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Histograms, Aliasing,

Filters, Orientation

and HOG

D.A. Forsyth

Simple color features

R-G

B-Y=B-(R+G)/2

Intensity=(R+G+B)/3

Matlab slide

Scaled representations

Why?

Carelessness causes aliasing

Obtained pyramid of images by subsampling

Matlab slide: subsampling

Aliasing and fast changing signals

More aliasing examples

temporal aliasing

Another aliasing example

location of a

sharp

change is

known

poorly

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Fundamental facts

A sine wave will alias if sampled less often than twice per

period

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Fundamental facts

Sample(A+B)=Sample(A)+Sample(B)

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Weapons against aliasing

Filtering

or smoothing

Preltering (Ideal case)

Continuous

Image

Sampling

Continuous

Image

Discrete

Samples

Reconstruction

p p

Reconstruction

Kernel

1 1

Sampling

Function

Filter

Smoothing by Averaging

N

ij

=

1

N

uv

O

i+u,j+v

where u, v, is a window of N pixels in total centered at 0, 0

A Gaussian gives a good

model of a fuzzy blob

Smoothing with a Gaussian

Notice ringing

apparently, a grid is

superimposed

actually doesnt compare at

all well with a defocussed

lens

produce?

Gaussian lter kernel

K

uv

=

1

2

2

exp

u

2

+v

2

2

2

N

ij

=

uv

O

iu,jv

K

uv

Notice the curious looking form

Smoothing with a Gaussian

Matlab slide: convolution in 2D

Linear Filters

Finding derivatives

N

ij

=

1

x

(I

i+1,j

I

ij

)

its associative

convolution

Examples:

system

Convolution

N

ij

=

uv

H

uv

O

iu,jv

Filters are templates

At one point

Insight

N

ij

=

uv

H

uv

O

iu,jv

Smoothing reduces noise

Scale

as this parameter goes up, more pixels are involved in the average

K

uv

=

1

2

2

exp

u

2

+v

2

2

2

Idea:

points where image value change very sharply are important

changes in surface reectance

shadow boundaries

outlines

Finding Edges:

Estimate gradient magnitude using appropriate smoothing

Mark points where gradient magnitude is

Locally biggest and

big

Matlab slide: gradients

Matlab slide: smoothed gradients

1 pixel 3 pixels 7 pixels

Scale affects derivatives

Scale affects gradient magnitude

Smoothing and Differentiation

Issue: noise

Matlab slide: orientations and arrow plots

Matlab slide: rose plots

Hog features

Take a window

Vlfeat pointer

Image HOG features

Positive terms

in linear classier

Negative terms

in linear classier

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