsov, V., James, R.B. 2013 Journal of Crystal Growth Article in Press

Dzhioev, R.I., Zakharchenya, B.P., Ivchenko, E.L., Korenev, V.L., Kusraev, Yu.G., Ledentsov, N.N., Ustinov, V.M., (...), Tsatsul'nikov, A.F. Fine structure of excitonic levels in quantum dots (1997) JETP Letters, 65 (10), pp. 804809. Cited 26 times. doi: 10.1134/1.567429

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Synthesis and characterization studies of znse quantum dots ( Conference Paper )


Senthilkumar, K.ab , Kalaivani, T.b, Kanagesan, S.b, Balasubramanin, V.c
a b c

Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai-603 112, India Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai-603 203, India Department of Chemistry, AMET University, Chennai-603 112, India

View references (45)

Abstract
ZnSe quantum dots have been synthesized by wet chemical, template free process by zinc acetate and elemental selenium powder in presence of ethylene glycol, hydrazine hydrate and a defined amount of water at 90 C. The product was in strong quantum confinement regime, having yield as high as 50 %. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image indicated that the particles were well dispersed and spherical in shape. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the ZnSe nanoparticles were of the cubic structure, with average particle diameter of ca. 3.50 nm. The FTIR characteristic indicates that the N2H4 molecule has intercalated into the complex and formed a molecular precursor. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2013.

Facile synthesis of highly luminescent ZnSe(S) alloyed quantum dot for biomedical imaging

Saikia, K.a, Deb, P.a , Kalita, E.b


a

Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028, India Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028, India
b

View references (25)

Abstract
An alloyed complex of zinc, sulphur and selenium was synthesized in a controlled fashion using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) surfactant to obtain a new class of biocompatible, highly luminescent imaging probes. These ZnSe(S) alloyed quantum dots (QDs) exhibited a five fold enhancement in photoluminescence over the native ZnSe nanocrystals. The enhancement in photoluminescence was brought about without any post-preparative surface treatments, under ambient conditions. 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was found to optimally stabilize the ZnSe(S) alloyed system. The incorporation of S 2- from MPA after prolonged refluxing time enabled the formation of ZnSe(S) alloyed QDs with low cytotoxicity. The in vitro assays revealed the synergistic enhancement of photoluminescence with enhancement in dispersibility and high biocompatibility for the ZnSe(S) system. The experimental findings give us a novel range of blue-emitting, Zn-based high luminescence QDs for development of nano-probes for bioimaging applications. 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Alloyed QDs; Biomedical imaging; Photoluminescence; Refluxing time; ZnSe(S)

Aqueous synthesis of glutathione capped ZnSe nanocrystals: Synthesis and optical properties
Ding, Y.L.a, Bi, J.X.b, Du, B.a, Hu, X.Y.a, Liu, F.T.a
a b

School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China Sinoma New Solar Materials Co. Ltd., Donghai 222300, China

View references (34)

Abstract
We have developed an aqueous synthesis for glutathione capped ZnSe nanocrystals. The structure and optical properties of the obtained ZnSe nanocrystals were characterised by X-

ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering analysis, TEM, ultraviolet-visible, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ZnSe shows a cubic zincblende crystal phase and has a narrow size distribution. Experimental results indicate that the pH value and reaction time play crucial roles in determining optical features. With the pH increasing from 10 to 12, and reaction time from 0 to 2 h, the fluorescence emissions of ZnSe nanocrystals are tuneable between 360 and 405 nm. The high quantum yields are calculated to be in the range of 03-22%. Furthermore, the luminescence intensity can be enhanced significantly when the nanocrystal sample is illuminated by room light. The mechanism for the resulting high quality optical properties is also elucidated. W. S. Maney & Son Ltd. 2013.

A new route to zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals: Mechanism and synthesis


Deng, Z.ac, Cao, L.b, Tang, F.a , Zou, B.b
a

Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China b Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China c Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China View references (24)

Abstract
We report the possible mechanism of forming of CdSe nanocrystals in the high boiling point solvents with long alkane chains and a novel Non-TOP-Based route to zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals. A new mechanism shows that there exits a redox reaction in the long alkane chain solvents: Se is reduced to H 2Se gas; at the same time, the long alkane chains are oxidated to alkene chains; then, the Cd complex reacts with H 2Se to form CdSe nanocrystals. Possible chemical reaction equations involved in the process of forming the CdSe nanocrystals have been discussed. The alkene chain and H 2Se were detected respectively by a series of experiments to support the new mechanism. Under the guidance of this mechanism, we have developed a much cheaper and greener Non-TOP-Based route for the synthesis of a size series of high-quality zinc-blende (cubic) CdSe nanocrystals. Low-cost, green, and environmentally friendlier reagents are used, without use of expensive solvents such as trioctylphosphine (TOP) or tributylphosphine (TBP). The new route enables us to achieve high-quality CdSe nanocrystals with sharp ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) absorption peaks, controllable size (2.0-5.0 nm), bright photoluminescence (PL), narrow PL full width of half-maximum (fwhm) (29-48 nm), and high PL quantum yield (up to 60%) without any size sorting. 2005 American Chemical Society.

Preparation and photoluminescence of water-dispersible ZnSe nanocrystals

Murase, N.a , Gao, M.b


a

Natl. Inst. Adv. Indust. Sci./T., Ikeda-City, Osaka 563-8577, Japan Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bei Yi Jie 2, Zhong Guan Cun, 100080 Beijing, China
b

View references (26)

Abstract
Water-dispersible ZnSe nanocrystals (2-3 nm in diameter) producing phololuminescence (PL) in a blue region were prepared using several thiol-stabilizers. Thioglycerol (TG) gives the most intense PL having a shoulder at 387 nm and a maximum at 475 nm. The former was assigned to the excitonic emission, whereas the latter was assigned to a defect emission. Reflux increases the PL intensity, but did not change its peak wavelength significantly. TG plays an essential role in stabilizing the ZnSe colloidal solution, but it also creates defect emission. Therefore, the less the amount of surfactant, the more the PL intensity becomes in a range where the solution is not precipitated. The attachment and removal of TG on the surface of nanocrystals only occur at refluxing temperature (100C). On the other hand, removal of hydroxyl ions from the surface occurs at room temperature when pH is reduced. The -potential and PL intensity are correlated strongly with the pH of the colloidal solution. This indicates hydroxyl ions passivate the surface significantly. Under optimized conditions of TG ratio and reflux time, the ZnSe nanocrystals in water produced whitish-blue emissions with an efficiency of 10% relative to rhodamine 6G. The nanocrystals in water are stable for months in a refrigerator. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Glutathione
Meister, A., Anderson, M.E. Dep. Biochem., Cornell Univ. Med. Coll., New York, NY 10021, United States

Abstract
This review is concerned with current progress in unraveling the biochemical bases of the physiological roles of this important compound. Detailed information is now available about glutathione synthesis and its metabolism by the reactions of the -glutamyl cycle, and its function in reductive processes that are essential for the synthesis (and the degradation) of proteins, formation of the deoxyribonucleotide precursors of DNA, regulation of enzymes, and protection of the cell against reactive oxygen compounds and free radicals. In addition, glutathione is a coenzyme for several reactions; it conjugates with foreign compounds (e.g. drugs) and with compounds formed in metabolism (e.g. estrogens, prostaglandins, leukotrienes), and thus participates in their metabolism. An important recent finding is that cellular turnover of glutathione is associated with its transport, in the form of GSH, out of cells. The functions of such GSH transport include formation by membrane-bound -glutamyl transpeptidase of -glutamyl amino acids, which can be transported into certain cells, and thus serve as one mechanism of amino acid transport. Transported GSH probably also functions in reductive reactions that may involve the cell membrane and the immediate

environment of the cell. In the mammal, such transported GSH may enter the blood plasma and be transferred to other cells. Glutathione thus appears to be a storage form and a transport form of cysteine. Much of the new information about glutathione has arisen through studies with selective inhibitors of the enzymes involved in its metabolism. Thus, inhibition in vivo of -glutamyltranspeptidase, -glutamyl cyclotransferase, 5-oxoprolinase, and glutathione synthesis has been achieved, and the effects observed have contributed importantly to the understanding of glutathione metabolism and function. Studies on the inhibition of glutamyl transpeptidase have elucidated the transport of GSH and the formation and transport of -glutamyl amino acids. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by sulfoximine compounds that inactivate -glutamylcysteine synthetase has also contributed to such knowledge, as well as to information about the roles of glutathione in protection against both free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds, and in metabolism. These enzyme inhibitors, and other compounds that increase in vivo glutathione synthesis have opened the way to selective modulation of glutathione metabolism; this has made several new therapeutic approaches possible.

Synthesis and optical properties of water soluble ZnSe nanocrystals ( Conference Paper )
Murase, N.ab, Gao, M.Y.a, Gaponik, N.ac, Yazawa, T.b, Feldmann, J.a
a

Physics Department, CeNS, University of Munich, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799, Munich, Germany b Department of Optical Materials, Osaka National Research Institute, Ikeda-city, Osaka-5638577, Japan c Physico-Chemical Research Institute, Belarusian State University, 220050 Minsk, Belarus View references (14)

Abstract
ZnSe nanocrystals are prepared in water by a wet chemistry method. By selecting an appropriate pH value and surface-capping agents, a whitish blue fluorescence peaking at 470 nm is observed under UV irradiation. The intensity of this fluorescence increases dramatically under reflux and saturates after 40 hrs. The final mean size of the ZnSe nanocrystals measured by transmission electron microscopy is about 2 nm in diameter. The quantum efficiency of the fluorescence from the final solution is estimated to be 1%, although the preparation conditions have not yet been completely optimized. These properties are discussed in comparison with those of similarly prepared CdTe and differently prepared ZnSe nanocrystals.

Aqueous synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals by using glutathione as ligand: The pHmediated coordination of Zn2+ with glutathione
Zhang, J., Li, J., Zhang, J., Xie, R., Yang, W. State Key Laboratory for Supramolecular Structures and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China View references (40)

Abstract
A series of ZnSe nanocrystals was synthesized in the range of pH 6.5-11.5 in aqueous solution by using glutathione (-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) as ligand. The photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of the ZnSe nanocrystals were dependent on the pH of the reaction solutions, which increased from 0.5 to 23% as the pH increased from 6.5 to 11.5. It is identified that Zn2+ primarily coordinates with thiol group of the cysteine residual at low pH (6.5-8.3); then, the deprotonated amino group of the glutamyl residue also contributed to the coordination at medium pH (8.3-10.3). With increasing pH to >10.3, N atom of the amide bond further took part in the coordination after its deprotonation. As a result, the growth rate of the ZnSe nanocrystals increased with increasing pH, indicating the improved activity of the Zn 2+ precursors with increased pH. At pH <10.3, the products were identified to be ZnSe nanocrystals with low PLQY (<2%). At pH >10.3, the as-prepared nanocrystals were identified to have ZnSe/ZnS core/shell structure with higher PLQY (>8%). It is likely that coordination of Zn2+ with the N atom of the amide bond not only affects the activity of the Zn 2+ precursor but also promotes the release of sulfur from GSH, thus resulting in the formation of ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals with higher PLQY. 2010 American Chemical Society.

Facile synthesis of highly luminescent UVblue-emitting ZnSe/ZnS Core/Shell nanocrystals in aqueous media
Fang, Z., Li, Y., Zhang, H., Zhong, X. , Zhu, L. Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China View references (57)

Abstract
Unlike that for cadmium based nanocrystals, little research has been found on the synthesis of the UV-blueemitting ZnSe based QDs with photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) superior to 50%. In this article, high-quality water-dispersible ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals have been prepared in aqueous media. The epitaxial overgrowth of the ZnS shell was carried out at 90 C in a reaction flask consisting of the shell precursor compounds (zinc acetae as zinc resource and thiourea as sulfur resource), together with the asprepared ZnSe core nanocrystals and the capping reagent glutathione. The optical features and structure of the obtained ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals have been characterized by UV-vis, PL spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The influences of various experimental variables, including amounts of ligand and thiourea as well as pH value, on the growth rate and luminescent properties of the obtained core/shell nanocrystals have been systematically investigated. The PL QY of the as-prepared water-soluble ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs is up to 65%, which is one of the best results for the water-soluble UV-blue-emitting semiconductor nanocrystals. In comparison with the plain ZnSe nanocrystals, both the PL QY and the stability against UV irradiation and chemical oxidation of the ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs have been greatly improved. 2009 American Chemical Society.

Glutathione and N-acetylcysteinylglycine: Protonation and Zn2+ complexation


Ferretti, L.ab, Elviri, L.a, Pellinghelli, M.A.a, Predieri, G.a, Tegoni, M.a
a

Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica, Chimica Fisica Universit degli Studi di Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti, 17A, 43100 Parma, Italy b C.I.R.C.M.S.B. (Consorzio Interuniversitario di Ricerca in Chimica dei Metalli nei Sistemi Biologici, Piazza Umberto I, 1, 70121 Bari, Italy View references (42)

Abstract
The speciation study of the Zn2+/glutathione (GSH, H3G) and Zn2+/N-acetylcysteinylglycine (NAcCG, H2L) was performed in aqueous solution by means of potentiometry and ESI mass spectrometry. The ligand N-acetylcysteinylglycine was synthesized by protection/activation strategies. 1H NMR data for the Zn2+/NAcCG system at different pH were also collected, to gain insight in the coordination modes for the ligand. The information collected for the NAcCG model ligand were used to propose the structure in solution for the Zn2+/GSH complexes. Dinuclear complexes of GSH with Zn2+, which have never been proposed previously in the literature, were identified in solution and a model of their structure was proposed. Moreover, the Zn2+ promoted deprotonation of the cysteinyl peptidic NH with formation of five membered (S, NCys -) chelating rings was evidenced. The speciation study of the ternary Zn2+/GSH/NAcCG system was also performed, showing that the Zn2+ does not bind preferentially to GSH in presence of NAcCG. The 1H NMR protonation studies of both GSH and NAcCG were also performed, and a novel proton dissociation microconstant

calculation procedure has been proposed and applied to GSH equilibria. 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author keywords

Dynamic distribution of growth rates within the ensembles of colloidal II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanocrystals as a factor governing their photoluminescence efficiency
Talapin, D.V.ab , Rogach, A.L.ab, Shevchenko, E.V.a, Kornowski, A.a, Haase, M.a, Weller, H.a
a b

Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany Physico-Chemical Research Institute, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus

View references (56)

Abstract
The distribution of properties within ensembles of colloidally grown II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanocrystals was studied. A drastic difference in the photoluminescence efficiencies of size-selected fractions was observed for both organometallically prepared CdSe and InAs colloids and for CdTe nanocrystals synthesized in aqueous medium, indicating a general character of the phenomenon observed. The difference in the photoluminescence efficiencies is attributed to different averaged surface disorder of the nanocrystals originating from the Ostwald ripening growth mechanism when larger particles in the ensemble grow at the expense of dissolving smaller particles. At any stage of growth, only a fraction of particles within the ensemble of growing colloidal nanocrystals has the most perfect surface and, thus, shows the most efficient photoluminescence. This is explained by a theoretical model describing the evolution of an ensemble of nanocrystals in a colloidal solution. In an ensemble of growing nanocrystals, the fraction of particles with the highest photoluminescence corresponds to the particle size having nearly zero average growth rate. The small average growth rate leads to the lowest possible degree of surface disorder at any given reaction conditions.

Effect of ZnSe quantum dot concentration on the fluorescence enhancement of polymer P3HT film ( Article in press )
Mastour, N.a , Ben Hamed, Z.a, Benchaabane, A.a, Sanhoury, M.A.b, Kouki, F.a
a

Laboratoire, Matriaux avancs et phnomnes quantiques, Facult des Sciences de Tunis, Universit de Tunis El Manar, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis, Tunisia b Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Structurale, Synthse et tudes Physicochimiques, Facult des Sciences de Tunis, Universit de Tunis El Manar, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract
The effects of ZnSe quantum dot (Qd) concentration on the fluorescence in Poly(3hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) matrix (P3HT) are investigated. The fluorescence spectra were found to be very dependant on the Qd concentration and light emission is significantly enhanced by incorporation of ZnSe Qd in the polymer matrix. Using a theoretical model for hybrid (organic-inorganic) system, interesting numerical results for the light emission and relative quantum efficiency as a function of ZnSe Qd concentration were obtained. The theoretical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Selenization mechanisms of Sn and Zn investigated using in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction ( Article in press )
Han, J., Jeon, S., Kim, W.K. School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 712-749, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The selenization mechanism of Sn and Zn thin films was investigated by in situ hightemperature X-ray diffraction analysis of glass/Mo/Sn(/Se) and glass/Mo/Zn(/Se) precursors. The Sn and Zn layers were deposited by sputtering, and amorphous Se layer was added by evaporation. Based on the results of isothermal reactions at different set temperatures, the kinetic parameters for the transformation of the SnSe2 to SnSe phases and the selenization of Zn to ZnSe were estimated. It was found that severe Sn loss also occurred during the selenization of glass/Mo/Sn/Se precursor, while Zn loss was relatively negligible during the selenization of glass/Mo/Zn/Se precursor. 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Cu2ZnSnSe4; CZTS; High-temperature XRD; Selenization mechanism; Sn loss

Optical Properties of Pure ZnSe Nanocrystals Synthesized by Laser Ablation in Organic Liquids ( Article in press )
Mosmer, F.a, Torkamany, M.J.b , Sabbaghzadeh, J.c, Dorranian, D.d
a

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran b Iranian National Center for Laser Science and Technology (INLC), PO Box 14665-576, Tehran, Iran c Center for Advanced Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran d Laser Lab., Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran View additional affiliations

Abstract
Synthesis of the zinc selenide (ZnSe) nanocrystals (NCs) by pulsed laser ablation approach is reported in two distinct liquid media (ethanol and acetone) by means of the 1st harmonic of high frequency Nd:YAG laser. Based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, ZnSe NCs have both wurtzite and zinc blende structures with some overlapping peaks. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that as-synthesized NCs are relatively monodispersed and spherical in shape. UV-Vis spectra indicate that the band gap of ZnSe NCs in acetone and ethanol is blue shifted comparing to the band gap of bulk ZnSe which is due to quantum confinement effect. According to the XRD results, TEM observations and UV-Vis spectroscopy, as-synthesized ZnSe NCs in ethanol are larger than the ones in acetone. Two kinds of band edge and deep level emissions are identified by means of the room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Author keywords

Impact of barrier thickness on the strain effect in ZnSe/ZnS multiple quantum well structure
Manonmani Parvathi, M., Arivazhagan, V., Rajesh, S.

Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, India View references (18)

Abstract
Investigation on the impact of barrier thickness and the strain effect in band edges of wide band gap II-VI ZnSe/ZnS strained multiple quantum well structures (MQW) were carried out. QW structures were prepared by thermal evaporation technique by successive deposition of ZnSe and ZnS layers. The well ordered QW structure periodicity and interface abruptness were observed in small angle X-ray scattering. The formation of ZnSe/ZnS QW structures were identified from HRXRD peak position. The calculated lattice constant shows the presence of compressive strain in the ZnSe layers. Optical absorption measurements were carried out to study the strain effect on the band offset of ZnSe/ZnS MQW structure. The type I QW system were identified from the position of band onset. The observed blue shift of the QW in the absorption measurements were interpreted in terms of strain and quantum confinement effect followed by calculated band offset values using model solid theory. In 10 nm barrier structure, a thickness fluctuation at the interface and strain causes the blue shift in the absorption onset than the quantum confinement was found. In 20 and 50 nm structure the blue shift is due to confinement effect was observed. 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Highly luminescent (ZnSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots for blue to UV emission: Synthesis and characterization
Song, K.-K., Lee, S. Dept. of Mat. Sciencie and Eng., Kwangju Inst. Sci. Technol., 500-712, Kwangju, South Korea View references (13)

Abstract
We synthesized nearly monodisperse bare ZnSe nanocrystallites having luminescence which ranges in wavelength from 340 to 430 nm via nucleation due to supersaturation and growth followed by size selective precipitation. Bare ZnSe dots' outermost surface is passivated with organic HDA/TOP. In order to enhance the radiative emission from the semiconductor nanocrystals, we capped the bare ZnSe quantum dots with ZnS semiconductor materials of a wider band gap and 5% of lattice mismatch and produced highly luminescent core-shell (ZnSe)ZnS quantum dots. The core-shell (ZnSe)ZnS nanocrystals show 20 times or more as greatly enhanced luminescence quantum yields as those of bare ZnSe nanocrystals. The ZnSe bare dots and the (ZnSe)ZnS core-shell dots have cubic zinc blende structures as expected from the bulk structure. The observed shapes of bare ZnSe and core-shell (ZnSe)ZnS dots are

nearly spherical or ellipsoidal with the aspect ratios of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively. They are not faceted. 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

Demonstration of a shell-core structure in layered CdSe-ZnSe small particles by x-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies
Hoener, C.F., Allan, K.A., Bard, A.J., Campion, A., Fox, M.A., Mallouk, T.E., Webber, S.E., White, J.M. Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States

Abstract
The preferential positioning of different cations near the surface or at the center of small layered CdSe-ZnSe particles believed to have a shell-core structure has been demonstrated by the relative attenuation of the primary photoelectron and X-ray excited Auger signals from each cation. The preparation of the layered particles is described, and their absorption spectra are compared with those observed in "unstructured" particles of like composition. 1992 American Chemical Society.

Single-source molecular precursors for the deposition of zinc selenide quantum dots
Revaprasadu, N.ab, Malik, M.A.a, O'Brien, P.a , Zulu, M.M.b, Wakefield, G.c
a

Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom b Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwadlangezwa3886, South Africa c Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ, United Kingdom View references (25)

Abstract
TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide)-capped ZnSe (in the form of close to mono-dispersed nanoparticles) has been prepared by a single source route using ethyl(diethyldiselenocarbamato)zinc(II) as a precursor. The nanoparticles obtained show quantum size effects in their optical spectra and exhibit near band-edge luminescence. A blue shift of 0.25 eV in relation to the bulk material is observed. The selected area electron

diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show the material to be hexagonal. The crystallinity of the material was also evident from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) which gave well defined images of nanosize particles with clear lattice fringes.

Highly photoluminescent ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots


Nikesh, V.V., Mahamuni, S. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India View references (27)

Abstract
ZnSe quantum dots have been synthesized using a simple aqueous route. Coating ZnSe quantum dots with a ZnS monolayer, yields a remarkable enhancement in the PL quantum efficiency at room temperature without affecting the spectral distribution. The results suggest that passivation of surface states, along with an increased localization of the hole in core ZnSe layer, gives rise to high luminescence quantum yield.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Coating techniques; Crystal growth; Crystal lattices; Crystal structure; Light absorption; Nanostructured materials; Passivation; Photoluminescence; Quantum efficiency; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Synthesis (chemical); Temperature Engineering uncontrolled terms: Surface states; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots

XPS study of some selected selenium compounds


Shenasa, M., Sainkar, S., Lichtman, D. Department of Physics, Laboratory for Surface Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, United States

Abstract

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the Se 3d peak for Se in Se, SeO2, As2Se3, ZnSe, CdSe, CoSe, FeSe, CrSe, VSe2 and TiSe were studied. It was found that, firstly, in the case of As2Se3, ZnSe, CdSe, CoSe and CrSe, as the change in electronegativity of the anion increases, the change in the binding energy value of the Se 3d peak also increases and, secondly, in all of the Se compounds studied, the Se-Se bond in pure Se is stronger than the Se-x bond, where x = As, Zn, Cd, Co, Fe, Cr, V and Ti. 198

Nanometer fabrication techniques for widegap II-VI semiconductors and their optical characterization
Torres, CM.S., Smart, A.P., Watt, M., Foad, M.A., Tsutsui, K., Wilkinson, C.D.W. Nanoelectronics Research CentreDepartment of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT, United Kingdom

Abstract
We have fabricated dots and wires down to 30 nm diameter and 60 nm width in ZnTe/GaAs and ZnSe/GaAs. The fabrication process relies on electron beam lithography and dry etching using a mixture of CH4/H2. We have extensively characterized the flat etched surfaces of both ZnTe and ZnSe using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman scattering, and luminescence spectroscopy. Flat etched samples were also annealed. We found that improvements in the emission spectrum were related probably to defect removal in the asgrown samples and had a secondary impact in the etched and annealed samples. From XPS data, some evidence is found of zinc desorption from the surface, which is later corroborated by Raman scattering in etched wires with the appearance of tellurium modes. The luminescence spectra of flat etched samples show no major changes in the spectral lines, with a hint of a change in relative concentration in donors and acceptors and evidence of ZnTe/GaAs intermixing closer to the interface. No line broadening is observed and the emission intensity is retained. The emission and Raman scattering spectra of etched wires and dots confirms that negligible fabrication damage is incurred as well as the absence of further strain or strain release after etching. 1994 The Mineral,Metal & Materials Society,Inc.

DEPOSITION OF ZINC SELENIDE THIN FILMS BY SOLUTION GROWTH TECHNIQUE.


Pramanik, P., Biswas, S. Indian Inst of Technology, Dep of, Chemistry, Kharagpur, India, Indian Inst of Technology, Dep of Chemistry, Kharagpur, India

Abstract
Various well-known processes for the formation of zinc selenide thin films have been cited in the literature. However, the chemical deposition method for the formation of ZnSe thin films has not yet been reported. This communication describes the authors' successful attempt for the deposition of ZnSe thin films by solution growth technique.

Reaxys Database Information

Optical transitions in CdSe quantum dots: From discrete levels to broad gain spectra
Woggon, U.a, Wind, O.a, Gindele, F.a, Tsitsishvili, E.b, Mller, M.c
a

Institut fr Angewandte Physik, Universitt Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, Postfach 6980, 76128, Karlsruhe, Germany b Institute of Cybernetics, Academy of Sciences, Tblissi, Georgia View references (30)

Abstract
The optical transition energies have been determined for the lowest electron-hole pair states of CdSe quantum dots embedded in glass. The data obtained by photoluminescence, differential absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy have been compared and a general size dependence could be established. Based on theoretical calculations, the dominant features in the spectra have been assigned to the different transitions from the ground state to the one-pair states. Within the lowest one pair transition, a fine structure due to exchange interaction has been observed. The change in the optical properties with increasing intensity has been studied and the two-pair states identified in luminescence. Spectrally broad optical gain has been found due to stimulated transitions involving both oneand two-pair states.

Photophysical properties of ZnS nanoclusters


Kumbhojkar, N., Nikesh, V.V., Kshirsagar, A., Mahamuni, S. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India View references (30)

Abstract

Optical measurements on ZnS nanoclusters have been carried out to investigate surface effects along with quantum size effects. ZnS nanocrystals have been synthesized in the range of 1.5-2.5 nm, using different chemical methods as well as electronic passivating procedures. The size of nanoparticles has been estimated from empirical pseudopotential calculations. We have obtained a significantly narrower size distribution of ZnS nanocrystals than reported in earlier published results. We observed band gap luminescence in mercaptoethanol capped ZnS nanocrystals. Effects of various defect levels on the luminescent behavior of ZnS nanoparticles have been examined 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Preparation and optical properties of solgel derived ZnSe crystallites doped in glass films
Li, Guangming, Nogami, Masayuki Aichi Inst of Technology, Toyota, Japan

Abstract
Borosilicate glass films nominally containing up to 40 wt% ZnSe semiconductor crystallites were prepared on silica glass substrates by the sol-gel process. An heating the films at an elevated temperature from 500 to 750C in a hydrogen atmosphere, small ZnSe crystallites with an energy gap varying from 2.93 to 2.63 eV, and corresponding to an average size ranging from 2.8 to 9.5 nm in diameter, are formed via the Se particle phase formed at low temperature. A strong emission peak L which is attributed to the Se-vacancy defects of the crystallites was observed between 540 and 630 nm as the energy gap decreases from 2.93 to 2.63 eV. By increasing the temperature of the heat treatment, the intensity of emission peak L is strengthened and the width becomes narrow. The redshift of emission peak with respect to the energy gap, is independent of particle size remaining at around .65 eV. This indicates that the defect energy level also possesses the same dependence on particle size as the energy gap of ZnSe crystallites.

I Impact of shell thickness on exciton and biexciton binding energies of a ZnSe/ZnS coreshell quantum dot
Sen, P.a , Chattopadhyay, S.a, Andrews, J.T.b, Sen, P.K.b

Laser Bhawan, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452017, India Department of Applied Physics, Shri G S Institute of Technology and Science, Indore 452003, India
b

View references (27)

Abstract
Impact of shell structure on the exciton and biexciton binding energies has been studied in a ZnSe/ZnS coreshell quantum dot using WentzelKramersBrillouin (WKB) approximation. For excitons, the binding is caused by the Coulombic as well as the confinement potentials while biexci5516856&linkType=MDLCompoundStructures&origin=recordpage&dig=ab9317409c 0d84965cbc7903fda6756a">|

Theoretical investigation of the effect of asymmetry on optical anisotropy and electronic structure of Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots
Kumar, J., Kapoor, S., Gupta, S.K., Sen, P.K. Department of Applied Physics, Shri G. S. Institute of Technology and Science, 23 Park Road, Indore-452003, India View references (50)

Abstract
The effect of size and shape anisotropy on the optical properties of Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots (QDs) is theoretically investigated. The QD is modeled using anisotropic parabolic confinement potential. The complex structure of the valence band is described by Luttinger Hamiltonian. The energy spectra and eigenfunctions of hole states are calculated by numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The dipole matrix elements are obtained for the interband transitions and hence the degree of linear polarization is calculated. The formulation is applied to self-assembled CdSe quantum dots for numerical analysis. The variation of energy eigenvalues with the QD shape anisotropy parameter is studied and the effect of valence subband mixing is clearly identified. The crossings and anticrossings of the valence subbands have been explained in terms of the symmetries of the corresponding eigenstates. It is worthy to note that these symmetry properties of the energy states are responsible for the specific types of dipole selection rules for the anisotropic QDs. The degree of linear polarization is found to increase almost linearly with anisotropy parameter for the transitions from heavy-hole ground states. On the contrary, for the excited hole states,

the change is nonmonotonic due to strong anisotropy-dependent mixing effects. 2006 The American Physical Society.

CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot structures: Structural and optical investigations


Hommel, D.a, Leonardi, K.a, Heinke, H.a, Selke, H.b, Ohkawa, K.a, Gindele, F.c, Woggon, U.c
a b c

Inst. fr Festkrperphysik, Universitt Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany Inst. Werkstoffphysik S., Universitt Bremen, D-28359 Bremen, Germany Institut fr Angewandte Physik, Universitt Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany

View references (11)

Abstract
Using migration enhanced epitaxy the self-organized formation of CdSe islands on ZnSe in open and overgrown structures has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, highresolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and excitation spectroscopy. The transition from homogeneous CdSe quantum wells with flat interfaces to fluctuating CdSe films could be observed when exceeding the critical thickness. These interrupted layers contain CdSe quantum dots embedded in CdlxZnxSe with a concentration gradient. Islands observed on open structures are unstable in time. Their chemical nature is still unclear due to the fact that similar features are obtained on pure ZnSe. First results on other highly lattice mismatched II-VI systems like CdTe/ZnSe and ZnTe/ZnSe will be presented.

Investigation on characteristics of solar cells made of MOPPV/ZnSe quantum dots composite system
Qu, J.-R. , Zheng, J.-B. , Wang, C.-F., Wu, G.-R., Hao, J. Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China View references (24)

Abstract
Based on some special physical properties of solar cells prepared from quantum dots polymeric materials, which have high photoelectric conversion performance, we use MOPPV solution for obtaining controllable grain sizes, good crystallinity, with a particle size of about

3.75 nm ZnSe quantum dot polymer composite materials, and different quality ratios of the composites. We also use XRD, TEM, UV-vis absorption spectra to study the characterizstics of the materials. The result shows that MOPPV and ZnSe quantum dots have effectively combined together and photoinduced charge transfer. Through the study of MOPPV, ZnSe, and MOPPV/ZnSe composite materal solar cell performance, we found that the composites exhibit an increasing trend compared with MOPPV, ZnSe monomer material photovoltaic characteristics, and the photoelectric properties of the composites showed an increase at first and then reduced with increasing quality of ZnSe quantum dots; when the ratio of MOPPV and the quality of the ZnSe is 1:1, its conversion efficiency reaches a maximum, The Voc, Isc, FF and conversion efficiency of solar cells were 0.516 V, 2.018 mA, 25.53%, and 0.167%. 2013 Chinese Physical Society.

Highly photoluminescent ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots


Nikesh, V.V., Mahamuni, S. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India View references (27)

Abstract
ZnSe quantum dots have been synthesized using a simple aqueous route. Coating ZnSe quantum dots with a ZnS monolayer, yields a remarkable enhancement in the PL quantum efficiency at room temperature without affecting the spectral distribution. The results suggest that passivation of surface states, along with an increased localization of the hole in core ZnSe layer, gives rise to high luminescence quantum yield.

Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe
Danek, M.ac, Jensen, K.F.b, Murray, C.B.ad, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Departments of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 021394307, United States b Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, United States c Applied Materials, 3100 Biowers Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 94054, United States

IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, United States View additional affiliations View references (33)

Abstract
Electronic and chemical passivation of CdSe nanocrystals (quantum dots) has been achieved with a thin. ZnSe overlayer grown in solution from trioctylphosphine selenide and diethylzinc. Layered particles with a [ZnSe/CdSe] ratio ranging from 0 to 5.0 were prepared and characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray scattering. The overgrown particles were crystalline and displayed band-edge absorption and emission characteristic of the initial CdSe nuclei. Thin-film quantum, dot composites incorporating bare and overcoated CdSe nanocrystals in a ZnSe matrix were synthesized by electrospray organometallic chemical vapor deposition (ES-OMCVD). The photoluminescence spectra of the composites with bare CdSe dots were dominated by broad deep-level emission and the photoluminescence yield deteriorated with increasing deposition temperature. In contrast, the composites incorporating the overcoated dots showed sharp band-edge emission. The presence of a preformed ZnSe layer resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the band-edge photoluminescence yield (by 2 orders of magnitude). The photoluminescence properties of composites with the passivated dots were insensitive to deposition temperature over the range studied.

Dihexadecyl phosphate, vesicle-stabilized and in situ generated mixed CdS and ZnS semiconductor particles. Preparation and utilization for photosensitized charge separation and hydrogen generation
Youn, Hyeong-Chan, Baral, Subhash, Fendler, Janos H. Syracuse Univ, United States

Abstract
Semiconductor particles, comprised of either homogeneous mixed crystals of ZnxCd1-xS or crystals of CdS coated on the surface with ZnS, were in situ generated in and stabilized by dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles. Introduction of H2S into solutions which contained Cd2+- and Zn2+-coated DHP vesicles, at pH values higher than 9, resulted in the formation of colloidal mixed crystals of ZnxCd1-xS. Surfactant vesicles were found to regulate the composition and band gap of the ZnxCd1-xS particles produced. Addition of Zn2+ to a DHP-

stabilized CdS solution followed by the introduction of H2S led to the formation of ZnScoated CdS particles.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium Compounds - Mixing; Crystals - Mixing; Hydrogen - Production; Water - Reduction; Zinc Compounds - Mixing Engineering uncontrolled terms: Benzyl Alcohol; Dihexadecyl Phosphate; Semiconductor Particles; Vesicles Engineering main heading: Semiconductor Materials

CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: Synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites
Dabbousi, B.O.a, Rodriguez-Viejo, J.b, Mikulec, F.V.a, Heine, J.R.c, Mattoussi, H.c, Ober, R.d, Jensen, K.F.bc, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States d Lab. de Phys. de la Matiere Cond., Collge de France, 11 Place Marcellin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France View additional affiliations View references (44)

Abstract
We report a synthesis of highly luminescent (CdSe)ZnS composite quantum dots with CdSe cores ranging in diameter from 23 to 55 . The narrow photoluminescence (fwhm 40 nm) from these composite dots spans most of the visible spectrum from blue through red with quantum yields of 30-50% at room temperature. We characterize these materials using a range of optical and structural techniques. Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies probe the effect of ZnS passivation on the electronic structure of the dots. We use a combination of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, small and wide angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy to analyze the composite dots and determine their chemical composition, average size, size distribution, shape, and internal structure. Using a simple effective mass theory, we model the energy shift for the first excited state for (CdSe)ZnS and (CdSe)-CdS dots with varying shell

thickness. Finally, we characterize the growth of ZnS on CdSe cores as locally epitaxial and determine how the structure of the ZnS shell influences the photoluminescence properties.

Synthesis and optical properties of water soluble ZnSe nanocrystals ( Conference Paper )
Murase, N.ab, Gao, M.Y.a, Gaponik, N.ac, Yazawa, T.b, Feldmann, J.a
a

Physics Department, CeNS, University of Munich, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799, Munich, Germany b Department of Optical Materials, Osaka National Research Institute, Ikeda-city, Osaka-5638577, Japan c Physico-Chemical Research Institute, Belarusian State University, 220050 Minsk, Belarus View references (14)

Abstract
ZnSe nanocrystals are prepared in water by a wet chemistry method. By selecting an appropriate pH value and surface-capping agents, a whitish blue fluorescence peaking at 470 nm is observed under UV irradiation. The intensity of this fluorescence increases dramatically under reflux and saturates after 40 hrs. The final mean size of the ZnSe nanocrystals measured by transmission electron microscopy is about 2 nm in diameter. The quantum efficiency of the fluorescence from the final solution is estimated to be 1%, although the preparation conditions have not yet been completely optimized. These properties are discussed in comparison with those of similarly prepared CdTe and differently prepared ZnSe nanocrystals.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; selenium derivative; water; zinc derivative EMTREE medical terms: chemical analysis; conference paper; crystal structure; fluorescence; nanoparticle; nanotechnology; optics; pH; process optimization; quantum chemistry; solubility; surface property; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; ultraviolet radiation

Optical absorption properties of ZnSe/SiO2 nanocomposites


Hao, H., Yao, X., Wan, X., Wang, M., Wu, X. Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China

View references (11)

Abstract
ZnSe/SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel method and in-situ growth technique. The produced nanocomposites were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrometry (UVvis) absorption spectrum and Z-Scan technique. Compared to the ZnSe bulk materials, the absorption edge shifts to shorter wavelength in UV-vis spectrum of the nanocomposites. The shifts are closely related with the sizes of ZnSe nanocrystals. In term of the quantum size effect the average sizes of ZnSe nanocrystals were estimated about 3-4 nm. The two-photons absorption coefficients of nanocomposites with 0.01 and 0.03 molar fraction of ZnSe were obtained by Z-Scan system. Besides, the relation between the incidence laser intensity and the reflect laser intensity was investigated. The result shows itself optical limit properties. Of the samples of 0.01 molar fraction of ZnSe concerned, when the limitation threshold of input laser intensity is 5962 GW/m2, the clamping output intensity is 4800 GW/m2, the output intensity keeps stable as the input intensity increases even more. The limit damage threshold of intensity is 12400 GW/m2.

Author keywords
Optical absorption; Optical limitation; ZnSe/SiO2 composites

High refractive index inorganic-organic hybrid materials for photonic applications ( Conference Paper )
Declerck, P.a, Houbertz, R.a, Jakopic, G.b, Passinger, S.c, Chichkov, B.c
a

Hybridpolymere (ORMOCER) fr Mikrosysteme, Fraunhofer Institut Silicatforschung, Neunerplatz 2, Wrzburg, 97082, Germany b Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH., Weiz, 8160, Austria c Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, 30419, Germany View references (26)

Abstract
High refractive index materials are attractive for many photonic elements. For example, 3D photonic bandgap (PBG) materials have been proposed as the basis of many devices. In order to create complete 3D PBGs, materials enabling high refractive index contrast are needed. We here report on novel high refractive index hybrid polymers. They were synthesized by hydrolysis/polycondensation reactions of organo-alkoxysilanes and Ti alkoxide precursors, resulting in organically modified inorganic-oxidic pre-polymer resins. These can be organically cross-linked by one- or two-photon polymerization (2PP). The latter method enables the writing of arbitrary 3D structures. The introduction of Ti into the inorganic-oxidic

network accounts for an increase in the material's refractive index, which could be varied between 1.62 and 1.8. Optical properties such as refractive index and absorption losses were determined on an exemplary material system in the lower refractive index range. The influence of the processing parameters on the degree of organic polymerization, and the refractive index of these novel high index materials was investigated in particular. 3D photonic crystal structures were written for the first time in a high-refractive index hybrid polymer. 2007 Materials Research Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption; Chemical reactions; Light refraction; Materials science; Monomers; Multiphoton processes; Optical properties; Photonic crystals; Photonics; Photoresists; Polymerization; Polymers; Reconnaissance aircraft; Refractive index; Refractometers; Resins; Semiconducting cadmium telluride Engineering uncontrolled terms: 3-D structures; 3D photonic crystals; Absorption losses; Alkoxide precursors; Alkoxy silanes; High refractive index; High refractive index contrast; High-index materials; High-refractive-index materials; Hybrid polymers; Index range; Inorganic-organic hybrid materials; Material systems; Materials Research Society; Organic/inorganic hybrid materials; Photonic applications; Photonic elements; Photonic-band gap materials; Pre polymers; Processing parameters; Two-photon polymerization Engineering main heading: Hybrid materials ISSN: 02729172 ISBN: 978-155899967-1 CODEN: MRSPDSource Type: Conference Proceeding Original language: English Document Type: Conference Paper

Preparation and nonlinear characterization of zinc selenide nanoparticles embedded in polymer matrix
Sharma, M., Tripathi, S.K. Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India View references (38)

Abstract
Nanocomposites of ZnSe nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix have been prepared by in-situ synthesis. ZnSe/PVA nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray

diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV/Vis spectra. The nanocomposite structure is confirmed by the blue-shift of the absorption edge. The nonlinear refractive index and two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient are measured by the Z-scan technique using low power CW He-Ne laser light. The results show that the ZnSe nanocomposite films show large optical nonlinearity and the magnitude of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (3) is calculated to be 2.6213 11 m 2/V 2. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
A. Polymer; B. Chemical synthesis; C. X-ray diffraction; D. Optical properties

Indexed keywords
Absorption edges; Blue shift; Chemical synthesis; He-Ne lasers; In-situ synthesis; Large optical nonlinearities; Low Power; Nano-composite structure; Nonlinear characterization; Nonlinear refractive index; Polyvinyl alcohol (pva); Third-order nonlinear susceptibility; Transmission electron microscopy tem; Two-photon absorptions; UV/Vis spectra; Z-scan technique; Zinc selenide; ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Nanocomposites; Nanoparticles; Nonlinear optics; Refractive index; Transmission electron microscopy; Two photon processes; X ray diffraction Engineering main heading: Synthesis (chemical)

Close-spaced evaporated ZnSe films: Preparation and characterization


Subbaiah, Y.P.V. , Prathap, P., Devika, M., Reddy, K.T.R. Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, India View references (29)

Abstract
ZnSe films have been deposited by a simple technique, close-spaced evaporation. The layers were grown on glass substrates maintained at different temperatures that vary in the range of 200-400 C. The physical characteristics of the films such as chemical stoichiometry, structural properties and energy band gap of the films were investigated using energydispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and optical spectrophotometry, respectively. The influence of substrate temperature on the different parameters was studied and discussed. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Reaxys Database Information

Author keywords
Close-spaced evaporation; Optical properties; Structural properties; ZnSe films

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Energy dispersive spectroscopy; Evaporation; Glass transition; Optical properties; Physical properties; Selenium; Spectrophotometry; Stoichiometry; Temperature distribution; Thin films; X ray diffraction analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Closed-spaced evaporation; Energy band gap; environmental safety; ZnSe films Engineering main heading: Zinc compounds ISSN: 09214526 CODEN: PHYBESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.physb.2005.05.020Document Type: Article

Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: Deposition and characterisation


Lokhande, C.D. , Patil, P.S., Ennaoui, A., Tributsch, H. Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin, Germany View references (7)

Abstract
The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The asdeposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC). 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Author keywords

Chemical bath deposition; Film characterisation; Thin films; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Amorphous films; Deposition; Energy gap; Nitrogen; Oxygen; Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy; Scanning electron microscopy; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Thin films; Transmission electron microscopy; Urea; X ray diffraction analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Chemical bath deposition; Energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy (EDAX); Selenourea Engineering main heading: Semiconducting films ISSN: 01694332 CODEN: ASUSESource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Photochemical deposition of ZnSe polycrystalline thin films and their characterization


Kumaresan, R., Ichimura, M., Arai, E. Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng., Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showaku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan View references (11)

Abstract
ZnSe thin films were deposited for the first time by an alternative, recently established novel technique, namely 'photochemical deposition', from an aqueous solution. The various deposition parameters and post-deposition treatment conditions were optimized for the growth of stoichiometric, uniform ZnSe thin films on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrate. The as-deposited films were annealed at 300 and 400 C and both the as-grown and annealed films were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) etc. The XRD study confirmed the formation of cubic ZnSe upon annealing at 300 C. The optical phonon peak corresponding to crystalline ZnSe was clearly observed in the Raman spectrum, which additionally confirmed the deposition of ZnSe compound semiconductor. AES analysis indicated that, the prepared ZnSe films exhibit stoichiometric composition. 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords

Photochemical deposition; Semiconductors; Zinc selenide

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Annealing; Auger electron spectroscopy; Deposition; Film growth; Polycrystalline materials; Raman spectroscopy; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Stoichiometry; X ray diffraction analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Photochemical deposition Engineering main heading: Thin films ISSN: 00406090 CODEN: THSFASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/S0040-6090(02)00450-9Document Type: Article View in table layout

References (11)

zinc selenide films and heterojunctions


Chu, T.L., Chu, S.S., Chen, G., Britt, J., Ferekides, C., Wu, C.Q. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5350, United States

Abstract
Polycrystalline films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) have been deposited on glass and ZnO:F/glass substrates at 400-500C by the reaction of diethylzinc (DEZn) and diethylselenium (DESe) in a hydrogen atmosphere. The DESe/DEZn molar ratio in the reaction mixture is an important factor affecting the deposition rate and dopant incorporation in deposited films. The deposited films have high lateral electrical resistivity and poor photoconductivity. The resistivity can be reduced and photoconductivity significantly improved by the incorporation of a group VI (Cl or Br) or a group III (Al) dopant, and the use of trimethylaluminum (TMAl) as a dopant is considerably more effective than the use of Cl or Br compounds. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnSe films have been characterized. The use of ZnSe films as a heterojunction partner in II-VI thin-film solar cells has been explored. Zinc telluride and cadmium telluride films were deposited on ZnSe/ZnO:F/glass substrates, and the characteristics of ZnSe/ZnTe and ZnSe/CdTe junctions studied.

Structure, optical and electrical properties of ZnSe thin films


Venkatachalam, S.a, Mangalaraj, D.ab , Narayandass, Sa.K.a, Kim, K.b, Yi, J.b

Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Maruthamalai Road, Coimbatore-641046, India b School of Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea View references (23)

Abstract
ZnSe thin films were prepared by the vacuum evaporation technique. The influence of substrate temperature on compositional, structural, optical and electrical properties of polycrystalline ZnSe films was investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical transmission and DC conduction studies. The composition analysis shows the nearly stoichiometric nature of the deposited film. The X-ray diffractograms reveals the cubic structure of the film oriented along the (1 1 1) direction. The structural parameters such as particle size [28.4150.24 nm], strain [1.381-0.78510-3 lin-2 m-4] and dislocation density [1.285-0.4121015 lin m-2] were evaluated. Optical transmittance measurements indicate the existence of direct allowed optical transition with a corresponding energy gap in the range of 2.72-2.60 eV. In the DC conduction studies the conduction mechanism is found to be exponential trap distribution and the results are discussed. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Optical and I-V; RBS; SEM; Structural; Vacuum evaporation; ZnSe thin films

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Electric currents; Energy gap; Negative ions; Optical properties; Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy; Scanning electron microscopy; Solar cells; Stoichiometry; Structural analysis; Vacuum applications; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Deposited films; Lattice planes; Sandwitch structure; Vacuum evaporations Engineering main heading: Thin films

Electrical properties of ZnTe-ZnSe heterostructures


Bochkaryova, L.V., Simashkevich, A.V. V.I. Lenin State University, Kishinev, Russian Federation

Abstract

ZnTe-ZnSe heterostructures obtained by vacuum epitaxy under various thermal conditions have been studied. The results of structural investigations and also the dependences of the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics on the layer growth conditions are described. The electrical properties of heterojunctions obtained at substrate temperatures of 300-500C, i.e. when the ZnTe or ZnSe formed single-crystal films, have been investigated. It is shown that in forward biased heterojunctions the current flow may be described by the tunnel-recombination mechanism of Riben and Feucht. The soft breakdown observed in reverse biased heterojunctions is caused by impact ionization. The capacitance measurements indicate that the effective number of charged interface states is approximately 1012-1013 cm-2. The band diagram of the ZnTe-ZnSe heterojunction is proposed. 1974.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: FILMS - Electric Properties; ZINC COMPOUNDS - Thin Films Engineering uncontrolled terms: HETEROSTRUCTURES; ZINC SELENIDE; ZINC TELLURIDE Engineering main heading: SOLID STATE DEVICES, THIN FILM

Novel two-stage selenization process for the preparation of ZnSe films


Lakshmikumar, S.T., Rastogi, A.C. National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S., Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012, India

Abstract
The preparation of homogeneous single-phase ZnSe films using a two-stage selenization process is demonstrated. Vacuum-evaporated zinc precursor films (stage 1) are selenized in a specially designed reactor, using elemental selenium vapour as the reactant (stage 2). The ZnSe films are polycrystalline with a cubic structure, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The films are optically transparent and have an optical band gap of 2.65 0.05 eV, confirming the formation of the wide band gap semiconductor. The ZnSe films have very small crystallites (size <0.3 m) and their morphology is determined by that of the deposited zinc film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the films shows a chemical shift of 0.9-1.0 eV for selenium (3d), which suggests a transfer of electronic charge to selenium. This and the observed Auger parameter of 2011.1 eV for Zn (2p3 2) confirm the formation of ZnSe. The absence of multiple phases is ascertained by the sharpness of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks. 1995.

Author keywords
Selenides; Solar cells; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Charge transfer; Chemical reactors; Crystal structure; Doping (additives); Evaporation; Morphology; Polycrystalline materials; Selenium; Solar cells; X ray diffraction; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Auger parameter; Chemical shift; Elemental selenium vapor; Optical band gap; Two stage selenization process; Vacuum evaporated zinc precursor film; Wide band gap semiconductor; Zinc selenide film Engineering main heading: Metallic films

Preparation and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol-selenide nanocomposites at room temperature


Ma, X.-D., Qian, X.-F., Yin, J., Zhu, Z.-K. Res. Institute of Polymer Materials, Sch. of Chem. and Chemical Technol., Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China View references (32)

Abstract
A series of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-selenide nanocomposites, including PVA-Ag2Se, PVACu2 - xSe, PVA-ZnSe and PVA-PbSe, were successfully prepared at room temperature and ambient pressure via a simple one-step solution growth technique. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to characterize the final products. The TEM results showed that the Ag2Se particles were well dispersed in the polymer matrix and uniform in shape, while those of Cu2 - xSe, ZnSe and PbSe showed a certain level of aggregation. A possible mechanism for the growth of selenide nanocrystals is discussed.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: polyvinyl alcohol; selenide EMTREE medical terms: ambient air; analytic method; article; dispersion; nanoparticle; polymerization; room temperature; semiconductor; transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction ISSN: 09599428 CODEN: JMACESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1039/b107173bDocument Type: Article

Preparation and photoluminescence of water-dispersible ZnSe nanocrystals


Murase, N.a , Gao, M.b
a

Natl. Inst. Adv. Indust. Sci./T., Ikeda-City, Osaka 563-8577, Japan Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bei Yi Jie 2, Zhong Guan Cun, 100080 Beijing, China
b

View references (26)

Abstract
Water-dispersible ZnSe nanocrystals (2-3 nm in diameter) producing phololuminescence (PL) in a blue region were prepared using several thiol-stabilizers. Thioglycerol (TG) gives the most intense PL having a shoulder at 387 nm and a maximum at 475 nm. The former was assigned to the excitonic emission, whereas the latter was assigned to a defect emission. Reflux increases the PL intensity, but did not change its peak wavelength significantly. TG plays an essential role in stabilizing the ZnSe colloidal solution, but it also creates defect emission. Therefore, the less the amount of surfactant, the more the PL intensity becomes in a range where the solution is not precipitated. The attachment and removal of TG on the surface of nanocrystals only occur at refluxing temperature (100C). On the other hand, removal of hydroxyl ions from the surface occurs at room temperature when pH is reduced. The -potential and PL intensity are correlated strongly with the pH of the colloidal solution. This indicates hydroxyl ions passivate the surface significantly. Under optimized conditions of TG ratio and reflux time, the ZnSe nanocrystals in water produced whitish-blue emissions with an efficiency of 10% relative to rhodamine 6G. The nanocrystals in water are stable for months in a refrigerator. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Excitonic emission; Photoluminescence; ZnSe nanocrystals

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Dispersions; Ions; Optimization; Photoluminescence; Precipitation (chemical); Solutions; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Emission peaks; Excitonic emission; Particle quality; Vacancies Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials

Synthesis and characterization of wurtzite ZnSe one-dimensional nanocrystals through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method
Chen, M., Gao, L. State Key Lab. High Perf. C., Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China View references (23)

Abstract
Wurtzite ZnSe 1D nanowires with 10-100 nm in diameter and up to several micrometers in length were successfully synthesized through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method at 220 C for 15 h, where hydrazine served as not only reduction agent but also complexing agent and molecular template. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC, TEM (SAED), UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. In-depth investigation indicated that the as-prepared 1D nanocrystals had [0 0 1] preferential orientation and showed a room-temperature photoluminescent property. The possible growth mechanism was also proposed. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
1D Nanocrystal; Nanowires; Solvothermal; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Anisotropy; Characterization; Crystallography; Decomposition; Electroluminescence; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Micrometers; Molecular beam epitaxy; Morphology; Photoluminescence; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: 1D nanocrystals; Nanodevices; Nanowires; Solvothermal method; ZnSe Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials ISSN: 02540584 CODEN: MCHPDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2004.12.005Document Type: Article

Synthesis and characterization of ZnSe hollow nanospheres via a hydrothermal route


Jiang, C., Zhang, W., Zou, G., Yu, W., Qian, Y. Structure Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China View references (29)

Abstract
ZnSe hollow nanospheres have been hydrothermally synthesized at 140C for 24 h starting from the precursor ZnCl 2(N 2H 4) 2 and Na 2SeO 3 by using hydrazine hydrate (N 2H 4H 2O) as the reducing agent. The sample was characterized by XRD, ICP-AES, FE-SEM, and TEM. The BET surface area of the obtained ZnSe hollow nanospheres is 77.13 m 2 g -1. Both the transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal optic (LO) phonon peaks in Raman spectra of the ZnSe product showed a obvious shift to lower frequency compared to bulk values; a blueshift (10 nm) was observed in PL spectra. It appears that the hollow spheres might be formed by a soft-template of gas bubbles of N 2 produced during the reaction. 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Frequencies; Hydrates; Hydrazine; Phonons; Raman scattering; Scanning electron microscopy; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Longitudinal optics (LO); Nanospheres; Reducing agents; Surface are

Preparation and photoluminescence of single-crystal zinc selenide nanowires


Zhu, Y.-C. , Bando, Y. Advanced Materials Laboratory, Natl. Inst. for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan View references (31)

Abstract

Single-crystal ZnSe nanowires have been synthesized via a thermochemical method in a N 2 atmosphere with CO and H 2 gases. The as-prepared ZnSe nanowires have a mean diameter of 40 nm and a length of 1 m. The nanowires are single crystals with a hexagonal structure growing along the [001] direction. A self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid process is proposed for the formation of such nanowires. The as-prepared nanowires show two emission bands at ca. 447 and 617 nm. 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Reaxys Database Information


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Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: nitrogen; unclassified drug; zinc derivative; zinc selenide EMTREE medical terms: article; atmosphere; chemical modification; chemical structure; crystal; liquid; photoluminescence; solid; synthesis; thermal analysis; vapor

Size-selected zinc sulfide nanocrystallites: Synthesis, structure, and optical studies


Nanda, J.a, Sapra, S.a, Sarma, D.D.a , Chandrasekharan, N.b, Hodes, G.b
a

Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India b Department of Materials and Interfaces, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel

Abstract
We report the synthesis of three sizes of thioglycerol-capped precipitated ZnS nanocrystallites with relatively narrow size distributions, having average sizes of 1.8, 2.5, and 3.5 nm, respectively. These crystallites were extracted as free-standing powders which remain stable under normal atmospheric conditions and can be redispersed in suitable solvents. The nanocrystallite powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction (ED), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), and UV - vis optical absorption. The synthesized nanocrystallites show typical lattice spacings corresponding to the cubic phase of ZnS, as confirmed from HRTEM, ED, and XRD. The lattice-resolved structures within a single nanocrystallite show characteristic defects such as twinning and dislocations. We present a comparative analysis of the size of nanocrystallites obtained from X-ray diffraction and TEM. The position of the excitonic transitions as seen in the optical absorption spectrum of the nanocrystallites was compared with the predictions of various models that correlate the size versus band gap of these nanocrystallites.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: zinc sulfide EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal; crystal structure; electron diffraction; particle size; reaction analysis; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; ultraviolet spectroscopy; X ray diffraction

Quantum confinement effects in chemically grown, stable ZnSe nanoclusters


Kumbhojkar, N.a, Mahamuni, S.a, Leppert, V.b, Risbud, S.H.b
a

Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Chem. Eng., University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States
b

View references (25)

Abstract
Stable ZnSe quantum dots have been prepared by a wet chemical route. Sodium Hexameta Phosphate, an inorganic polymer, is used to encapsulate the ZnSe quantum dots and to enhance the stability of quantum dots. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic analysis confirms the high purity of ZnSe clusters. The optical absorption spectra exhibit a blue shift of about 0.6 eV, suggesting the existence of quantum size effects. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements show a strong feature which originates from the radiative recombination of the quantum confined electron-hole pairs. 1998 Acta Metallurgica Inc.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Crystal growth; Electrons; Emission spectroscopy; Inorganic polymers; Nanostructured materials; Photoluminescence; Quantum theory; Semiconductor quantum dots; Stability; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Quantum confinement effects; Sodium hexameta phosphate; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Semiconducting zinc compounds

Higher excited electronic states in clusters of ZnSe, CdSe, and ZnS: Spin-orbit, vibronic, and relaxation phenomena

Chestnoy, N.ab, Hull, R.ac, Brus, L.E.a


a b c

AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, United States Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA 94304, United States

Abstract
Metal selenide clusters have been made and characterized, using the arrested precipitation colloidal technique. A comparison of sulfide and selenide spectra enables observation of the effect of changes in the highest occupied molecular orbitals upon cluster electronic properties. The first and second excited electronic states are both observed as a function of size in ZnSe clusters. The systematic dependence of the spectra lead to assignment of the higher state to a 1S-type hole based upon the split-off valence band. It is shown that the energy spectrum of discrete hole states is controlled by the spin-orbit energy and the isotropic hole mass in small, highly symmetrical clusters. This result contrasts with the heavy hole and light hole states observed for planar confinement. In 20 diameter ZnS clusters, there is a strong vibronic temperature dependence in the excited state spectra, while in clusters of smaller gap materials such vibronic effects are very minor. We conjecture that lifetime broadening is severe in clusters of small gap materials. 1986 American Institute of Physics.

Fabrication of ZnSe quantum dots under Volmer-Weber mode by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
Harris Liao, M.C.a, Chang, Y.H.a , Chen, Y.F.a, Hsu, J.W.a, Lin, J.M.b, Chou, W.C.b
a b

Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan

View references (18)

Abstract
The possibility of fabricating quantum dots under Volmer-Weber growth mode is investigated. Layers of ZnSe/ZnS were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on both Si and GaAs substrates. The images of surface morphology, taken by atomic force microscopy, showed that the layers were grown in three-dimensional islands. Blueshift was observed in the photoluminescence spectra up to room temperature for these samples. This blueshift was shown to originate from the ZnSe islands. The effect of ZnSe growth duration was investigated. It was found that the blueshift increased with shorter ZnSe growth durations, but this near band gap emission disappeared when the ZnSe growth duration was longer than 5 s. Effects of quantum confinement and strain were considered to resolve the origin of the blueshift. Our result suggests that carrier confinement plays a dominant role. 1997 American Institute of Physics.

ISSN: 00036951 CODEN: APPLASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence of ZnSe/ZnS quantumdot structures


Wu, Y.-H.a, Arai, K.a, Yao, T.bc
a

Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan c Jt. Res. Center for Atom Technology, Natl. Inst. for Interdisc. Adv. Res., Higashi, Tsukuba 305, Japan
b

View references (32)

Abstract
Following the previous work on formation of quantum-dot structures in ultrathin ZnSe/ZnS quantum wells, we investigate the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra in a temperature range from 20 to 100 K. The quantum-dot structure exhibits an intense but broadened photoluminescence line at low temperature. However, the emission quenches rapidly when temperature rises to around 60 K, suggesting the existence of defect-related states either in the ZnSe well layer or in the vicinity of ZnSe/ZnS interfaces. It was found that the thermal activation energy that characterizes the quench process is strongly dependent on the energy position inside the broadened emission lines, which is interpreted as originating from the different extent of lateral quantum confinement of each individual quantum dot. ISSN: 01631829 CODEN: PRBMDSource Type: Journal Original language: English

Fabrication of ZnS/(ZnSe)n/ZnS single quantum well structures and photoluminescence properties


Yao, T.ab, Fujimoto, M.c, Chang, S.K.c, Tanino, H.c
a

Department of Electrical Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 724, Japan b Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, 305, Japan c Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, 305, Japan

Abstract
ZnS/ZnSe single quantum well structures are fabricated for the first time by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and atomic layer epitaxy. The quantum wells thicker than 3 monolayers (ML) emit a sharp excitonic emission with half width of 15-30 meV, while a broad emission (half width of around 100 meV) with low-energy tail is observed from quantum wells thinner than 2 ML. From the analysis of the dependence of emission energy on well width, it is concluded that the conduction band offset at the ZnSe/ZnS interface is very small (almost zero). It is suggested that the luminescence broadening in thin quantum wells is caused by fluctuations not only associated with the quantum confinement effect along the growth direction, but also with the lateral quantum confinement effect in "quantum slabs" formed on islands and valleys at the interface. 1991.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Molecular Beam Epitaxy; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting Zinc Compounds - Growth; Zinc Sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Atomic Layer Epitaxy; Quantum Well Structures Engineering main heading: Semiconductor Devices ISSN: 00220248 CODEN: JCRGASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

A solvothermal route to wurtzite ZnSe nanoparticles


Zhan, J.H., Yang, X.G., Zhang, W.X., Wang, D.W., Xie, Y., Qian, Y.T. Structure Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Univ. of Sci. and Technol. of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China View references (23)

Abstract
Zinc powder reacts with equivalent elemental selenium in solvent ethylenediamine at 120 C for 6 h to form a complex, which is converted to ZnSe nanoparticles by pyrolysis or protonization. X-ray diffraction results suggest that the as-formed products have wurtzite structure. Transmission electron microscopy observation show that particles with spherical and laminar morphology were produced by pyrolysis and protonization, respectively. The formation of ZnSe nanoparticles is also investigated by infrared and thermal analysis.

Indexed keywords

Engineering controlled terms: Morphology; Pyrolysis; Selenium; Solvents; Thermoanalysis; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc powder metallurgy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Solvothermal process Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials

Zinc selenide nanoribbons and nanowires ( Letter )


Jiang, Y.ab, Meng, X.-M.ac, Yiu, W.-C.a, Liu, J.a, Ding, J.-X.a, Lee, C.-S.a, Lee, S.-T.a
a

Ctr. of Super-Diamond and Adv. Films, Dept. of Physics and Mat. Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon SAR, Hong Kong b Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Eng., Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui, China c Tech. Inst. of Phys. and Chem., Chinese Academy of Sciences CAS, China View references (44)

Abstract
Zinc selenide nanoribbons and nanowires were obtained using laser ablation of ZnSe pressed powders. Their formation appeared to follow the vapor-solid and vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanisms, respectively. The product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman scattering, and energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The ZnSe nanoribbons had a perfect wurtzite-2H singlecrystal structure with a [120] growth direction and the {001} close-packed lattice planes of hexagonal ZnSe stacking along the nanoribbon width axis. The ZnSe nanowires grew with the {001} close-packed lattice planes of the wurtzite-2H structure stacking along the nanowire length axis. Both the longitudinal optic (LO) and transverse optic (TO) phonon peaks of the ZnSe nanowires and nanoribbons showed a clear shift toward low frequency relative to bulk values, probably because of small size and large surface effects. The ZnSe nanostructures exhibited strong self-activated luminescence centered at 596 nm.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Crystal lattices; Energy dispersive spectroscopy; Laser ablation; Luminescence; Nanostructured materials; Phase composition; Raman scattering; Scanning electron microscopy; Transmission electron microscopy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Growth direction; Growth mechanisms; Surface effects; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Zinc compounds

Photoluminescence study of ZnSe single crystals grown by solid-phase recrystallization


Tourni, E.a, Morhain, C.a, Neu, G.a, Faurie, J.-P.a, Triboulet, R.b, Ndap, J.O.b
a

Centre de Recherche Sur l'Htro-Epitaxie et Ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Parc Sophia Antipolis, Rue Bernard Grgory, F-06560 Valbonne, France b Laboratoire de Physique des Solides de Bellevue, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LPSB/CNRS, 1 Place Aristide Briand, F-92195 Meudon, France View references (23)

Abstract
We investigate through low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and selective photoluminescence (SPL) spectroscopies, ZnSe single crystals grown by solid-phase recrystallization. The PL spectra are dominated by the so-called I1deep excitonic line, a neutral-acceptor bound-exciton line I1, the free-exciton emission FX, and the n=2 excited state of FX. We identify the main residual impurities. Donor-acceptor pair bands are hardly detected. A major characteristic of these samples is the quasiabsence of any Cu-related deep emission which generally plagues the PL spectra of bulk ZnSe. Consequently, I1deep is ascribed to an exciton bound to Zn-vacancies related acceptors. Our results indicate that these ZnSe samples are of high quality and that solid-phase recrystallization is a promising technique to prepare ZnSe epitaxial substrates. 1996 American Institute of Physics.

Reaxys Database Information

Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn2+


Suyver, J.F., Wuister, S.F., Kelly, J.J., Meijerink, A. Debye Institute, Phys./Chemistry of Condensed Matter, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht, Netherlands View references (28)

Abstract

The luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZnSe: Mn2+ prepared via an inorganic chemical synthesis are described. Photoluminescence spectra show distinct ZnSe and Mn2+ related emissions, both of which are excited via the ZnSe host lattice. The Mn2+ emission wavelength and the associated luminescence decay time depend on the concentration of Mn2+ incorporated in the ZnSe lattice. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence lifetime measurements are also presented and the results are compared with those of Mn2+ in bulk ZnSe.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: manganese derivative; selenium derivative; zinc derivative EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal structure; inorganic chemistry; luminescence; metal binding; nanoparticle; photochemistry; temperature measurement

Energy transfer into and out of manganese in the electroluminescence of ZnS: Mn and ZnSe: Mn
Rigby, N.E., Allen, J.W. Wolfson Institute of Luminescence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife Scotland, United Kingdom

Abstract
The response of electroluminescent Schottky diodes of ZnS: Mn and ZnSe: Mn to short drive pulses has been investigated. There is evidence for energy transfer into the manganese from centres which can be more efficiently excited, in addition to the impact excitation of the manganese centres themselves, and for energy transfer out of manganese into non-radiative centres. In ZnS: Mn the transfer processes into and out of manganese can be treated as being independent, and at low concentrations the decay follows the Frster law. In ZnSe: Mn the transfer into and out of manganese is correlated and there is no simple form for the decay curve. 1988.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: ELECTROLUMINESCENCE; MANGANESE AND ALLOYS; SEMICONDUCTING ZINC COMPOUNDS - Applications Engineering uncontrolled terms: DECAY CURVE; ELECTROLUMINESCENT SCHOTTKY DIODES; ENERGY TRANSFER; FORSTER LAW; ZINC SELENIDE; ZINC SULFIDE Engineering main heading: SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, LIGHT EMITTING

HERMAL QUENCHING OF PHOTOLUMINESCENCE IN ZnS:Mn AND ZnSe:Mn.


Leslie, T.C., Allen, J.W.

Abstract
The intensity and the decay time of the yellow manganese luminescence in ZnS:Mn, ZnSe:Mn, and ZnS//1// minus //xSe//x:Mn are measured as a function of temperature. The radiative decay time in ZnSe:Mn is 0. 1 ms, ten times less than in ZnS:Mn. The thermal quenching temperature is higher in ZnS:Mn, but it depends on preparation conditions.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: THERMOLUMINESCENCE Engineering main heading: PHOSPHORS

Reverse micelle synthesis and characterization of ZnSe nanoparticles


Quinlan, F.T.a, Kuther, J.b, Tremel, W.b, Knoll, W.c, Risbud, S.a, Stroeve, P.a
a

Ctr. Poly. Interfaces Macromolec. A., Dept. of Chem. Eng. and Mat. Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States b Inst. F. Anorganische Chem. A., Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, Mainz D-55099, Germany c Max-Planck-Inst. F. Polymerforschung, Mainz D-55128, Germany View references (34)

Abstract
Nanoparticles of ZnSe were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique. The nanoparticle exhibit quantum confinement, having radii less than that of the Bohr exciton radius. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the nanoparticles are cubic ZnSe. Light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements give the diameters of the nanoparticles to be from 3.3-3.5 nm. The absorption shift in the ultraviolet-visible spectra shows an offset of 0.6 eV, and the peak emission of the nanoparticles is 355 nm, as obtained by photoluminescence.

Indexed keywords

Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Emission spectroscopy; Light scattering; Micelles; Nanostructured materials; Particles (particulate matter); Photoluminescence; Quantum theory; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; Ultraviolet spectroscopy; X ray crystallography Engineering uncontrolled terms: Nanoparticles; Quantum confinement; Reverse micelles; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Semiconducting zinc compounds ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la9909291Document Type: Article

ffect of PVA surrounding medium on ZnSe nanoparticles: Size, optical, and electrical properties
Badr, Y.a, Mahmoud, M.A.b
a b

National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

View references (62)

Abstract
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix was used to confine the particle size of ZnSe nanocrystallites as well as the variation of zinc (Zn) to selenium (Se) ion ratio which showed a remarkable decrease on the particle size as this ratio increased. The particle size decrease was monitored from the UV-vis absorption measurement as well as photoluminescence which suffered a blue shift with particle size decrease. The particle size was characterized with the aid of Xray diffraction (XRD). The Raman spectra showed that, as the particle size increases, the peak position of the line centers (LO) mode were found to be red shifted from 239 to 234 cm -1 , accompanied by an increase in the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The electrical measurements and FT-IR spectra (overtone and normal) band vibration were used to study the effect of ZnSe NPs size on the PVA matrix. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
IR spectra; PVA; Raman spectra; ZnSe NPs

Indexed keywords
Band vibration; Ion ratio; Nanocrystallites; ZnSe NP

Engineering controlled terms: Electric properties; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Nanostructured materials; Optical properties; Photoluminescence; Raman scattering; Ultraviolet spectroscopy; X ray diffraction; Zinc compounds Engineering main heading: Polyvinyl alcohols EMTREE drug terms: nanoparticle; polyvinyl alcohol; selenium derivative; zinc derivative; zinc selenide EMTREE medical terms: adsorption; article; chemistry; electric conductivity; luminescence; particle size; Raman spectrometry; vibration; X ray crystallography; X ray diffraction MeSH: Adsorption; Crystallography, X-Ray; Electric Conductivity; Luminescence; Nanoparticles; Particle Size; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Selenium Compounds; Spectrum Analysis, Raman; Vibration; X-Ray Diffraction; Zinc Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document.

Reverse micelle synthesis and characterization of ZnSe nanoparticles


Lei, Z.a , Wei, X.a, Bi, S.b, He, R.a
a

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Xi'an, 710062, China b School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 750021, China View references (20)

Abstract
Novel spherical assemblies of ZnSe-containing block copolymer reverse micelles in aqueous solution have been formed by the addition of HSe-solution to mixtures of Zn2+and the reverse micelles soft template Polyacrylonitrile-block-poly (ethylene glycol)-block-Polyacrylonitrile. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrometer. The results of XRD and TEM analyses demonstrated that the products were spherical and homogeneous with cubic structure, which are about 60 nm in diameter. The corresponding UV-Vis absorption peaks showed a blue shift compared to bulk ZnSe. From the position of the absorption edge (e), we calculate an actual ZnSe particle diameter of ~ 5.0 nm. This approach represented a simple method in the synthesis of the polymer micelles shelled with inorganic materials based on using amphiphilic block copolymers. And studies to improve the uniformity of size, shape, and crystal domain will be a focus of future work. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords

Composite materials; PEA; Reverse micelles; Semiconductors; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Block copolymers; Colloids; Micelles; Polymers; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Solutions; Zinc alloys Engineering uncontrolled terms: (ethylene vinyl alcohol) copolymers; Aqueous solutions; Reverse micelle synthesis; Reverse micelles; Spherical(pivot); ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials

Polythiophenes containing oligo(oxyethylene) side chains as a thin film on a ZnSe single crystal surface
Van Beek, R.a, Jenneskens, L.W.a, Zdravkova, A.N.b, Van Der Eerden, J.P.J.M.b, Van Walree, C.A.a
a

Debye Institute, Organic Chemistry and Catalysis, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, Netherlands b Debye Institute, Department of Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 1, 3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands View references (32)

Abstract
Two polythiophenes, containing either one (PTT) or two (PBTT) 2,5,8-trioxanonyl side chains per repeating unit, were synthesized with the objective of developing hybrid inorganic/organic semiconductor systems. From absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry it appears that introduction of a second 2,5,8-trioxanonyl side chain on a repeating unit leads to a very short conjugation length. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) performed on composites of the two polythiophenes and a ZnSe single crystal reveals excellent wetting of the crystal by the polymers, leading to the formation of thin films. For the PTT/ZnSe composite, good contact between the constituents is substantiated by a redshift of the PTT absorption relative to that of PTT on quartz. Fluorescence measurements indicate the occurrence of energy transfer from ZnSe to PTT, which might imply that there is electronic contact between ZnSe and PTT. Because of its highly distorted backbone, neither a significant red-shift compared with a film on quartz nor excitation energy transfer was found for the thin film of PBTT deposited on ZnSe. Nevertheless, it is shown that the presence of polar 2,5,8-trioxanonyl side chains guarantees strong binding of polythiophenes to the ZnSe surface. 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Author keywords

Atomic force microscopy (AFM); Conducting polymers; Excitation energy transfer; Inorganic semiconductors

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Atomic force microscopy; Electroluminescence; Electromagnetic wave emission; Energy transfer; Selenium compounds; Semiconductor materials; Single crystals; Thin films; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Conducting polymers; Excitation energy transfer; Functional materials; Inorganic semiconductors Engineering main heading: Conductive plastics ISSN: 10221352 CODEN: MCHPESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/macp.200500055Document Type: Article

(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: Synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites
Dabbousi, B.O.a, Rodriguez-Viejo, J.b, Mikulec, F.V.a, Heine, J.R.c, Mattoussi, H.c, Ober, R.d, Jensen, K.F.bc, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States d Lab. de Phys. de la Matiere Cond., Collge de France, 11 Place Marcellin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France View additional affiliations View references (44)

Abstract
We report a synthesis of highly luminescent (CdSe)ZnS composite quantum dots with CdSe cores ranging in diameter from 23 to 55 . The narrow photoluminescence (fwhm 40 nm) from these composite dots spans most of the visible spectrum from blue through red with quantum yields of 30-50% at room temperature. We characterize these materials using a range of optical and structural techniques. Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies probe the effect of ZnS passivation on the electronic structure of the dots. We use a combination of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron

spectroscopy, small and wide angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy to analyze the composite dots and determine their chemical composition, average size, size distribution, shape, and internal structure. Using a simple effective mass theory, we model the energy shift for the first excited state for (CdSe)ZnS and (CdSe)-CdS dots with varying shell thickness. Finally, we characterize the growth of ZnS on CdSe cores as locally epitaxial and determine how the structure of the ZnS shell influences the photoluminescence properties.

Reaxys Database Information

X-ray structural characterization of larger CdSe semiconductor clusters


Bawendi, M.G., Kortan, A.R., Steigerwald, M.L., Brus, L.E. AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, United States

Abstract
X-ray powder patterns obtained from three different types of 35-40 CdSe nanoclusters are analyzed. We simulate the effects of thermal fluctuations, stacking faults, surface reconstructions, and bond compressions on powder patterns of CdSe clusters using the Debye formula. We find that the spectra of capped and annealed CdSe particles grown in inverse micelles are best fit by a mixture of crystalline structures intermediate between zinc-blende and wurtzite. We describe a new preparation for CdSe clusters, the structure of which appears to be well-defined wurtzite with, on average, less than one stacking fault per cluster. Thermal effects are found to be important and to mask the subtle effects of likely surface and core reconstructions. 1989 American Institute of Physics. ISSN: 00219606Source Type: Journal Original language: English

Colloidal nanocrystal shape and size control: The case of cobalt


Puntes, V.F., Krishnan, K.M., Alivisatos, A.P. Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States View references (30)

Abstract

We show that a relatively simple approach for controlling the colloidal synthesis of anisotropic cadmium selenide semiconductor nanorods can be extended to the size-controlled preparation of magnetic cobalt nanorods as well as spherically shaped nanocrystals. This approach helps define a minimum feature set needed to separately control the sizes and shapes of nanocrystals. The resulting cobalt nanocrystals produce interesting two- and threedimensional superstructures, including ribbons of nanorods.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; cobalt; selenide EMTREE medical terms: anisotropy; article; colloid; crystal structure; particle size; priority journal; structure analysis; surface property MeSH: Anisotropy; Cadmium Compounds; Cobalt; Colloids; Crystallization; Magnetics; Microscopy, Electron; Oleic Acid; Organophosphorus Compounds; Selenium Compounds; Semiconductors; Temperature Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: Cadmium Compounds; cadmium selenide, 130624-7; Cobalt, 7440-48-4; Colloids; Oleic Acid, 112-80-1; Organophosphorus Compounds; Selenium Compounds; trioctyl phosphine oxide, 78-50-2

Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals


Peng, X.ab, Manna, L.a, Yang, W.a, Wickham, J.a, Scher, E.a, Kadavanich, A.a, Alivisatos, A.P.a
a

Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States b Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 727033, United States View references (30)

Abstract
Nanometre-size inorganic dots, tubes and wires exhibit a wide range of electrical and optical properties that depend sensitively on both size and shape, and are of both fundamental and technological interest. In contrast to the syntheses of zero-dimensional systems, existing preparations of one- dimensional systems often yield networks of tubes or rods which are difficult to separate. And, in the case of optically active II-VI and III-V semiconductors, the resulting rod diameters are too large to exhibit quantum confinement effects. Thus, except for some metal nanocrystals, there are no methods of preparation that yield soluble and monodisperse particles that are quantum-confined in two of their dimensions. For semiconductors, a benchmark preparation is the growth of nearly spherical II-VI and III-V nanocrystals by injection of precursor molecules into a hot surfactant. Here we demonstrate that control of the growth kinetics of the II-VI semiconductor cadmium selenide can be used

to vary the shapes of the resulting particles from a nearly spherical morphology to a rod-like one, with aspect ratios as large as ten to one. This method should be useful, not only for testing theories of quantum confinement, but also for obtaining particles with spectroscopic properties that could prove advantageous in biological labelling experiments and as chromophores in light-emitting diodes.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; phosphinic acid derivative; phosphonic acid derivative; selenide; surfactant EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal; polarization; priority journal; semiconductor; spectrum; transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction

Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots


Alivisatos, A.P. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States View references (32)

Abstract
Current research into semiconductor clusters is focused on the properties of quantum dots fragments of semiconductor consisting of hundreds to many thousands of atoms - with the bulk bonding geometry and with surface states eliminated by enclosure in a material that has a larger band gap. Quantum dots exhibit strongly size-dependent optical and electrical properties. The ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Electronic density of states; Nanostructured materials; Optical properties; Semiconductor quantum dots Engineering uncontrolled terms: Band gap; Nanocrystals; Semiconductor cluster; Surface states Engineering main heading: Semiconductor materials

CdSe nanocrystal rods/poly(3hexylthiophene) composite photovoltaic devices


Huynh, W.U., Peng, X., Alivisatos, A.P. Department of Chemistry, Univ. California and Mat. Sci. Div., Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States View references (19)

Abstract
Devices with improved photovoltaic performance were achieved by blending elongated CdSe nanocrystals with regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene). The improved transport arising from denser aggregation between the elongated particles brought about the enhanced energy conversion.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Aromatic polymers; Cadmium compounds; Crystal structure; Current voltage characteristics; Electron transport properties; Heterojunctions; Light emitting diodes; Particles (particulate matter); Photovoltaic cells; Synthesis (chemical); Thin films; Transmission electron microscopy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Current voltage curves; Nanocrystal rods; Open circuit voltage; Photovoltaic devices; Transmission electron micrographs Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials ISSN: 09359648 CODEN: ADVMESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199908)11:11<923::AID-ADMA923>3.0.CO;2TDocument Type: Article Publisher: Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH,Weinheim, Germany

Growth and photoluminescence study of ZnSe quantum dots


Chang, Y.H., Chieng, M.H., Tsai, C.C., Harris Liao, M.C., Chen, Y.F. Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan View references (15)

Abstract
We report detailed photoluminescence (PL) studies of ZnSe quantum dots grown by controlling the flow duration of the precursors in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. The growth time of the quantum dots determines the amount of blue shift observed in the PL measurements. Blue shift as large as 320 meV was observed, and the emission was found to persist up to room temperature. It is found that changing the flow rate and the total number of quantum dot layers also affect the peak PL energy. The temperature dependence of the peak PL energy follows the Varshni relation. From analyzing the temperature-dependent integrated intensity of the photoluminescence spectra, it is found that the activation energy for the quenching of photoluminescence increases with decreasing quantum dot size, and is identified as the binding energy of the exciton in ZnSe quantum dot.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Activation energy; Binding energy; Excitons; Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition; Optical flows; Photoluminescence; Quenching; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Semiconductor growth; Thermal effects Engineering uncontrolled terms: Varshni relation Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots

Highly photoluminescent ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots


Nikesh, V.V., Mahamuni, S. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India View references (27)

Abstract
ZnSe quantum dots have been synthesized using a simple aqueous route. Coating ZnSe quantum dots with a ZnS monolayer, yields a remarkable enhancement in the PL quantum efficiency at room temperature without affecting the spectral distribution. The results suggest that passivation of surface states, along with an increased localization of the hole in core ZnSe layer, gives rise to high luminescence quantum yield.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Coating techniques; Crystal growth; Crystal lattices; Crystal structure; Light absorption; Nanostructured materials; Passivation; Photoluminescence; Quantum efficiency; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Synthesis (chemical); Temperature

Engineering uncontrolled terms: Surface states; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots

Quantum confinement effects in chemically grown, stable ZnSe nanoclusters


Kumbhojkar, N.a, Mahamuni, S.a, Leppert, V.b, Risbud, S.H.b
a

Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Chem. Eng., University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States
b

View references (25)

Abstract
Stable ZnSe quantum dots have been prepared by a wet chemical route. Sodium Hexameta Phosphate, an inorganic polymer, is used to encapsulate the ZnSe quantum dots and to enhance the stability of quantum dots. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic analysis confirms the high purity of ZnSe clusters. The optical absorption spectra exhibit a blue shift of about 0.6 eV, suggesting the existence of quantum size effects. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements show a strong feature which originates from the radiative recombination of the quantum confined electron-hole pairs. 1998 Acta Metallurgica Inc.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Crystal growth; Electrons; Emission spectroscopy; Inorganic polymers; Nanostructured materials; Photoluminescence; Quantum theory; Semiconductor quantum dots; Stability; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Quantum confinement effects; Sodium hexameta phosphate; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Semiconducting zinc compounds

Ultraviolet-blue emission and electron-hole states in ZnSe quantum dots


Smith, C.A.a, Lee, H.W.H.b , Leppert, V.J.a, Risbud, S.H.a
a

Dept. of Chem. Eng. and Mat. Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States b Lawrence Livermore Natl. Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551, United States

View references (25)

Abstract
We observed the quantum-confined band edge emission from ZnSe quantum dots and the size dependence of the energy states, spin-orbit interaction, and Stokes shift. The band edge emission occurs in the ultraviolet blue. The energy gap=Eg + C/dn where d is the diameter and n is 1.19 0.13 and 1.210.13 for the first and second electron-hole transitions, respectively. The separation between these transitions approaches the bulk spin-orbit splitting, while the Stokes shift decreases with particle size. Effective mass theories cannot explain these results. Trap emission is observed in some samples in the green and red, resulting from Se-related traps. 1999 American Institute of Physics. ISSN: 00036951 CODEN: APPLASource Type: Journal Original language: Englis

Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence of ZnSe/ZnS quantumdot structures


Wu, Y.-H.a, Arai, K.a, Yao, T.bc
a

Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan c Jt. Res. Center for Atom Technology, Natl. Inst. for Interdisc. Adv. Res., Higashi, Tsukuba 305, Japan
b

View references (32)

Abstract
Following the previous work on formation of quantum-dot structures in ultrathin ZnSe/ZnS quantum wells, we investigate the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra in a temperature range from 20 to 100 K. The quantum-dot structure exhibits an intense but broadened photoluminescence line at low temperature. However, the emission quenches rapidly when temperature rises to around 60 K, suggesting the existence of defect-related states either in the ZnSe well layer or in the vicinity of ZnSe/ZnS interfaces. It was found that the thermal activation energy that characterizes the quench process is strongly dependent on the energy position inside the broadened emission lines, which is interpreted as originating from the different extent of lateral quantum confinement of each individual quantum dot. ISSN: 01631829 CODEN: PRBMDSource Type: Journal Original language: English

Fabrication of ZnSe quantum dots under Volmer-Weber mode by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
Harris Liao, M.C.a, Chang, Y.H.a , Chen, Y.F.a, Hsu, J.W.a, Lin, J.M.b, Chou, W.C.b
a b

Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan

View references (18)

Abstract
The possibility of fabricating quantum dots under Volmer-Weber growth mode is investigated. Layers of ZnSe/ZnS were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on both Si and GaAs substrates. The images of surface morphology, taken by atomic force microscopy, showed that the layers were grown in three-dimensional islands. Blueshift was observed in the photoluminescence spectra up to room temperature for these samples. This blueshift was shown to originate from the ZnSe islands. The effect of ZnSe growth duration was investigated. It was found that the blueshift increased with shorter ZnSe growth durations, but this near band gap emission disappeared when the ZnSe growth duration was longer than 5 s. Effects of quantum confinement and strain were considered to resolve the origin of the blueshift. Our result suggests that carrier confinement plays a dominant role. 1997 American Institute of Physics. ISSN: 00036951 CODEN: APPLASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Effect of ZnS shell formation on the confined energy levels of ZnSe quantum dots
Lad, A.D., Mahamuni, S. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007, India View references (34)

Abstract
Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy was employed to investigate the electronic structure of ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Four excited states viz. 1 Se -1 S 3/2 h, 1 Se -

2 S 3/2 h, 1 Pe -1 P 3/2 h, and 1 Se -1 SSO are observed in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. The experimentally observed excited states for ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots are analyzed on the basis of reported "effective mass approximation" calculations. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency increased from 2% for ZnSe quantum dots to 42% for ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and transmission electron microscopic investigations suggest formation of uniform ZnS shell on ZnSe. The electron energy levels of ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots are investigated as a function of core diameter and ZnS shell thickness, and are compared with bare ZnSe quantum dots. Seven different sizes (ranging between 20 to 52 ) are probed using size-selective photoluminescence excitation technique. Upon building a shell of ZnS on ZnSe quantum dots, the transition from three hole states (1 S 3/2 h, 2 S 3/2 h, 1 SSO) to 1 Se remain well defined and have negligible relative shift, suggesting that the valence-band offset is larger than the energy of these states. With increasing ZnS shell thickness, an observed increase in the transition probability of 1 Se -2 S 3/2 h state is due to modification of hole states caused by ZnS shell. The relative shift of the P exciton peak (1 Pe -1 P 3/2 h) with increase in shell thickness is due to a loss of confinement energy of P electron state. The energy of 1 Pe -1 P 3/2 h is found to be remarkably independent as a function of core diameter. 2008 The American Physical Society. ISSN: 10980121 CODEN: PRBMDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.125421Document Type: Article

Optical properties of core/multishell CdSe/Zn(S,Se) nanocrystals ( Conference Paper )


Bleuse, J.abd , Carayon, S.ab, Reiss, P.ac
a

CEA-Grenoble, Dept. Rech. Fond. la Matiere Cond., 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9, France b Serv. de Phys. des Mat./Microstruct., CEA-CNRS-UJF Grp. Nanophys./S., France c Serv. Interf./Mat. Molec./M., Lab. de Phys. des Metaux Synth., France d CEA-Grenoble, Dept. Rech. Fond. la Matiere Cond., SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9, France View additional affiliations View references (17)

Abstract
CdSe nanocrystals are now known as highly efficient fluorescent light sources. Their efficiency is however strongly dependent on the quality of the passivation layers. We show here that using a ZnSe/ZnS bi-layer shell leads to a larger photoluminescence yield than both ZnSe and ZnS simple shells. The intermediate ZnSe layer acts as a lattice parameter

adaptation layer to improve on the core/shell interface quality, while the ZnS outer shell maximizes the exciton confinement. 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
CdSe; Nanocrystal; Shell; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Chemical bonds; Energy gap; Epitaxial growth; Excitons; Mathematical models; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Fluorescent dye molecules; Surface passivation Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials

Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals
Tripathi, S.K. , Sharma, M. Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India View references (53)

Abstract
CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

Author keywords
A. Polymers; B. Chemical synthesis; C. X-ray diffraction; D. Optical properties

Indexed keywords

Absorption and emissions; Chemical method; Chemical synthesis; Core/shell nanocrystals; Quantum confinement energy; Room temperature; Transmission electron microscopy (TEM); UV/Vis spectra Engineering controlled terms: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Photoluminescence spectroscopy; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction Engineering main heading: Polymers ISSN: 00255408 CODEN: MRBUASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.materresbull.2013.01.023Document Type: Article

Ripening kinetics of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals


Sung, Y.-M.a , Park, K.-S.a, Lee, Y.-J.a, Kim, T.-G.b
a

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, South Korea b Department of Electronic Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, South Korea View references (23)

Abstract
CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core shell nanocrystals were prepared via the inverse micelle technology with TOP/ TOPO/HDA surfactants, and their high crystallinity was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. Ostwald ripening behavior of the nanocrystals was monitored by using the red-shift in UV-visible absorbance peaks, and their size variation was estimated by employing a quantum confinement effect equation. Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) kinetics analyses were performed by using the size variation according to ripening temperature and time period. Arrhenius-type plots were created by using the slopes of the LSW curves for the CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe nanocrystals, respectively, and the activation energy values for the ripening were evaluated for the nanocrystals. At a low-temperature region, the CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe samples seem to show dissociation of Cd-Se and Zn-Se surface atomic bonds, respectively, while at a high-temperature region above 266C, both samples seem to show active dissociation of both Cd-Se and Zn-Se lattice atomic bonds. The CdSe-ZnSe shows relatively low activation energy for the ripening, compared to the bare CdSe possibly due to weak Zn-Se atomic bonds. One can complete the Ostwald ripening kinetics equation by using two kinetics variables, derived in this study, for the estimation of the size of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals. Also, this approach can be applied to ripening kinetics of other core/shell nanocrystal systems. 2007 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords

Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium compounds; Crystalline materials; High resolution electron microscopy; Micelles; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction Engineering uncontrolled terms: Core shell nanocrystals; Ostwald ripening; Quantum confinement effect equations; UV visible absorbance peaks Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials ISSN: 19327447Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/jp066203cDocument Type: Article

Photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol on ZnSe/TiO2 supported by photo-Fenton system


ThanhThuy, T.T.ab, Feng, H.a, Cai, Q.a
a

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Department of Chemistry, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China b Department of Chemistry, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam View references (71)

Abstract
In this research, a photocatalyst is prepared by pulse-electrodeposition of ZnSe nanoparticles of 2.7eV bandgap onto the surface of TiO2 nanotube array films. Under AM 1.5G illumination the ZnSe sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays (ZnSe/TiO2 NTAs) exhibit a significantly increased capability for photocatalytic degradation of pentachlorophenol with support of photo-Fenton system (Fe3+/H2O2/humic acid) which is investigated as oxidants. After 2h illumination 99.0% of pentachlorophenol is removed, compared to 64.0% using the non-sensitized TiO2 NTAs. The studied concentration of Fe3+, H2O2, humic acid in photoFenton system were 100M Fe3+, 75M H2O2, 220M, respectively. The initial concentration and stability were investigated to be important factors that influence the photocatalytic degradation and catalytic ability. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Author keywords
Pentachlorophenol; Photo-Fenton system; Photocatalytic; TiO2 nanotube; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Pentachlorophenol; Photo-catalytic; Photo-Fenton system; TiO; ZnSe

Engineering controlled terms: Biological materials; Nanotubes; Organic acids; Phenols; Photodegradation; Titanium dioxide Engineering main heading: Herbicides

Fabrication of ZnS/(ZnSe)n/ZnS single quantum well structures and photoluminescence properties


Yao, T.ab, Fujimoto, M.c, Chang, S.K.c, Tanino, H.c
a

Department of Electrical Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 724, Japan b Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, 305, Japan c Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba, 305, Japan

Abstract
ZnS/ZnSe single quantum well structures are fabricated for the first time by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and atomic layer epitaxy. The quantum wells thicker than 3 monolayers (ML) emit a sharp excitonic emission with half width of 15-30 meV, while a broad emission (half width of around 100 meV) with low-energy tail is observed from quantum wells thinner than 2 ML. From the analysis of the dependence of emission energy on well width, it is concluded that the conduction band offset at the ZnSe/ZnS interface is very small (almost zero). It is suggested that the luminescence broadening in thin quantum wells is caused by fluctuations not only associated with the quantum confinement effect along the growth direction, but also with the lateral quantum confinement effect in "quantum slabs" formed on islands and valleys at the interface. 1991.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Molecular Beam Epitaxy; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting Zinc Compounds - Growth; Zinc Sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Atomic Layer Epitaxy; Quantum Well Structures Engineering main heading: Semiconductor Devices

Synthesis of ZnSe quantum dots and ZnSeZnS core/shell nanostructures ( Conference Paper )

Ali, M.a, Sarma, D.D.abcd


a

Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India b Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064, India c Centre for Condensed Matter Theory, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India d Centre for Advanced Materials, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, India View additional affiliations View references (30)

Abstract
Colloidal ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized in hot mixtures of long-chain alkylamines, fatty acids, and alkylphosphines. It was possible to tune the size of nanocrystals by varying the reaction time. Transmission electron microscope images showed the presence of spherical ZnSe nanocrystals and X-ray diffraction pattern of ZnSe nanocrystals showed the existence of both the crystalline phase, namely, wurtzite and zinc blende. The ZnSe nanocrystals were then passivated with higher band gap ZnS; this lead to a 2.6-fold enhancement in the integrated photoluminescence intensity of ZnSe nanocrystals. We also synthesized the reverse type core/shell ZnS/ZnSe nanocrystals. These exhibited a significant red shift in the absorption edge after coating with a thin ZnSe shell. Copyright 2007 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Colloidal nanocrystals; Core-shell structure; ZnSe; ZnSe-ZnS

Indexed keywords
Absorption edges; Alkyl-amines; Alkylphosphines; Band gaps; core shells; Crystalline phase; Photoluminescence (PL) intensity; Quantum Dot (CO); Reaction time (RT); red shifting; Spherical(pivot); Synthesis (of chiral ionic liquids); Transmission electron microscope (TEM); Wurtzite (WZ); X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns; Zinc blende (ZB) Engineering controlled terms: Absorption; Astrophysics; Carboxylic acids; Cladding (coating); Diffraction; Electron microscopes; Fatty acids; Holographic interferometry; Lead; Nanocrystalline alloys; Nanocrystals; Nanostructured materials; Nanostructures; Nanotechnology; Quantum electronics; Semiconductor quantum dots; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc; Zinc alloys; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Semiconducting zinc compounds

rom Cd-rich to Se-rich - The manipulation of CdSe nanocrystal surface stoichiometry

Jasieniak, J., Mulvaney, P. School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia View references (50)

Abstract
We report a protocol for manipulating the surface composition of CdSe nanocrystals. By combining the successive ion layer adhesion and reaction (SILAR) method developed by Li et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 12567 with a phosphine-free selenium precursor, the surface stoichiometry of CdSe can be tunably altered from Cd- to Se-rich. By changing the overall surface stoichiometry, we demonstrate ligand binding to specific surface sites. Tertiary phosphines produce a dramatic enhancement in photoluminescence quantum yield of CdSe particles with Se-rich surfaces but have little effect on Cd-rich surfaces. Unpassivated selenium surface sites are also shown to be a cause of the photobrightening behavior of CdSe nanocrystals. 2007 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Adhesion; Photoluminescence; Quantum yield; Selenium; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Stoichiometry Engineering uncontrolled terms: Photobrightening; Photoluminescence quantum yield; Successive ion layer adhesion and reaction (SILAR) Engineering main heading: Nanocrystals EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; nanocrystal; phosphine; selenium EMTREE medical terms: adhesion; analytic method; article; binding site; ligand binding; photoluminescence; quantum yield; stoichiometry; surface property Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; phosphine, 7803-51-2; selenium, 7782-49-2

Compact PEGylated polymer-caged quantum dots with improved stability


Zhang, P.abc, Han, H.a
a

Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, And Translational Medical Research Center, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003, China b Zhejiang California International Nanosystems Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,

Zhejiang 310029, China c Shanghai Allist Pharmaceuticals Inc., Zhangjiang, Shanghai 201203, China
View references (43)

Abstract
Compact PEGylated polymer-caged quantum dots were prepared by covalently cross-linking the surface ligands using bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol). CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots prepared in organic solvent via conventional synthesis method were firstly transferred to water phase by surface ligands exchange with glutathione molecules, and then cross-linked by bifunctional PEG through the carboxyl-amine coupling by carbodiimide method. Compared with small molecules capped QDs, polymer-caged QDs using PEG crosslinker have shown improved colloidal and pH stability, lower cell toxicity and non-specific binding, and still maintain compact hydrodynamic diameters (<15. nm) and monodispersity. This surface crosslinking strategy can also be used to improve the stability of other similar nanoparticles. 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Author keywords
Glutathione; Luminescence; PEGylation; Quantum dots; Stability

Indexed keywords
Bifunctional; Carbodiimides; Cdse; Cell toxicity; Crosslinker; Glutathiones; Hydrodynamic diameter; Monodispersity; Non-specific binding; PEgylation; PH stability; Small molecules; Surface crosslinking; Surface ligands; Synthesis method; Water phase Engineering controlled terms: Chelation; Convergence of numerical methods; Ligands; Luminescence; Molecules; Organic solvents; Peptides; Polyethylene glycols; Polymers; Semiconductor quantum dots; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering main heading: Crosslinking EMTREE drug terms: cadmium selenide; glutathione; macrogol; octadecylamine; pegylated polymer caged quantum dot; quantum dot; unclassified drug; water; zinc selenide; zinc sulfide

Blue-UV-Emitting ZnSe(Dot)/ZnS(Rod) core/shell nanocrystals prepared from CdSe/CdS nanocrystals by sequential cation exchange

Li, H.a, Brescia, R.a, Krahne, R.a, Bertoni, G.ab, Alcocer, M.J.P.cd, D'Andrea, C.cd, Scotognella, F.d, Tassone, F.c, Zanella, M.a, De Giorgi, M.e, Manna, L.a
a

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy c CNST of IIT polimi, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano, Italy d Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy e National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-NANO, via per Arnesano km 5, 73100 Lecce, Italy
b

View additional affiliations View references (66)

Abstract
Great control over size, shape and optical properties is now possible in colloidal Cd-based nanocrystals, which has paved the way for many fundamental studies and applications. One popular example of such class of nanocrystals is represented by CdSe(spherical core)/CdS(rod shell) nanorods. These can be nearly monodisperse in size and shape and have strong and stable photoluminescence that is tunable in the visible range (mainly by varying the size of the CdSe core). The corresponding Zn-based core/shell nanorods would be good candidates for tunable emission in the blue-UV region. However, while the synthesis of ZnS nanocrystals with elongated shapes has been demonstrated based on the oriented-attachment mechanism, elongated ZnS shells are difficult to fabricate because the more common cubic phase of ZnS has a highly symmetric crystal structure. We report here a procedure based on a sequence of two cation exchange reactions, namely, Cd 2+Cu + and then Cu +Zn 2+, by which we transform colloidal CdSe(core)/CdS(shell) nanorods first into into Cu 2Se/Cu 2S nanorods, which are then converted into blue-UV fluorescent ZnSe(core)/ ZnS(shell) nanorods. The procedure transfers the morphological and structural information of the initial Cd-based nanorods to the Zn-based nanorods. Therefore, the final nanoparticles are made by a ZnSe dot embedded in a rod-shaped shell of wurtzite ZnS. Since in the starting Cd-based nanorods the size of the CdSe core and the length of the CdS shell can be well controlled, the same holds for the final Zn-based rods. In the second step of the exchange reaction (Cu + Zn 2+), a large excess of Zn 2+ ions added over the Cu + ions present in the Cu 2Se/Cu 2S nanorods is the key requisite to obtain bright, band-edge emission (with quantum yields approaching 15%) with narrow line widths (approaching 75 meV). In these ZnSe/ZnS nanorods, photogenerated carriers appear to be more confined in the core region compared to their parent CdSe/CdS nanorods. 2012 American Chemical Society.

Author keywords
cation exchange; core/shell; nanocrystals; nanorods; ZnSe/ZnS

Indexed keywords
Band-edge emissions; Cation exchange reactions; Cation exchanges; CdS; CdSe/CdS; Core region; Core/shell; Core/shell nanocrystals; Cubic phase; Exchange reaction; Monodisperse;

Narrow-line width; Photogenerated carriers; Rod-shaped; Size and shape; Structural information; Tunable emissions; Visible range; Wurtzites; ZnS nanocrystals; ZnSe/ZnS Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium alloys; Cadmium sulfide; Chemical reactions; Nanocrystals; Nanorods; Optical properties; Positive ions; Quantum yield; Shells (structures); Zinc; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Cadmium compounds

Preparation and nonlinear characterization of zinc selenide nanoparticles embedded in polymer matrix
Sharma, M., Tripathi, S.K. Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
View references (38)

Abstract
Nanocomposites of ZnSe nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix have been prepared by in-situ synthesis. ZnSe/PVA nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV/Vis spectra. The nanocomposite structure is confirmed by the blue-shift of the absorption edge. The nonlinear refractive index and two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient are measured by the Z-scan technique using low power CW He-Ne laser light. The results show that the ZnSe nanocomposite films show large optical nonlinearity and the magnitude of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (3) is calculated to be 2.6213 11 m 2/V 2. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
A. Polymer; B. Chemical synthesis; C. X-ray diffraction; D. Optical properties

Indexed keywords
Absorption edges; Blue shift; Chemical synthesis; He-Ne lasers; In-situ synthesis; Large optical nonlinearities; Low Power; Nano-composite structure; Nonlinear characterization; Nonlinear refractive index; Polyvinyl alcohol (pva); Third-order nonlinear susceptibility; Transmission electron microscopy tem; Two-photon absorptions; UV/Vis spectra; Z-scan technique; Zinc selenide; ZnSe nanoparticles

Engineering controlled terms: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Nanocomposites; Nanoparticles; Nonlinear optics; Refractive index; Transmission electron microscopy; Two photon processes; X ray diffraction Engineering main heading: Synthesis (chemical)
ISSN: 00223697 CODEN: JPCSASource Type: Journal Original language: English

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2012.04.007Document Type: Article

Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of doped ZnS nanocrystals capped by poly(vinylpyrrolidone)


Porambo, M.W., Marsh, A.L. Department of Chemistry, Lebanon Valley College, 101 N. College Ave, Annville, PA 17003, United States
View references (30)

Abstract
Zinc sulfide semiconductor nanocrystals doped with selected transition metal ions (Mn2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+) have been synthesized via a solution-based method utilizing low dopant concentrations (0-1%) and employing poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a capping agent. UV/Vis absorbance spectra for all of the synthesized nanocrystals show an exitonic peak at around 310 nm, indicating that the introduction of the dopant does not influence the particle size. Calculated particle sizes for undoped and doped nanocrystals are in the 4.3 nm size range. Photoluminescence spectra recorded for undoped ZnS nanocrystals, using an excitation wavelength of 310 nm, exhibit an emission peak centered at around 460 nm. When a dopant ion is included in the synthesis, peaks in the corresponding photoluminescence spectra are red-shifted. For Mn-doped nanocrystals, an intense peak centered at approximately 590 nm is found and is seen to increase in photoluminescence intensity with an increase in dopant concentration. In contrast, for Cu-doped and Ni-doped nanocrystals, weaker peaks centered at around 520 and 500 nm, respectively, are observed and are noticed to decrease in photoluminescence intensity with an increase in dopant concentration. These results clearly show that careful control of synthetic conditions must be employed in the synthesis of doped semiconductor nanocrystals in order to obtain materials with optimized properties. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Dopants; Photoluminescence; Poly(vinylpyrrolidone); Semiconductor nanocrystals; Zinc sulfide

Indexed keywords
Absorbance spectrum; Capping agent; Dopant concentrations; Dopants; Doped nanocrystals; Doped ZnS; Emission peaks; Excitation wavelength; Mn-doped; Ni-doped; Photoluminescent properties; Photoluminescence intensities; Photoluminescence spectrum; Poly(vinylpyrrolidone); Red-shifted; Semiconductor nanocrystals; Size ranges; Synthetic conditions; ZnS nanocrystals Engineering controlled terms: Emission spectroscopy; Manganese; Manganese compounds; Materials properties; Metal ions; Particle size; Photoluminescence; Semiconductor doping; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Nanocrystals
ISSN: 09253467 CODEN: OMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.optmat.2009.03.013Document Type: Article

General sonochemical method for the preparation of nanophasic selenides: Synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles
Zhu, J.ab, Koltypin, Y.a, Gedanken, A.a
a b

Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China

View references (51)

Abstract
ZnSe nanoparticles of about 3 nm in size have been prepared by the sonochemical irradiation of an aqueous solution of selenourea and zinc acetate under argon. The ZnSe nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive Xray analysis. The mechanism of the sonochemical irradiation is discussed. This sonochemical method was found to be a general method for the preparation of other selenides as well.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: selenide; zinc derivative EMTREE medical terms: absorption spectroscopy; aqueous solution; article; chemical analysis; chemical reaction; differential scanning calorimetry; diffuse reflectance

spectroscopy; irradiation; nanoparticle; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; X ray analysis; X ray diffraction
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm990380rDocument Type: Article

Preparation and nonlinear characterization of zinc selenide nanoparticles embedded in polymer matrix
Sharma, M., Tripathi, S.K. Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
View references (38)

Abstract
Nanocomposites of ZnSe nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix have been prepared by in-situ synthesis. ZnSe/PVA nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV/Vis spectra. The nanocomposite structure is confirmed by the blue-shift of the absorption edge. The nonlinear refractive index and two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient are measured by the Z-scan technique using low power CW He-Ne laser light. The results show that the ZnSe nanocomposite films show large optical nonlinearity and the magnitude of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (3) is calculated to be 2.6213 11 m 2/V 2. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
A. Polymer; B. Chemical synthesis; C. X-ray diffraction; D. Optical properties

Indexed keywords
Absorption edges; Blue shift; Chemical synthesis; He-Ne lasers; In-situ synthesis; Large optical nonlinearities; Low Power; Nano-composite structure; Nonlinear characterization; Nonlinear refractive index; Polyvinyl alcohol (pva); Third-order nonlinear susceptibility; Transmission electron microscopy tem; Two-photon absorptions; UV/Vis spectra; Z-scan technique; Zinc selenide; ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Nanocomposites; Nanoparticles; Nonlinear optics; Refractive index; Transmission electron microscopy; Two photon processes; X ray diffraction

Engineering main heading: Synthesis (chemical)


ISSN: 00223697 CODEN: JPCSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2012.04.007Document Type: Article

Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of doped ZnS nanocrystals capped by poly(vinylpyrrolidone)


Porambo, M.W., Marsh, A.L. Department of Chemistry, Lebanon Valley College, 101 N. College Ave, Annville, PA 17003, United States
View references (30)

Abstract
Zinc sulfide semiconductor nanocrystals doped with selected transition metal ions (Mn2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+) have been synthesized via a solution-based method utilizing low dopant concentrations (0-1%) and employing poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a capping agent. UV/Vis absorbance spectra for all of the synthesized nanocrystals show an exitonic peak at around 310 nm, indicating that the introduction of the dopant does not influence the particle size. Calculated particle sizes for undoped and doped nanocrystals are in the 4.3 nm size range. Photoluminescence spectra recorded for undoped ZnS nanocrystals, using an excitation wavelength of 310 nm, exhibit an emission peak centered at around 460 nm. When a dopant ion is included in the synthesis, peaks in the corresponding photoluminescence spectra are red-shifted. For Mn-doped nanocrystals, an intense peak centered at approximately 590 nm is found and is seen to increase in photoluminescence intensity with an increase in dopant concentration. In contrast, for Cu-doped and Ni-doped nanocrystals, weaker peaks centered at around 520 and 500 nm, respectively, are observed and are noticed to decrease in photoluminescence intensity with an increase in dopant concentration. These results clearly show that careful control of synthetic conditions must be employed in the synthesis of doped semiconductor nanocrystals in order to obtain materials with optimized properties. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Dopants; Photoluminescence; Poly(vinylpyrrolidone); Semiconductor nanocrystals; Zinc sulfide

Indexed keywords

Absorbance spectrum; Capping agent; Dopant concentrations; Dopants; Doped nanocrystals; Doped ZnS; Emission peaks; Excitation wavelength; Mn-doped; Ni-doped; Photoluminescent properties; Photoluminescence intensities; Photoluminescence spectrum; Poly(vinylpyrrolidone); Red-shifted; Semiconductor nanocrystals; Size ranges; Synthetic conditions; ZnS nanocrystals Engineering controlled terms: Emission spectroscopy; Manganese; Manganese compounds; Materials properties; Metal ions; Particle size; Photoluminescence; Semiconductor doping; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Nanocrystals

Small is different: Shape-, size-, and composition-dependent properties of some colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals
El-Sayed, M.A. Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400, United States
View references (55)

Abstract
As the size of material becomes equal to or falls below the nanometer length scale that characterizes the motion of its electrons and thus its properties, the latter become sensitive not only to the size but also to the shape and composition of the particles. In this Account, we describe the changes of some interesting properties in different colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles, such as the electronic relaxation rates as spherical nanoparticles change to nanorods, and the changes in the structure or size of very small nanoparticles upon adsorbing strongly bound molecules. We have also determined and explained the difference in the interfacial crossing rates of electrons and holes in a composite nanostructure.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE medical terms: adsorption; article; cell shape; cell size; chemical composition; colloid; composite material; electron transport; electronics; materials testing; motion; nanoparticle; nanotechnology; particle size; relaxation time; semiconductor; structure analysis
ISSN: 00014842 CODEN: ACHRESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ar020204fDocument Type: Article

Close-spaced evaporated ZnSe films: Preparation and characterization


Subbaiah, Y.P.V. , Prathap, P., Devika, M., Reddy, K.T.R. Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, India
View references (29)

Abstract
ZnSe films have been deposited by a simple technique, close-spaced evaporation. The layers were grown on glass substrates maintained at different temperatures that vary in the range of 200-400 C. The physical characteristics of the films such as chemical stoichiometry, structural properties and energy band gap of the films were investigated using energydispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and optical spectrophotometry, respectively. The influence of substrate temperature on the different parameters was studied and discussed. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Reaxys Database Information

Author keywords
Close-spaced evaporation; Optical properties; Structural properties; ZnSe films

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Energy dispersive spectroscopy; Evaporation; Glass transition; Optical properties; Physical properties; Selenium; Spectrophotometry; Stoichiometry; Temperature distribution; Thin films; X ray diffraction analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Closed-spaced evaporation; Energy band gap; environmental safety; ZnSe films Engineering main heading: Zinc compounds
ISSN: 09214526 CODEN: PHYBESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.physb.2005.05.020Document Type: Article

Low temperature synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles


Deshpande, A.C.a, Singh, S.B.a, Abyaneh, M.K.a, Pasricha, R.b, Kulkarni, S.K.a
a

DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune, 411 007, India b National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan Road, Pune, 411 007, India
View references (15)

Abstract
Synthesis of thioglycerol capped zinc selenide nanoparticles with a relatively narrow size distribution by a simple and inexpensive low temperature (~ 80 C) wet chemical method is reported here. Main advantage of this method is the use of non-toxic precursors. The size of the nanoparticles can be varied easily by changing the concentration of the capping agent. The extracted nanoparticles remain stable under normal atmospheric conditions and can be redispersed in suitable solvents. The sharp absorption features obtained in the UV-Visible absorption spectra reveal the formation of monodispersed ZnSe nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Luminescence; Nanomaterials; Semiconductor; X-ray techniques

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption; Auger electron spectroscopy; Electron microscopes; Electron microscopy; Electron optics; Electron spectroscopy; Electrons; Imaging techniques; Low temperature effects; Microscopic examination; Molecular orbitals; Molecular spectroscopy; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials; Nanostructures; Photoelectron spectroscopy; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Size distribution; Spectrum analysis; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; X ray spectroscopy; X rays; Zinc; Zinc alloys; Zinc sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Atmospheric conditions; Capping agents; Concentration (composition); Elsevier (CO); Low temperature (LTR); Low-temperature synthesis; Monodispersed; Narrow size distributions; Synthesis (of chiral ionic liquids); Thioglycerol; UV visible absorption spectrum; UV-visible absorption spectroscopy; Wet-chemical methods; X ray diffraction (XRD); X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); Zinc Selenide (ZnSe); ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering main heading: Absorption spectroscopy

ISSN: 0167577X CODEN: MLETDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2008.04.082Document Type: Article

Synthesis and characterization of wurtzite ZnSe one-dimensional nanocrystals through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method
Chen, M., Gao, L. State Key Lab. High Perf. C., Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
View references (23)

Abstract
Wurtzite ZnSe 1D nanowires with 10-100 nm in diameter and up to several micrometers in length were successfully synthesized through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method at 220 C for 15 h, where hydrazine served as not only reduction agent but also complexing agent and molecular template. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC, TEM (SAED), UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. In-depth investigation indicated that the as-prepared 1D nanocrystals had [0 0 1] preferential orientation and showed a room-temperature photoluminescent property. The possible growth mechanism was also proposed. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
1D Nanocrystal; Nanowires; Solvothermal; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Anisotropy; Characterization; Crystallography; Decomposition; Electroluminescence; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Micrometers; Molecular beam epitaxy; Morphology; Photoluminescence; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: 1D nanocrystals; Nanodevices; Nanowires; Solvothermal method; ZnSe Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials
ISSN: 02540584 CODEN: MCHPDSource Type: Journal Original language: English

DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2004.12.005Document Type: Article

ZnSe semiconductor hollow microspheres


Peng, Q., Dong, Y., Li, Y. Department of Chemistry, Key Lab. Atom./Molec. Nanosci. M. E., Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China
View references (31)

Abstract
Magic bubbles: ZnSe semiconductor microspheres aggregated from nanocrystals of tunable size have been successfully synthesized for the first time by use of gas bubbles. Based on the interior nanocrystal size and structure, the as-obtained samples exhibit different colors.

Author keywords
Microspheres; Nanostructures; Selenium; Semiconductors; Zinc

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Agglomeration; Color; Nanostructured materials; Semiconductor materials; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering uncontrolled terms: Hollow microspheres Engineering main heading: Zinc compounds EMTREE drug terms: microsphere; selenium; zinc EMTREE medical terms: article; color; crystal structure; gas; nanoparticle; particle size; semiconductor; synthesis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: selenium, 7782-49-2; zinc, 7440-66-6
ISSN: 14337851 CODEN: ACIEASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/anie.200250695Document Type: Article

Preparation and photoluminescence of single-crystal zinc selenide nanowires


Zhu, Y.-C. , Bando, Y.

Advanced Materials Laboratory, Natl. Inst. for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
View references (31)

Abstract
Single-crystal ZnSe nanowires have been synthesized via a thermochemical method in a N 2 atmosphere with CO and H 2 gases. The as-prepared ZnSe nanowires have a mean diameter of 40 nm and a length of 1 m. The nanowires are single crystals with a hexagonal structure growing along the [001] direction. A self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid process is proposed for the formation of such nanowires. The as-prepared nanowires show two emission bands at ca. 447 and 617 nm. 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Reaxys Database Information


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Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: nitrogen; unclassified drug; zinc derivative; zinc selenide EMTREE medical terms: article; atmosphere; chemical modification; chemical structure; crystal; liquid; photoluminescence; solid; synthesis; thermal analysis; vapor Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: nitrogen, 7727-37-9
ISSN: 00092614 CODEN: CHPLBSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/S0009-2614(03)01197-7Document Type: Article

(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: Synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites
Dabbousi, B.O.a, Rodriguez-Viejo, J.b, Mikulec, F.V.a, Heine, J.R.c, Mattoussi, H.c, Ober, R.d, Jensen, K.F.bc, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

Lab. de Phys. de la Matiere Cond., Collge de France, 11 Place Marcellin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
View additional affiliations View references (44)

Abstract
We report a synthesis of highly luminescent (CdSe)ZnS composite quantum dots with CdSe cores ranging in diameter from 23 to 55 . The narrow photoluminescence (fwhm 40 nm) from these composite dots spans most of the visible spectrum from blue through red with quantum yields of 30-50% at room temperature. We characterize these materials using a range of optical and structural techniques. Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies probe the effect of ZnS passivation on the electronic structure of the dots. We use a combination of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, small and wide angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy to analyze the composite dots and determine their chemical composition, average size, size distribution, shape, and internal structure. Using a simple effective mass theory, we model the energy shift for the first excited state for (CdSe)ZnS and (CdSe)-CdS dots with varying shell thickness. Finally, we characterize the growth of ZnS on CdSe cores as locally epitaxial and determine how the structure of the ZnS shell influences the photoluminescence properties.

Reaxys Database Information

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Electron transitions; Electronic structure; Light absorption; Nanostructured materials; Passivation; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Semiconductor growth; Synthesis (chemical); X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Zinc sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Cadmium selenide; Energy shift; Small angle X ray scattering; Wavelength dispersve X ray spectroscopy; Wide angle X ray scattering Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 10895647 CODEN: JPCBFSource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

From Cd-rich to Se-rich - The manipulation of CdSe nanocrystal surface stoichiometry

Jasieniak, J., Mulvaney, P. School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia
View references (50)

Abstract
We report a protocol for manipulating the surface composition of CdSe nanocrystals. By combining the successive ion layer adhesion and reaction (SILAR) method developed by Li et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 12567 with a phosphine-free selenium precursor, the surface stoichiometry of CdSe can be tunably altered from Cd- to Se-rich. By changing the overall surface stoichiometry, we demonstrate ligand binding to specific surface sites. Tertiary phosphines produce a dramatic enhancement in photoluminescence quantum yield of CdSe particles with Se-rich surfaces but have little effect on Cd-rich surfaces. Unpassivated selenium surface sites are also shown to be a cause of the photobrightening behavior of CdSe nanocrystals. 2007 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Adhesion; Photoluminescence; Quantum yield; Selenium; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Stoichiometry Engineering uncontrolled terms: Photobrightening; Photoluminescence quantum yield; Successive ion layer adhesion and reaction (SILAR) Engineering main heading: Nanocrystals EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; nanocrystal; phosphine; selenium EMTREE medical terms: adhesion; analytic method; article; binding site; ligand binding; photoluminescence; quantum yield; stoichiometry; surface property Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; phosphine, 7803-51-2; selenium, 7782-49-2
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja066205aDocument Type: Article

Ligand effects on optical properties of CdSe nanocrystals


Kalyuzhny, G., Murray, R.W. Kenan Laboratories of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, United States

View references (56)

Abstract
We report effects of various organic and inorganic ligands on optical properties of CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) by changes in their photoluminescence and absorbance spectra. Surface ligand loss occurring during dilution and purification of solutions of CdSe NCs leads to a decrease of photoluminescence intensity. The complex of trioctylphosphine with Se atoms on the surface of CdSe NCs is found responsible for the trap emission band that is red-shifted relative to the photoluminescence band edge. 2005 American Chemical Society.

Reaxys Database Information

Indexed keywords
Band edge; Charge separation; Surface ligands; Trioctylphosphines Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Band structure; Cadmium compounds; Light absorption; Light emission; Photoluminescence; Purification; Surfaces Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials
ISSN: 15206106 CODEN: JPCBFSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/jp045352xDocument Type: Article

The effects of chemisorption on the luminescence of CdSe quantum dots


Bullen, C.a, Mulvaney, P.ab
a b

Chemistry School, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia Stiftung Caesar, Ludwig-Erhard Allee 2, Bonn 53175, Germany

View references (26)

Abstract
We report on the effects of Lewis bases and other ligands on radiative recombination in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in several solvents. Long-chain primary amines are found to be the most efficacious capping agents for CdSe QDs in nonpolar solvents. Primary alkylamines are superior to secondary and tertiary alkylamines. The kinetics of chemisorption and desorption

in less polar solvents, such as hexane or chloroform, are temperature controlled and obey a Langmuir isotherm. Mercaptan adsorption also obeys a Langmuir isotherm, and alkylmercaptans rapidly displace amines, leading to luminescence quenching. In more polar solvents, such as toluene, ligands desorb, leading to luminescence quenching. It is proposed that surface Cd vacancies function as nonradiative recombination centers. The adsorption of a Lewis base to the QD raises the surface vacancy energy close to, or above, the conduction band edge and eliminates electron capture by the surface vacancies. Solvent polarity has a strong effect on luminescence since the solvent determines the extent of ligand adsorption to the QD surface. 2006 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Amines; Chemisorption; Desorption; Electrons; Isotherms; Luminescence; Quenching; Radiation effects; Solvents; Thermal effects Engineering uncontrolled terms: Alkylamines; CdSe quantum dots; Conduction band; Hexane or chloroform; Langmuir isotherm; Lewis bases; Nonpolar solvents; Radiative recombination Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la051898eDocument Type: Article

ZnSe based colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, shape control, core/shell, alloy and doped systems ( Review )
Reiss, P. CEA Grenoble DSM/DRFMC/SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-Universit Joseph Fourier 1)/LEMOH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
View references (68)

Abstract
Colloidal ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit size-dependent fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-450 nm, making them promising emitters for optoelectronic devices in the blue/near UV region. This Perspective review gives an overview of the chemical synthesis methods developed for size- and shape-controlled ZnSe NCs as well as for related core/shell and alloy structures. Special emphasis is put on the discussion of the optical and structural properties of the obtained nanostructures. Finally, the use of ZnSe as a host material for magnetic or luminescent dopant ions is highlighted. The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: alloy; nanocrystal; nanomaterial; selenium; zinc

EMTREE medical terms: chemical structure; crystal structure; device; fluorescence; particle size; precipitation; priority journal; reverse micelle; review; spectral sensitivity; synthesis; ultraviolet radiation Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: selenium, 7782-49-2; zinc, 7440-66-6
ISSN: 11440546 CODEN: NJCHESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1039/b712086aDocument Type: Review

A broadly tunable continuous-wave Fe:ZnSe laser ( Conference Paper )


Evans, J.W. , Berry, P.A., Schepler, K.L. Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433, United States
View references (10)

Abstract
We have achieved 840 mW continuous-wave (CW) output power from iron-doped zinc selenide (Fe:ZnSe). The beam quality was measured to be M 2 1.2. The laser exhibited a slope efficiency of 47% with no thermal roll-off at maximum output power. Various dichroic mirrors and other spectral filters were inserted into the cavity to discretely tune the output of the laser from 3843 nm to 4337 nm. Demonstration of arbitrary discrete tuning shows that, in principle, Fe:ZnSe is capable of efficient continuously-tunable CW lasing over nearly 500 nm of bandwidth. 2013 Copyright SPIE.

Author keywords
mid-IR lasers; solid-state lasers; transition-metal lasers
ISSN: 0277786X ISBN: 978-081949368-2 CODEN: PSISDSource Type: Conference Proceeding Original language: English DOI: 10.1117/12.2002442Document Type: Conference Paper Sponsors: The Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE

Water-based route to colloidal Mn-doped ZnSe and core/shell ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots.
Inorganic Chemistry (2010) Volume: 49, Issue: 23, Publisher: ACS Publications, Pages: 10940-10948

PubMed: 21049903

Available from pubs.acs.org or Abstract

Relatively monodisperse and highly luminescent Mn(2+)-doped zinc blende ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous solution at 100 C using the nucleation-doping strategy. The effects of the experimental conditions and of the ligand on the synthesis of nanocrystals were investigated systematically. It was found that there were significant effects of molar ratio of precursors and heating time on the optical properties of ZnSe:Mn nanocrystals. Using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as capping ligand afforded 3.1 nm wide ZnSe:Mn quantum dots (QDs) with very low surface defect density and which exhibited the Mn(2+)-related orange luminescence. The post-preparative introduction of a ZnS shell at the surface of the Mn(2+)-doped ZnSe QDs improved their photoluminescence properties, resulting in stronger emission. A 2.5-fold increase in photoluminescence quantum yield (from 3.5 to 9%) and of Mn(2+) ion emission lifetime (from 0.62 to 1.39 ms) have been observed after surface passivation. The size and the structure of these QDs were also corroborated by using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction.

Water-based route to ligand-selective synthesis of ZnSe and Cd-doped ZnSe quantum dots with tunable ultraviolet A to blue photoluminescence.
by Zhengtao Deng, Fee Li Lie, Shengyi Shen, Indraneel Ghosh, Masud Mansuripur, Anthony J Muscat Chemistry Miscellaneous Papers

Overview Related research

Langmuir The Acs Journal Of Surfaces And Colloids (2009) Volume: 25, Issue: 1, Pages: 434-442

PubMed: 19053829

Available from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or Abstract

A water-based route has been demonstrated for synthesizing ZnSe and Cd-doped ZnSe (Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se, 0 < x < 1) quantum dots (QDs) that have tunable and narrow photoluminescence (PL) peaks from the ultraviolet A (UVA) to the blue range (350-490 nm) with full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) values of 24-36 nm. Hydrazine (N(2)H(4)) was used to maintain oxygen-free conditions, allowing the reaction vessel to be open to air. The properties of the QDs were controlled using the thiol ligands, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), thiolglycolic acid (TGA), and l-glutathione (GSH). On the basis of optical spectra, linear three-carbon MPA attenuated nucleation and growth, yielding small ZnSe QDs with a high density of surface defects. In contrast, TGA and GSH produced larger ZnSe QDs with lower surface defect densities. The absorption spectra show that growth was more uniform and better controlled with linear two-carbon TGA than branched bifunctional GSH. After 20 min of growth TGA-capped ZnSe had an average diameter of 2.5 nm based on highresolution transmission electron microscopy images; these nanocrystals had an absorbance peak maximum of approximately 340 nm (3.65 eV) and a band gap PL emission peak at 372 nm (3.34 eV). Highly fluorescent Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se QDs were fabricated by adding a Cd-thiol complex directly to ZnSe QD solutions; PL peaks were tuned in the blue range (400-490 nm) by changing the Zn to Cd ratio. The Cd-bearing nanocrystals contained proportionally more Se based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Cd-Se bonds had ionic character, in contrast to primarily covalent Zn-Se bonds.

Hydrophilic ionic liquid-passivated CdTe quantum dots for mercury ion detection.
Chao MR, Chang YZ, Chen JL. Source

Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan.
Abstract

A hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIDCA), was used as a medium for the synthesis of highly luminescent CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The synthesis was performed for 8 h at 130 C, was similar to

nanocrystal preparation in an aqueous medium, and used safe, low-cost inorganic salts as precursors. After the reaction, the photoluminescence quantum yield of the CdTe NCs (NC(IL-130)) prepared in EMIDCA was significantly higher than that of the nanocrystals prepared in water (NC(w)) at 100 C (86% vs. 35%). Moreover, the emission wavelength and particle size of NC(IL-130) were smaller than NC(w) (450 nm vs. 540 nm and 4.0 nm vs. 5.2 nm, respectively). The activation of NC(IL-130) was successful due to the coordinated action of two ligands, EMIDCA and TGA, in the primary steps of the NC formation pathway. An increase or decrease in the synthesis temperature, to 160 C or 100 C, respectively, was detrimental to the luminescence quality. However, the quenching effect of Hg on the fluorescence signals of the NC(IL-130) was distinctively unique, whereas certain interfering ions, such as Pb, Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, and Cu, could also quench the emission of the NC(w). Based on the Perrin model, the quenching signals of NC(w) and NC(IL-130) were well correlated with the Hg concentrations in the phosphate buffer (pH 7.5, 50 mM). In comparison with the NC(w), the NC(IL-130) had a high tolerance of the interfering ions coexisting with the Hg analyte, high recovery of Hg spiked in the BSA- or FBScontaining medium, and high stability of fluorescence quenching signals between trials and days. The NC(IL-130) nanocrystals can potentially be used to develop a probe system for the determination of Hg in physiological samples. Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 23220264 [PubMed - in process] Publication Types LinkOut - more resources

Chemical synthesis and functional properties of magnesium doped ZnSe nanoparticles


Archana, J.a , Navaneethan, M.a , Prakash, T.b, Ponnusamy, S.b, Muthamizhchelvan, C.b, Hayakawa, Y.a
a

Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011, Japan b Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, Tamil Nadu, India
View references (20)

Abstract
Mg2+ doped ZnSe nanoparticles are prepared by facile wet chemical route. N-methylaniline (NMA) is used as a surface passivating agent to obtain the agglomeration free nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibits the cubic zinc blende structure of ZnSe. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV) shows the strong quantum confinement effect and the band gap is 3.56 eV. The emission spectrum confirms the incorporation of Mg2+ into the ZnSe. The presence of NMA is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result shows that the synthesized ZnSe is free from agglomeration and average size of the nanoparticles is about 15 nm. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Mg 2+ in ZnSe nanoparticles. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Author keywords
Dopants; Optical properties; Semiconductors; Surface passivation; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Emission spectrums; Functional properties; Quantum confinement effects; Surface passivation; Transmission electron microscopy (TEM); Zinc-blende structures; ZnSe; ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Agglomeration; Doping (additives); Emission spectroscopy; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Magnesium; Nanoparticles; Optical properties; Semiconductor materials; Transmission electron microscopy; Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy; X ray diffraction Engineering main heading: Synthesis (chemical)
ISSN: 0167577X CODEN: MLETDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2013.02.086Document Type: Article

The II-VI semiconductor blue-green laser: Challenges and solution ( Review )


Luo, H., Furdyna, J.K. Dept. of Phys., Notre Dame Univ., IN, United States

Abstract
Recent advances in the area of ZnSe-based blue-green laser diodes are reviewed. We will discuss the solutions to some long-standing problems which for many years stood in the way of successful development of these devices, such as the choice of the quantum well structure for the active region, doping of ZnSe and ohmic contacts. We also address the problems that

are responsible for the still very short lifetimes of blue-green laser diodes at the present stage of development, which still need to be overcome before these devices can be applied in practical situations.
ISSN: 02681242Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1088/0268-1242/10/8/001Document Type: Review

Preparation and photocatalytic activity of hollow ZnSe microspheres via Ostwald ripening
Zhang, L., Yang, H. , Xie, X., Zhang, F., Li, L. Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, China
View references (34)

Abstract
Hollow ZnSe microspheres were prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction of Zn(AC)22H2O with Na2SeO3 and ethylene glycol in NaOH solution at 180 C for 12 h. The products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectrum. The hollow microspheres with the diameters of about 2 m are constructed from ZnSe nanoparticles with the cubic zinc blende structure, the size of hollow interiors and constituent ZnSe nanodots can be tuned by changing the reaction time. The hollow microspheres are formed via an Ostwald ripening process. Photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of the hollow ZnSe microspheres were studied at room temperature. The results indicate that the hollow microspheres constructed from ZnSe nanoparticles display a strong near-band edge emission at 479 nm and a very weak deep defect (DD) related emission at 556 nm and a high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photodegradation of methyl orange catalyzed by the ZnSe microspheres is a pseudo first-order reaction. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Reaxys Database Information


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Author keywords
Luminescence; Nanofabrications; Scanning and transmission electron microscopy; Semiconductors; X-ray diffraction

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Azo dyes; Crystal growth; Crystals; Diffraction; Electric conductivity; Electrons; Emission spectroscopy; Ethylene; Ethylene glycol; Light; Luminescence; Microspheres; Nanoparticles; Ostwald ripening; Photocatalysis; Photodegradation; Scanning; Scanning electron microscopy; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Sodium; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc Engineering uncontrolled terms: Deep defects; First-order reactions; Hollow microspheres; Hydrothermal reactions; Methyl oranges; Nanodots; Nanofabrications; NaOH solutions; Near-band edge emissions; Ostwald ripening process; Photo-catalytic activities; Raman spectrum; Reaction time; Room temperatures; Scanning and transmission electron microscopy; Scanning electrons; Semiconductors; Zinc blende structures; Znse nanoparticles Engineering main heading: Electron microscopes
ISSN: 09258388 CODEN: JALCESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.06.018Document Type: Article

Chemical synthesis and functional properties of magnesium doped ZnSe nanoparticles


Archana, J.a , Navaneethan, M.a , Prakash, T.b, Ponnusamy, S.b, Muthamizhchelvan, C.b, Hayakawa, Y.a
a

Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-Ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011, Japan b Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, Tamil Nadu, India
View references (20)

Abstract
Mg2+ doped ZnSe nanoparticles are prepared by facile wet chemical route. N-methylaniline (NMA) is used as a surface passivating agent to obtain the agglomeration free nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibits the cubic zinc blende structure of ZnSe. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV) shows the strong quantum confinement effect and the band gap is 3.56 eV. The emission spectrum confirms the incorporation of Mg2+ into the ZnSe. The presence of NMA is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result shows that the synthesized ZnSe is free from

agglomeration and average size of the nanoparticles is about 15 nm. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Mg 2+ in ZnSe nanoparticles. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Author keywords
Dopants; Optical properties; Semiconductors; Surface passivation; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Emission spectrums; Functional properties; Quantum confinement effects; Surface passivation; Transmission electron microscopy (TEM); Zinc-blende structures; ZnSe; ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Agglomeration; Doping (additives); Emission spectroscopy; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Magnesium; Nanoparticles; Optical properties; Semiconductor materials; Transmission electron microscopy; Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy; X ray diffraction Engineering main heading: Synthesis (chemical)

Structure and stability of monodisperse 1.4nm ZnS particles stabilized by mercaptoethanol


Vogel, W.a, Borse, P.H.b, Deshmukh, N.b, Kulkarni, S.K.b
a b

Fritz-Haber-Inst. Max-Planck-Gesell., Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India

View references (30)

Abstract
Extremely small 1.4-nm size mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnS clusters have been synthesized with narrow size distribution. The structure of these clusters was studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. The scattering curves were compared with the calculated scattered intensity of a variety of model clusters (ZnS)N and different defect types via Debye functions. In the asreceived state the pattern is best described by a fragment of the zinc blende lattice, with N 30, and a defective stacking of three to four (111) planes. A large improvement of the simulation is gained by introducing liquidlike disorder to the model structure. This raises the unanswered question of a 'real' liquid state of these small clusters at room temperature. The cluster matrix is thermally stable to 583 K. Above this temperature the primary cluster coalesce to form larger particles. Annealed at 1013 K the particles grow to >4.0 nm with a highly defective zinc blende structure.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Annealing; Crystal defects; Ethanol; High resolution electron microscopy; Particle size analysis; Particles (particulate matter); Structure (composition); Synthesis (chemical); Temperature; Thermodynamic stability; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray scattering Engineering uncontrolled terms: Debye function; Mercaptoethanol; Wide angle X ray scattering Engineering main heading: Zinc sulfide
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la9910071Document Type: Article Publisher: ACS,Washington, DC, United States

Electroluminescence from CdSe quantumdot/polymer composites


Dabbousi, B.O.a, Bawendi, M.G.a, Onitsuka, O.b, Rubner, M.F.b
a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

Abstract
Electroluminescence is obtained from nearly monodisperse CdSe nanocrystallites (quantum dots) incorporated into thin films (1000 ) of polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) and an oxadiazole derivative (t-Bu-PBD) and sandwiched between ITO and Al electrodes. The electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra (bandwidths 40 nm) are nearly identical at room temperature and are tunable from 530 to 650 nm by varying the size of the dots. Voltage studies at 77 K indicate that while only the dots electroluminesce at the lower voltages, both the dots and the PVK matrix electroluminesce at higher applied voltages. Variable temperature studies indicate that the electroluminescence efficiency increases substantially as the films are cooled down to cryogenic temperatures. 1995 American Institute of Physics.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Electric current measurement; Electrodes; Electron tunneling; Light absorption; Nanostructured materials; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconductor quantum dots; Thin films; Vinyl resins; Voltage measurement

Engineering uncontrolled terms: Cadmium selenide; Crystallite; Energy barrier; Indium tin oxide; Polymer composites; Polyvinylcarbazole Engineering main heading: Electroluminescence
ISSN: 00036951Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Dabbousi, B.O.; Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Organometallic synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped CdSe nanocrystals


Mikulec, F.V.ac, Kuno, M.ad, Bennati, M.b, Hall, D.A.ab, Griffin, R.G.ab, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Department of Chemistry, Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Center for Magnetic Resonance, Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCSD, San Diego, CA 92093-0358, United States d JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80308, United States
View additional affiliations View references (51)

Abstract
The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals doped with transition metals has proved to be particularly difficult. In the case of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) produced via hightemperature pyrolysis in trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), specially designed precursors used in this study appear to be necessary to successfully incorporate low levels of Mn. A simple etching experiment and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements reveal that most of the dopant atoms reside in the surface layers of the inorganic lattice. The dopant dramatically affects 113Cd magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectra; the observed paramagnetic shift and decreased longitudinal relaxation time are consistent with Mn incorporated in the QDs. Paramagnetic atoms in QDs generate large effective magnetic fields, which implies that magnetooptical experiments can be performed simply by doping. Results from fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) studies on Mn-doped CdSe QDs mirror previous findings on undoped QDs in an external magnetic field. Experimental fitting of photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of doped QDs reveals that the effective absorption line shape contains a new feature that is believed to be a previously unobserved, but theoretically predicted, optically dark fine structure state.

Reaxys Database Information


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Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; manganese derivative; phosphine oxide derivative; selenium derivative EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical structure; complex formation; conformational transition; crystal structure; electron spin resonance; pyrolysis; synthesis
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja991249nDocument Type: Article

Study of conduction mechanism and electroluminescence in CdSe/ZnS quantum dot composites


Hikmet, R.A.M.a , Talapin, D.V.b, Weller, H.b
a

Philips Research, Prof. Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven, Netherlands Institute for Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 45, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
b

View references (26)

Abstract
The conduction mechanism and electroluminescence in CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) composites were studied. Conventional technique of pyrolysis of organometallic reagents in a hot coordinating solvent medium was used to prepare nanocrystals. The voltage dependence of the current in QD composites was explained by space charge limited current (SCLC) in the presence of defects.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Composite materials; Conductive plastics; Electric space charge; Electroluminescence; Nanostructured materials; Organometallics; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Zinc sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Space charge limited current (SCLC)

Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots


ISSN: 00218979 CODEN: JAPIASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1063/1.1542940Document Type: Article

Composite thin films of CdSe nanocrystals and a surface passivating/electron transporting block copolymer: Correlations between film microstructure by transmission electron microscopy and electroluminescence
Mattoussi, H.ac , Radzilowski, L.H.ad, Dabbousi, B.O.be, Fogg, D.E.bf, Schrock, R.R.b, Thomas, E.L.a, Rubner, M.F.a, Bawendi, M.G.b
a

Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Ctr. for Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Ctr. for Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Naval Research Laboratory, Optical Sciences Division, Washington, DC 20375, United States d Raychem Corporation, 300 Constitution Drive, Menlo Park, CA 94025, United States e Aramco, Dahran, Saudi Arabia f University of Ottawa, Department of Chemistry, 10 Curie, Ottawa, Ont. KINGN5, Canada
View additional affiliations View references (42)

Abstract
We present a microscopic characterization of composite thin films made of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) dispersed in a polynorbornene-based block copolymer with surface-passivating and electron transport functionalities. We used two types of nanocrystals, CdSe with pure organic capping groups ("bare") and CdSe-ZnS core-shell nanocrystals, also capped on the outer surface with organic groups. The composite thin films are incorporated in heterostructure light emitting devices where they serve as both the electron transport layer and the emissive layer. A thin layer of self-assembled poly (phenylene vinylene) (PPV) is used as the hole transport layer. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to examine the film structure in plan view and in cross section. The TEM analysis uncovered distinct and complex differences between the microstructures of thin films containing bare and ZnS overcoated nanocrystals. We found a strong correlation between the composite film microstructure and the corresponding electroluminescence (EL)

spectra as well as the device performance. For example, the presence of phase separation at low concentration and nanocrystal migration to the surface in films with ZnS overcoated particles, result in a large PPV contribution to the EL spectra. At higher concentrations, particles form connecting paths between the interfaces, resulting in spectra dominated by nanocrystal emission, but with a higher efficiency for bare particles. 1999 American Institute of Physics.
ISSN: 00218979 CODEN: JAPIASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Highly Luminescent Monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals Synthesized in a Hexadecylamine-Trioctylphosphine Oxide-Trioctylphospine Mixture
Talapin, D.V.ab , Rogach, A.L.ab, Kornowski, A.a, Haase, M.a, Weller, H.a
a

Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 45, 20146 Hamburg, Germany b Physico-Chemical Research Institute, Belarusian State University, 220050 Minsk, Belarus View references (24)

Abstract
Highly monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals were prepared in a three-component hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine (HDA-TOPO-TOP) mixture. This modification of the conventional organometallic synthesis of CdSe nanocrystals in TOPOTOP provides much better control over growth dynamics, resulting in the absence of defocusing of the particle size distribution during growth. The room-temperature quantum efficiency of the band edge luminescence of CdSe nanocrystals can be improved to 40-60% by surface passivation with inorganic (ZnS) or organic (alkylamines) shells. ISSN: 15306984Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/nl0155126Document Type: Article

Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection


Chan, W.C.W., Nie, S.

Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States View references (38)

Abstract
Highly luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (zinc sulfide-capped cadmium selenide) have been covalently coupled to biomolecules for use in ultrasensitive biological detection. In comparison with organic dyes such as rhodamine, this class of luminescent labels is 20 times as bright, 100 times as stable against photobleaching, and one-third as wide in spectral linewidth. These nanometer-sized conjugates are water-soluble and biocompatible. Quantum dots that were labeled with the protein transferrin underwent receptor-mediated endocytosis in cultured HeLa cells, and those dots that were labeled with immunomolecules recognized specific antibodies or antigens.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE medical terms: article; bioassay; bleaching; chemical structure; luminescence; molecular interaction; photoaffinity labeling; priority journal; radioactivity; semiconductor MeSH: Cadmium Compounds; Endocytosis; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Fluorescent Dyes; Hela Cells; Humans; Luminescence; Molecular Probe Techniques; Particle Size; Receptors, Transferrin; Selenium Compounds; Semiconductors; Solubility; Sulfides; Transferrin; Zinc Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: Cadmium Compounds; cadmium selenide, 130624-7; Fluorescent Dyes; Receptors, Transferrin; Selenium Compounds; Sulfides; Transferrin, 11096-37-0; Zinc Compounds; zinc sulfide, 1314-98-3 ISSN: 00368075 CODEN: SCIEASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1126/science.281.5385.2016 PubMed ID: 9748158Document Type: Article

Small-particle research: Physicochemical properties of extremely small colloidal metal and semiconductor particles ( Review )
Henglein, A. Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Bereich Strahlenchemie, 1000 Berlin 39, Germany

Abstract

[No abstract available]


ISSN: 00092665Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Review

Henglein, A.; Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Bereich Strahlenchemie, 1000 Berlin 39, Germany Copyright 2006 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals


Peng, X.ab, Manna, L.a, Yang, W.a, Wickham, J.a, Scher, E.a, Kadavanich, A.a, Alivisatos, A.P.a
a

Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States b Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 727033, United States
View references (30)

Abstract
Nanometre-size inorganic dots, tubes and wires exhibit a wide range of electrical and optical properties that depend sensitively on both size and shape, and are of both fundamental and technological interest. In contrast to the syntheses of zero-dimensional systems, existing preparations of one- dimensional systems often yield networks of tubes or rods which are difficult to separate. And, in the case of optically active II-VI and III-V semiconductors, the resulting rod diameters are too large to exhibit quantum confinement effects. Thus, except for some metal nanocrystals, there are no methods of preparation that yield soluble and monodisperse particles that are quantum-confined in two of their dimensions. For semiconductors, a benchmark preparation is the growth of nearly spherical II-VI and III-V nanocrystals by injection of precursor molecules into a hot surfactant. Here we demonstrate that control of the growth kinetics of the II-VI semiconductor cadmium selenide can be used to vary the shapes of the resulting particles from a nearly spherical morphology to a rod-like one, with aspect ratios as large as ten to one. This method should be useful, not only for testing theories of quantum confinement, but also for obtaining particles with spectroscopic properties that could prove advantageous in biological labelling experiments and as chromophores in light-emitting diodes.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; phosphinic acid derivative; phosphonic acid derivative; selenide; surfactant EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal; polarization; priority journal; semiconductor; spectrum; transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction

ISSN: 00280836 CODEN: NATUASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1038/35003535Document Type: Articl

A Novel Solventothermal Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline CdE (E = S, Se, Te) and Morphological Control
Yu, S.-H., Wu, Y.-S., Yang, J., Han, Z.-H., Xie, Y., Qian, Y.-T., Liu, X.-M. Structure Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Univ. of Sci. and Technol. of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
View references (43)

Abstract
[No abstract available]
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article View in table layout

References (43)

Nanometer-sized semiconductor clusters: Materials synthesis, quantum size effects, and photophysical properties ( Review )
Wang, Y., Herron, N. Central Research and Development Department, Du Pont Company, P.O. Box 80356, Wilmington, DE 19880-0356, United States

Abstract
Recent advances in the synthesis of semiconductor clusters open a doorway for the systematic study of size-dependent cluster properties in the condensed phase. This article focuses on the size effect on the optical and photophysical properties. We first introduce fundamental concepts and proceed to a discussion of recent progress toward the

understanding of the quantum size effect and dielectric confinement effect. We then discuss the current status of materials synthesis and the prospect for making monodisperse clusters of well-defined surfaces. 1991 American Chemical Society.
ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Review

Solution-liquid-solid growth of crystalline III-V semiconductors: An analogy to vaporliquid-solid growth


Trentler, T.J.a, Hickman, K.M.a, Goel, S.C.a, Viano, A.M.b, Gibbons, P.C.b, Buhro, W.E.a
a

Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899, United States b Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899, United States
View references (40)

Abstract
Until now, micrometer-scale or larger crystals of the III-V semiconductors have not been grown at low temperatures for lack of suitable crystallization mechanisms for highly covalent nonmolecular solids. A solution-liquid-solid mechanism for the growth of InP, InAs, and GaAs is described that uses simple, low-temperature (203C), solution-phase reactions. The materials are produced as polycrystalline fibers or near-single-crystal whiskers having widths of 10 to 150 nanometers and lengths of up to several micrometers. This mechanism shows that processes analogous to vapor-liquid-solid growth can operate at low temperatures; similar synthesis routes for other covalent solids may be possible.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Chemical reactions; Crystal growth; Crystal whiskers; Crystallization; Crystals; Nanostructured materials; Semiconducting gallium arsenide; Semiconducting indium compounds; Semiconducting indium phosphide; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering uncontrolled terms: Covalent nonmolecular solid; Crystallization mechanism; Polycrystalline fiber; Solution liquid solid growth; Solution liquid solid mechanism; Solution phase reaction; Vapor liquid solid growth Engineering main heading: Semiconductor growth
ISSN: 00368075 CODEN: SCIEASource Type: Journal Original language: English

Document Type: Article

A simple model for the ionization potential, electron affinity, and aqueous redox potentials of small semiconductor crystallites
Brus, L.E. Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, United States

Abstract
Large semiconductor crystals have intrinsic electronic properties dependent upon the bulk band structure. As the crystal becomes small, a new regime is entered in which the electronic properties (excited states, ionization potential, electron affinity) should be strongly dependent upon the crystallite size and shape. These effects reflect quantized motion of the electron and hole in a confined space. We address the possibility of a shift in the photochemical redox potential of one carrier, as a function of crystallite size. As a semiquantitative guide, one might expect a shift on the order of h 2/8em*R2 due to the kinetic energy of localization in the small crystallite. We model the elementary quantum mechanics of a charged crystallite using (a) the effective mass approximation, (b) an electrostatic potential for dielectric polarization, and (c) penetration of the carrier outside the crystallite in a cases of small effective mass. Shifts of several tenths of an eV appear possible in crystallites of diameter 50 . The carrier charge density reside near the crystallite surface if the effective mass is very small. 1983 American Institute of Physics.
ISSN: 00219606Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Brus, L.E.; Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, United States Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Dopant-induced shape evolution of colloidal nanocrystals: The case of zinc oxide


Yang, Y.a, Jin, Y.a , He, H.a, Wang, Q.a, Tu, Y.a, Lu, H.b, Ye, Z.a
a

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China
View references (68)

Abstract
The electrical, optical and other important properties of colloidal nanocrystals are determined mainly by the crystals' chemical composition, size and shape. The introduction of specific dopants is a general approach of modifying the properties of such nanocrystals in wellcontrolled ways. Here we show that in addition to altering the atomic composition of the nanocrystals the introduction of specific dopants can also lead to dramatic changes in morphology. The creation of Mg-doped ZnO nanocrystals provides an excellent example of this procedure; depending on the molar ratio of dopant precursor in the reagents, doped nanocrystals with well-defined shapes, from tetrapods to ultrathin nanowires, which exhibit tunable optoelectronic properties, are obtained for the first time. We find that the Mg dopants play an important role in the primary growth stage, resulting in initial growth seeds having diverse crystallographic structures, which are critical for the generation of doped nanocrystals with different shapes. We demonstrate that this "greener" synthetic scheme can be extended to other dopant systems and provides an attractive and effective strategy for fabricating doped ZnO nanocrystals with interesting compositional and spatial complexity. 2010 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Atomic compositions; Chemical compositions; Colloidal nanocrystals; Crystallographic structure; Dopant precursors; Doped nanocrystals; Doped ZnO; General approach; Growth stages; Mg-doped; Molar ratio; Optoelectronic properties; Shape evolution; Size and shape; Spatial complexity; Ultrathin nanowires Engineering controlled terms: Electric properties; Nanocrystals; Nanowires; Zinc; Zinc oxide Engineering main heading: Doping (additives) EMTREE drug terms: magnesium; nanocrystal; nanowire; zinc oxide EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical modification; chemical structure; colloid; controlled study; crystal; crystallography Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: magnesium, 7439-95-4; zinc oxide, 1314-13-2
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja103956pDocument Type: Article

Shape control of semiconductor and metal oxide nanocrystals through nonhydrolytic colloidal routes ( Review )
Jun, Y.-W., Choi, J.-S., Cheon, J. Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, South Korea
View references (210)

Abstract
Inorganic nanocrystals with tailored geometries exhibit unique shape-dependent phenomena and subsequent utilization of them as building blocks for the fabrication of nanodevices is of significant interest. Herein, we review the recent developments in the shape control of colloidal nanocrystals with a focus on the scientifically and techno-logically important semiconductor and metal oxide nanocrystals obtained by nonhydrolytic synthetic methods. Many structurally unprecedented motifs have been discovered including polyhedrons, rods and wires, plates and prisms, and other advanced shapes such as branched rods, stars, inorganic dendrites, and dumbbells. The currently proposed shape-guiding mechanisms are presented and the important pioneering studies on the assembly of shape-controlled nanocrystals into ordered superlattices and the fabrication of prototype advanced nanodevices are discussed. 2006 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Author keywords
Colloids; Metal oxides; Nanostructures; Semiconductors; Shape control

Indexed keywords
Metal oxides; Nonhydrolytic synthetic methods; Shape control Engineering controlled terms: Colloids; Dendrimers; MOS devices; Prisms; Superlattices Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: metal; nanomaterial; oxide EMTREE medical terms: chemistry; colloid; crystallization; instrumentation; kinetics; materials; methodology; nanotechnology; particle size; review; semiconductor; surface property; synthesis; thermodynamics; ultrastructure MeSH: Colloids; Crystallization; Kinetics; Manufactured Materials; Metals; Nanostructures; Nanotechnology; Oxides; Particle Size; Semiconductors; Surface Properties;

Thermodynamics Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: oxide, 16833-27-5;Colloids; Metals; Oxides
ISSN: 14337851 CODEN: ACIEASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/anie.200503821 PubMed ID: 16642516Document Type: Review

Small is different: Shape-, size-, and composition-dependent properties of some colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals
El-Sayed, M.A. Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400, United States
View references (55)

Abstract
As the size of material becomes equal to or falls below the nanometer length scale that characterizes the motion of its electrons and thus its properties, the latter become sensitive not only to the size but also to the shape and composition of the particles. In this Account, we describe the changes of some interesting properties in different colloidal semiconductor nanoparticles, such as the electronic relaxation rates as spherical nanoparticles change to nanorods, and the changes in the structure or size of very small nanoparticles upon adsorbing strongly bound molecules. We have also determined and explained the difference in the interfacial crossing rates of electrons and holes in a composite nanostructure.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE medical terms: adsorption; article; cell shape; cell size; chemical composition; colloid; composite material; electron transport; electronics; materials testing; motion; nanoparticle; nanotechnology; particle size; relaxation time; semiconductor; structure analysis
ISSN: 00014842 CODEN: ACHRESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ar020204fDocument Type: Article

ZnSe semiconductor hollow microspheres

Peng, Q., Dong, Y., Li, Y. Department of Chemistry, Key Lab. Atom./Molec. Nanosci. M. E., Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China
View references (31)

Abstract
Magic bubbles: ZnSe semiconductor microspheres aggregated from nanocrystals of tunable size have been successfully synthesized for the first time by use of gas bubbles. Based on the interior nanocrystal size and structure, the as-obtained samples exhibit different colors.

Author keywords
Microspheres; Nanostructures; Selenium; Semiconductors; Zinc

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Agglomeration; Color; Nanostructured materials; Semiconductor materials; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering uncontrolled terms: Hollow microspheres Engineering main heading: Zinc compounds EMTREE drug terms: microsphere; selenium; zinc EMTREE medical terms: article; color; crystal structure; gas; nanoparticle; particle size; semiconductor; synthesis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: selenium, 7782-49-2; zinc, 7440-66-6
ISSN: 14337851 CODEN: ACIEASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/anie.200250695Document Type: Article

Building complex structures from monodisperse spherical colloids


Xia, Y., Gates, B., Yin, Y. Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States
View references (35)

Abstract
Monodisperse spherical colloids were employed as the building blocks for the synthesis of complex structures like ordered lattices and well-defined aggregates. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of an FCC lattice of 1-m polystyrene beads was synthesized. The SEM image was templated against a two-dimensional array of cylindrical holes that were 2m in diameter. Complex structures were conveniently obtained from spherical colloids through assembly processes.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Aggregates; Crystal lattices; Polystyrenes; Scanning electron microscopy; Silica; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering uncontrolled terms: Spherical colloids Engineering main heading: Colloids
ISSN: 00049425 CODEN: AJCHASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1071/CH01098Document Type: Article

Highly luminescent (ZnSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots for blue to UV emission: Synthesis and characterization
Song, K.-K., Lee, S. Dept. of Mat. Sciencie and Eng., Kwangju Inst. Sci. Technol., 500-712, Kwangju, South Korea
View references (13)

Abstract
We synthesized nearly monodisperse bare ZnSe nanocrystallites having luminescence which ranges in wavelength from 340 to 430 nm via nucleation due to supersaturation and growth followed by size selective precipitation. Bare ZnSe dots' outermost surface is passivated with organic HDA/TOP. In order to enhance the radiative emission from the semiconductor nanocrystals, we capped the bare ZnSe quantum dots with ZnS semiconductor materials of a wider band gap and 5% of lattice mismatch and produced highly luminescent core-shell (ZnSe)ZnS quantum dots. The core-shell (ZnSe)ZnS nanocrystals show 20 times or more as greatly enhanced luminescence quantum yields as those of bare ZnSe nanocrystals. The ZnSe bare dots and the (ZnSe)ZnS core-shell dots have cubic zinc blende structures as expected from the bulk structure. The observed shapes of bare ZnSe and core-shell (ZnSe)ZnS dots are

nearly spherical or ellipsoidal with the aspect ratios of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively. They are not faceted. 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

Author keywords
(ZnSe)ZnS; 68.66.Hb; 78.67.-n; Core-shell; PL; Semiconductor quantum dots; ZnSe
ISSN: 15671739Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/S1567-1739(01)00012-8Document Type: Article

The band edge luminescence of surface modified CdSe nanocrystallites: Probing the luminescing state
Kuno, M., Lee, J.K., Dabbousi, B.O., Mikulec, F.V., Bawendi, M.G. Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States
View references (78)

Abstract
We study the luminescence of surface modified CdSe nanocrystallites. There has been much speculation as to the origin of the band edge emission in these quantum confined structures. Because of their large surface to volume ratios it has been suggested that the emission originates from surface-related states. However, recent theory suggests that the band edge luminescence arises from an optically inactive fine structure state or "dark" exciton. To address this issue we modify the surface of CdSe nanocrystallites with a variety of organic and inorganic ligands. We then monitor the effect changing the surface has on the energetics of the band edge luminescence through photoluminescence and fluorescence line narrowing experiments. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions for the nonresonant and resonant luminescence. We find good agreement between experiment and theory for CdSe nanocrystallites passivated with trioctylphosphine oxide, ZnS, 4-picoline, 4(trifluoromethyl)thiophenol, and tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate. The lack of dependence of our data on surface modification is consistent with a dark exciton description of the band edge luminescence. 1997 American Institute of Physics.
ISSN: 00219606 CODEN: JCPSASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

The band edge luminescence of surface modified CdSe nanocrystallites: Probing the luminescing state
Kuno, M., Lee, J.K., Dabbousi, B.O., Mikulec, F.V., Bawendi, M.G. Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States
View references (78)

Abstract
We study the luminescence of surface modified CdSe nanocrystallites. There has been much speculation as to the origin of the band edge emission in these quantum confined structures. Because of their large surface to volume ratios it has been suggested that the emission originates from surface-related states. However, recent theory suggests that the band edge luminescence arises from an optically inactive fine structure state or "dark" exciton. To address this issue we modify the surface of CdSe nanocrystallites with a variety of organic and inorganic ligands. We then monitor the effect changing the surface has on the energetics of the band edge luminescence through photoluminescence and fluorescence line narrowing experiments. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions for the nonresonant and resonant luminescence. We find good agreement between experiment and theory for CdSe nanocrystallites passivated with trioctylphosphine oxide, ZnS, 4-picoline, 4(trifluoromethyl)thiophenol, and tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate. The lack of dependence of our data on surface modification is consistent with a dark exciton description of the band edge luminescence. 1997 American Institute of Physics.
ISSN: 00219606 CODEN: JCPSASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Structure in the lowest absorption feature of CdSe quantum dots


Norris, D.J., Bawendi, M.G. Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

Abstract
We use transient differential absorption experiments to investigate the "single dot" absorption line shape of CdSe quantum dots. We observe both a narrow (full width half maximum 5

meV) and a broad (50 meV) bleach component within the inhomogeneously broadened first absorption line of our samples. We deduce the single dot absorption line shape which is most consistent with the experimental results. This line shape, which contains structure in the lowest quantum dot absorption feature, explains the large "Stokes" shift seen in the full band edge luminescence of CdSe quantum dots. We discuss the structure within the context of several competing models. The data appear inconsistent with models which use surface states to explain the anomalous emission behavior of II-VI quantum dots. Instead they imply that exciton fine structure is observed in our samples. 1995 American Institute of Physics.
ISSN: 00219606Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Norris, D.J.; Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

(CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: Synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites
Dabbousi, B.O.a, Rodriguez-Viejo, J.b, Mikulec, F.V.a, Heine, J.R.c, Mattoussi, H.c, Ober, R.d, Jensen, K.F.bc, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, United States d Lab. de Phys. de la Matiere Cond., Collge de France, 11 Place Marcellin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
View additional affiliations View references (44)

Abstract
We report a synthesis of highly luminescent (CdSe)ZnS composite quantum dots with CdSe cores ranging in diameter from 23 to 55 . The narrow photoluminescence (fwhm 40 nm) from these composite dots spans most of the visible spectrum from blue through red with quantum yields of 30-50% at room temperature. We characterize these materials using a range of optical and structural techniques. Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies probe the effect of ZnS passivation on the electronic structure of the dots. We use a combination of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, small and wide angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy to

analyze the composite dots and determine their chemical composition, average size, size distribution, shape, and internal structure. Using a simple effective mass theory, we model the energy shift for the first excited state for (CdSe)ZnS and (CdSe)-CdS dots with varying shell thickness. Finally, we characterize the growth of ZnS on CdSe cores as locally epitaxial and determine how the structure of the ZnS shell influences the photoluminescence properties.

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Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Electron transitions; Electronic structure; Light absorption; Nanostructured materials; Passivation; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Semiconductor growth; Synthesis (chemical); X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Zinc sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Cadmium selenide; Energy shift; Small angle X ray scattering; Wavelength dispersve X ray spectroscopy; Wide angle X ray scattering Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 10895647 CODEN: JPCBFSource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Coupled composite cds-cdse and core-shell types of (cds)cdse and (cdse)cds nanoparticles
Tian, Y., Newton, T., Kotov, N.A., Guldi, D.M., Pendler, J.H. Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-4100, United States
View references (39)

Abstract
Addition of HzS and HaSe, in different proportions, to aqueous Cd(ClU4)2 solutions containing (NaPCe led to the formation of coupled composite CdS-CdSe nanoparticles. Conversely, the sequential introduction of different amounts of H2S and FSe (or H2Se and H2S) into aqueous Cd(ClO4)2 solutions containing (NaPOa produced core-shell type

(CdS)CdSe [or (CdSe)CdS] nanoparticles. These structural assignments were based on spectroscopic (absorption, transmission, excitation, and emission), electrochemical, pulse radiolytic, and electron microscopic measurements. Conditions were adjusted (by adding excess cadmium and hydroxide ions) for the maximization of excitonic fluorescence. Two emission bands were observed in the coupled and in the core-shell type mixed semiconductor nanoparticles. The first one, centered around 470 nm, was attributed to the lse-lsh excitonic emission of CdS. The second, centered around 560 nm, was proposed to arise from charge transfer of CdS to the coupled composite CdS-CdSe and core-shell type (CdS)CdSe [or (CdSe)CdS] nanoparticles. 1996 American Chemical Society.

Reaxys Database Information

ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

The colloid chemical approach to nanostructured materials


Fendler, J.H., Meldrum, F.C. Department of Chemistry, W. M. Keck Ctr. Molec. Electronics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-4100, United States

Abstract
[No abstract available]

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Colloid chemistry; Crystal growth; Doping (additives); Electric properties; Energy gap; Interfaces (materials); Langmuir Blodgett films; Monolayers; Morphology; Optical properties; Semiconducting films; Solutions Engineering uncontrolled terms: Electrooptical properties; Nanoparticles; Nanoparticulate film; Wet colloid chemistry approach Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials
ISSN: 09359648 CODEN: ADVMESource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Nucleation and growth of CdSe on ZnS quantum crystallite seeds, and vice versa, in inverse micelle media
Kortan, A.R., Hull, R., Opila, R.L., Bawendi, M.G., Steigerwald, M.L., Carroll, P.J., Brus, L.E. AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, United States

Abstract
Composite semiconductor crystallites involving CdSe grown on an ZnS seed,and vice versa, have been synthesized and "capped" with organic ligands in inverse micelle solutions. These composite particles, as well as capped seed crystallites of CdSe and ZnS, are isolated, purified, and characterized for relative atomic composition, structure, and electronic properties. The Debye X-ray scattering equation, when solved for these layered particles, shows that powder X-ray scattering is insensitive to a small foreign inclusion. A simple theoretical model for the LUMO and HOMO of layered crystallites shows that a small (<15 diameter) interior foreign seed causes only small shifts of the lowest excited state, to either higher or lower energies. The capped CdSe seed and the capped CdSe portion of the layered particle grown on a ZnSe seed undergo low-temperature (169 C) annealing to give nearsingle-crystal X-ray scattering. However, CdSe annealing is blocked by a surface ZnS layer which is ca. 4 thick. While growth to make composite particles does occur, neither particle shows evidence for epitaxial growth.

Reaxys Database Information

ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Dihexadecyl phosphate, vesicle-stabilized and in situ generated mixed CdS and ZnS semiconductor particles. Preparation and utilization for photosensitized charge separation and hydrogen generation

Youn, Hyeong-Chan, Baral, Subhash, Fendler, Janos H. Syracuse Univ, United States

Abstract
Semiconductor particles, comprised of either homogeneous mixed crystals of ZnxCd1-xS or crystals of CdS coated on the surface with ZnS, were in situ generated in and stabilized by dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles. Introduction of H2S into solutions which contained Cd2+- and Zn2+-coated DHP vesicles, at pH values higher than 9, resulted in the formation of colloidal mixed crystals of ZnxCd1-xS. Surfactant vesicles were found to regulate the composition and band gap of the ZnxCd1-xS particles produced. Addition of Zn2+ to a DHPstabilized CdS solution followed by the introduction of H2S led to the formation of ZnScoated CdS particles.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium Compounds - Mixing; Crystals - Mixing; Hydrogen - Production; Water - Reduction; Zinc Compounds - Mixing Engineering uncontrolled terms: Benzyl Alcohol; Dihexadecyl Phosphate; Semiconductor Particles; Vesicles Engineering main heading: Semiconductor Materials
ISSN: 00223654 CODEN: JPCHASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Size-quantised semiconductor cadmium chalcogenide particles in LangmuirBlodgett films


Grieser, F.ac, Furlong, D.N.a, Scoberg, D.a, Ichinose, I.b, Kimizuka, N.b, Kunitake, T.b
a b c

CSIRO Division of Chemicals and Polymers, Private Bag 10, Clayton 3168, Australia Department of Organic Synthesis, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia

Abstract
The generation of quantised-state (Q-state) particles of CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSxSe1-x, CdSxTe1-x and CdSe xTe1-x in polymerized nonacosa-10, 12-diynoic acid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films is described. The use of mixed surfactants and mixed counterions Cd2+ and Ca2+ in the LB films is shown to influence the size of the particles formed. The possible factors

controlling the particles formed. The possible factors controlling the particle size obtained in LB films are discussed.
ISSN: 09565000Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1039/FT9928802207Document Type: Artic

Chemistry and photophysics of mixed CdS/HgS colloids


Hsselbarth, A., Eychmller, A., Eichberger, R., Giersig, M., Mews, A., Weller, H. Abteilung Photochemie, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Glienicker Strasse 100, D1000 Berlin 39, Germany

Abstract
Aqueous co-colloidal systems consisting of two nanocrystalline, size-quantized groups II-VI semiconductor particles were investigated. Coating the HgS colloids with a layer of CdS leads to core-shell-like structures with electronic properties differing considerably to the sum of the separate particles. Implantation of HgS in the surface of CdS gives a new system with very colorful fluorescence properties. Evidence for a charge carrier transfer in this system is obtained from optical spectroscopy. Spectroscopic experiments, as well as electron microscopy studies, give insight into the geometrical and energetic structure and the charge carrier dynamics in such systems. 1993 American Chemical Society.
ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Impact of shell thickness on exciton and biexciton binding energies of a ZnSe/ZnS coreshell quantum dot
Sen, P.a , Chattopadhyay, S.a, Andrews, J.T.b, Sen, P.K.b
a

Laser Bhawan, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452017, India Department of Applied Physics, Shri G S Institute of Technology and Science, Indore 452003, India
b

View references (27)

Abstract
Impact of shell structure on the exciton and biexciton binding energies has been studied in a ZnSe/ZnS coreshell quantum dot using WentzelKramersBrillouin (WKB) approximation. For excitons, the binding is caused by the Coulombic as well as the confinement potentials while biexci5516856&linkType=MDLCompoundStructures&origin=recordpage&dig=ab9317409c 0d84965cbc7903fda6756a">|

Author keywords
A. Nanostructures; A. Optical materials; A. Semiconductors; D. Electronic structure

Indexed keywords
A. Nanostructures; A. Optical materials; A. Semiconductors; Anti-bonding state; Biexciton binding energy; Confinement potential; Core radius; Core-shell; Exchange and correlation effects; Exciton-binding energy; Quantum Dot; Shell structure; Shell thickness Engineering controlled terms: Electronic properties; Electronic structure; Excitons; Nanostructures; Nuclear energy; Optical materials; Potential energy; Quantum theory; Semiconducting gallium compounds; Semiconductor quantum dots; Shells (structures) Engineering main heading: Binding energy
ISSN: 00223697 CODEN: JPCSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2010.04.014Document Type: Article

Impact of shell thickness on exciton and biexciton binding energies of a ZnSe/ZnS coreshell quantum dot
Sen, P.a , Chattopadhyay, S.a, Andrews, J.T.b, Sen, P.K.b
a

Laser Bhawan, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452017, India Department of Applied Physics, Shri G S Institute of Technology and Science, Indore 452003, India
b

View references (27)

Abstract
Impact of shell structure on the exciton and biexciton binding energies has been studied in a ZnSe/ZnS coreshell quantum dot using WentzelKramersBrillouin (WKB) approximation. For excitons, the binding is caused by the Coulombic as well as the confinement potentials while

biexci5516856&linkType=MDLCompoundStructures&origin=recordpage&dig=ab9317409c 0d84965cbc7903fda6756a">|

Author keywords
A. Nanostructures; A. Optical materials; A. Semiconductors; D. Electronic structure

Indexed keywords
A. Nanostructures; A. Optical materials; A. Semiconductors; Anti-bonding state; Biexciton binding energy; Confinement potential; Core radius; Core-shell; Exchange and correlation effects; Exciton-binding energy; Quantum Dot; Shell structure; Shell thickness Engineering controlled terms: Electronic properties; Electronic structure; Excitons; Nanostructures; Nuclear energy; Optical materials; Potential energy; Quantum theory; Semiconducting gallium compounds; Semiconductor quantum dots; Shells (structures) Engineering main heading: Binding energy
ISSN: 00223697 CODEN: JPCSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2010.04.014Document Type: Article

Optical and magnetic anisotropies of the hole states in Stranski-Krastanov quantum dots
Koudinov, A.V.ab, Akimov, I.A.ab, Kusrayev, Yu.G.b, Henneberger, F.a
a

Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Institut fr Physik, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany A.F. Ioffe Phys.-Technical Institute, RAS, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
b

View references (18)

Abstract
Using the trion as a monitor we investigate the anisotropy of the single-hole state in epitaxial CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots. Heavy-light hole mixing caused by a symmetry reduction below D2d results in elliptical polarization of the optical transitions with a specific axis for each dot defined by strain and shape. In a transverse magnetic field, a quartet of strictly linearly polarized lines appears that reveals the off-diagonal coupling of both electron and hole states. Although induced by the field, the linear polarization is not related to the field orientation,

but either along or perpendicular to the dot axis seen at zero field. We find an in-plane hole g factor as large as 0.3 with distinct anisotropic behavior. 2004 The American Physical Society.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; selenium; zinc EMTREE medical terms: anisotropy; article; complex formation; electron; magnetic field; mathematical analysis; polarization; quantum dot Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; selenium, 7782-49-2; zinc, 7440-66-6
ISSN: 10980121 CODEN: PRBMDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.241305Document Type: Article

Influence of the growth procedure on the Cd distribution in CdSe/ZnSe heterostructures: Stranski-Krastanov versus two-dimensional islands
Litvinov, D.a, Rosenauer, A.a, Gerthsen, D.a, Kratzert, P.b, Rabe, M.b, Henneberger, F.b
a

Laboratorium fr Elektronenmikroskopie, Universitt Karlsruhe, D-76128Karlsruhe, Germany b Institut fr Physik, Humboldt Universitt, D-10115Berlin, Germany
View references (15)

Abstract
Molecular beam epitaxy is used to grow different types of ZnSe/CdSe/ZnSe heterostructures. The topography of the bare CdSe surface studied with in situ atomic force microscopy is compared with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy data on overgrown structures. The growth procedure critically influences morphology and Cd distribution. Only use of thermal activation after low-temperature CdSe deposition enables the accomplishment of a distinct Stranski-Krastanov (SK) morphology with three-dimensional islands with a core of pure CdSe. Interdiffusion effects during activation of the SK transition as well as overgrowth are of minor importance. 2002 American Institute of Physics.

Indexed keywords

CdSe/ZnSe; In-situ; Interdiffusion effects; Low temperatures; Thermal activation; Threedimensional islands Engineering controlled terms: Atomic force microscopy; Cadmium alloys; Cadmium compounds; Crystals; Molecular beam epitaxy; Morphology; Surface topography; Transmission electron microscopy Engineering main heading: High resolution transmission electron microscopy
ISSN: 00036951 CODEN: APPLASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1063/1.1496133Document Type: Article

Near-field optical spectroscopy of localized excitons in strained CdSe quantum dots


Flack, F.a, Samarth, N.a, Nikitin, V.b, Crowell, P.A.b, Shi, J.b, Levy, J.b, Awschalom, D.D.b
a

Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States b Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States
View references (21)

Abstract
Control of the growth dynamics during the epitaxy of coherently strained ZnSe/CdSe quantum structures results in a varied interfacial texture that broadly defines two qualitatively different regimes for exciton localization. An island growth mode produces quantum dot regions in which the lateral confinement of excitons is directly revealed through the observation of resolution-limited (full width at half maximum of <0.8 meV) emission peaks in near-field photoluminescence spectra. By contrast, layer-by-layer growth produces potential fluctuations at length scales small compared to the exciton diameter, so that the localization of excitons is driven by a random interfacial potential with a smooth density of states.
ISSN: 01631829 CODEN: PRBMDSource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence of ZnSe/ZnS quantumdot structures

Wu, Y.-H.a, Arai, K.a, Yao, T.bc


a

Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980, Japan c Jt. Res. Center for Atom Technology, Natl. Inst. for Interdisc. Adv. Res., Higashi, Tsukuba 305, Japan
b

View references (32)

Abstract
Following the previous work on formation of quantum-dot structures in ultrathin ZnSe/ZnS quantum wells, we investigate the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra in a temperature range from 20 to 100 K. The quantum-dot structure exhibits an intense but broadened photoluminescence line at low temperature. However, the emission quenches rapidly when temperature rises to around 60 K, suggesting the existence of defect-related states either in the ZnSe well layer or in the vicinity of ZnSe/ZnS interfaces. It was found that the thermal activation energy that characterizes the quench process is strongly dependent on the energy position inside the broadened emission lines, which is interpreted as originating from the different extent of lateral quantum confinement of each individual quantum dot.
ISSN: 01631829 CODEN: PRBMDSource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Synthesis and properties of biocompatible water-soluble silica-coated CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots
Gerion, D.ab , Pinaud, F.b, Williams, S.C.ab, Parak, W.J.ab, Zanchet, D.a, Weiss, S.b, Alivisatos, A.P.ab
a

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States
b

View references (36)

Abstract
We describe the synthesis of water-soluble semiconductor nanoparticles and discuss and characterize their properties. Hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals with a core size between 2 and 5 nm are embedded in a siloxane shell and functionalized with thiol and/or amine groups. Structural characterization by AFM indicates that the siloxane shell is 1-5 nm thick, yielding final particle sizes of 6-17 nm, depending on the initial CdSe core size. The silica coating does not significantly modify the optical properties of the nanocrystals. Their

fluorescence emission is about 32-35 nm fwhm and can be tuned from blue to red with quantum yields up to 18%, mainly determined by the quantum yield of the underlying CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. Silanized nanocrystals exhibit enhanced photochemical stability over organic fluorophores. They also display high stability in buffers at physiological conditions (> 150 mM NaCl). The introduction of functionalized groups onto the siloxane surface would permit the conjugation of the nanocrystals to biological entities.

Indexed keywords
Fluorophores Engineering controlled terms: Atomic force microscopy; Cadmium compounds; Fluorescence; Nanostructured materials; Particle size analysis; Photochemical reactions; Silica; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 10895647 CODEN: JPCBFSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/jp0105488Document Type: Article

Core/shell nanoparticles: Classes, properties, synthesis mechanisms, characterization, and applications ( Review )
Ghosh Chaudhuri, R., Paria, S. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa, India
View references (755)

Abstract
A study was conducted to investigate classes, properties, synthesis mechanisms, characterization, and applications of core and shell nanoparticles. It was found that concentric spherical core/shell nanoparticles were the most common where a simple spherical core particle was completely coated by a shell of a different material. Approaches for nanomaterial synthesis were broadly divided into two categories, such as top-down and bottom-up. The top-down approach used traditional workshop or microfabrication methods where externally controlled tools were used to cut, mill, and shape materials into the desired shape and order. A large variety of core/shell nanoparticles were available with a wide range of applications. The classification of all the available core/shell nanoparticles depended on their industrial applications or was based on some other property.

Indexed keywords
Core particles; Core/shell nanoparticles; Microfabrication methods; Nanomaterial; Shell nanoparticles; Synthesis mechanism; Top-down approach; Topdown Engineering controlled terms: Industrial applications; Nanoparticles Engineering main heading: Synthesis (chemical)
ISSN: 00092665 CODEN: CHREASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cr100449nDocument Type: Review

Particle size effect on phase and magnetic properties of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles
Balakrishnan, S. , Bonder, M.J., Hadjipanayis, G.C. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, United States
View references (15)

Abstract
Polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles are hi-tech materials with ample applications in the field of biomedicine for the treatment of cancer and targeted drug delivery. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of FeCl2 solution with sodium borohydride and coated with amine-terminated polyethylene glycol (aPEG). By varying the concentration of the reactants, the particle size and the crystallinity of the particles were varied. The particle size was found to increase from 6 to 20 nm and the structure becomes amorphous-like with increase in the molar concentration of the reactant. The magnetization at 1 T field (M1T) for all samples is > 45 emu/g while the coercivity is in the range of 100-350 Oe. When the ethanol-suspended particles are subjected to an alternating magnetic field of 4 Oe at 500 kHz, the temperature is increased to a maximum normalized temperature (3.8 C/mg) with decreasing particle size. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Reaxys Database Information


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Author keywords
Dark-field microscopy; Hyperthermia; Magnetic nanoparticles; Particle size distribution; Polymer coating

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: ABS resins; Amines; Coated materials; Concentration (process); Drug delivery; Ethanol; Ethylene glycol; Glycols; Grain size and shape; Magnetic fields; Magnetic materials; Magnetic properties; Magnetism; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials; Nanostructures; Organic compounds; Particle size; Plastic coatings; Polyethylene glycols; Polyethylene oxides; Polymers; Sodium Engineering uncontrolled terms: Dark-field microscopy; Hyperthermia; Magnetic nanoparticles; Particle size distribution; Polymer coating Engineering main heading: Magnetic bubbles
ISSN: 03048853 CODEN: JMMMDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2008.08.055Document Type: Article

Zinc oxide colloids with controlled size, shape, and structure


Jitianu, M., Goia, D.V. Clarkson University, Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Potsdam, NY 13699, United States
View references (40)

Abstract
Highly dispersed uniform ZnO particles of different sizes and shapes were prepared by slowly adding zinc salt and sodium hydroxide solutions in parallel into aqueous solutions of Arabic gum. Except for the very early stages, the precipitated solids consisted of a welldefined zinc oxide phase. Depending on the experimental conditions, the size of the final polycrystalline particles formed by the aggregation of nanosize entities varied from 100 to 300 nm. The reaction temperature affected both the size of the nanosize precursors and their arrangement in the final particles. At ambient temperature the primary nanoparticles, approximately 10 nm in size, formed spherical aggregates, while at 600 C they were much larger (44 nm) and combined to form rather uniform hexagonal ZnO prisms. The aspect ratio and the internal structure of the latter could be altered by changing the nature of the zinc salt, the addition rate, and the initial concentration of the reactants. Based on the findings of the

study a two-stage mechanism for the formation of uniform polycrystalline particles with welldefined geometric shapes is proposed. 2006.

Author keywords
Aggregation; Colloid; Double jet precipitation; Primary nanoparticles; Zinc oxide

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Caustic soda; Colloids; Nanoparticles; Polycrystalline materials; Rubber base adhesives; Thermal effects Engineering uncontrolled terms: Arabic gum; Double jet precipitation; Nanosize precursors; Primary nanoparticles Engineering main heading: Zinc oxide EMTREE drug terms: crystallin; gum arabic; nanoparticle; sodium hydroxide; zinc derivative; zinc oxide EMTREE medical terms: aqueous solution; article; chemical reaction; colloid; concentration (parameters); dispersion; environmental temperature; geometry; particle size; precipitation; priority journal; solid; structure analysis; temperature measurement Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: crystallin, 11046-99-4; gum arabic, 9000-01-5; sodium hydroxide, 1310-73-2; zinc oxide, 1314-13-2
ISSN: 00219797 CODEN: JCISASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2006.12.020Document Type: Article

Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications ( Review )
Gupta, A.K.a , Gupta, M.b
a

Crusade Laboratories Limited, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Rd., Glasgow G51 4TF, S., United Kingdom b Div. of Biochem. and Molec. Biology, IBLS, Davidson Bldg., Univ. Glasgow, G., United Kingdom
View references (255)

Abstract

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation, etc. All these biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high magnetization values and size smaller than 100 nm with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. In addition, these applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only non-toxic and biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. To this end, most work in this field has been done in improving the biocompatibility of the materials, but only a few scientific investigations and developments have been carried out in improving the quality of magnetic particles, their size distribution, their shape and surface in addition to characterizing them to get a protocol for the quality control of these particles. Nature of surface coatings and their subsequent geometric arrangement on the nanoparticles determine not only the overall size of the colloid but also play a significant role in biokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body. The types of specific coating, or derivatization, for these nanoparticles depend on the end application and should be chosen by keeping a particular application in mind, whether it be aimed at inflammation response or anti-cancer agents. Magnetic nanoparticles can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, or nucleotides and can be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumour using an external magnetic field or can be heated in alternating magnetic fields for use in hyperthermia. This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications. 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Cell labelling; Drug delivery; Hyperthermia; Iron oxide; Magnetic nanoparticles; MRI; Surface modification

Indexed keywords
Biodistribution; Biological fluids; Immunoassays Engineering controlled terms: Bioassay; Biocompatibility; Biomedical engineering; Detoxification; Image enhancement; Immunology; Magnetic resonance imaging; Medical imaging; Nanostructured materials; Superparamagnetism; Surface chemistry; Synthesis (chemical); Tissue culture Engineering main heading: Iron oxides EMTREE drug terms: iron oxide; nanoparticle EMTREE medical terms: biocompatibility; biomedical engineering; cell separation; chemical modification; chemical procedures; chemical reaction; detoxification; geometry; human; hyperthermia; immunoassay; nonhuman; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; particle size; physical chemistry; priority journal; review; surface property; synthesis; tissue repair

MeSH: Animals; Biomedical Engineering; Cell Culture Techniques; Crystallization; Ferric Compounds; Humans; Immunomagnetic Separation; Nanotubes; Particle Size; Surface Properties; Tissue Engineering Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: iron oxide, 1332-37-2;Ferric Compounds; ferric oxide, 1309-37-1
ISSN: 01429612 CODEN: BIMADSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.10.012 PubMed ID: 15626447Document Type: Review

Coupled composite cds-cdse and core-shell types of (cds)cdse and (cdse)cds nanoparticles
Tian, Y., Newton, T., Kotov, N.A., Guldi, D.M., Pendler, J.H. Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-4100, United States
View references (39)

Abstract
Addition of HzS and HaSe, in different proportions, to aqueous Cd(ClU4)2 solutions containing (NaPCe led to the formation of coupled composite CdS-CdSe nanoparticles. Conversely, the sequential introduction of different amounts of H2S and FSe (or H2Se and H2S) into aqueous Cd(ClO4)2 solutions containing (NaPOa produced core-shell type (CdS)CdSe [or (CdSe)CdS] nanoparticles. These structural assignments were based on spectroscopic (absorption, transmission, excitation, and emission), electrochemical, pulse radiolytic, and electron microscopic measurements. Conditions were adjusted (by adding excess cadmium and hydroxide ions) for the maximization of excitonic fluorescence. Two emission bands were observed in the coupled and in the core-shell type mixed semiconductor nanoparticles. The first one, centered around 470 nm, was attributed to the lse-lsh excitonic emission of CdS. The second, centered around 560 nm, was proposed to arise from charge transfer of CdS to the coupled composite CdS-CdSe and core-shell type (CdS)CdSe [or (CdSe)CdS] nanoparticles. 1996 American Chemical Society.

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ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Luminescence properties of CdSe quantum crystallites: Resonance between interior and surface localized states
Bawendi, M.G., Carroll, P.J., Wilson, W.L., Brus, L.E. AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, United States

Abstract
We use time-, wavelength-, temperature-, polarization-resolved luminescence to elucidate the nature of the absorbing and "band edge" luminescing states in 32 diameter wurtzite CdSe quantum crystallites. Time-resolved emission following picosecond size-selective resonant excitation of the lowest excited state shows two components - a temperature insensitive 100 ps component and a microsecond, temperature sensitive component. The emission spectrum, showing optic phonon vibrational structure, develops a 70 wave number red shift as the fast component decays. Photoselection shows the slow component to be reverse polarized at 10 K, indicating this component to be the result of a hole radiationless transition. The 100 ps emitting state is repopulated thermally as temperature increases from 10 to 50 K. All available data are interpreted by postulating strong resonant mixing between a standing wave molecular orbital delocalized inside the crystallite and intrinsic surface Se lone pair states. The apparent exciton transition is assigned to a 130 wave number wide band of eigenstates with the hole localized principally on the surface. The band contains strongly emitting "doorway" states and weakly emitting "background" states. The hole becomes mobile among these states as T increases to 50 K. It is suggested that such resonant mixing may be general in II-VI and III-V crystallites. 1992 American Institute of Physics.

Reaxys Database Information

ISSN: 00219606Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Surface effects on the optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots


Majetich, S.A., Carter, A.C. Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States

Abstract
Cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized with different functional groups attached to their surfaces. The effect of surface chemistry on the optical properties was determined through optical hole-burning and luminescence measurements. Nanosecond hole burning probed ground-state recovery due to recombination at trap states, and the results indicate that nanocrystallites with better surface passivation and stronger bonds to terminating ligands have longer ground-state recovery times. Better surface passivation and stronger bond strength were also correlated with increased luminescence intensity, which shows the relative amount of radiative recombination. The luminescence spectrum changed very little as a function of the terminating ligand, indicating little or no excitation transfer from the crystallite to the ligand for these samples. 1993 American Chemical Society.
ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Nucleation and growth of CdSe on ZnS quantum crystallite seeds, and vice versa, in inverse micelle media
Kortan, A.R., Hull, R., Opila, R.L., Bawendi, M.G., Steigerwald, M.L., Carroll, P.J., Brus, L.E. AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, United States

Abstract
Composite semiconductor crystallites involving CdSe grown on an ZnS seed,and vice versa, have been synthesized and "capped" with organic ligands in inverse micelle solutions. These composite particles, as well as capped seed crystallites of CdSe and ZnS, are isolated, purified, and characterized for relative atomic composition, structure, and electronic properties. The Debye X-ray scattering equation, when solved for these layered particles, shows that powder X-ray scattering is insensitive to a small foreign inclusion. A simple theoretical model for the LUMO and HOMO of layered crystallites shows that a small (<15 diameter) interior foreign seed causes only small shifts of the lowest excited state, to either higher or lower energies. The capped CdSe seed and the capped CdSe portion of the layered particle grown on a ZnSe seed undergo low-temperature (169 C) annealing to give nearsingle-crystal X-ray scattering. However, CdSe annealing is blocked by a surface ZnS layer which is ca. 4 thick. While growth to make composite particles does occur, neither particle shows evidence for epitaxial growth.

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ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Size-quantised semiconductor cadmium chalcogenide particles in LangmuirBlodgett films


Grieser, F.ac, Furlong, D.N.a, Scoberg, D.a, Ichinose, I.b, Kimizuka, N.b, Kunitake, T.b
a b c

CSIRO Division of Chemicals and Polymers, Private Bag 10, Clayton 3168, Australia Department of Organic Synthesis, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia

Abstract
The generation of quantised-state (Q-state) particles of CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSxSe1-x, CdSxTe1-x and CdSe xTe1-x in polymerized nonacosa-10, 12-diynoic acid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films is described. The use of mixed surfactants and mixed counterions Cd2+ and Ca2+ in the LB films is shown to influence the size of the particles formed. The possible factors controlling the particles formed. The possible factors controlling the particle size obtained in LB films are discussed.
ISSN: 09565000Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1039/FT9928802207Document Type: Article

Demonstration of a shell-core structure in layered CdSe-ZnSe small particles by x-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies
Hoener, C.F., Allan, K.A., Bard, A.J., Campion, A., Fox, M.A., Mallouk, T.E., Webber, S.E., White, J.M. Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States

Abstract
The preferential positioning of different cations near the surface or at the center of small layered CdSe-ZnSe particles believed to have a shell-core structure has been demonstrated by

the relative attenuation of the primary photoelectron and X-ray excited Auger signals from each cation. The preparation of the layered particles is described, and their absorption spectra are compared with those observed in "unstructured" particles of like composition. 1992 American Chemical Society.
ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Electroluminescence from CdSe quantumdot/polymer composites


Dabbousi, B.O.a, Bawendi, M.G.a, Onitsuka, O.b, Rubner, M.F.b
a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

Abstract
Electroluminescence is obtained from nearly monodisperse CdSe nanocrystallites (quantum dots) incorporated into thin films (1000 ) of polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) and an oxadiazole derivative (t-Bu-PBD) and sandwiched between ITO and Al electrodes. The electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra (bandwidths 40 nm) are nearly identical at room temperature and are tunable from 530 to 650 nm by varying the size of the dots. Voltage studies at 77 K indicate that while only the dots electroluminesce at the lower voltages, both the dots and the PVK matrix electroluminesce at higher applied voltages. Variable temperature studies indicate that the electroluminescence efficiency increases substantially as the films are cooled down to cryogenic temperatures. 1995 American Institute of Physics.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Electric current measurement; Electrodes; Electron tunneling; Light absorption; Nanostructured materials; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconductor quantum dots; Thin films; Vinyl resins; Voltage measurement Engineering uncontrolled terms: Cadmium selenide; Crystallite; Energy barrier; Indium tin oxide; Polymer composites; Polyvinylcarbazole Engineering main heading: Electroluminescence
ISSN: 00036951Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Nature of Photovoltaic Action in DyeSensitized Solar Cells


Cahen, D.a , Hodes, G.a , Grtzel, M.b , Guillemoles, J.F.c , Riess, I.d
a b c d

Dept. of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel LPI, Institut Chimie Physique, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Laboratoire d'Electrochimie, UMR 7575, F 75231 Paris Cedex, France Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel

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Abstract
We explain the cause for the photocurrent and photovoltage in nanocrystalline, mesoporous dye-sensitized solar cells, in terms of the separation, recombination, and transport of electronic charge as well as in terms of electron energetics. On the basis of available experimental data, we confirm that the basic cause for the photovoltage is the change in the electron concentration in the nanocrystalline electron conductor that results from photoinduced charge injection from the dye. The maximum photovoltage is given by the difference in electron energies between the redox level and the bottom of the electron conductor's conduction band, rather than by any difference in electrical potential in the cell, in the dark. Charge separation occurs because of the energetic and entropic driving forces that exist at the dye/electron conductor interface, with charge transport aided by such driving forces at the electron conductor/contact interface. The mesoporosity and nanocrystallinity of the semiconductor are important not only because of the large amount of dye that can be adsorbed on the system's very large surface, but also for two additional reasons: (1) it allows the semiconductor small particles to become almost totally depleted upon immersion in the electrolyte (allowing for large photovoltages), and (2) the proximity of the electrolyte to all particles makes screening of injected electrons, and thus their transport, possible.
ISSN: 10895647 CODEN: JPCBFSource Type: Journal Original language: English

Design of an amphiphilic polymer for nanoparticle coating and functionalization


Lin, C.-A.J.bcd, Sperling, R.A.ab, Li, J.K.de, Yang, T.-Y.c, Li, P.-Y.b, Zanella, M.ab, Chang, W.H.cd, Parak, W.J.ab
a b c d

Fachbereich Physik, Philipps Universitt Marburg, Renthof 7, 35037 Marburg, Germany Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen, Munich, Germany Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Center for Nano Bioengineering, Chung Yuan

Christian University, Taiwan e Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
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Abstract
A study was conducted to introduce an amphiphilic polymer for performing nanoparticle coating and functionalization tasks. The amphiphilic polymer used in the study is based on a poly(maleic anhydride) backbone. It was found that reaction of a fraction of the anhydride rings with alkylamines led to the formation of the hydrophobic side chains that were needed for intercalation with the hydrophobic surfactant layer on the nanoparticle surface. It was also found that alkylamines and organic molecules, with amino terminations can be formed through such reaction. It was observed that by linking some of the remaining anhydride rings with diamine linkers, the polymer molecules around each nanoparticle are interconnected, crosslinking the shell.

Author keywords
Biomolecules; Coatings; Colloids; Conjugation; Quantum dots

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Amphiphiles; Biomolecules; Functional polymers; Hydrophobicity; Reaction rates; Semiconductor quantum dots Engineering uncontrolled terms: Amphiphilic polymers; Anhydride rings; Hydrophobic surfactants; Polymer molecules Engineering main heading: Plastic coatings EMTREE drug terms: macrogol derivative; nanoparticle; polymer EMTREE medical terms: article; chemistry MeSH: Nanoparticles; Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers
ISSN: 16136810Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700654 PubMed ID: 18273855Document Type: Artic

Phosphine oxide polymer for water-soluble nanoparticles


Kim, S.-W.a, Kim, S.a, Tracy, J.B.a, Jasanoff, A.b, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Whitehead Inst. for Biomed. Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States
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Abstract
A phosphine oxide polymer was developed using bis(dichlorophosphino)ethane and poly(ethylene glycol). This polymer system was used to transfer various nanoparticles from organic solvents to water, retaining their physical properties and reactivities. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society.

Reaxys Database Information


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Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: ethane; nanoparticle; palladium; phosphine derivative; phosphine oxide derivative; polymer EMTREE medical terms: article; decomposition; hydrodynamics; molecular stability; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; particle size; polymerization; semiconductor MeSH: Gels; Nanostructures; Oxides; Phosphines; Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers; Solubility; Water Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: ethane, 74-84-0;Gels; Oxides; Phosphines; Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers; Water, 7732-18-5
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja043577f PubMed ID: 15796504Document Type: Article

Tailor-made ligands for biocompatible nanoparticles


Nikolic, M.S., Krack, M., Aleksandrovic, V., Kornowski, A., Frster, S., Weller, H. Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
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Abstract
Designer jackets: Polydentate amino-functionalized poly(ethylene oxide)s with various block lengths are synthesized and used for ligand exchange and phase transfer of quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles (see scheme; TEM images of the particles before and after the exchange are also shown). The ligands enable the transfer of the previously water-insoluble particles into aqueous media. (Figure Presented) 2006 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Author keywords
Bioapplications; Colloids; Ligand design; Nanotecnnology; Poly(ethylene oxide)

Indexed keywords
Bioapplications; Ligand design; Magnetic nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Biocompatibility; Colloids; Molecular structure; Nanotechnology; Polyethylene oxides; Semiconductor quantum dots; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: biomaterial; cadmium; cadmium derivative; cadmium sulfide; dyes, reagents, indicators, markers and buffers; ligand; macrogol derivative; nanoparticle; polyethyleneimine; selenium derivative; sulfide EMTREE medical terms: article; chemistry; nanotechnology; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy MeSH: Biocompatible Materials; Cadmium; Cadmium Compounds; Indicators and Reagents; Ligands; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Nanoparticles; Nanotechnology; Polyethylene Glycols; Polyethyleneimine; Selenium Compounds; Sulfides Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; cadmium sulfide, 1306-23-6; polyethyleneimine, 74913-72-7; sulfide, 18496-25-8;Biocompatible

Materials; Cadmium, 7440-43-9; Cadmium Compounds; Indicators and Reagents; Ligands; Polyethylene Glycols; Polyethyleneimine, 9002-98-6; Selenium Compounds; Sulfides; cadmium sulfide, 1306-23-6
ISSN: 14337851 CODEN: ACIEASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602209 PubMed ID: 16969777Document Type: Article

Conjugation of DNA to silanized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots


Parak, W.J.ab, Gerion, D.ab, Zanchet, D.b, Woerz, A.S.b, Pellegrino, T.b, Micheel, C.ab, Williams, S.C.ab, Seitz, M.c, Bruehl, R.E.ab, Bryant, Z.d, Bustamante, C.d, Bertozzi, C.R.abd, Alivisatos, A.P.ab
a

Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States b Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States c Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt, Mnchen, Germany d Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States
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Abstract
Water-soluble, highly fluorescent, silanized semiconductor nanocrystals with different surface charges were synthesized. To covalently attach the nanocrystals to biological macromolecules with a variety of mild coupling chemistries, the outermost siloxane shells were derivatized with thiol, amino, or carboxyl functional groups. Single- or double-stranded DNA was coupled to the nanocrystal surfaces by using commercially available bifunctional cross-linker. Conjugation had little effect on the optical properties of the nanocrystals, and the resulting conjugates were more stable than previously reported systems. By using the strategies developed in this study, most biomolecules can be covalently coupled to semiconductor nanocrystals. These nanocrystal-DNA conjugates promise to be a versatile tool for fluorescence imaging and probing of biological systems.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: amine; carboxyl group; DNA; double stranded DNA; functional group; silane; single stranded DNA; thiol group

EMTREE medical terms: article; colloid; conjugation; covalent bond; cross linking; derivatization; fluorescence; macromolecule; molecular probe; nanoparticle; optics; quantum mechanics; semiconductor; surface charge; synthesis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: DNA, 9007-49-2; silane, 7803-62-5
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm0107878Document Type: Article

Phase-transfer of CdSe@ZnS quantum dots using amphiphilic hyperbranched polyethylenimine


Nann, T. Freiburg Mat. Research Center (FMF), Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
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Abstract
A new, straightforward method for the phase-transfer of CdSe@ZnS quantum dots from nonpolar solvents into water and short-chained alcohols using amphiphilic hyperbranched polyethylenimine of different molar weights is suggested and the experimental procedure is discussed as well as the chemical properties of the resulting polymer-derivatised nanocrystals. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2005.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: alcohol; cadmium derivative; nanoparticle; polyethyleneimine; quantum dot; selenium; water; zinc sulfide EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal structure; molecular weight; phase transition; structure analysis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: alcohol, 64-17-5; polyethyleneimine, 74913-72-7; selenium, 7782-49-2; water, 7732-18-5; zinc sulfide, 12169-28-7, 1314-98-3
ISSN: 13597345 CODEN: CHCOFSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1039/b414807jDocument Type: Article

Hydrophobic nanocrystals coated with an amphiphilic polymer shell: A general route to water soluble nanocrystals
Pellegrino, T.ab, Manna, L.ac , Kudera, S.a, Liedl, T.a, Koktysh, D.a, Rogach, A.L.a, Keller, S.a, Rdler, J.a, Natile, G.b, Parak, W.J.a
a

Department of Physics, Center for Nanoscience, Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Munchen, Mnchen, Germany b Dept. of Chemistry and Pharmacology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy c National Nanotechnology Lab. of INFM, Via Arnesano, Lecce, Italy
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Abstract
A general strategy is described which allows for transferring hydrophobically capped nanocrystals from organic to aqueous solution by wrapping an amphiphilic polymer around the particles. In particular, high quality CoPt3, Au, CdSe/ZnS, and Fe2O3 nanocrystals have been water-solubilized in this way. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy demonstrates that monodispersity of the particles is conserved upon phase transfer to aqueous solution.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: ferric oxide; gold; platinum derivative; polymer; selenium derivative; water EMTREE medical terms: aqueous solution; article; crystal structure; gel electrophoresis; nanotechnology; solubilization; transmission electron microscopy Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: ferric oxide, 1309-37-1, 56449-54-8; gold, 744057-5; water, 7732-18-5
ISSN: 15306984Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/nl035172jDocument Type: Article

Forming biocompatible and nonaggregated nanocrystals in water using amphiphilic polymers

Yu, W.W.a, Chang, E.b, Falkner, J.C.a, Zhang, J.a, Al-Somali, A.M.a, Sayes, C.M.a, Johns, J.a, Drezek, R.b, Colvin, V.L.a
a b

Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States

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Abstract
High-quality nanocrystals formed in organic solvents can be completely solubilized in water using amphiphilic copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG. These copolymers are generated using a maleic anhydride coupling scheme that permits the coupling of a wide variety of PEG polymers, both unfunctionalized and functionalized, to hydrophobic tails. Thermogravimetric analysis, size exclusion chromatography, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy all indicate that the copolymers effectively coat the nanocrystals surfaces. The composite nanocrystal-polymer assemblies can be targeted to recognize cancer cells with Her2 receptor and are biocompatible if their surface coatings contain PEG. In the particular case of semiconductor nanocrystals (e.g., quantum dots), the materials in water have the same optical spectra as well as quantum yield as those formed initially in organic solutions. 2007 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Biocompatibility; Copolymers; Hydrophobicity; Maleic anhydride; Organic solvents; Size exclusion chromatography Engineering uncontrolled terms: Amphiphilic polymers; Organic solutions; Surface coatings Engineering main heading: Nanocrystals EMTREE drug terms: amphophile; copolymer; epidermal growth factor receptor 2; iron oxide; macrogol; maleic anhydride; nanocrystal; organic solvent; polymer; quantum dot; water EMTREE medical terms: article; biocompatibility; cancer cell; controlled study; cytotoxicity; gel permeation chromatography; human; human cell; hydrodynamics; hydrophobicity; infrared spectroscopy; material coating; molecular recognition; nanoencapsulation; semiconductor; solubilization; thermogravimetry; transmission electron microscopy MeSH: Biocompatible Materials; Crystallization; Humans; Nanoparticles; Neoplasms; Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers; Receptor, erbB-2; Surface-Active Agents; Water Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: epidermal growth factor receptor 2, 137632-09-8; iron oxide, 1332-37-2; macrogol, 25322-68-3; maleic anhydride, 108-31-6; water, 7732-18-

5;Biocompatible Materials; Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers; Receptor, erbB-2, EC 2.7.1.112; Surface-Active Agents; Water, 7732-18-5
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja067184n PubMed ID: 17309256Document Type: Article

Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction
Li, J.J.a, Wang, Y.A.bc, Guo, W.a, Keay, J.C.bd, Mishima, T.D.bd, Johnson, M.B.bd, Peng, X.ab
a

Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States b Joint MRSEC, University of Oklahoma, Fayetteville, AR 72703, United States c University of Arkansas, Nanomat. and Nanofabrication Labs., Fayetteville, AR 72703, United States d Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, United States
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Abstract
Successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) originally developed for the deposition of thin films on solid substrates from solution baths is introduced as a technique for the growth of high-quality core/shell nanocrystals of compound semiconductors. The growth of the shell was designed to grow one monolayer at a time by alternating injections of air-stable and inexpensive cationic and anionic precursors into the reaction mixture with core nanocrystals. The principles of SILAR were demonstrated by the CdSe/CdS core/shell model system using its shell-thickness-dependent optical spectra as the probes with CdO and elemental S as the precursors. For this reaction system, a relatively high temperature, about 220-240 C, was found to be essential for SILAR to fully occur. The synthesis can be readily performed on a multigram scale. The size distribution of the core/shell nanocrystals was maintained even after five monolayers of CdS shell (equivalent to about 10 times volume increase for a 3.5 nm CdSe nanocrystal) were grown onto the core nanocrystals. The epitaxial growth of the core/shell structures was verified by optical spectroscopy, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of the as-prepared CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals ranged from 20% to 40%, and the PL full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) was maintained between 23 and 26 nm, even for those nanocrystals for which the UV-vis and PL peaks red-shifted by about 50 nm from that of the core nanocrystals. Several

types of brightening phenomena were observed, some of which can further boost the PL QY of the core/shell nanocrystals. The CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals were found to be superior in comparison to the highly luminescent CdSe plain core nanocrystals. The SILAR technique reported here can also be used for the growth of complex colloidal semiconductor nanostructures, such as quantum shells and colloidal quantum wells.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Adsorption; Crystal growth; Deposition; Monolayers; Nanostructured materials; Semiconductor quantum wells; Thin films; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Precursors Engineering main heading: Cadmium compounds EMTREE drug terms: anion; cadmium chloride; cadmium oxide; cadmium sulfide; cation; nanoparticle; reagent; selenium derivative EMTREE medical terms: adsorption; article; chemical reaction; crystallization; film; high temperature; luminescence; model; particle size; photoluminescence; quantum yield; semiconductor; spectroscopy; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; ultraviolet spectroscopy; X ray diffraction Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium chloride, 10108-64-2; cadmium oxide, 1306-19-0; cadmium sulfide, 1306-23-6
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja0363563Document Type: Article

Inorganic clusters as single-source precursors for preparation of CdSe, ZnSe, and CdSe/ZnS nanomaterials
Cumberland, S.L., Hanif, K.M., Javier, A., Khitrov, G.A., Strouse, G.F. , Woessner, S.M., Yun, C.S. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States
View references (113)

Abstract

Molecular inorganic clusters, which are stable under ambient conditions, can be used as convenient single-source precursors for controlled preparation of 2-9-nm CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals and 2-5-nm nanocrystals of ZnSe. The use of a cluster-based singlesource precursor allows nanomaterial growth to be initiated at low temperature without the pyrolytic step for nucleus formation traditionally required for lyothermal growth processes. The elimination of the pyrolytic step allows greater synthetic control, slow thermodynamic growth at lower temperatures, high crystallinity, and reaction scalability (>50 g/L) while maintaining size dispersity at 5%.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; selenium derivative; zinc derivative EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical reaction; crystal structure; crystallization; low temperature; reaction analysis; synthesis; thermal analysis; thermodynamics
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm010709kD

Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals


Hines, M.A., Guyot-Sionnest, P. James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, United States
View references (27)

Abstract
We describe the synthesis of ZnS-capped CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals using organometallic reagents by a two-step single-flask method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical absorption are consistent with nanocrystals containing a core of nearly monodisperse CdSe of 27-30 A diameter with a ZnS capping 6 3 thick. The ZnS capping with a higher bandgap than CdSe passivates the core crystallite removing the surface traps. The nanocrystals exhibit strong and stable band-edge luminescence with a 50% quantum yield at room temperature. 1996 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium compounds; Characterization; Crystalline materials; Fluorescence; Nanostructured materials; Organometallics; Semiconducting intermetallics; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc compounds

Engineering uncontrolled terms: Cadmium selenide; Nanocrystals; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Semiconductor materials
ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Luminescent CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals in dendron boxes: Superior chemical, photochemical and thermal stability
Guo, W., Li, J.J., Wang, Y.A., Peng, X. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States
View references (47)

Abstract
The surface ligands, generation-3 (G3) dendrons, on each semiconductor nanocrystal were globally cross-linked through ring-closing metathesis (RCM). The global cross-linking of the dendron ligands sealed each nanocrystal in a dendron box, which yielded box-nanocrystals. Although the dendron ligands coated CdSe nanocrystals (CdSe dendron-nanocrystals) were already quite stable, the stability of CdSe box-nanocrystals against chemical, photochemical, and thermal treatments were dramatically improved in comparison to that of the original dendron-nanocrystals. Furthermore, the box structure of the ligands monolayer coupled with the stable inorganic CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals resulted in a class of extremely stable nanocrystal/ligands complexes. The band edge photoluminescence of the core/shell dendronnanocrystals and box-nanocrystals were partially remained, and could be further brightened through controlled chemical oxidation or photooxidation. Practically, the stability of the boxnanocrystals is sufficient for most fundamental studies and technical applications. The boxnanocrystals may represent a general solution for the commonly encountered instability for many types of colloidal nanocrystals. The size distribution of the empty dendron boxes formed by the dissolution of the inorganic nanocrystals in concentrated HCI was very narrow. The empty boxes as new types of polymer capsules are soluble in solution, mesoporous, and with a very thin but stable peripheral. Those nanometer-sized cavities should be of interest for many purposes in the field of solution host-guest chemistry.

Reaxys Database Information

Indexed keywords
Surface ligands Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium compounds; Crosslinking; Photoluminescence; Photooxidation; Thermodynamic stability Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; cadmium sulfide; ligand; nanoparticle; selenium derivative EMTREE medical terms: article; colloid; cross linking; crystal structure; nanotechnology; oxidation; photochemistry; photoluminescence; photooxidation; porosity; ring closing metathesis; semiconductor; surface property; synthesis; thermostability Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium sulfide, 1306-23-6
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja028469c PubMed ID: 12656625Document Type: Article

Stabilization of inorganic nanocrystals by organic dendrons


Wang, Y.A.ab, Li, J.J.a, Chen, H.b, Peng, X.a
a b

Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States Nanomaterials and Nanofabrication Laboratories, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States

View references (36)

Abstract
A series of hydrophilic organic dendron ligands was designed and synthesized for stabilizing high-quality semiconductor and noble metal nanocrystals. The focal point of the dendron ligands is chosen to be a thiol group which is a universal coordinating site for compound semiconductor and noble metal nanocrystals. The methods for binding these dendron ligands onto the surface of the nanocrystals are simple and straightforward. The thin, about 1-2 nm, but closely packed and tangled ligand shell provides sufficient stability for the "dendronprotected nanocrystals" to withstand the rigors of the coupling chemistry and the standard separation/purification techniques. The chemistry presented can be immediately applied for the development of a new generation of biomedical labeling reagents based on high-quality

semiconductor nanocrystals. It also provides an alternative path to apply noble metal nanocrystals for developing sensitive detection schemes for chemical and biochemical purposes. The concept may further provide an optimal solution for many other problems encountered in nanocrystal-related research and development, for which the stability of the nanocrystals is a critical issue. Furthermore, the experimental results confirmed that the photochemical stability of colloidal semiconductor and noble metal nanocrystals is the key for developing reliable and reproducible processing chemistry for these nanocrystals.

Reaxys Database Information


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Indexed keywords
Organic dendrons Engineering controlled terms: Biochemistry; Hydrophilicity; Photochemical reactions; Precious metals; Semiconductor materials; Separation; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: metal; nanoparticle EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal structure; ligand binding; reproducibility; semiconductor; synthesis
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja016711u PubMed ID: 11878983Document Type: Article

Improved efficiencies in light emitting diodes made with CdSe(CdS) core/shell type nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer
Schlamp, M.C., Peng, X., Alivisatos, A.P.
View references (28)

Abstract
We report experiments on bilayer light emitting diodes made with organically capped CdSe(CdS) core/shell type semiconductor nanocrystals and an electroluminescent (EL)

semiconducting polymer [poly(p-phenylenevinylene) or PPV]. The devices emit from red to green with external quantum efficiencies of up to 0.22% at brightnesses of 600 cd/m2 and current densities of 1 A/cm2. They have operating voltages as low as 4 V and lifetimes under constant current flow of hundreds of hours. Most of these numbers are significant improvements over similar devices made with CdSe nanocrystals. The devices show either nanocrystal-only EL or a combination of nanocrystal and PPV EL, depending on nanocrystal layer thickness. The nanocrystal EL is dependent on nanocrystal size. Some devices show a voltage dependent spectral output. The spectral output is consistent with a field dependent electron range in the nanocrystal layer limited by carrier trapping. 1997 American Institute of Physics.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Charge carriers; Current density; Current voltage characteristics; Electroluminescence; Electron energy levels; Electrons; Nanostructured materials; Quantum efficiency; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconducting indium compounds; Semiconducting polymers Engineering uncontrolled terms: Carrier trapping; Electroluminescent semiconducting polymer; Polyphenylenevinylene Engineering main heading: Light emitting diodes
ISSN: 00218979 CODEN: JAPIASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Improved efficiencies in light emitting diodes made with CdSe(CdS) core/shell type nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer
Schlamp, M.C., Peng, X., Alivisatos, A.P.
View references (28)

Abstract
We report experiments on bilayer light emitting diodes made with organically capped CdSe(CdS) core/shell type semiconductor nanocrystals and an electroluminescent (EL) semiconducting polymer [poly(p-phenylenevinylene) or PPV]. The devices emit from red to green with external quantum efficiencies of up to 0.22% at brightnesses of 600 cd/m2 and current densities of 1 A/cm2. They have operating voltages as low as 4 V and lifetimes under constant current flow of hundreds of hours. Most of these numbers are significant improvements over similar devices made with CdSe nanocrystals. The devices show either

nanocrystal-only EL or a combination of nanocrystal and PPV EL, depending on nanocrystal layer thickness. The nanocrystal EL is dependent on nanocrystal size. Some devices show a voltage dependent spectral output. The spectral output is consistent with a field dependent electron range in the nanocrystal layer limited by carrier trapping. 1997 American Institute of Physics.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Charge carriers; Current density; Current voltage characteristics; Electroluminescence; Electron energy levels; Electrons; Nanostructured materials; Quantum efficiency; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconducting indium compounds; Semiconducting polymers Engineering uncontrolled terms: Carrier trapping; Electroluminescent semiconducting polymer; Polyphenylenevinylene Engineering main heading: Light emitting diodes
ISSN: 00218979 CODEN: JAPIASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Alternative Routes toward High Quality CdSe Nanocrystals


Qu, L., Peng, Z.A., Peng, X. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States
View references (21)

Abstract
Different kinds of safe, common, and low-cost compounds were proven to be good solvents/precursors for the synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals. The size, shape, and crystal structure of CdSe nanocrystals synthesized by these alternative routes can be varied in a controllable manner in a very broad size range, from about 1.5 nm to above 25 nm. Without any size sorting, the size distribution of the wurtzite nanocrystals in the size range smaller than about 15 nm can be readily controlled as narrow as with 5-10% relative standard deviation. The highest photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the nanocrystals was up to 20-30%. Cd(Ac) 2 and fatty acids were found to be the most versatile cadmium precursor and solvent/ligand, respectively. The synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals in the current systems is not feasible when the system contains any anions from a strong acid, either in the form of a cadmium precursor or as an added cadmium ligand. The experimental results indicate that the synthesis of high quality colloidal nanocrystals is far less delicate than it has been thought to be.

ISSN: 15306984Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/nl0155532Document Type: Article

Synthesis and characterization of MSe (M=Zn, Cd) nanorods by a new solvothermal method
Wang, W.ab , Geng, Y.b, Yan, P.b, Liu, F.b, Xie, Y.b, Qian, Y.ab
a b

Structure Research Laboratory, Univ. Sci. Technol. of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China Department of Chemistry, Univ. Sci. Technol. of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

View references (22)

Abstract
The synthesis of one-dimensional nanocrystalline materials is important for scientific research. Here a new solvothermal route to MSe (M=Zn, Cd) nanorods is reported. ZnCl2 (CdCl2), Se and Na were kept in an autoclave at 80-100C for 4-6 h, and ethylenediamine was chosen as solvent. XRD and TEM were used to characterize the as-prepared MSe (M=Zn,Cd) nanorods. The results showed that diameters of the ZnSe nanorods varied from 40 to 70 nm and the lengths from 1.5 to 3 m. The diameters of the CdSe nanorods ranged from 8 to 20 nm and the lengths ranged from 150 to 500 nm. The solvent affected the product quality and morphology.

Author keywords
Cadmium compounds; Nanorod; Selenide compounds; Zinc compounds
ISSN: 13877003 CODEN: ICCOFSource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Preparation of cadmium selenide-polyolefin composites from functional phosphine oxides and ruthenium-based metathesis
Skaff, H., Ilker, M.F., Coughlin, E.B., Emrick, T. Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts, 120 Governors Drive, Amherst, MA 01003, United States

View references (33)

Abstract
Cadmium selenide nanoparticles, prepared by known methods, were stabilized with functional phosphine oxide 1, then used to support the polymerization of cyclic olefins radially outward from the surface by ruthenium-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The conversion of compound 1 into the new metathesis catalyst 3 by carbene exchange and the subsequent polymerization of cyclic olefins were observed spectroscopically by 1H NMR to afford for example CdSe-polycyclooctene composite 6. Transmission electron micrographs on thin films of these composites showed good nanoparticle dispersion. This is in stark contrast to the substantial nanoparticle aggregation observed when similar polymerizations were performed in the presence of conventional TOPO-covered nanoparticles. The methods reported here to prepare composite product 6 are applicable to other cyclic olefins, and suggest that this chemistry will be useful for incorporating CdSe nanoparticles into a wide variety of polymer matrices.

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Indexed keywords
Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) Engineering controlled terms: Agglomeration; Catalysts; Nanostructured materials; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Olefins; Polymerization; Ruthenium compounds; Thin films; Transmission electron microscopy Engineering main heading: Composite materials EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; nanoparticle; phosphine oxide derivative; polyolefin; ruthenium; selenide EMTREE medical terms: article; catalysis; polymerization; proton nuclear magnetic resonance; transmission electron microscopy MeSH: Alkenes; Cadmium Compounds; Hydrocarbons, Cyclic; Nanotechnology; Octanes; Organophosphorus Compounds; Selenium Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; ruthenium, 7440-18-8;Alkenes; Cadmium Compounds; Hydrocarbons, Cyclic; Octanes; Organophosphorus Compounds; Selenium Compounds; cadmium selenide, 1306-24-7; trioctyl phosphine oxide, 78-50-2
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English

DOI: 10.1021/ja012576+ PubMed ID: 12010046Document Type: Article

Preparation of cadmium selenide-polyolefin composites from functional phosphine oxides and ruthenium-based metathesis
Skaff, H., Ilker, M.F., Coughlin, E.B., Emrick, T. Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts, 120 Governors Drive, Amherst, MA 01003, United States
View references (33)

Abstract
Cadmium selenide nanoparticles, prepared by known methods, were stabilized with functional phosphine oxide 1, then used to support the polymerization of cyclic olefins radially outward from the surface by ruthenium-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The conversion of compound 1 into the new metathesis catalyst 3 by carbene exchange and the subsequent polymerization of cyclic olefins were observed spectroscopically by 1H NMR to afford for example CdSe-polycyclooctene composite 6. Transmission electron micrographs on thin films of these composites showed good nanoparticle dispersion. This is in stark contrast to the substantial nanoparticle aggregation observed when similar polymerizations were performed in the presence of conventional TOPO-covered nanoparticles. The methods reported here to prepare composite product 6 are applicable to other cyclic olefins, and suggest that this chemistry will be useful for incorporating CdSe nanoparticles into a wide variety of polymer matrices.

Reaxys Database Information


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Indexed keywords
Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) Engineering controlled terms: Agglomeration; Catalysts; Nanostructured materials; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Olefins; Polymerization; Ruthenium compounds; Thin films; Transmission electron microscopy Engineering main heading: Composite materials

EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; nanoparticle; phosphine oxide derivative; polyolefin; ruthenium; selenide EMTREE medical terms: article; catalysis; polymerization; proton nuclear magnetic resonance; transmission electron microscopy MeSH: Alkenes; Cadmium Compounds; Hydrocarbons, Cyclic; Nanotechnology; Octanes; Organophosphorus Compounds; Selenium Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; ruthenium, 7440-18-8;Alkenes; Cadmium Compounds; Hydrocarbons, Cyclic; Octanes; Organophosphorus Compounds; Selenium Compounds; cadmium selenide, 1306-24-7; trioctyl phosphine oxide, 78-50-2
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja012576+

Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites
Murray, C.B., Norris, D.J., Bawendi, M.G. Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

Abstract
A simple route to the production of high-quality CdE (E = S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites is presented. Crystallites from 12 to 115 in diameter with consistent crystal structure, surface denvatization, and a high degree of monodispersity are prepared in a single reaction. The synthesis is based on the pyrolysis of organometallic reagents by injection into a hot coordinating solvent. This provides temporally discrete nucleation and permits controlled growth of macroscopic quantities of nanocrystallites. Size selective precipitation of crystallites from portions of the growth solution isolates samples with narrow size distributions (<5% rms in diameter). High sample quality results in sharp absorption features and strong "band-edge" emission which is tunable with particle size and choice of material. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction in combination with computer simulations indicate the presence of bulk structural properties in crystallites as small as 20 in diameter.

Reaxys Database Information

| ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals


Alivisatos, A.P. Department of Chemistry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States

Abstract
Semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit a wide range of size-dependent properties. Variations in fundamental characteristics ranging from phase transitions to electrical conductivity can be induced by controlling the size of the crystals. The present status and new opportunities for research in this area of materials physical chemistry are reviewed. 1996 American Chemical Society.
ISSN: 00223654Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Alivisatos, A.P.; Department of Chemistry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States Copyright 2006 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Small-particle research: Physicochemical properties of extremely small colloidal metal and semiconductor particles ( Review )
Henglein, A. Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH, Bereich Strahlenchemie, 1000 Berlin 39, Germany

Abstract

[No abstract available]


ISSN: 00092665Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Review

Chemical approaches to semiconductor nanocrystals


Brus, L. Chemistry Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, United States
View references (46)

Abstract
I discuss the chemistry and physics of semiconductor nanocrystals. Various physical size regimes are outlined in both spectroscopic and kinetic properties. There is a solvation effect on electron transport kinetics due to the electric field of the moving carrier. The importance of chemical synthesis is emphasized with regard to both single nanocrystals, and selfassembled 'supercrystals' of nanocrystals. The potential metastability of nanocrystals at standard temperature and pressure (STP), in unusual crystal structures thermodynamically stable only at high pressure, is suggested. 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
A. nanostructures; B. chemical synthesis; D. high pressure

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Carrier mobility; Crystal structure; Electric field effects; Electron transport properties; High pressure effects in solids; Synthesis (chemical); Thermodynamic stability Engineering uncontrolled terms: Semiconductor nanocrystals; Solvation coefficient Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials

Self-assembly of CdSe-ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein

Mattoussi, H.a, Matthew Mauro, J.b, Goldman, E.R.c, Anderson, G.P.b, Sundar, V.C.d, Mikulec, F.V.d, Bawendi, M.G.d
a

Optical Sciences Division, Code 5611, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States b Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States c Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Washington DC 20007, United States d Center for Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States
View additional affiliations View references (52)

Abstract
A novel and direct method is described for conjugating protein molecules to luminescent CdSe - ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (Quantum Dots) for use as bioactive fluorescent probes in sensing, imaging, immunoassay, and other diagnostics applications. The approach makes use of a chimeric fusion protein designed to electrostatically bind to the oppositely charged surface of capped colloidal quantum dots (QDs). Preparation of protein-modified QD dispersions with high quantum yield, little or no particle aggregation, and retention of biological activity was achieved. Combining the advantages of lipoic acid capped CdSe-ZnS quantum dots (photochemical stability, a wide range of size-dependent emission wavelengths, and aqueous compatibility) with facile electrostatic conjugation of bioactive proteins, this type of hybrid bioinorganic conjugate represents a powerful fluorescent tracking tool for diverse applications. The design and preparation of a model QD/ protein conjugate based on E. coli Maltose Binding Protein is described, together with functional characterization of this new type of nanoassembly using luminescence, laser scanning microscopy, and bioassay.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; recombinant protein; selenium derivative; zinc sulfide EMTREE medical terms: article; bioassay; chimera; complex formation; Escherichia coli; genetic engineering; laser microscopy; luminescence; nonhuman; photochemistry; protein modification; synthesis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: zinc sulfide, 12169-28-7, 1314-98-3
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja002535yDocument Type: Article

Electroluminescence from heterostructures of poly(phenylene vinylene) and inorganic CdSe nanocrystals


Mattoussi, H.ac , Radzilowski, L.H.a, Dabbousi, B.O.bd, Thomas, E.L.a, Bawendi, M.G.b, Rubner, M.F.a
a

Dept. of Mat. Sci. and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States b Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States c Naval Research Laboratory, Optical Sciences Division, Washington, DC 20375, United States d Aramco, Dahran, Saudi Arabia
View additional affiliations View references (59)

Abstract
Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) from heterostructure thin films made of organic poly (phenylene vinylene), PPV, and inorganic semiconductor CdSe nanocrystals are investigated. In these devices, the organic PPV structure is built next to an indium tin oxide anode, using the technique of molecular layer-by-layer sequential adsorption, and serves primarily as the hole transport layer. The inorganic layer, adjacent to an Al electrode, is made of spin cast CdSe nanocrystals, passivated with either organic groups or with a wider band gap semiconductor, e.g., ZnS in the present case. We find that the electroluminescence signal is almost exclusively generated within the inorganic layer, with a very weak contribution from the PPV layer at higher applied voltage. The performance of these heterostructure devices is influenced by the thickness of the dot layer. Lifetime tests reveal promising stability, with devices operating continuously over 50-100 h. Values of the external quantum efficiency, ext, as high as 0.1% are reached. The quantum efficiency is not enhanced by the presence of ZnS overcoating, as opposed to the observed increase in the PL quantum yield. This reflects a difference in the efficiency of charge injection into the nanocrystals due to the ZnS overlayer. 1998 American Institute of Physics.
ISSN: 00218979 CODEN: JAPIASource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell Nanocrystals of Low Size Dispersion


Reiss, P. , Bleuse, J., Pron, A.

CEA Grenoble, Dpartement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matire Condense, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
View references (28)

Abstract
A simple synthetic route for the preparation of high-quality CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals without the use of any pyrophoric organometallic precursors is presented. Effective surface passivation of monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals is achieved by overcoating them with a ZnSe shell, applying zinc stearate as a zinc source. The resulting core/shell nanocrystals exhibit high room temperature photoluminescence efficiencies (60-85%) in organic solvents as well as in water after functionalization with mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA).
ISSN: 15306984Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/nl025596yDocument Type: Article

Experimental determination of the extinction coefficient of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS nanocrystals
Yu, W.W., Qu, L., Guo, W., Peng, X. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States
View references (33)

Abstract
The extinction coefficient per mole of nanocrystals at the first exitonic absorption peak, , for high-quality CdTe, CdSe, and CdS nanocrystals was found to be strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, between a square and a cubic dependence. The measurements were carried out using either nanocrystals purified with monitored purification procedures or nanocrystals prepared through controlled etching methods. The nature of the surface ligands, the refractive index of the solvents, the PL quantum yield of the nanocrystals, the methods used for the synthesis of the nanocrystals, and the temperature for the measurements all did not show detectable influence on the extinction coefficient for a given sized nanocrystal within experimental error.

Indexed keywords
Exitonic absorption

Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium compounds; Etching; Light absorption; Purification; Refractive index; Solvents; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; cadmium sulfide; ligand; selenium; solvent; tellurium EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal; extraction; molecular dynamics; nanoparticle; precipitation; purification; refraction index; synthesis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; cadmium sulfide, 1306-23-6; selenium, 7782-49-2; tellurium, 13494-80-9
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm034081kDocument Type: Article

Water-soluble pegylated quantum dots: From a composite hexagonal phase to isolated micelles
Boulmedais, F.ag, Bauchat, P.a, Brienne, M.J.b, Arnal, I.c, Artzner, F.d, Gacoin, T.e, Dahan, M.f, Marchi-Artzner, V.a
a

Universit de Rennes 1, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex, France b Chimie des Interactions Molculaires, CNRS UPR 285, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, F75005 Paris, France c Universit de Rennes 1, Interactions Cellulaires et Molculaires, Campus Beaulieu, F35042 Rennes, Cedex, France d Universit de Rennes 1, Groupe Matire Condense et Matriaux, CNRS UMR 6626, F35042 Rennes Cedex, France e Laboratoire de Physique de la Matire Condense, CNRS UMR 7643, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France f Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS UMR 8552, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris, France g Institut Charles Sadron, CNRS UPR22, 6 rue Boussingault, F-67083 Strasbourg Cedex, France
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Abstract

We present a simple method based on the dispersion of fluorescent quantum dots (QD) into a liquid crystal phase that provides either nanostructured material or isolated QD micelles depending on water concentration. The liquid-crystal phase was obtained by using a gallate amphiphile with a poly(ethylene glycol) chain as the polar headgroup, named I. The hydration of QD/I mixtures resulted in the formation of a composite hexagonal phase identified by small-angle X-ray scattering and by polarized light and fluorescence optical microscopy, showing a homogeneous distribution of fluorescence within hexagonal phase. This composite mesophase can be converted into isolated QD-I micelles by dilution in water. The fluorescent QD-I micelles, purified by size exclusion chromatography, are well monodisperse with a hydrodynamic diameter of 20-30 nm. Moreover, these QD do not show any nonspecific adsorption on lipid or cell membranes. By simply adjusting the water content, the PEG gallate amphiphile I provides a simple method to prepare a self-organized composite phase or pegylated water soluble QD micelles for biological applications. 2006 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Isolated micelles; Liquid crystal phase; Pegylated quantum dots Engineering controlled terms: Hydrodynamics; Light polarization; Lipids; Liquid crystals; Micelles; Size exclusion chromatography; X ray scattering Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots EMTREE drug terms: lipid; macrogol derivative; quantum dot; water EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical structure; chemistry; electron; micelle; solubility; spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy MeSH: Electrons; Lipids; Micelles; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Molecular Structure; Polyethylene Glycols; Quantum Dots; Solubility; Spectrum Analysis; Water Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: lipid, 66455-18-3; water, 7732-18-5;Lipids; Micelles; Polyethylene Glycols; Water, 7732-18-5
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la061849h PubMed ID: 17073514Document Type: Article

Aggregated CdS quantum dots: Host of biomolecular ligands


Narayanan, S.S., Pal, S.K.

Unit for Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemical, Biological and Macromolecular Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098, India
View references (34)

Abstract
In this contribution, we have studied structural and photophysical properties of aggregated CdS quantum dots (QDs) capped with 2-mercaptoethanol in aqueous medium. The hydrodynamic diameter of the nanostructures in aqueous solution was found to be 160 nm with the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique, which is in close agreement with atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies (diameter 150 nm). However, the UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm the average particle size (QD) in the nanoaggregate to be 4.0 0.5 nm. The steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence studies on the QDs further confirm preservation of electronic band structure of the QDs in the nanoaggregate. To study the nature of the nanoaggregate we have used small fluorescent probes, which are widely used as biomolecular ligands (2,6-p-toluidinonaphthalene sulfonate (TNS) and Oxazine 1), and found the pores of the aggregate to be hydrophobic in nature. The significantly large spectral overlap of the host quantum dots (donor) with that of the guest fluorescent probe Oxazine 1 (acceptor) allows us to carry out Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies to estimate average donor-acceptor distance in the nanostructure, found to be 25 . The quantum dot aggregate and the characterization techniques reported here could have implications in the future application of the QD-nanoaggregate as host of small ligand molecules of biological interest. 2006 American Chemical Society.

Reaxys Database Information

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Atomic force microscopy; Band structure; Cadmium sulfide; Hydrodynamics; Molecular structure; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction Engineering uncontrolled terms: Dynamic light scattering (DLS); Ligand molecules; Nanoaggregates Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; cadmium sulfate; ligand; quantum dot; sulfate; thiol derivative EMTREE medical terms: article; chemistry; infrared spectroscopy; metabolism; temperature; transmission electron microscopy

MeSH: Cadmium Compounds; Ligands; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Quantum Dots; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared; Sulfates; Sulfhydryl Compounds; Temperature Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium sulfate, 10124-36-4; sulfate, 14808-798; thiol derivative, 13940-21-1;Cadmium Compounds; cadmium sulfate, 10124-36-4; Ligands; Sulfates; Sulfhydryl Compounds
ISSN: 15206106 CODEN: JPCBFSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/jp064180w PubMed ID: 17134194Document Type: Article

Electrolyte effects on CdS nanocrystal formation in chelate polymer particles: Optical and distribution properties
Yao, H., Takada, Y., Kitamura, N. Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060, Japan
View references (33)

Abstract
CdS nanocrystals were prepared in chelate polymer microparticles, and characterizations of the CdS/ polymer hybrids were performed by absorption microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, and transmission electron microscope measurements. When CdS nanocrystals were prepared by the reaction of Cd2+-polymer beads with a diluted HS- solution, formation of CdS was confined to the surface layer of the host polymer particle with a layer-by-layer size distribution. A preparation of CdS in the presence of NaCl (0.5 M) gave CdS with a smaller mean diameter, as compared to a sample synthesized without NaCl. The addition of NaCl also leads to a change in dispersion properties of CdS as well as in the time profile of CdS formation; the initial rate of CdS nanocrystal formation was accelerated by the addition of NaCl. The CdS nanocrystal formation rate was proportional to the square root of the reaction time, indicating that diffusion of HS- into the polymer particles controlled both optical and distribution characteristics of CdS. The results were explained in terms of a Donnan equilibrium model.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Chelation; Crystals; Mathematical models; Optical microscopy; Organic polymers; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Sodium chloride; Transmission electron microscopy

Engineering uncontrolled terms: Chelate polymers; Sulfides Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

Silica encapsulation of quantum dots and metal clusters


Mulvaney, P.a , Liz-Marzn, L.M.b, Giersig, M.c, Ung, T.a
a b c

School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC. 3052, Australia Depto de Quimica Fsica, Universidade de Vigo, E-36200 Vigo, Spain Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienickerstr. 100, Berlin 14109, Germany

View references (122)

Abstract
The use of nanometre thick silica shells as a means to stabilize metal clusters and semiconductor particles is discussed, and its potential advantages over conventional organic capping agents are presented. Shell deposition depends on control of the double layer potential, and requires priming of the core particle surface. Chemical reactions are possible within the core, via diffusion of reactants through the shell layer. Quantum dots can be stabilized against photochemical degradation through silica deposition, whilst retaining strong fluorescence quantum yields and their size dependent optical properties. Ordered 3D and 2D arrays of a macroscopic size with uniform particle spacing can be created. Thin colloid films can also be created with well-defined interparticle spacing, allowing controlled coupling of exciton and surface plasmon modes to be investigated. A number of future core shell nanocomposite structures are postulated, including quantum bubbles and single electron capacitors based on Au@SiO2.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: silicon dioxide EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical reaction; colloid; crystal structure; diffusion; dissolution; metal binding; nanoparticle; quantitative diagnosis; quantum chemistry; semiconductor; structure analysis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: silicon dioxide, 10279-57-9, 14464-46-1, 1480860-7, 15468-32-3, 60676-86-0, 7631-86-9
ISSN: 09599428 CODEN: JMACESource Type: Journal Original language: English

DOI: 10.1039/b000136hDocument Type: Article

Formation and Stability of Size-, Shape-, and Structure-Controlled CdTe Nanocrystals: Ligand Effects on Monomers and Nanocrystals
Yu, W.W., Wang, Y.A., Peng, X. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States
View references (49)

Abstract
The formation of nearly monodisperse CdTe nanocrystals-dots (either zinc blende or wurtzite crystal structure), rods, and tetrapods-in a noncoordinating solvent was studied. Several strong ligand effects were observed, and the ligand effects on the monomers were found to play a more important role than the ligand effects on the nanocrystals. Experimental results suggest that, instead of monomer concentrations, monomer activities is a more relevant term for understanding the formation of nanocrystals because strong ligands always exist in the reaction solutions. The bonding strength and the steric effects of ligands dramatically affect the reactivity of monomers and are considered as contributors to the activity coefficients of monomers. The overall optical properties of the as-prepared CdTe nanocrystals are better than those reported in the literature and comparable to the standard CdSe nanocrystal system. The configuration of the hydrocarbon chains of the ligands on the surface of each nanocrystal also plays a critical role in determining the stability of CdTe nanocrystals.

Indexed keywords
Ligands Engineering controlled terms: Chemical bonds; Crystal structure; Hydrocarbons; Optical properties; Solvents Engineering main heading: Monomers EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; hydrocarbon; monomer; tellurium EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical analysis; crystal structure; crystallization; data analysis; ligand binding; nanoparticle; particle size; protein stability; proton nuclear magnetic resonance; semiconductor; structure analysis

Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; tellurium, 13494-80-9
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm034729tDocument Type: Article

Cysteine-functionalized polyaspartic acid: A polymer for coating and bioconjugation of nanoparticles and quantum dots
Jana, N.R., Erathodiyil, N., Jiang, J., Ying, J.Y. Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos 138669, Singapore
View references (59)

Abstract
We have synthesized a biocompatible polyaspartic acid-based polymer (molecular weight 15 000-25 000) with cysteine on its backbone for use as a capping ligand for functionalized Au, Ag, and CdSe@ZnS nanoparticles. Nearly monodisperse, hydrophobic Au and Ag nanoparticles and CdSe@ZnS quantum dots were first prepared in organic solvents via conventional synthesis and then ligand exchanged to derive polymer-coated water-soluble nanoparticles. Multiple thiol groups in the polymer backbone conferred excellent protection against aggregation of the nanoparticles, and the carboxylic acid groups in the polymer provided the possibility of covalent binding with antibodies. Compared to the conventional thiol-based ligands, this polymer coating led to superior colloidal stability under the experimental conditions involved in the bioconjugation and purification steps. Goat antihuman-IgG (anti-h-IgG) and antimouse epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-m-EGFR) antibodies were conjugated with the polymer-coated nanoparticles and successfully applied to protein detection. This polymer coating exhibited minimal nonspecific interaction with cells and could be broadly applied to cell labeling. 2010 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Ag nanoparticle; Bio-conjugation; Capping ligands; Carboxylic acid groups; CdSe-ZnS; Cell labeling; Coated nanoparticles; Colloidal Stability; Covalent binding; Epidermal growth factor receptors; Experimental conditions; Functionalized; Monodisperse; Non-specific interactions; Polyaspartic acid; Polymer backbones; Polymer Coating; Protein detection; Quantum Dot; Thiol groups; Water-soluble nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Antibodies; Cadmium alloys; Cadmium compounds; Carboxylic acids; Chelation; Chemical detection; Functional polymers; Gold; Ligands;

Nanoparticles; Organic acids; Organic solvents; Polymers; Semiconductor quantum dots; Silver; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Plastic coatings EMTREE drug terms: biomaterial; cysteine; epidermal growth factor receptor; immobilized antibody; immunoglobulin G; peptide; polyaspartic acid; quantum dot EMTREE medical terms: animal; article; chemistry; human; immunology; mouse; tumor cell line MeSH: Animals; Antibodies, Immobilized; Biocompatible Materials; Cell Line, Tumor; Cysteine; Humans; Immunoglobulin G; Mice; Peptides; Quantum Dots; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cysteine, 4371-52-2, 52-89-1, 52-90-4; immunoglobulin G, 97794-27-9; polyaspartic acid, 25608-40-6, 26063-13-8;Antibodies, Immobilized; Biocompatible Materials; Cysteine, 52-90-4; Immunoglobulin G; Peptides; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor, 2.7.10.1; polyaspartate, 26063-13-8
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la903965t PubMed ID: 20112990Document Type: Article View in table layout

References (59)

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1 Murphy, C.J., Jana, N.R.

Design and characterization of lysine crosslinked mercapto-acid biocompatible quantum dots


Jiang, W., Mardyani, S., Fischer, H., Chan, W.C.W.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterial and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 4 Taddle Creek Road, 408, Toronto, Ont. M5S 3G9, Canada
View references (27)

Abstract
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new generation of inorganic probes with advantageous properties over traditional organic-only probes for biological applications. A major hurdle in the use of QDs for biology is the inability of the hydrophobically synthesized QDs to interface with aqueous environments. There have been tremendous advances in the surface modification of hydrophobic QDs. However, none of the current techniques fits all of the criteria for an ideal QD coating for biological applications (e.g., maintain the small size and optical properties of QDs, have low nonspecific binding) while providing cost-effective, easy preparation on a large scale. We developed a highly stable biocompatible coating for the surface of ZnS-capped CdSe QDs that maintains all of the hydrophobic-coated QD optical properties. These QDs are prepared by first coating them with mercaptoundecanoic acid and are further cross-linked with the amino acid lysine in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to form a stable hydrophilic shell. The surface contains carboxylic acid and amino functional groups for conjugation to biomolecules. Using a dynamic light scattering method, we found that the hydrodynamic diameter of these surface-modified QDs is approximately 20 nm. We demonstrated the feasibility of preparing >400 mg of the biocompatible QDs and the successful conjugation of proteins onto their surface. Finally, we characterized the QD stability and optical properties in various biologically relevant environments. 2006 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Amino acids; Biocompatibility; Characterization; Crosslinking; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering uncontrolled terms: Biomolecules; Inorganic probes; Lysine Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm051393+Document Type: Article

Quantum dots with multivalent and compact polymer coatings for efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer and self-assembled biotagging

Duan, H.a , Kuang, M.b , Wang, Y.A.b


a

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457, Singapore b Ocean Nanotech, 2143 Worth Lane, Springdale, AR 72764, United States
View references (35)

Abstract
Multicolor quantum dot (QD) probes with compact sizes, excellent colloidal stability, and high quantum yields were developed by using a new class of multivalent polymer ligands based on poly(maleic anhydride) homopolymer. These size-minimized QDs allow facile construct of bioconjugated QDs through metal-affinity chelating between polyhistidine (His) tags of recombinant proteins and QD surfaces. Our results have shown that fluorescent protein, for example, mCherry with His-tag, is able to assemble on the QD surface and give rise to highly efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the QD donor and the fluorescent protein acceptor. Our results suggest that using this new class of compact QD probes leads to significant enhancement of FRET efficiency in comparison with the bulky amphiphilic polymer encapsulated QDs. We have also found that self-assembled QD probes can be successfully used for immunofluorescence cell staining, indicating that this self-assembled biotagging strategy is both versatile and robust in nature. 2010 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Amphiphilic polymers; Colloidal Stability; Compact size; Fluorescence resonance energy transfer; Fluorescent protein; His-tag; Homopolymers; Multivalent polymers; Polyhistidine; Polymer Coating; Quantum Dot; Quantum dots; Recombinant protein; Self-assembled Engineering controlled terms: Energy transfer; Maleic anhydride; Optical waveguides; Polymers; Probes; Proteins; Quantum optics; Resonance; Semiconductor quantum dots Engineering main heading: Fluorescence
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm100442xDocument Type: Article

Synthesis of compact multidentate ligands to prepare stable hydrophilic quantum dot fluorophores
Uyeda, H.T.a, Medintz, I.L.b, Jaiswal, J.K.c, Simon, S.M.c, Mattoussi, H.a

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Division of Optical Sciences, Washington, DC 20375, United States b U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Ctr. for Bio/Molecular Sci. and Eng., Washington, DC 20375, United States c Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics, Rockefeller University, Box 304, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, United States
View references (52)

Abstract
We describe a simple and versatile scheme to prepare an array of heterofunctional multidentate ligands that permit strong and stable interactions with colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) and render them soluble in aqueous environments. These ligands were synthesized by reacting various chain length poly(ethylene glycols) with thioctic acid, followed by ring opening of the dithiolane moiety, creating a bidentate thiol motif with enhanced affinity for CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs. Functionalization with these ligands permits processability of the nanocrystals not only in aqueous but also in many other polar solvents. These ligands provide a straightforward means of preparing QDs that exhibit greater resistance to environmental changes, making them more amenable for use in live cell imaging and other biotechnological applications. 2005 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Colloids; Electric resistance; Nanostructured materials; Polyethylene glycols; Semiconductor quantum dots; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering uncontrolled terms: Chain lengths; Fluorophores; Multidentate ligands; Polar solvents Engineering main heading: Fluorine containing polymers EMTREE drug terms: amylose; cadmium; dihydrolipoate; ligand; macrogol; quantum dot; resin; selenium; sulfur; thioctic acid; valeric acid derivative; zinc EMTREE medical terms: animal cell; article; carbon nuclear magnetic resonance; crystal; HeLa cell; human; human cell; hydrophilicity; materials; nanotechnology; nonhuman; proton nuclear magnetic resonance; semiconductor; synthesis MeSH: Biotechnology; Cadmium Compounds; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer; Fluorescent Dyes; Hela Cells; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Ligands; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular; Organophosphorus Compounds; Polyethylene Glycols; Quantum Dots; Selenium Compounds; Sulfides; Thioctic Acid; Zinc Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: amylose, 9005-82-7; cadmium, 22537-48-0, 744043-9; dihydrolipoate, 462-20-4; macrogol, 25322-68-3; selenium, 7782-49-2; sulfur, 1398157-2, 7704-34-9; thioctic acid, 1077-29-8, 1200-22-2, 2319-84-8, 62-46-4; zinc, 7440-666;Cadmium Compounds; cadmium selenide, 1306-24-7; dihydrolipoic acid, 462-20-4;

Fluorescent Dyes; Ligands; Organophosphorus Compounds; Polyethylene Glycols; Selenium Compounds; Sulfides; Thioctic Acid, 62-46-4; trioctyl phosphine oxide, 78-50-2; Zinc Compounds; zinc sulfide, 1314-98-3
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja044031w PubMed ID: 15771523Document Type: Article View in table layout

References (52)

Oleic acid coating on the monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles


Zhang, L. , He, R., Gu, H.-C. Institute for Micro and Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200030 Shanghai, China
View references (29)

Abstract
Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles provide a more factual model to study the interface interactions between the surfactants and magnetic nanoparticles. Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles of 7 and 19 nm coated with oleic acid (OA) were prepared by the seedmediated high temperature thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) precursor method. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal that the OA molecules were adsorbed on the magnetic nanoparticles by chemisorption way. Analyses of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows the OA provided the particles with better isolation and dispersibility. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement results suggest that there were two kinds of different binding energies between the OA molecules and the magnetic nanoparticles. The cover density of OA molecules on the particle surface was significantly various with the size of magnetite nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements of the magnetite nanoparticles show the surface coating reduced the interactions among the nanoparticles. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Chemisorption; Magnetite nanoparticles; Monodisperse; Oleic acid

Indexed keywords

Engineering controlled terms: Chemisorption; Coating techniques; Magnetic variables measurement; Magnetite; Nanostructured materials; Transmission electron microscopy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Magnetite nanoparticles; Monodisperse; Surface coating Engineering main heading: Oleic acid
ISSN: 01694332 CODEN: ASUSESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.05.023Document Type: Article

Hydrophobic nanocrystals coated with an amphiphilic polymer shell: A general route to water soluble nanocrystals
Pellegrino, T.ab, Manna, L.ac , Kudera, S.a, Liedl, T.a, Koktysh, D.a, Rogach, A.L.a, Keller, S.a, Rdler, J.a, Natile, G.b, Parak, W.J.a
a

Department of Physics, Center for Nanoscience, Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Munchen, Mnchen, Germany b Dept. of Chemistry and Pharmacology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy c National Nanotechnology Lab. of INFM, Via Arnesano, Lecce, Italy
View references (35)

Abstract
A general strategy is described which allows for transferring hydrophobically capped nanocrystals from organic to aqueous solution by wrapping an amphiphilic polymer around the particles. In particular, high quality CoPt3, Au, CdSe/ZnS, and Fe2O3 nanocrystals have been water-solubilized in this way. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy demonstrates that monodispersity of the particles is conserved upon phase transfer to aqueous solution.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: ferric oxide; gold; platinum derivative; polymer; selenium derivative; water EMTREE medical terms: aqueous solution; article; crystal structure; gel electrophoresis; nanotechnology; solubilization; transmission electron microscopy Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: ferric oxide, 1309-37-1, 56449-54-8; gold, 744057-5; water, 7732-18-5
ISSN: 15306984Source Type: Journal Original language: English

DOI: 10.1021/nl035172jDocument Type: Article

Forming biocompatible and nonaggregated nanocrystals in water using amphiphilic polymers


Yu, W.W.a, Chang, E.b, Falkner, J.C.a, Zhang, J.a, Al-Somali, A.M.a, Sayes, C.M.a, Johns, J.a, Drezek, R.b, Colvin, V.L.a
a b

Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United States

View references (75)

Abstract
High-quality nanocrystals formed in organic solvents can be completely solubilized in water using amphiphilic copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG. These copolymers are generated using a maleic anhydride coupling scheme that permits the coupling of a wide variety of PEG polymers, both unfunctionalized and functionalized, to hydrophobic tails. Thermogravimetric analysis, size exclusion chromatography, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy all indicate that the copolymers effectively coat the nanocrystals surfaces. The composite nanocrystal-polymer assemblies can be targeted to recognize cancer cells with Her2 receptor and are biocompatible if their surface coatings contain PEG. In the particular case of semiconductor nanocrystals (e.g., quantum dots), the materials in water have the same optical spectra as well as quantum yield as those formed initially in organic solutions. 2007 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Biocompatibility; Copolymers; Hydrophobicity; Maleic anhydride; Organic solvents; Size exclusion chromatography Engineering uncontrolled terms: Amphiphilic polymers; Organic solutions; Surface coatings Engineering main heading: Nanocrystals EMTREE drug terms: amphophile; copolymer; epidermal growth factor receptor 2; iron oxide; macrogol; maleic anhydride; nanocrystal; organic solvent; polymer; quantum dot; water EMTREE medical terms: article; biocompatibility; cancer cell; controlled study; cytotoxicity; gel permeation chromatography; human; human cell; hydrodynamics; hydrophobicity; infrared spectroscopy; material coating; molecular recognition;

nanoencapsulation; semiconductor; solubilization; thermogravimetry; transmission electron microscopy MeSH: Biocompatible Materials; Crystallization; Humans; Nanoparticles; Neoplasms; Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers; Receptor, erbB-2; Surface-Active Agents; Water Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: epidermal growth factor receptor 2, 137632-09-8; iron oxide, 1332-37-2; macrogol, 25322-68-3; maleic anhydride, 108-31-6; water, 7732-185;Biocompatible Materials; Polyethylene Glycols; Polymers; Receptor, erbB-2, EC 2.7.1.112; Surface-Active Agents; Water, 7732-18-5
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja067184n PubMed ID: 17309256Document Type: Article

Synthesis and surface modification of amino-stabilized CdSe, CdTe and InP nanocrystals
Talapin, D.V.ab , Rogach, A.L.ab, Mekis, I.a, Haubold, S.a, Kornowski, A.a, Haase, M.a, Weller, H.a
a b

Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany Physico-Chemical Research Institute, Belarusian State University, 220050 Minsk, Belarus

View references (31)

Abstract
CdSe, CdTe and InP nanocrystals were prepared by an organometallic synthesis using mixtures of highly boiling primary amines and trioctylphosphine (TOP) as the coordinating solvent, and were characterized by powder XRD, SAXS, HRTEM, absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. The use of amines allowed us to obtain small crystalline nanoparticles for all materials investigated. In all cases, as-prepared colloids show rather narrow particle size distributions which can be further improved by standard size selective precipitation. Amino-capped II-VI nanocrystals show strong size-dependent band edge photoluminescence (PL). CdSe nanocrystals with the mean particle size in the range of 1.23.0 nm exhibit emission from blue to green with room temperature quantum yields of 1520%. CdTe nanocrystals (2.5-5.0 nm size range) show a PL tunable from green to red with quantum yields up to 65% at room temperature. InP nanocrystals (1.5-4.0 nm size range) possess a weak emission (<1% quantum efficiency (QE)). A simple method is proposed to transfer nanocrystals from organic solvents to water which allows to retain sufficiently strong luminescence of CdTe nanoparticles. CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in trioctylphosphinetrioctylphosphine oxide mixture (TOP-TOPO) show an increased QE of about 70% after subsequent treatment with primary amines. 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Amine; Luminescence; Nanocrystal; Semiconductor; Surface

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Organometallics; Particle size analysis; Photoluminescence; Precipitation (chemical); Surface treatment; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Selective precipitation Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: amine; cadmium derivative; indium; nanoparticle; organic solvent; organometallic compound; phosphine derivative; phosphorus derivative; selenium derivative; solvent; tellurium derivative; trioctylphosphine oxide; water EMTREE medical terms: absorption spectroscopy; analytic method; article; chemical modification; colloid; crystal; luminescence; particle size; photoluminescence; precipitation; priority journal; quantum mechanics; room temperature; surface property; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; X ray analysis; X ray powder diffraction
ISSN: 09277757 CODEN: CPEAESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/S0927-7757(01)01078-0Document Type: Article

Colloidal nanocrystal synthesis and the organic-inorganic interface ( Review )


Yin, Y., Alivisatos, A.P. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States
View references (62)

Abstract
Colloidal nanocrystals are solution-grown, nanometre-sized, inorganic particles that are stabilized by a layer of surfactants attached to their surface. The inorganic cores possess useful properties that are controlled by their composition, size and shape, and the surfactant coating ensures that these structures are easy to fabricate and process further into more complex structures. This combination of features makes colloidal nanocrystals attractive and promising building blocks for advanced materials and devices. Chemists are achieving ever more exquisite control over the composition, size, shape, crystal structure and surface

properties of nanocrystals, thus setting the stage for fully exploiting the potential of these remarkable materials. 2005 Nature PublishingGroup.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Crystal structure; Interfaces (materials); Surface active agents; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering uncontrolled terms: Colloidal nanocrystals; Surfactant coating Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: surfactant GEOBASE Subject Index: nanotechnology EMTREE medical terms: chemical composition; crystal structure; kinetics; melting point; priority journal; review; solvation; statistical significance; surface property; synthesis; thermostability
ISSN: 00280836 CODEN: NATUASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1038/nature04165Document Type: Review

Oligomeric Ligands for Luminescent and Stable Nanocrystal Quantum Dots


Kim, S., Bawendi, M.G. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States
View references (11)

Abstract
We report a new family of oligomeric alkyl phosphine ligands for nanocrystal quantum dots. These oligomeric phosphines show effective binding affinity to quantum dot surfaces. They form thin and secure organic shells that stabilize quantum dots in diverse environments including serum and polymer matrices. They maintain the initial as-grown photoluminescence quantum yield of the quantum dots and enable homogeneous incorporation into various matrices. They present a chemically flexible structure that can be used for further chemistry, such as cross-linking, copolymerization, and conjugation to biomolecules. Copyright 2003 American Chemical Society.

Reaxys Database Information

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: agarose; carboxylic acid; copolymer; decanoic acid derivative; diaminopimelic acid; functional group; hexane; ligand; oligomer; phosphine derivative; streptavidin EMTREE medical terms: article; binding affinity; chemical structure; cross linking; crystal; electrophoresis; environment; miscibility; nonhuman; oligomerization; quantum mechanics; quantum yield; stoichiometry Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: agarose, 9012-36-6; diaminopimelic acid, 583-937; hexane, 110-54-3; streptavidin, 9013-20-1
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja0368094Document Type: Article

Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction
Li, J.J.a, Wang, Y.A.bc, Guo, W.a, Keay, J.C.bd, Mishima, T.D.bd, Johnson, M.B.bd, Peng, X.ab
a

Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States b Joint MRSEC, University of Oklahoma, Fayetteville, AR 72703, United States c University of Arkansas, Nanomat. and Nanofabrication Labs., Fayetteville, AR 72703, United States d Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, United States
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Abstract
Successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) originally developed for the deposition of thin films on solid substrates from solution baths is introduced as a technique for the

growth of high-quality core/shell nanocrystals of compound semiconductors. The growth of the shell was designed to grow one monolayer at a time by alternating injections of air-stable and inexpensive cationic and anionic precursors into the reaction mixture with core nanocrystals. The principles of SILAR were demonstrated by the CdSe/CdS core/shell model system using its shell-thickness-dependent optical spectra as the probes with CdO and elemental S as the precursors. For this reaction system, a relatively high temperature, about 220-240 C, was found to be essential for SILAR to fully occur. The synthesis can be readily performed on a multigram scale. The size distribution of the core/shell nanocrystals was maintained even after five monolayers of CdS shell (equivalent to about 10 times volume increase for a 3.5 nm CdSe nanocrystal) were grown onto the core nanocrystals. The epitaxial growth of the core/shell structures was verified by optical spectroscopy, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of the as-prepared CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals ranged from 20% to 40%, and the PL full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) was maintained between 23 and 26 nm, even for those nanocrystals for which the UV-vis and PL peaks red-shifted by about 50 nm from that of the core nanocrystals. Several types of brightening phenomena were observed, some of which can further boost the PL QY of the core/shell nanocrystals. The CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals were found to be superior in comparison to the highly luminescent CdSe plain core nanocrystals. The SILAR technique reported here can also be used for the growth of complex colloidal semiconductor nanostructures, such as quantum shells and colloidal quantum wells.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Adsorption; Crystal growth; Deposition; Monolayers; Nanostructured materials; Semiconductor quantum wells; Thin films; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy Engineering uncontrolled terms: Precursors Engineering main heading: Cadmium compounds EMTREE drug terms: anion; cadmium chloride; cadmium oxide; cadmium sulfide; cation; nanoparticle; reagent; selenium derivative EMTREE medical terms: adsorption; article; chemical reaction; crystallization; film; high temperature; luminescence; model; particle size; photoluminescence; quantum yield; semiconductor; spectroscopy; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; ultraviolet spectroscopy; X ray diffraction Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium chloride, 10108-64-2; cadmium oxide, 1306-19-0; cadmium sulfide, 1306-23-6
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja0363563Document Type: Article

Compact biocompatible quantum dots via RAFT-mediated synthesis of imidazolebased random copolymer ligand
Liu, W.a, Greytak, A.B.a, Lee, J.a, Wong, C.R.a, Park, J.a, Marshall, L.F.a, Jiang, W.b, Curtin, P.N.b, Ting, A.Y.a, Nocera, D.G.a, Fukumura, D.b, Jain, R.K.b, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge MA 02139-4307, United States b Edwin L. Steele Laboratory, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, United States
View references (52)

Abstract
We present a new class of polymeric ligands for quantum dot ( ) water solubilization to yield biocompatible and derivatizable s with compact size (10-12 nm diameter), high quantum yields (>50%), excellent stability across a large pH range (pH 5-10.5), and low nonspecific binding. To address the fundamental problem of thiol instability in traditional ligand exchange systems, the polymers here employ a stable multidentate imidazole binding motif to the QD surface. The polymers are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer-mediated polymerization to produce molecular weight controlled monodisperse random copolymers from three types of monomers that feature imidazole groups for QD binding, polyethylene glycol (PEG) groups for water solubilization, and either primary amines or biotin groups for derivatization. The polymer architecture can be tuned by the monomer ratios to yield aqueous QDs with targeted surface functionalities. By incorporating amino-PEG monomers, we demonstrate covalent conjugation of a dye to form a highly efficient QD-dye energy transfer pair as well as covalent conjugation to streptavidin for highaffinity single molecule imaging of biotinylated receptors on live cells with minimal nonspecific binding. The small size and low serum binding of these polymer-coated QDs also allow us to demonstrate their utility for in vivo imaging of the tumor microenvironment in live mice. 2010 American Chemical Society.

Reaxys Database Information


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Indexed keywords
Binding motif; Compact size; Derivatizations; Fundamental problem; Imidazole group; InVivo imaging; Ligand exchanges; Live cell; Monodisperse; Monomer ratio; Multidentate; Non-specific binding; pH range; Polymer architecture; Polymeric ligands; Primary amines; Quantum Dot; Quantum dots; Random copolymer; Reversible addition-fragmentation chain

transfer; Single-molecule imaging; Small size; Streptavidin; Surface functionalities; Tumor microenvironment; Water solubilization Engineering controlled terms: Amination; Binding energy; Chelation; Copolymerization; Energy transfer; Functional polymers; Ligands; Monomers; Optical waveguides; Polyethylene glycols; Polyethylene oxides; Quantum optics; Solubility; Synthesis (chemical) Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots EMTREE drug terms: biomaterial; copolymer; imidazole; macrogol; monomer; quantum dot; streptavidin EMTREE medical terms: article; covalent bond; energy transfer; HeLa cell; human; human cell; microenvironment; polymerization MeSH: Animals; Biocompatible Materials; Hela Cells; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Imidazoles; Ligands; Mice; Molecular Imaging; Molecular Structure; Particle Size; Polyethylene Glycols; Quantum Dots; Surface Properties Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: imidazole, 1467-16-9, 288-32-4; macrogol, 2532268-3; streptavidin, 9013-20-1;Biocompatible Materials; Imidazoles; Ligands; Polyethylene Glycols; imidazole, 288-32-4
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja908137d PubMed ID: 20025223Document Type: Article

Biocompatible CdSe-ZnS Core-shell quantum dots coated with hydrophilic polythiols


Yildiz, I.a, McCaughan, B.b, Cruickshank, S.F.b, Callan, J.F.b , Raymo, F.M.a
a

Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, 1301 Memorial Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146-0431, United States b School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7FY, United Kingdom
View references (64)

Abstract
We designed four polymeric ligands for semiconductor quantum dots and synthesized these macromolecular constructs in four steps, starting from commercial precursors. These ligands have a poly(methacrylate) backbone with pendant thiol groups and poly(ethylene glycol)

chains. The thiol groups anchor these ligands on the surface of preformed CdSe-ZnS coreshell quantum dots, and the poly(ethylene glycol) chains impose hydrophilic character on the resulting assemblies. Indeed, three of the four sets of quantum dots are soluble in aqueous environments and are stable under these conditions for days over a wide pH range (5.0-9.0). Furthermore, the polymeric coatings wrapped around the inorganic nanoparticles preserve the photophysical properties of the CdSe core and ensure relatively compact dimensions. Specifically, the luminescence quantum yield is ca. 0.4 and the hydrodynamic diameter ranges from 15 to 29 nm with the nature of the polymeric ligand. Model studies with human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated that these hydrophilic quantum dots cross the cell membrane and localize either in the cytosol or in the nucleus. The length of the poly(ethylene glycol) chains appears to guide the intracellular localization of these luminescent probes. In addition, these studies indicated that these particular nanoparticles are not cytotoxic. In fact, their cellular internalization has essentially no influence on cell growth. In summary, we developed novel polymeric ligands able to impose hydrophilic character and biocompatibility on CdSe-ZnS core-shell nanoparticles. Thus, our results can lead to a new family of valuable luminescent probes for cellular imaging, based on the unique photophysical properties of semiconductor quantum dots.

Indexed keywords
Aqueous environment; CdSe-ZnS; Cellular imaging; Cellular internalization; Compact dimensions; Core-shell nanoparticles; Core-shell quantum dots; Cytosol; Cytotoxic; Human umbilical vein endothelial cells; Hydrodynamic diameter; Inorganic nanoparticle; Intracellular localization; Luminescence quantum yields; Luminescent probes; Model study; Photophysical properties; Poly(ethylene glycol) chains; Polymeric coatings; Polymeric ligands; Quantum Dot; Thiol groups; Wide pH range Engineering controlled terms: Biocompatibility; Cadmium alloys; Cadmium compounds; Cell membranes; Cytology; Endothelial cells; Ethylene; Ethylene glycol; Fluid dynamics; Growth kinetics; Hydrophilicity; Inorganic coatings; Ligands; Luminescence; Nanoparticles; Plastic coatings; Polyethylene glycols; Polyethylene oxides; Polymers; Probes; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconductor growth; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots EMTREE drug terms: biomaterial; cadmium derivative; cadmium selenide; quantum dot; selenium derivative; thiol derivative; zinc derivative; zinc selenide EMTREE medical terms: article; cell culture; chemistry; human MeSH: Biocompatible Materials; Cadmium Compounds; Cells, Cultured; Humans; Quantum Dots; Selenium Compounds; Sulfhydryl Compounds; Zinc Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium selenide, 1306-24-7; thiol derivative, 13940-21-1;Biocompatible Materials; Cadmium Compounds; Selenium Compounds; Sulfhydryl Compounds; Zinc Compounds; cadmium selenide, 1306-24-7; zinc selenide, 1315-09-9

ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la900148m PubMed ID: 19239226Document Type: Article View in table layout

References (64)

From glutathione capping to a crosslinked, phytochelatin-like coating of quantum dots


Zheng, Y., Yang, Z., Li, Y., Ying, J.Y. Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos, Singapore 138669, Singapore
View references (15)

Abstract
A study was conducted to demonstrate crosslinked peptide coating on the surface of quantum dots (QDs). The study used crosslinked glutathione-capped QDs to conjugate with doxorubicin or magnetic nanoparticles. Glutathione has glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. The study synthesized the highly fluorescent GSH-capped QDs by using thiol groups as capping agents. It was observed during the study that that quantum yields of QDs decreased after coating with polymer or silica. The study also found that the quantum yield of other organometallic QDs increased after ligand exchange with GSH. The study used HRTEM to determine the monodispersity. The study concluded that the proposed method can be used for other peptide-capped nanoparticles to produce crosslinked coating through conjugation with bioprobes.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: ABS resins; Amines; Coatings; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials; Nanostructures; Optical waveguides; Organometallics; Quantum electronics; Silica Engineering uncontrolled terms: Capping agents; Crosslinked; Doxorubicin; Glutamic acids; Glutathione; Ligand exchanges; Magnetic nanoparticles; Monodispersity; Organometallic; Peptide coatings; Phytochelatin; Quantum dots; Thiol groups Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 09359648 CODEN: ADVMESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703237Document Type: Article

Highly fluorescent CdTe@SiO2 particles prepared via reverse microemulsion method


Jing, L.a, Yang, C.a, Qiao, R.a, Niu, M.a, Du, M.b, Wang, D.c, Gao, M.a
a

Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bei Yi Jie 2, Zhong Guan Cun, Beijing 100190, China b Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Xi San Huan Bei Lu 27, Beijing 100089, China c Max-Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, D-14424, Potsdam, Germany
View references (78)

Abstract
Following on from our previous investigations, fluorescent core/shell CdTe@SiO2 particles were prepared via the water-in-oil (W/O) reverse microemulsion method. It was found out that incubating the as-prepared aqueous CdTe quantum dots stabilized by thioglycolic acid in ammoniacal solution not only increased the fluorescence quantum yield of CdTe quantum dots but also gave rise to high retention of fluorescence throughout the silica coating. Under optimized conditions, the fluorescence quantum yield of CdTe quantum dots encapsulated in silica particles reached 47%. Both absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were used in combination with X-ray photoeleetron spectroscopy and electrophoresis to investigate the fluorescence enhancement effect occurring during incubation, the high retention of fluorescence quantum yield, as well as the formation of multicore/shell CdTe@SiO2 particles as a result of the incubation process imposed on the as-prepared CdTe quantum dots. 2009 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy; Ammoniacal solution; CdTe quantum dots; CdTe@SiO; Core/shell; Fluorescence enhancement effect; Fluorescence quantum yield; Optimized conditions; Reverse microemulsion method; Silica coatings; Silica particles; Thioglycolic acid; Water-in-oil Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Cadmium alloys; Cadmium compounds; Electrophoresis; Fluorescence; Fluorescence spectroscopy; Microemulsions; Silica Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm9029962Document Type: Article

Blue-UV-Emitting ZnSe(Dot)/ZnS(Rod) core/shell nanocrystals prepared from CdSe/CdS nanocrystals by sequential cation exchange
Li, H.a, Brescia, R.a, Krahne, R.a, Bertoni, G.ab, Alcocer, M.J.P.cd, D'Andrea, C.cd, Scotognella, F.d, Tassone, F.c, Zanella, M.a, De Giorgi, M.e, Manna, L.a
a

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy c CNST of IIT polimi, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano, Italy d Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy e National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-NANO, via per Arnesano km 5, 73100 Lecce, Italy
b

View additional affiliations View references (66)

Abstract
Great control over size, shape and optical properties is now possible in colloidal Cd-based nanocrystals, which has paved the way for many fundamental studies and applications. One popular example of such class of nanocrystals is represented by CdSe(spherical core)/CdS(rod shell) nanorods. These can be nearly monodisperse in size and shape and have strong and stable photoluminescence that is tunable in the visible range (mainly by varying the size of the CdSe core). The corresponding Zn-based core/shell nanorods would be good candidates for tunable emission in the blue-UV region. However, while the synthesis of ZnS nanocrystals with elongated shapes has been demonstrated based on the oriented-attachment mechanism, elongated ZnS shells are difficult to fabricate because the more common cubic phase of ZnS has a highly symmetric crystal structure. We report here a procedure based on a sequence of two cation exchange reactions, namely, Cd 2+Cu + and then Cu +Zn 2+, by which we transform colloidal CdSe(core)/CdS(shell) nanorods first into into Cu 2Se/Cu 2S nanorods, which are then converted into blue-UV fluorescent ZnSe(core)/ ZnS(shell) nanorods. The procedure transfers the morphological and structural information of the initial Cd-based nanorods to the Zn-based nanorods. Therefore, the final nanoparticles are made by a ZnSe dot embedded in a rod-shaped shell of wurtzite ZnS. Since in the starting Cd-based nanorods the size of the CdSe core and the length of the CdS shell can be well controlled, the same holds for the final Zn-based rods. In the second step of the exchange reaction (Cu + Zn 2+), a large excess of Zn 2+ ions added over the Cu + ions present in the Cu 2Se/Cu 2S nanorods is the key requisite to obtain bright, band-edge emission (with quantum yields approaching 15%) with narrow line widths (approaching 75 meV). In these ZnSe/ZnS nanorods, photogenerated carriers appear to be more confined in the core region compared to their parent CdSe/CdS nanorods. 2012 American Chemical Society.

Author keywords
cation exchange; core/shell; nanocrystals; nanorods; ZnSe/ZnS

Indexed keywords
Band-edge emissions; Cation exchange reactions; Cation exchanges; CdS; CdSe/CdS; Core region; Core/shell; Core/shell nanocrystals; Cubic phase; Exchange reaction; Monodisperse; Narrow-line width; Photogenerated carriers; Rod-shaped; Size and shape; Structural information; Tunable emissions; Visible range; Wurtzites; ZnS nanocrystals; ZnSe/ZnS Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium alloys; Cadmium sulfide; Chemical reactions; Nanocrystals; Nanorods; Optical properties; Positive ions; Quantum yield; Shells (structures); Zinc; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Cadmium compounds
ISSN: 19360851Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/nn204601nDocument Type: Article

Effect of ZnS shell formation on the confined energy levels of ZnSe quantum dots
Lad, A.D., Mahamuni, S. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007, India
View references (34)

Abstract
Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy was employed to investigate the electronic structure of ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. Four excited states viz. 1 Se -1 S 3/2 h, 1 Se 2 S 3/2 h, 1 Pe -1 P 3/2 h, and 1 Se -1 SSO are observed in ZnSe and ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots. The experimentally observed excited states for ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots are analyzed on the basis of reported "effective mass approximation" calculations. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency increased from 2% for ZnSe quantum dots to 42% for ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and transmission electron microscopic investigations suggest formation of uniform ZnS shell on ZnSe. The electron energy levels of ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots are investigated as a function of core diameter and ZnS shell thickness, and are compared with bare ZnSe quantum dots. Seven different sizes (ranging between 20 to 52 ) are probed using size-selective photoluminescence excitation technique. Upon building a shell of ZnS on ZnSe quantum

dots, the transition from three hole states (1 S 3/2 h, 2 S 3/2 h, 1 SSO) to 1 Se remain well defined and have negligible relative shift, suggesting that the valence-band offset is larger than the energy of these states. With increasing ZnS shell thickness, an observed increase in the transition probability of 1 Se -2 S 3/2 h state is due to modification of hole states caused by ZnS shell. The relative shift of the P exciton peak (1 Pe -1 P 3/2 h) with increase in shell thickness is due to a loss of confinement energy of P electron state. The energy of 1 Pe -1 P 3/2 h is found to be remarkably independent as a function of core diameter. 2008 The American Physical Society.
ISSN: 10980121 CODEN: PRBMDSource Type: Journal Original l

ZnO-templated synthesis of wurtzite-type ZnS and ZnSe nanoparticles


Dawood, F., Schaak, R.E. Department of Chemistry, Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States
View references (24)

Abstract
The controllable synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals is important for exploiting their sizedependent properties in a variety of applications. The important wide-bandgap semiconductors ZnS and ZnSe crystallize in both the zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) structures. While the ZB polymorphs are most stable, methods exist for synthesizing the WZtype nanocrystals. However, because of the subtle structural differences between the ZB and WZ structures, subtle synthetic differences can favor one polymorph over the other. It is therefore challenging to predictably generate the WZ polymorphs and understand the factors that play a key role in their formation. Through careful mechanistic studies, we show that ZnO nanoparticles, which adopt the WZ structure, form as intermediates in typical reactions that generate WZ-ZnS. This implies that ZnO nanoparticles can serve as structural templates for the preferential formation of WZ-ZnS nanoparticles, and this is confirmed experimentally. Similar chemistry can be used to preferentially form WZ-ZnSe and ZB-ZnSe. Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.

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Indexed keywords

Controllable synthesis; Mechanistic studies; Semiconductor nanocrystals; Structural differences; Structural templates; Templated synthesis; Wide-band-gap semiconductor; Wurtzite; Zinc-blende; ZnO; ZnO nanoparticles; ZnS nanoparticles; ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Nanocrystals; Nanoparticles; Polymorphism; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc oxide; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Semiconducting zinc compounds EMTREE drug terms: nanocrystal; nanoparticle EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical structure; chemistry; photoluminescence; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja808455uDocument Type: Article

Colloidal ZnSe, ZnSe/ZnS, and ZnSe/ZnSeS quantum dots synthesized from ZnO
Chen, H.-S. , Lo, B., Hwang, J.-Y., Chang, G.-Y., Chen, C.-M., Tasi, S.-J., Wang, S.-J.J. Union Chemical Laboratories, Indust. Technol. Research Institute, 321, Kuang Fu Rd. Sec.2, Hsin Chu, 300, Taiwan
View references (29)

Abstract
Colloidal ZnSe quantum dots were successfully synthesized from ZnO in a lauric acid/hexadecylamine mixture. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the ZnSe quantum dots possess a wurtzite structure. Transmission electron microscope images of the quantum dots showed that the average diameter are in the range of 2560 A. The size-dependent photoluminescence was controlled from 400 to 440 nm with the quantum yields of 610% at room temperature. After passivation with 1.8 monolayer of ZnS overcoat by a traditional two-step method, the quantum yields of ZnSe/ZnS QDs are increased 4.5-fold (quantum yield 32%). An in-situ method of overcoating was done by directly injecting TOPS into the flask containing ZnSe, ZnO/lauric acid/ hexadecylamine, and TOPSe. The photoluminescence quantum yields were improved 3.8-fold after introduction of 1.6 monolayer ZnSeS overcoat to the ZnSe QDs.

Reaxys Database Information

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Cadmium compounds; Colloids; Energy dispersive spectroscopy; Light emitting diodes; Methanol; Monolayers; Nanostructured materials; Organometallics; Photoluminescence; Semiconductor lasers; Synthesis (chemical); Thermal effects; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction; Zinc oxide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Lauric acid; Nanocrystal sizes; Quantum yields; Wurtizite structure Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots
ISSN: 15206106 CODEN: JPCBFSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/jp047035wDocument Type: Art

Tetraethylenepentamine-directed controllable synthesis of wurtzite ZnSe nanostructures with tunable morphology


Xi, B., Xiong, S. , Xu, D., Li, J., Zhou, H., Pan, J., Li, J., Qian, Y. Department of Chemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China
View references (50)

Abstract
A novel tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA)-directed method has been successfully developed for the controlled synthesis of ZnSe particles with distinctive morphologies, including nanobelts, nanowires, and hierarchically solid/hollow spheres. These structures, selfassembled from nanobelts and nanorods, have been synthesized by adjusting the reaction parameters, such as the solvent composition, reaction temperature, and the aging time. Results reveal that the volume ratio of H 2O and TEPA plays a crucial role in the final morphology of ZnSe products. The mechanisms of phase formation and morphology control of ZnSe particles are proposed and discussed in detail. The products have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, high-resolution TEM, Raman spectra and luminescence spectroscopy. The as-prepared ZnSe nanoparticles display shapeand size-dependent photoluminescent optical properties. This is the first time to report preparation of complex hollow structures of ZnSe crystals with hierarchy through a simple solution-based route. This synthetic route is designed to exploit a new H 2O/TEPA/N 2H 4H 2O system possibly for the preparation of other semiconductor nanomaterials. 2008 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Author keywords
Hierarchical; Nanobelts; Nanowires; Photoluminescence; Spheres; Tetraethylenepentamine

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Auger electron spectroscopy; Crystallography; Diffraction; Electric wire; Emission spectroscopy; High resolution electron microscopy; Light; Light emission; Luminescence; Microscopic examination; Morphology; Nanobelts; Nanostructured materials; Nanostructures; Nanowires; Optical properties; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Spheres; Zinc alloys; Zinc sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Adjusting; Aging times; Controllable syntheses; Controlled syntheses; Directed methods; Hierarchical; High-resolution; Hollow structures; Luminescence spectroscopies; Morpho-logies; Morphology controls; Phase formations; Photoluminescence; Raman spectrum; Reaction parameters; Reaction temperatures; Scanning electrons; Selected area electron diffractions; Semiconductor nanomaterials; Simple solutions; Solvent compositions; Synthetic routes; Tetraethylenepentamine; Tunable morphologies; Volume ratios; Wurtzite; X-ray diffractions; Znse crystals; Znse nanoparticles Engineering main heading: High resolution transmission electron microscopy
ISSN: 09476539 CODEN: CEUJESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1002/chem.200801041Document Type: Article

Water-based route to ligand-selective synthesis of ZnSe and Cd-doped ZnSe quantum dots with tunable ultraviolet A to blue photoluminescence
Deng, Z.ab, Lie, F.L.a, Shen, S.c, Ghosh, I.c, Mansuripur, M.b, Muscat, A.J.a
a

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States b College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States c Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States
View references (49)

Abstract
A water-based route has been demonstrated for synthesizing ZnSe and Cd-doped ZnSe (Zn xCd 1-xSe, 0 < x < 1) quantum dots (QDs) that have tunable and narrow photoluminescence

(PL) peaks from the ultraviolet A (UVA) to the blue range (350-490 nm) with full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) values of 24-36 nm. Hydrazine (N 2H 4) was used to maintain oxygenfree conditions, allowing the reaction vessel to be open to air. The properties of the QDs were controlled using the thiol ligands, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), thiolglycolic acid (TGA), and L-glutathione (GSH). On the basis of optical spectra, linear three-carbon MPA attenuated nucleation and growth, yielding small ZnSe QDs with a high density of surface defects. In contrast, TGA and GSH produced larger ZnSe QDs with lower surface defect densities. The absorption spectra show that growth was more uniform and better controlled with linear two-carbon TGA than branched bifunctional GSH. After 20 min of growth TGAcapped ZnSe had an average diameter of 2.5 nm based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images; these nanocrystals had an absorbance peak maximum of approximately 340 nm (3.65 eV) and a band gap PL emission peak at 372 nm (3.34 eV). Highly fluorescent Zn xCd 1-x QDs were fabricated by adding a Cd-thiol complex directly to ZnSe QD solutions; PL peaks were tuned in the blue range (400-490 nm) by changing the Zn to Cd ratio. The Cd-bearing nanocrystals contained proportionally more Se based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Cd-Se bonds had ionic character, in contrast to primarily covalent Zn-Se bonds. 2009 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; ligand; quantum dot; selenium derivative; unclassified drug; water; zinc derivative; zinc selenide EMTREE medical terms: article; chemistry; luminescence; methodology; spectroscopy; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; ultraviolet radiation; X ray; X ray diffraction MeSH: Cadmium; Ligands; Luminescence; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Quantum Dots; Selenium Compounds; Spectrum Analysis; Ultraviolet Rays; Water; X-Ray Diffraction; X-Rays; Zinc Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. 3-Mercaptopropionic acids; Absorbance peaks; Average diameters; Band gaps; Bifunctional; Blue photoluminescences; Full width at half-maximum; High densities; High-resolution transmission electron microscopies; Ionic characters; L-glutathione; Nucleation and growths; Optical spectrum; Pl emissions; Quantum dots; Reaction vessels; Selective synthesis; Surface defect densities; Thiol complexes; Tunable ultraviolets; Water-based; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies Engineering controlled terms: Acids; Chelation; Emission spectroscopy; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Ionization of liquids; Ligands; Nanocrystals; Oxygen; Photoluminescence; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Semiconductor quantum dots; Spectrum analysis; Surface defects; Thermogravimetric analysis; Zinc Engineering main heading: X ray photoelectron spectroscopy Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; water, 773218-5;Cadmium, 7440-43-9; Ligands; Selenium Compounds; Water, 7732-18-5; Zinc Compounds; zinc selenide, 1315-09-9

ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la802294eDocument Type: Article

ZnSe based colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, shape control, core/shell, alloy and doped systems ( Review )
Reiss, P. CEA Grenoble DSM/DRFMC/SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-Universit Joseph Fourier 1)/LEMOH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
View references (68)

Abstract
Colloidal ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit size-dependent fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-450 nm, making them promising emitters for optoelectronic devices in the blue/near UV region. This Perspective review gives an overview of the chemical synthesis methods developed for size- and shape-controlled ZnSe NCs as well as for related core/shell and alloy structures. Special emphasis is put on the discussion of the optical and structural properties of the obtained nanostructures. Finally, the use of ZnSe as a host material for magnetic or luminescent dopant ions is highlighted. The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: alloy; nanocrystal; nanomaterial; selenium; zinc EMTREE medical terms: chemical structure; crystal structure; device; fluorescence; particle size; precipitation; priority journal; reverse micelle; review; spectral sensitivity; synthesis; ultraviolet radiation Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: selenium, 7782-49-2; zinc, 7440-66-6
ISSN: 11440546 CODEN: NJCHESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1039/b712086aDocument Type: Review View in table layout

References (68)

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1 Gaul, D.A., Rees Jr., W.S. True blue inorganic optoelectronic devices (2000) Advanced Materials, 12 (13), pp. 935-946. Cited 36 times. doi: 10.1002/1521-4095(200006)12:13<935::AID-ADMA935>3.0.CO;2-J

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2 Rogach, A.L., Talapin, D.V., Shevchenko, E.V., Kornowski, A., Haase, M., Weller, H. Organization of matter on different size scales: Monodisperse nanocrystals and their superstructures (2002) Advanced Functional Materials, 12 (10), pp. 653-664. Cited 250 times. doi: 10.1002/1616-3028(20021016)12:10<653::AID-ADFM653>3.0.CO;2-V

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3 Park, J., Joo, J., Soon, G.K., Jang, Y., Hyeon, T. Synthesis of monodisperse spherical nanocrystals (2007) Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 46 (25), pp. 4630-4660. Cited 646 times. doi: 10.1002/anie.200603148

Synthesis of luminescent thin-film CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot composites using CdSe quantum dots passivated with an overlayer of ZnSe
Danek, M.ac, Jensen, K.F.b, Murray, C.B.ad, Bawendi, M.G.a
a

Departments of Chemistry, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 021394307, United States b Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, United States

Applied Materials, 3100 Biowers Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 94054, United States IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, United States
d

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Abstract
Electronic and chemical passivation of CdSe nanocrystals (quantum dots) has been achieved with a thin. ZnSe overlayer grown in solution from trioctylphosphine selenide and diethylzinc. Layered particles with a [ZnSe/CdSe] ratio ranging from 0 to 5.0 were prepared and characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray scattering. The overgrown particles were crystalline and displayed band-edge absorption and emission characteristic of the initial CdSe nuclei. Thin-film quantum, dot composites incorporating bare and overcoated CdSe nanocrystals in a ZnSe matrix were synthesized by electrospray organometallic chemical vapor deposition (ES-OMCVD). The photoluminescence spectra of the composites with bare CdSe dots were dominated by broad deep-level emission and the photoluminescence yield deteriorated with increasing deposition temperature. In contrast, the composites incorporating the overcoated dots showed sharp band-edge emission. The presence of a preformed ZnSe layer resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the band-edge photoluminescence yield (by 2 orders of magnitude). The photoluminescence properties of composites with the passivated dots were insensitive to deposition temperature over the range studied.
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article

General sonochemical method for the preparation of nanophasic selenides: Synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles
Zhu, J.ab, Koltypin, Y.a, Gedanken, A.a
a b

Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China

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Abstract
ZnSe nanoparticles of about 3 nm in size have been prepared by the sonochemical irradiation of an aqueous solution of selenourea and zinc acetate under argon. The ZnSe nanoparticles

were characterized using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive Xray analysis. The mechanism of the sonochemical irradiation is discussed. This sonochemical method was found to be a general method for the preparation of other selenides as well.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: selenide; zinc derivative EMTREE medical terms: absorption spectroscopy; aqueous solution; article; chemical analysis; chemical reaction; differential scanning calorimetry; diffuse reflectance spectroscopy; irradiation; nanoparticle; synthesis; transmission electron microscopy; X ray analysis; X ray diffraction
ISSN: 08974756 CODEN: CMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/cm990380rDocument Type: Article View in table layout

References (51)

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1 Hagfeld, A., Grtzel, M. Light-induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems (1995) Chemical Reviews, 95 (1), pp. 49-68. Cited 3234 times.

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Preparation and nonlinear characterization of zinc selenide nanoparticles embedded in polymer matrix
Sharma, M., Tripathi, S.K.

Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
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Abstract
Nanocomposites of ZnSe nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix have been prepared by in-situ synthesis. ZnSe/PVA nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV/Vis spectra. The nanocomposite structure is confirmed by the blue-shift of the absorption edge. The nonlinear refractive index and two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient are measured by the Z-scan technique using low power CW He-Ne laser light. The results show that the ZnSe nanocomposite films show large optical nonlinearity and the magnitude of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (3) is calculated to be 2.6213 11 m 2/V 2. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
A. Polymer; B. Chemical synthesis; C. X-ray diffraction; D. Optical properties

Indexed keywords
Absorption edges; Blue shift; Chemical synthesis; He-Ne lasers; In-situ synthesis; Large optical nonlinearities; Low Power; Nano-composite structure; Nonlinear characterization; Nonlinear refractive index; Polyvinyl alcohol (pva); Third-order nonlinear susceptibility; Transmission electron microscopy tem; Two-photon absorptions; UV/Vis spectra; Z-scan technique; Zinc selenide; ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering controlled terms: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Nanocomposites; Nanoparticles; Nonlinear optics; Refractive index; Transmission electron microscopy; Two photon processes; X ray diffraction Engineering main heading: Synthesis (chemical)
ISSN: 00223697 CODEN: JPCSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2012.04.007Document Type: Article

Synthesis and photoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of manganese doped ZnS nanoparticles
Nazerdeylami, S., Saievar-Iranizad, E. , Dehghani, Z., Molaei, M.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


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Abstract
In this work we synthesized ZnS:Mn 2+ nanoparticles by chemical method using PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) as a capping agent in aqueous solution. The structure and optical properties of the resultant product were characterized using UVvis optical spectroscopy, Xray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and z-scan techniques. UVvis spectra for all samples showed an excitonic peak at around 292 nm, indicating that concentration of Mn 2+ ions does not alter the band gap of nanoparticles. XRD patterns showed that the ZnS:Mn 2+ nanoparticles have zinc blende structure with the average crystalline sizes of about 2 nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of ZnS:Mn 2+ exhibited an orange-red emission at 594 nm due to the 4T 1 6A 1 transition in Mn 2+. The PL intensity increased with increase in the Mn 2+ ion concentration. The second-order nonlinear optical properties of nanoparticles were studied using a continuous-wave (CW) HeNe laser by z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive indices of nanoparticles were in the order of 10 -8 cm 2/W with negative sign and the nonlinear absorption indices of these nanoparticles were obtained to be about 10 -3 cm/W with positive sign. 2010 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.

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Author keywords
Chemical method; Nanoparticles; Photoluminescence; XRD; Z-scan technique; ZnS:Mn 2+

Indexed keywords
Aqueous solutions; Average crystalline size; Band gaps; Capping agent; Chemical method; Continuous waves; Doped ZnS; Excitonic peak; He-Ne lasers; Ion concentrations; Non-linear optical properties; Nonlinear absorptions; Nonlinear refractive index; Optical spectroscopy; Orange-red; PL intensity; Poly vinyl pyrrolidone; Room-temperature photoluminescence; Second-order nonlinear optical property; UV-vis spectra; XRD; XRD patterns; Z-scan technique; Zincblende structures; ZnS:Mn 2+ Engineering controlled terms: Doping (additives); Manganese; Nonlinear optics; Photoluminescence; Refractive index; Solutions; X ray diffraction; Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Nanoparticles
ISSN: 09214526 CODEN: PHYBESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.physb.2010.10.033Document Type: Article

Synthesis and photoluminescence of ZnS:Cu nanoparticles


Peng, W.Q. , Cong, G.W., Qu, S.C., Wang, Z.G. Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing, 100083, China
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Abstract
The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) of copper doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu) nanoparticles were investigated. These ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method, with the copper concentration varying from 0 to 2 mol%. By Gaussian fitting, the PL spectrum of the undoped ZnS nanoparticles was deconvoluted into two blue luminescence peaks (centered at 411 nm and 455 nm, respectively), which both can be attributed to the recombination of the defect sates of ZnS. But for the doped samples, a third peak at about 500 nm was also identified. This green luminescence originates from the recombination between the shallow donor level (sulfur vacancy) and the t2 level of Cu2+. With the increase of the Cu2+ concentration, the green emission peak is systematically shifted to longer wavelength. In addition, it was found that the overall photoluminescence intensity is decreased at the Cu2+ concentration of 2%. The concentration quenching of the luminescence may be caused by the formation of CuS compound. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Nanoparticles; Photoluminescence; Zinc sulfide

Indexed keywords
Gaussian fitting; Green emission; Wet chemical methods Engineering controlled terms: Photoluminescence; Quenching; Synthesis (chemical); Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials
ISSN: 09253467 CODEN: OMATESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.optmat.2005.10.003Document Type: Article

Low temperature synthesis of ZnSe nanowires by self-catalytic liquid-solid growth


Cheng, C.-L., Chen, Y.-F. Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan
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Abstract
Nanowire arrays of zinc selenide with zinc blende structures have been synthesized on the zinc foil via a simple thermal evaporation route at relatively low temperature (400 C). A self-catalytic liquid-solid growth is proposed for the formation of the nanowires. The nanowires are usually 50-150 nm in diameter, and several microns in length. Roomtemperature cathodoluminescence spectrum from zinc blende ZnSe nanowires shows a near band edge emission band peaked at around 462 nm and a broad deep-level emission band at around 580 nm, respectively. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Chemical vapour deposition (CVD); Luminescence; Nanostructures; Semiconductors; X-ray scattering

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Crystals; Diamond films; Electric conductivity; Electric wire; Emission spectroscopy; Liquids; Low temperature effects; Luminescence; Nanowires; Scattering; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Semiconductor growth; Synthesis (chemical); Thermal evaporation; X ray scattering; Zinc Engineering uncontrolled terms: Cathodoluminescence spectrum; Chemical vapour deposition (CVD); Deep-level emissions; Low temperatures; Low-temperature synthesis; Nanowire arrays; Near band-edge emissions; Room temperatures; Self-catalytic; Semiconductors; Solid growths; Zinc blende structures; Zinc blendes; Zinc selenide; ZnSe Nanowires Engineering main heading: Chemical vapor deposition
ISSN: 02540584 CODEN: MCHPDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2008.11.031Document Type: Article

Close-spaced evaporated ZnSe films: Preparation and characterization


Subbaiah, Y.P.V. , Prathap, P., Devika, M., Reddy, K.T.R. Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, India
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Abstract
ZnSe films have been deposited by a simple technique, close-spaced evaporation. The layers were grown on glass substrates maintained at different temperatures that vary in the range of 200-400 C. The physical characteristics of the films such as chemical stoichiometry, structural properties and energy band gap of the films were investigated using energydispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and optical spectrophotometry, respectively. The influence of substrate temperature on the different parameters was studied and discussed. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Author keywords
Close-spaced evaporation; Optical properties; Structural properties; ZnSe films

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Energy dispersive spectroscopy; Evaporation; Glass transition; Optical properties; Physical properties; Selenium; Spectrophotometry; Stoichiometry; Temperature distribution; Thin films; X ray diffraction analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Closed-spaced evaporation; Energy band gap; environmental safety; ZnSe films Engineering main heading: Zinc compounds
ISSN: 09214526 CODEN: PHYBESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.physb.2005.05.020Document Type: Article

Low temperature synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles


Deshpande, A.C.a, Singh, S.B.a, Abyaneh, M.K.a, Pasricha, R.b, Kulkarni, S.K.a
a

DST Unit on Nanoscience, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune, 411 007, India b National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan Road, Pune, 411 007, India
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Abstract
Synthesis of thioglycerol capped zinc selenide nanoparticles with a relatively narrow size distribution by a simple and inexpensive low temperature (~ 80 C) wet chemical method is reported here. Main advantage of this method is the use of non-toxic precursors. The size of the nanoparticles can be varied easily by changing the concentration of the capping agent. The extracted nanoparticles remain stable under normal atmospheric conditions and can be redispersed in suitable solvents. The sharp absorption features obtained in the UV-Visible absorption spectra reveal the formation of monodispersed ZnSe nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Luminescence; Nanomaterials; Semiconductor; X-ray techniques

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption; Auger electron spectroscopy; Electron microscopes; Electron microscopy; Electron optics; Electron spectroscopy; Electrons; Imaging techniques; Low temperature effects; Microscopic examination; Molecular orbitals; Molecular spectroscopy; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials; Nanostructures; Photoelectron spectroscopy; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Size distribution; Spectrum analysis; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; X ray spectroscopy; X rays; Zinc; Zinc alloys; Zinc sulfide Engineering uncontrolled terms: Atmospheric conditions; Capping agents; Concentration (composition); Elsevier (CO); Low temperature (LTR); Low-temperature synthesis; Monodispersed; Narrow size distributions; Synthesis (of chiral ionic liquids); Thioglycerol; UV visible absorption spectrum; UV-visible absorption spectroscopy; Wet-chemical methods; X ray diffraction (XRD); X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); Zinc Selenide (ZnSe); ZnSe nanoparticles Engineering main heading: Absorption spectroscopy

ISSN: 0167577X CODEN: MLETDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2008.04.082Document Type: Article

Synthesis and characterization of wurtzite ZnSe one-dimensional nanocrystals through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method
Chen, M., Gao, L. State Key Lab. High Perf. C., Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
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Abstract
Wurtzite ZnSe 1D nanowires with 10-100 nm in diameter and up to several micrometers in length were successfully synthesized through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method at 220 C for 15 h, where hydrazine served as not only reduction agent but also complexing agent and molecular template. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC, TEM (SAED), UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. In-depth investigation indicated that the as-prepared 1D nanocrystals had [0 0 1] preferential orientation and showed a room-temperature photoluminescent property. The possible growth mechanism was also proposed. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
1D Nanocrystal; Nanowires; Solvothermal; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Anisotropy; Characterization; Crystallography; Decomposition; Electroluminescence; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Micrometers; Molecular beam epitaxy; Morphology; Photoluminescence; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: 1D nanocrystals; Nanodevices; Nanowires; Solvothermal method; ZnSe Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials
ISSN: 02540584 CODEN: MCHPDSource Type: Journal Original language: English

DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2004.12.005Document Type: Article

From Cd-rich to Se-rich - The manipulation of CdSe nanocrystal surface stoichiometry


Jasieniak, J., Mulvaney, P. School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia
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Abstract
We report a protocol for manipulating the surface composition of CdSe nanocrystals. By combining the successive ion layer adhesion and reaction (SILAR) method developed by Li et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 12567 with a phosphine-free selenium precursor, the surface stoichiometry of CdSe can be tunably altered from Cd- to Se-rich. By changing the overall surface stoichiometry, we demonstrate ligand binding to specific surface sites. Tertiary phosphines produce a dramatic enhancement in photoluminescence quantum yield of CdSe particles with Se-rich surfaces but have little effect on Cd-rich surfaces. Unpassivated selenium surface sites are also shown to be a cause of the photobrightening behavior of CdSe nanocrystals. 2007 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Adhesion; Photoluminescence; Quantum yield; Selenium; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Stoichiometry Engineering uncontrolled terms: Photobrightening; Photoluminescence quantum yield; Successive ion layer adhesion and reaction (SILAR) Engineering main heading: Nanocrystals EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; nanocrystal; phosphine; selenium EMTREE medical terms: adhesion; analytic method; article; binding site; ligand binding; photoluminescence; quantum yield; stoichiometry; surface property Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; phosphine, 7803-51-2; selenium, 7782-49-2
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja066205aDocument Type: Article

An alternative of CdSe nanocrystal emitters: Pure and tunable impurity emissions in ZnSe nanocrystals
Pradhan, N.a, Goorskey, D.b, Thessing, J.a, Peng, X.a
a

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States b NN-Labs., LLC, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States
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Abstract
The concept, decoupling doping from nucleation and/or growth, allows us to dope nearly all nanocrystals in a given sample which is indicated by complete quenching of the host emission and bright emission from the dopants at characteristic wavelengths tunable in most parts of the visible window using a ZnSe host. In an extreme case, ZnSe coated MnSe nanocrystals (MnSe:ZnSe) emit similarly as commonly known doped nanocrystals. In comparison with CdSe nanocrystals, these alternative emitters not only are intrinsically less toxic but also show some unexpected and expected advantages: stable against thermal and environmental changes, zero reabsorption, and no Forster energy transfer. In addition to their applications to replace CdSe based nanocrystal emitters, the unique structure and properties of the doped nanocrystals are of interest for studying fundamental issues in the field. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium; nanocrystal; selenium; transition element EMTREE medical terms: article; crystal structure; dynamics; light emitting diode; model; photoluminescence; semiconductor; sensor; structure analysis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9; selenium, 7782-49-2
ISSN: 00027863 CODEN: JACSASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ja055557zDocument Type: Article

Impact of ripening on manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals


Zu, L.ac, Norris, D.J.ac , Kennedy, T.A.be, Erwin, S.C.bd, Efros, A.L.bd

University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Avenue Southeast, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States b Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue Southwest, Washington, DC 20375, United States c Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, United States d Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, United States e Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, United States
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Abstract
We examine the impact of growth kinetics on the incorporation of Mn dopants Into ZnSe nanocrystals. We synthesize such particles, also known as colloidal quantum dots, and use optical spectroscopy to extract information about the average number of Mn impurities per nanocrystal as the reaction proceeds. We find that this number increases with particle growth until the Zn and/or Se precursors are depleted in the reaction solution. If the reaction is continued further, then ripening of the colloid begins and the average number of Mn per nanocrystal decreases, even as the particles slowly increase in size. We show that this effect, which is detrimental for enhanced doping, can be avoided If the reactant concentration is maintained by addition of more reactants. We consider several explanations and conclude that intraparticle ripening, in which material Is redistributed on the same nanocrystal due to evolution of the particle shape, is the most consistent with experimental observations. 2006 American Chemical Society.

Indexed keywords
Intraparticle ripening; Manganese-doped ZnSe nanocrystals; Mn dopants; Optical spectroscopy Engineering controlled terms: Crystals; Growth kinetics; Manganese; Optical properties; Semiconductor quantum dots; Spectroscopic analysis; Zinc compounds Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials EMTREE drug terms: manganese; nanomaterial; quantum dot; selenium derivative; zinc derivative; zinc selenide EMTREE medical terms: article; chemistry; colloid; crystallization; kinetics; particle size; surface property; time MeSH: Colloids; Crystallization; Kinetics; Manganese; Nanostructures; Particle Size; Quantum Dots; Selenium Compounds; Surface Properties; Time Factors; Zinc Compounds Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document.

Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: manganese, 16397-91-4, 7439-96-5;Colloids; Manganese, 7439-96-5; Selenium Compounds; Zinc Compounds; zinc selenide, 1315-09-9
ISSN: 15306984Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/nl051732y PubMed ID: 16464060Document Type: Article

Preparation and photocatalytic activity of hollow ZnSe microspheres via Ostwald ripening
Zhang, L., Yang, H. , Xie, X., Zhang, F., Li, L. Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, China
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Abstract
Hollow ZnSe microspheres were prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction of Zn(AC)22H2O with Na2SeO3 and ethylene glycol in NaOH solution at 180 C for 12 h. The products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectrum. The hollow microspheres with the diameters of about 2 m are constructed from ZnSe nanoparticles with the cubic zinc blende structure, the size of hollow interiors and constituent ZnSe nanodots can be tuned by changing the reaction time. The hollow microspheres are formed via an Ostwald ripening process. Photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of the hollow ZnSe microspheres were studied at room temperature. The results indicate that the hollow microspheres constructed from ZnSe nanoparticles display a strong near-band edge emission at 479 nm and a very weak deep defect (DD) related emission at 556 nm and a high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photodegradation of methyl orange catalyzed by the ZnSe microspheres is a pseudo first-order reaction. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Author keywords
Luminescence; Nanofabrications; Scanning and transmission electron microscopy; Semiconductors; X-ray diffraction

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Azo dyes; Crystal growth; Crystals; Diffraction; Electric conductivity; Electrons; Emission spectroscopy; Ethylene; Ethylene glycol; Light; Luminescence; Microspheres; Nanoparticles; Ostwald ripening; Photocatalysis; Photodegradation; Scanning; Scanning electron microscopy; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Sodium; Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc Engineering uncontrolled terms: Deep defects; First-order reactions; Hollow microspheres; Hydrothermal reactions; Methyl oranges; Nanodots; Nanofabrications; NaOH solutions; Near-band edge emissions; Ostwald ripening process; Photo-catalytic activities; Raman spectrum; Reaction time; Room temperatures; Scanning and transmission electron microscopy; Scanning electrons; Semiconductors; Zinc blende structures; Znse nanoparticles Engineering main heading: Electron microscopes
ISSN: 09258388 CODEN: JALCESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.06.018Document Type: Article View in table layout

References (34)

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1 Sun, S., Meng, G., Zhang, G., Zhang, L. Controlled growth and optical properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures on SnO2 nanobelts (2007) Crystal Growth and Design, 7 (10), pp. 1988-1991. Cited 36 times. doi: 10.1021/cg0701776

Sonochemically produced ZnS-coated polystyrene core-shell particles for use in photonic crystals
Breen, M.L.a, Dinsmore, A.D.b, Pink, R.H.ac, Qadri, S.B.a, Ratna, B.R.a

Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375-5320, United States b Harvard University, Div. of Eng. and Applied Sciences, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States c George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, United States
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Abstract
Zinc sulfide films were grown on carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres (PS-CO2) through sonochemical deposition in an aqueous bath containing zinc acetate and sulfide, released through the hydrolysis of thioacetamide. The resulting particles were `optically hollow', due to a large refractive index contrast between the core and shell materials. Continuous, uniform films were obtained after 3-4 h and reached a maximum thickness of 70-80 nm after 13 h of growth, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Aggregation was minimized by subsequent modification of the core-shell particles with mercaptoacetic acid to increase their surface charge and produce good colloidal suspensions. Oscillations in the optical spectra of dilute suspensions of the particles were indicative of interference patterns as expected from Mie light scattering calculations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns match the zinc blende structure of ZnS and indicate a compression in the crystal lattice (a = 5.3050.037 angstroms), as compared to the bulk material (a = 5.406 angstroms). Hollow ZnS shells were formed by annealing the core-shell particles in a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) oven, at 400 C. A 34% weight loss was observed upon heating, a value approximately equal to that of the polystyrene core. The hollow shells remained intact and readily resuspended in water. Both core-shell and hollow ZnS particles self-assemble to form well-ordered, hexagonal close-packed layers.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Deposition; Film growth; Plastic films; Sonochemistry; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Polystyrenes
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la0011578Document Type: Article

Sonochemically produced ZnS-coated polystyrene core-shell particles for use in photonic crystals
Breen, M.L.a, Dinsmore, A.D.b, Pink, R.H.ac, Qadri, S.B.a, Ratna, B.R.a

Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375-5320, United States b Harvard University, Div. of Eng. and Applied Sciences, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States c George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, United States
View references (20)

Abstract
Zinc sulfide films were grown on carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres (PS-CO2) through sonochemical deposition in an aqueous bath containing zinc acetate and sulfide, released through the hydrolysis of thioacetamide. The resulting particles were `optically hollow', due to a large refractive index contrast between the core and shell materials. Continuous, uniform films were obtained after 3-4 h and reached a maximum thickness of 70-80 nm after 13 h of growth, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Aggregation was minimized by subsequent modification of the core-shell particles with mercaptoacetic acid to increase their surface charge and produce good colloidal suspensions. Oscillations in the optical spectra of dilute suspensions of the particles were indicative of interference patterns as expected from Mie light scattering calculations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns match the zinc blende structure of ZnS and indicate a compression in the crystal lattice (a = 5.3050.037 angstroms), as compared to the bulk material (a = 5.406 angstroms). Hollow ZnS shells were formed by annealing the core-shell particles in a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) oven, at 400 C. A 34% weight loss was observed upon heating, a value approximately equal to that of the polystyrene core. The hollow shells remained intact and readily resuspended in water. Both core-shell and hollow ZnS particles self-assemble to form well-ordered, hexagonal close-packed layers.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Deposition; Film growth; Plastic films; Sonochemistry; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Zinc sulfide Engineering main heading: Polystyrenes
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la0011578Document Type: Article

Reverse micelle synthesis and characterization of ZnSe nanoparticles


Quinlan, F.T.a, Kuther, J.b, Tremel, W.b, Knoll, W.c, Risbud, S.a, Stroeve, P.a

Ctr. Poly. Interfaces Macromolec. A., Dept. of Chem. Eng. and Mat. Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States b Inst. F. Anorganische Chem. A., Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, Mainz D-55099, Germany c Max-Planck-Inst. F. Polymerforschung, Mainz D-55128, Germany
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Abstract
Nanoparticles of ZnSe were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique. The nanoparticle exhibit quantum confinement, having radii less than that of the Bohr exciton radius. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the nanoparticles are cubic ZnSe. Light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements give the diameters of the nanoparticles to be from 3.3-3.5 nm. The absorption shift in the ultraviolet-visible spectra shows an offset of 0.6 eV, and the peak emission of the nanoparticles is 355 nm, as obtained by photoluminescence.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Absorption spectroscopy; Emission spectroscopy; Light scattering; Micelles; Nanostructured materials; Particles (particulate matter); Photoluminescence; Quantum theory; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; Ultraviolet spectroscopy; X ray crystallography Engineering uncontrolled terms: Nanoparticles; Quantum confinement; Reverse micelles; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Semiconducting zinc compounds
ISSN: 07437463 CODEN: LANGDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/la9909291Document Type: Article Publisher: ACS,Washington, DC, United States View in table layout

References (34)

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Alivisatos, A.P. Perspectives on the physical chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals (1996) The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 100 (31), pp. 13226-13239. Cited 2281 times.

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2 Alivisatos, A.P. Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots (1996) Science, 271 (5251), pp. 933-937. Cited 6542 times.

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3 Akimoto, Katsuhiro, Miyajima, Takao, Mori, Yoshifumi Electroluminescence from a ZnSe p-n junction fabricated by nitrogen-ion implantation (1989) Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers, 28 (4), pp. 528-530. Cited 10 times.

4 Danek, M., Jensen, K.F., Murray, C.B., Bawendi, M.G. Preparation of II-VI quantum dot composites by electrospray organometallic chemical vapor deposition (1994) Journal of Crystal Growth, 145 (1-4), pp. 714-720. Cited 33 times.

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5 Buckley, A.M., Greenblatt, M. The sol-gel preparation of silica gels (1994) Journal of Chemical Education, 71 (7), pp. 599-602. Cited 94 times.

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6 Leppert, V.J., Mahamuni, S., Kumbhojkar, N.R., Risbud, S.H.

Structural and optical characteristics of ZnSe nanocrystals synthesized in the presence of a polymer capping agent (1998) Materials Science and Engineering B, 52 (1), pp. 89-92. Cited 18 times.

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7 Kumbhojkar, N., Mahamuni, S., Leppert, V., Risbud, S.H. Quantum confinement effects in chemically grown, stable ZnSe nanoclusters (1998) Nanostructured Materials, 10 (2-8), pp. 117-129. Cited 29 times.

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Preparation of IIVI quantum dot composites by electrospray organometallic chemical vapor deposition

M. Daneka, K.F. Jensen , b, C.B. Murraya, M.G. Bawendia


a

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA b Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0248(94)91132-0, How to Cite or Link Using DOI Permissions & Reprints

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Abstract
New thin film composites consisting of a ZnSe matrix and CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) have been prepared by a novel technique combining electrospray and organometallic chemical

vapor deposition (OMCVD). CdSe NCs, synthesized in solution by controlled growth of CdSe nuclei, were derivatized with pyridine or overcoated with a thin ZnSe layer. The derivatized NCs were dispersed in a pyridine/acetonitrile mixture and transferred into the growth zone of an OMCVD reactor using an electrospray. The transferred NCs were codeposited with ZnSe grown by OMCVD from hydrogen selenide and diethyl zinc at temperatures ranging from 150 to 250 C. The absorption and emission spectra of the composites show characteristic transitions of the NCs. The emission wavelength can be tuned by selecting the size of the NCs. A pre-formed ZnSe passivation layer, also synthesized in solution, improves thermal stability of the NCs during the co-deposition, and enhances the photoluminescence emission efficiency of the composites. The elemental composition and microstructure of the materials are probed by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

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Corresponding author.

Low-temperature elemental-direct-reaction route to II-VI semiconductor nanocrystalline ZnSe and CdSe


Peng, Q., Dong, Y., Deng, Z., Sun, X., Li, Y. Department of Chemistry and Center of Atomic and Molecular Nanoscience, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Abstract
Elemental direct combination to synthesize ZnSe and CdSe only occurs at very high temperature. However, in this paper, a simplest hydrothermal elemental-direct-reaction method to produce nanocrystalline ZnSe and CdSe is established, only using water as reaction medium. It greatly decreases the temperature for the direct reaction of Zn, Cd with Se and will be helpful to the synthesis of other nanocrystalline semiconductors.

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Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; selenium derivative; water; zinc derivative EMTREE medical terms: article; chemical reaction; low temperature; nanoparticle; reaction analysis; semiconductor; synthesis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: water, 7732-18-5
ISSN: 00201669 CODEN: INOCASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ic0100424 PubMed ID: 11466040Document Type: Article View in table layout

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1 Chen, C.-C., Herhold, A.B., Johnson, C.S., Alivisatos, A.P. Size dependence of structural metastability in semi

Synthesis and characterization of wurtzite ZnSe one-dimensional nanocrystals through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method
Chen, M., Gao, L. State Key Lab. High Perf. C., Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
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Abstract

Wurtzite ZnSe 1D nanowires with 10-100 nm in diameter and up to several micrometers in length were successfully synthesized through molecular precursor decomposition by solvothermal method at 220 C for 15 h, where hydrazine served as not only reduction agent but also complexing agent and molecular template. The products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DSC, TEM (SAED), UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. In-depth investigation indicated that the as-prepared 1D nanocrystals had [0 0 1] preferential orientation and showed a room-temperature photoluminescent property. The possible growth mechanism was also proposed. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
1D Nanocrystal; Nanowires; Solvothermal; ZnSe

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Anisotropy; Characterization; Crystallography; Decomposition; Electroluminescence; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Micrometers; Molecular beam epitaxy; Morphology; Photoluminescence; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis; Zinc compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: 1D nanocrystals; Nanodevices; Nanowires; Solvothermal method; ZnSe Engineering main heading: Nanostructured materials
ISSN: 02540584 CODEN: MCHPDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2004.12.005Document Type: Article View in table layout

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1 Wu, Y.Y., Yan, H.Q., Huang, M., Messer, B., Song, J.H., Yang, P.D

Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences (Ministry of Education, China), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Structure-directing coordination template effect of ethylenediamine in formations of ZnS and ZnSe nanocrystallites via solvothermal route
Deng, Z.-X., Wang, C., Sun, X.-M., Li, Y.-D. Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences (Ministry of Education, China), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract
ZnS and ZnSe precursors (ZnS0.5en and ZnSe0.5en, en ethylenediamine) were prepared via a solvothermal process using ethylenediamine as solvent. Phase-pure hexagonal wurtzite ZnS and ZnSe products were obtained by annealing the precursors in argon stream at temperatures above 350 C. The role of ethylenediamine as a structure-directing coordination molecular template responsible for the morphologies of the annealed products was discussed. This work provided further insights into the solvent coordination molecular template (SCMT) mechanism previously proposed to explain the growth mechanism of CdE (E S, Se, Te) nanorods in ethylenediamine (Inorg. Chem. 1999, 38, 1382). The as-prepared precursors as well as the annealed products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared absorbance spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, and combustion analysis for C, N, H contents.

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EMTREE drug terms: ethylenediamine; selenide; unclassified drug; zinc derivative; zinc selenide ethylenediamine; zinc sulfide; zinc sulfide ethylenediamine EMTREE medical terms: absorption spectroscopy; article; chemical analysis; chemical reaction; chemical structure; combustion; infrared spectroscopy; synthesis; temperature; thermogravimetry; transmission electron microscopy; X ray fluorescence; X ray powder diffraction

Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: ethylenediamine, 107-15-3; zinc sulfide, 1216928-7, 1314-98-3
ISSN: 00201669 CODEN: INOCASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ic0103502 PubMed ID: 11849088Document Type: Article View in table layout

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1 Dai, H., Wong, E.W., Lu, Y.Z., Fan, S., Lieber, C.M. Synthesis and characterization of carbide nanorods (1995) Nature, 375 (6534), pp. 769-772. Cited 927 times.

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A solvothermal method to novel metastable ZnSe nanoflakes


Du, J.a, Xu, L.b, Zou, G.a, Chai, L.a, Qian, Y.a
a

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China b Department of Chemistry, University of Shandong, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China
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Abstract
Novel flower-like pattern of radially aligned ZnSe nanoflakes were synthesized via a facile solvothermal method in a mixed solvent of ethylenediamine and hydrazine hydrate. XRD, FESEM and TEM characterizations showed that as-prepared ZnSe sample is metastable wurtzite phase and the nanoflakes have uniform thickness of about 60 nm. The PL spectrum of the as-prepared sample was investigated. The formation conditions of the flower-like pattern of radially aligned ZnSe nanoflakes were discussed and it was found that the ratios of

the solvent components are of great importance for the final formation of the flower-like structures. 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Chemical synthesis; Semiconductors

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Hydrazine; Nanoparticles; Solvation; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray diffraction analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Ethylenediamine; Hydrazine hydrate; Nanoflakes Engineering main heading: Zinc compounds
ISSN: 02540584 CODEN: MCHPDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2007.02.062Document Type: Article View in table layout

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An aqueous approach to ZnSe and CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals


Wang, C. , Zhang, W.X., Qian, X.F., Zhang, X.M., Xie, Y., Qian, Y.T. Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
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Abstract
With the use of elemental metals and selenium as resource materials, ZnSe and CdSe nanocrystals have been prepared through an aqueous method at temperature as low as 80C in alkaline medium. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS).

Two kinds of chemical mechanisms for the formation of the products and the influence of experimental conditions are discussed. 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Chalcogenides; Chemical synthesis; Semiconductors

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Nanostructured materials; Reaction kinetics; Semiconducting cadmium compounds; Semiconducting zinc compounds; Synthesis (chemical); Transmission electron microscopy; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; X ray powder diffraction Engineering uncontrolled terms: Cadmium selenide; Chalcogenides; Zinc selenide Engineering main heading: Semiconducting selenium compounds
ISSN: 02540584 CODEN: MCHPDSource Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article View in table layout

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1 Empedocles, S.A., Norris, D.J., Bawendi, M.G. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots (1996) Physical Review Letters, 77 (18), pp. 3873-3876. Cited 457 times.

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ZnSe based colloidal nanocrystals: Synthesis, shape control, core/shell, alloy and doped systems ( Review )

Reiss, P. CEA Grenoble DSM/DRFMC/SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-Universit Joseph Fourier 1)/LEMOH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
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Abstract
Colloidal ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit size-dependent fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-450 nm, making them promising emitters for optoelectronic devices in the blue/near UV region. This Perspective review gives an overview of the chemical synthesis methods developed for size- and shape-controlled ZnSe NCs as well as for related core/shell and alloy structures. Special emphasis is put on the discussion of the optical and structural properties of the obtained nanostructures. Finally, the use of ZnSe as a host material for magnetic or luminescent dopant ions is highlighted. The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Indexed keywords
EMTREE drug terms: alloy; nanocrystal; nanomaterial; selenium; zinc EMTREE medical terms: chemical structure; crystal structure; device; fluorescence; particle size; precipitation; priority journal; reverse micelle; review; spectral sensitivity; synthesis; ultraviolet radiation Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: selenium, 7782-49-2; zinc, 7440-66-6
ISSN: 11440546 CODEN: NJCHESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1039/b712086aDocument Type: Review

Effects of hydrazine on the solvothermal synthesis of Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Cu2CdSnSe4 nanocrystals for particle-based deposition of films ( Article in press )
Chiang, M.-H.a, Fu, Y.-S.b , Shih, C.-H.a, Kuo, C.-C.a, Guo, T.-F.c, Lin, W.-T.a
a

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 b Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan 700 c Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701

Abstract
The effects of hydrazine on the synthesis of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) and Cu2CdSnSe4 (CCTSe) nanocrystals in an autoclave as a function of temperature and time were explored. On heating at 190 C for 24-72 h, pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals could readily grow in the hydrazine-added solution, while in the hydrazine-free solution the intermediate phases such as ZnSe, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3, and Cu2SnSe3 and CdSe associated with the CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals grew, respectively. This result reveals that hydrazine can speed up the synthesis of pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals via a solvothermal process. The mechanisms for the hydrazine-enhanced growth of CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were discussed. The pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were subsequently fabricated to the smooth films by spin coating without further annealing in selenium atmosphere. This processing may be beneficial to the fabrication of the absorber layer for solar cells and thermoelectric devices. 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author keywords
Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanocrystals; Hydrazine; Raman spectra; Solvothermal synthesis
ISSN: 00406090 CODEN: THSFASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.03.096Document Type: Article in Press

Dendrimers as solubilizing groups for conducting polymers: Preparation and characterization of polythiophene functionalized exclusively with aliphatic ether convergent dendrons
Malenfant, P.R.L., Frchet, J.M.J. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460, United States
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Abstract
The first conducting polythiophene, having only dendritic solubilizers, has been prepared using a Stille coupling approach. The use of second and third generation aliphatic ether convergent dendrons as a solubilizing platform facilitated the preparation of dendrimeroligothiophene hybrid macromonomers having minimal substitution. Polymers were then prepared via an A2+B2 step-growth polymerization between an oligothiophene-dibromide macromonomer and 2,5-bis(trimethylstannyl)-thiophene using Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 as the catalyst.

Both the dendrimer size and the dendrimer to thiophene unit ratio were variables that required optimization in order to obtain a solution-processable conducting polymer. Conductivities as high as 200 S/cm were measured for iodine doped thin films of the polythiophene with six thiophene repeat units for each third generation dendron.

Indexed keywords
Engineering controlled terms: Catalysts; Conductive films; Doping (additives); Electric conductivity of solids; Iodine; Macromolecules; Molecular structure; Monomers; Palladium compounds; Plastic films; Polymerization; Sulfur compounds Engineering uncontrolled terms: Dendrimers; Polythiophene; Solubilizers Engineering main heading: Conductive plastics
ISSN: 00249297 CODEN: MAMOBSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/ma000003wDocument Type: Article Publisher: ACS,Washington, DC, United States View in table layout

References (54)

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1 Chiang, C.K., Fincher, C.R., Park, Y.W., Heeger, A.J., Shirakawa, H., Louis, E.J., Gau, S.C., (...), MacDiarmid, A.G. Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene (1977) Physical Review Letters, 39 (17), pp. 1098-1101. Cited 1071 times. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.39.1098

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Highly Luminescent Monodisperse CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals Synthesized in

a Hexadecylamine-Trioctylphosphine Oxide-Trioctylphospine Mixture


Talapin, D.V.ab , Rogach, A.L.ab, Kornowski, A.a, Haase, M.a, Weller, H.a
a

Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 45, 20146 Hamburg, Germany b Physico-Chemical Research Institute, Belarusian State University, 220050 Minsk, Belarus
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Abstract
Highly monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals were prepared in a three-component hexadecylamine-trioctylphosphine oxide-trioctylphosphine (HDA-TOPO-TOP) mixture. This modification of the conventional organometallic synthesis of CdSe nanocrystals in TOPOTOP provides much better control over growth dynamics, resulting in the absence of defocusing of the particle size distribution during growth. The room-temperature quantum efficiency of the band edge luminescence of CdSe nanocrystals can be improved to 40-60% by surface passivation with inorganic (ZnS) or organic (alkylamines) shells.
ISSN: 15306984Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1021/nl0155126Document Type: Article

Quenching dynamics in CdSe nanoparticles: Surface-induced defects upon dilution


Hartmann, L.a, Kumar, A.b, Welker, M.c, Fiore, A.a, Julien-Rabant, C.b, Gromova, M.d, Bardet, M.d, Reiss, P.a, Baxter, P.N.W.c, Chandezon, F.a, Pansu, R.B.b
a

Laboratoire d'Electronique Molculaire, Organique et Hybride (LEMOH), INAC/SPrAM UMR 5819 (CEA-CNRS-UJF), CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, France b ENS Cachan, CNRS, IFR d'Alembert IFR 121, F-94235 Cachan, France c Institut Charles Sadron, CNRS, Universit de Strasbourg, F-67034 Strasbourg, France d Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique (SCIB), UMR-E CEA/UJF Grenoble, INAC CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, France
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Abstract
We have analyzed the decays of the fluorescence of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) suspensions during dilution and titration by the ligands. A ligand shell made of a combination of trioctylphosphine (TOP), oleylamine (OA), and stearic acid (SA) stabilizes the assynthesized QDs. The composition of the shell was analyzed and quantified using high resolution liquid state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A quenching of the fluorescence of the QDs is observed upon removal of the ligands by diluting the stock solution of the QDs. The fluorescence is restored by the addition of TOP. We analyze the results by assuming a binomial distribution of quenchers among the QDs and predict a linear trend in the time-resolved fluorescence decays. We have used a nonparametric analysis to show that for our QDs, 3.0 0.1 quenching sites per QD on average are revealed by the removal of TOP. We moreover show that the quenching rates of the quenching sites add up. The decay per quenching site can be compared with the decay at saturation of the dilution effect. This provides a value of 2.88 0.02 for the number of quenchers per QD. We extract the quenching dynamics of one site. It appears to be a process with a distribution of rates that does not involve the ligands. 2012 American Chemical Society.

Author keywords
binomial distribution; Blumen-Klafter Law; CdSe; fluorescence dynamics; ligand adsorption; quantum dot

Indexed keywords
Binomial distribution; Blumen-Klafter Law; Cdse; Fluorescence dynamics; Ligand adsorption Engineering controlled terms: Adsorption; Cadmium alloys; Cadmium compounds; Dynamics; Fluorescence; Ligands; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Semiconductor quantum dots; Stearic acid; Surface defects; Suspensions (fluids) Engineering main heading: Quenching EMTREE drug terms: cadmium derivative; cadmium selenide; quantum dot; selenium derivative EMTREE medical terms: article; artifact; chemical model; chemistry; computer simulation; materials testing; solution and solubility; surface property MeSH: Artifacts; Cadmium Compounds; Computer Simulation; Materials Testing; Models, Chemical; Quantum Dots; Selenium Compounds; Solutions; Surface Properties Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: cadmium selenide, 1306-24-7;Cadmium Compounds; Selenium Compounds; Solutions; cadmium selenide, A7F646JC5C
ISSN: 19360851Source Type: Journal Original language: English

DOI: 10.1021/nn303150j PubMed ID: 23009087Document Type: Article View in table layout

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1 Protire, M., Nerambourg, N., Renard, O., Reiss, P. Rational design of the gram-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse semiconductor nanocrystals (2011) Nanoscale Research Letters, 6, art. no. 472, pp. 1-14. Cited 6 times. doi: 10.1186/1556-276X-6-472

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2 Rogach, A.L. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Assembly (2008) Spectroscopy and Applications. Cited 2 times. Springer Verlag: Wien, Germany

3 Mei, B.C., Wang, J., Qiu, Q., Heckler, T., Petrou, A., Mountziaris, T.J. Dilution effects on the photoluminescence of ZnSe quantum-dot dispersions (2008) Applied Physics Letters, 93 (8), art. no. 083114. Cited 10 times. doi: 10.1063/1.2970995

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4 Al Salman, A., Tortschanoff, A., van der Zwan, G., van Mourik, F., Chergui, M. A model for the multi-exponential excited-state decay of CdSe nanocryst

One-step synthesis of water-dispersible ZnSe(S)-alloy quantum dots in the presence of thiol species
Bailon-Ruiz, S.a , Perales-Perez, O.ab , Su, Y.-F.c, Xin, Y.d
a

Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 9019, Mayaguez, PR 006819019, United States b Department of Engineering Science and Materials, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 9044, Mayaguez PR 00681-9044, United States c National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310, United States d FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310, United States
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Abstract
Semiconductors quantum dots (QD) exhibit unique size-dependent optical properties which enable them to be considered for biomedical applications, including diagnosis and cancer treatment. Furthermore, the synthesis of less toxic and Cd-free QDs directly in aqueous phase assures their biocompatibility as required for nanomedicine applications. Accordingly, the present work was focused on the direct synthesis of alloyed ZnSe(S) QDs capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in aqueous medium under microwave irradiation conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements suggested that assynthesized QDs exhibited a solid-solution like structure with an average crystallite size of 3.8 0.1 nm and 2.1 0.2 nm for TGA- and MPA-capped Zn-based QDs, respectively. HRTEM measurements confirmed the small size and monodispersity of the synthesized QDs. The chemisorption of carboxy-late groups in TGA (vas COO at 1577 cm-1 and vs COO at 1388 cm-1) and MPA (vas COO at 1560 cm-1 and vs COO at 1401 cm-1) onto the QDs was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy analyses. The band gap energy values were estimated at 3.1eV or 3.3eV, respectively, when the QDs were synthesized in the presence of TGA or MPA species. QDs suspended in biocompatible Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) exhibited a remarkable photo-stability; the corresponding photo-luminescence spectra recorded under 302nm excitation evidenced strong emission peaks centered on 390nm and 395nm for TGAand MPA-capped QDs, respectively. As-synthesized thiol-capped alloyed ZnSe(S) QDs can be considered very promising biocompatible candidates for nanomedicine applications. 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Author keywords
FT-IR; Nanoparticles; Photo-stability; Photoluminescence; Quantum dots; X-ray diffraction

Indexed keywords
3-mercaptopropionic acid; Biomedical applications; FT-IR; One step synthesis; Phosphate buffer salines; Photo-stability; Size-dependent optical properties; X-ray diffraction measurements Engineering controlled terms: Biocompatibility; Cadmium alloys; Medical applications; Medical nanotechnology; Nanoparticles; Optical properties; Photoluminescence; X ray diffraction Engineering main heading: Semiconductor quantum dots EMTREE drug terms: 3 mercaptopropionic acid; quantum dot; thioglycolic acid; zinc EMTREE medical terms: article; excitation; infrared spectroscopy; microwave irradiation; photoluminescence; priority journal; procedures; synthesis; X ray diffraction Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: 3 mercaptopropionic acid, 107-96-0; thioglycolic acid, 68-11-1; zinc, 14378-32-6, 7440-66-6
ISSN: 15734137Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Article