4 views

Original Title: Abstract

Uploaded by Pushpendra Kumar

- Design and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Based DSTATCOM for Compensation of Reactive Power and Harmonics
- A Comparison of Active Power Filter Control Methods in Unbalanced and Nonsinusoidal Conditions
- read it
- Zainalsalam06 AC Voltage Regulation
- Electrical Traction Advanced
- A Space Vector PWM Scheme for Three Level Inverters Based on Two-Level Space Vector PWM
- Inverters
- A Novel Switching Signals Generation Method for Hybrid Multilevel Inverters
- 06666842
- VIN Shunt PDF
- Ssd Unit III
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development
- 1338184375.5183grid Currnet Regulation of a Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter With an LCL Input Filter
- REDUCED NUMBER OF POWER SWITCHES IN MULTI LEVEL INVERTER USING SPWM TECHNIQUE TO MITIGATE FOR SAG AND SWELL
- ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVES Modeling Analysis and Control
- Sin Pwm Svm Buletin
- Single Phase Matsssrixconverter
- 36 Cascaded
- Drive1
- FOE-05-001to004(E)

You are on page 1of 7

This equipment present itself as nonlinear impedesdances to its supplying electrical systems and generates harmonics with wellknown adverse effects such as low power factor, electromagnetic interface, voltage distortion, etc. These disturbances have required researchers to present solution to minimize or eliminate them. This study has reviewed, the aim and techniques for reduction of harmonic distortion. Wide arrays of approaches have been discussed. INTRODUCTION A harmonic is a signal or wave whose frequency is an integral (whole-number) multiple of the frequency of some reference signal or wave. For a signal whose fundamental frequency is f, the 2nd harmonic has a frequency 2 f, the 3rd harmonic has frequency of 3 f and so on. Signal occurring at frequencies of 2, 4, 6 f, etc., are called even harmonics; the frequencies 3 and 7 f etc., are called odd harmonics. If all the energy in a signal is contained at the fundamental frequency then that signal is a perfect sine wave. If the signal is not a perfect sine wave then some energy is contained in the harmonics. Examples are square wave, saw tooth wave and triangular wave. As the harmonic spectrum becomes richer in harmonics the waveform takes on more complex appearance indicating more deviation from the ideal sinusoid. A rich harmonic spectrum may completely obscure the fundamental frequency sinusoid making a sine wave unrecognizable. It is well known that any periodic waveform such as that mentioned previously can be represented by Fourier series, an infinite sequence of sine and cosine waves at the fundamental frequency of the waveforms and its harmonics. These harmonics can cause trouble in several areas particularly in motors and sensitive application. The standard measure for distortion is Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). A single-phase square wave inverter has the least desirable output waveform type; a square wave is sort of a flattened-out version of a sine wave as shown in Fig. 1.

Generally, square wave output inverter available in market is simple in design and low cost. Such inverter has some disadvantages. For starters, the peak voltage of a square wave is substantially lower than the peak voltage of a sine wave. In addition, a square wave contains many higher frequencies as well called harmonics which can cause buzzing or other problems. Inverters are widely used in many applications such as in the UPS and ac motor drives. There are many types of inverters. The Pulse-width Modulated (PWM) inverter is the most favored one for industrial applications. The control schemes of PWM inverters are broadly classified as programmed PWM inverters and sinusoidal PWM inverters. The sinusoidal PWM method is very popular in many applications. However, this scheme is not suitable for microprocessor based implementation when various sinusoidal voltages and frequencies are required in the system. Linear algebraic equations are solved to obtain the switching angles resulting in eliminating the unwanted harmonics.

CONCLUSION In this review, Different methods discussed for reduction of Harmonic Distortion (THD) and all described scheme shows the result THD less than two percentages. But presently no method gives sinusoidal wave output waveform with zero percentage THD.

Introduction

General

This guide continues ABB's technical guide series, describing harmonic distortion, its sources and effects, and also distortion calculation and evaluation. Special attention has been given to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives.

Harmonic currents and voltages are created by non-linear loads connected on the power distribution system. Harmonic distortion is a form of pollution in the electric plant that can cause problems if the sum of the harmonic currents increases above certain limits. All power electronic converters used in different types of electronic systems can increase harmonic disturbances by injecting harmonic currents directly into the grid. Figure 2.1 shows how the current harmonics (ih) in the input current (is) of a power electronic converter affect the supply voltage (ut).

Figure 2.1 Plant with converter load, mains transformer and other loads. The line current of a 3-phase, 6-pulse rectifier can be calculated from the direct output current by using the following formula.

, where

the total RMS current and direct current output from the rectifier. (valid for ideal filtered DC current)

In a theoretical case where output current can be estimated as clean DC current, the harmonic current frequencies of a 6-pulse three phase rectifier are n times the fundamental frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The information given below is valid in the case when the line inductance is insignificant compared to the DC reactor inductance. The line current is then rectangular with 120 blocks. The order numbers n are calculated from the formula below: where The rms values of the harmonic components are:

Figure 2.2 The harmonic content in a theoretical rectangular current of a 6-pulse rectifier. The principle of how the harmonic components are added to the fundamental current is shown in Figure 2.3, where only the 5th harmonic is shown.

Figure 2.3 The total current as the sum of the fundamental and 5th harmonic.

Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or as a total solution in a new plant. There are two basic methods: passive and active filters.

Tuned single arm passive filter The principle of a tuned arm passive filter is shown in Figure 8.1. A tuned arm passive filter should be applied at the single lowest harmonic component where there is significant harmonic generation in the system. For systems that mostly supply an industrial load this would probably be the fifth harmonic. Above the tuned frequency the harmonics are absorbed but below that frequency they may be amplified.

Detuned - Single tuning frequency Above tuned frequency harmonics absorbed Below tuned frequency harmonics may be amplified Harmonic reduction limited by possible over compensation at the supply frequency and network itself Figure 8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter.

This kind of filter consists of an inductor in series with a capacitor bank and the best location for the passive filter is close to the harmonic generating loads. This solution is not normally used for new installations. Tuned multiple arm passive filter The principle of this filter is shown in Figure 8.2. This filter has several arms tuned to two or more of the harmonic components which should be the lowest significant harmonic frequencies in the system. The multiple filter has better harmonic absorption than the one arm system.

Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above Better harmonic absorption Design consideration to amplification harmonics by filter Limited by KVAr and network

Figure 8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter. The multiple arm passive filters are often used for large DC drive installations where a dedicated transformer is supplying the whole installation. External active filter A passive tuned filter introduces new resonances that can cause additional harmonic problems. New power electronics technologies are resulting in products that can control harmonic distortion with active control. These active filters, see Figure 8.3, provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility system based on existing harmonic generation at any given moment in time.

Figure 8.3 External active filter principle diagram. The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by nonlinear loads by generating the same harmonic components in opposite phase as shown in Figure 8.4. External active filters are most suited to multiple small drives. They are relatively expensive compared to other methods.

- Design and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Based DSTATCOM for Compensation of Reactive Power and HarmonicsUploaded byHari Prasad
- A Comparison of Active Power Filter Control Methods in Unbalanced and Nonsinusoidal ConditionsUploaded bydhirajbharat20
- read itUploaded byBhargav Pandya
- Zainalsalam06 AC Voltage RegulationUploaded bysunilkumarece
- Electrical Traction AdvancedUploaded bymohanwitu
- A Space Vector PWM Scheme for Three Level Inverters Based on Two-Level Space Vector PWMUploaded byPhạm Văn Tưởng
- InvertersUploaded byyasht
- A Novel Switching Signals Generation Method for Hybrid Multilevel InvertersUploaded bybaala1
- 06666842Uploaded byishtiakkarim
- VIN Shunt PDFUploaded byNarasimha kulkarni
- Ssd Unit IIIUploaded byAbdul Asif
- International Journal of Engineering Research and DevelopmentUploaded byIJERD
- 1338184375.5183grid Currnet Regulation of a Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter With an LCL Input FilterUploaded byAmarendra Matsa
- REDUCED NUMBER OF POWER SWITCHES IN MULTI LEVEL INVERTER USING SPWM TECHNIQUE TO MITIGATE FOR SAG AND SWELLUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVES Modeling Analysis and ControlUploaded byDazzling Navya
- Sin Pwm Svm BuletinUploaded bycs9816521982
- Single Phase MatsssrixconverterUploaded byİbrahim Kayğan
- 36 CascadedUploaded byMefisto El
- Drive1Uploaded bygtgreat
- FOE-05-001to004(E)Uploaded byMarius Solca
- Inverters[1] 1Uploaded byIndrajithSr
- PE Manual 10ECL78Uploaded bysupreeth751
- Three-phase Soft-switched PWM Inverter for Motor Drive ApplicationUploaded bykarnatisharath
- 10.1049@cp.2014.0296Uploaded byLava Kumar
- Variable Frequency Drive effects on Generator SizingUploaded byMegazod Ahsan
- FYP PresentationUploaded byAwais Latif Qureshi
- Embedded ProjectsUploaded byjayakrishnan
- model of multistage Inverter.pdfUploaded byhafiz858
- Lecture-2 - Part IUploaded bySaralaDevi
- Power ElectronicsUploaded byr.anushya

- front.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- 12.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- 12.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- Insulator.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- Jain Irrigation.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- cont.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- AbstractUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- Abstract.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- 87012846-Main1-Introduction.docUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- Motorized Screw Jack.pptxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- Motorized Screw Jack.pptxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- INTROUCTION.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- National MNP Customer Declaration form of Dues Transfer into New Account.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- National MNP Customer Declaration form of Dues Transfer into New Account.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- FAT.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- Electronic Card Lock System Final Year Ece Project ReportUploaded bySunny Prasanth
- utilityfog3-120813120840-phpapp01.pptUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- neetu sharma mitrc front page.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- 1Uploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- kritika resume.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- Nandani Mavar1Uploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- SanyaUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- e6-39-21.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- HiUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- 1.docxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- SynUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- AUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- OCSC.pptxUploaded byPushpendra Kumar
- ScannerUploaded byPushpendra Kumar

- ABUS EF-HF Push-Electric Trolley.pdfUploaded bycj7man80
- ServiUploaded bySudheesh Karuvanthodi
- Centralized management of all your systems — Linux, Unix, Windows, and Mac OS XUploaded byLikewise Software
- Cases on Civil LawUploaded byEJ RL
- Onkyo TX-NR709 ManualUploaded byenigma002
- Profibus Dp s Operat Manual 19451 en 01Uploaded byestebangbl23
- Erin Connolly September 2015 ResumeUploaded byErinConnolly
- Value ChainUploaded byzadrht
- Marketing Mix 1 4psUploaded byNgoni Mukuku
- Efficient Finite Field Computations for Elliptic Curve CryptograpUploaded byFabian Velazquez
- CRISIL Research Ier Report Sterlite Technologies 2012Uploaded byJ Shyam Swaroop
- Msi Owner Occupancy AffidavitUploaded bybatinator
- Equilibrium-based Simulation of Lignocellulosic Biomass Pyrolysis via Aspen PlusUploaded byproleceo11
- Knight Frank Technical Due Diligence March 2013Uploaded byChris Gonzales
- PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TWO STAGE AIR COOLER IN DIFFERENT SPEEDUploaded byIAEME Publication
- (1976) Logan's Run (Press Kit)_textUploaded byrtaylor4792
- The Role and Regulation of Stock Exchange in an Islamic Economy How Can Islam Help in Reducing Volatility in the Stock Market2Uploaded byAmine Elghazi
- ScriptsUploaded byKeron Smith
- NCAR-E-5.docUploaded bySantosh Sah
- Data Mining for Customer SegmentationUploaded byRahul Ranganathan
- By Oketa Daniel Oketa Economics Department Benue State University, Makurdi,Uploaded byoketa daniel
- chapter_2_fundamental_cost_concepts.pdfUploaded byNuar Fauzi
- 1-s2.0-S0040402097006741-mainUploaded byDavid Luna
- Report of Fieldwork to Ginkakuji on Saturday November 28rd 2015Uploaded byAgung Sumassetiyadi
- Four Quadrant Chopper OperationUploaded bySAIKAT
- qw5410Uploaded bysaeulun
- Chapter 3 Lacson to Flores Full CaseUploaded byLAW10101
- Research Article on Growing of the Business Too Fast Resulting OvertradingUploaded byJayantha Chandrakumar Kothalawala
- Principles and State Policies CasesUploaded byGenevieve Tersol
- 9000Plus LPR Corrosion Instrument ManualUploaded byBEMA24DF13755