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PERIYAR UNIVERSITY

Salem 636 011.

B.Sc. Physics

REGULATIONS AND SYLLABUS [ For the Can i ates a !itte "ro! the aca e!ic year #$$% & #$$' an on(ar s )

PERIYAR UNI*ERSITY+ SALE,.-REGULATIONS -.E.i/i0i.ity Candidates seeking admission to first year of the Bachelor of Science Physics shall be required to have passed the Higher secondary examination ith !athematics" Physics and Chemistry conducted by the #overnment of $amilnadu or an examination accepted as equivalent thereto by the Syndicate sub%ect to the conditions as may be prescribed thereto are permitted to appear and qualify for B&Sc&" '(Physics) degree examination of this *niversity after a course of study of three academic years& #. D1ration o" the Co1rse+ $he course for the degree of Bachelor of Science shall consist of three academic years & 2. Co1rse o" St1 y $he course of study shall comprise instruction in the follo ing sub%ects according to the syllabus and books prescribed from time to time& I YEAR 1& ,anguage - ($amil etc) .& /nglish 0& !a%or 1& !a%or -2& 3llied !aths 4&!a%or Practical II YEAR 2& ,anguage -4& /nglish -5& !a%or --6& !a%or -7 6& !a%or Practical -8& 3llied Chemistry 19& 3llied Chemistry Practicals III YEAR 11& !a%or 7 11& !a%or 71.& !a%or 7-10& !a%or 7--11& /lective 12& !a%or Practical --14& !a%or Practical -7 3. E4a!inations5 $he theory examination shall be three house duration to each paper at the end of each year $he candidates failing in any sub%ect (s) ill be permitted to appear for each failed sub%ect(s) in the subsequent examination&

$he practical examination for *# course should be conducted at the end of year& 6. Sche!e o" E4a!inations5 $he Scheme of /xamination of different semester shall be as follo s+ S.No I Year 1& .& 0& 1& 2 4 II year 5& 6& 8& 19& 11 1.& 10 III year 11& 12& 14 15 16& 163& 16B 16C 16> 18 .9 Pa7er ,anguage /nglish !a%or !a%or -!a%or 3llied ,anguage /nglish !a%or --!a%or -7 !a%or 3llied 3llied Tit.e o" Pa7er D1ration ,ar8s 199 199 199 199 199 129 199 199 199 199 199 199 29 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 :::::::: .999 ::::::::

,anguage:0 /nglish:-0 !echanics and Sound 0 Heat and Properties of matter 0 !a%or Practical 0 3llied !athematics 0 ,anguage:-/nglish:-;ptics and Spectroscopy !athematical Physics !a%or Practical:-3llied Chemistry 3llied Chem Practicals 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

!a%or 7 /lectricity and !agnetism 0 !a%or 73tomic and <uclear Physics 0 !a%or 7-- =uantum mechanics and relativity0 !a%or 7--/lectronics 0 E.ecti9es :Any one o" the "o..o(in/ Pa7ers; !a%or /lectronics and Communication 0 !a%or Computational Physics 0 !a%or Computer Programming in C 0 !a%or /nergy Physics 0 !a%or !a%or !a%or Practical:--!a%or Practical:-7 0 0 $otal !arks

<. =1estion Pa7er Pattern+ Ti!e5 2 >o1rs Part A5 -$ 4 # @ #$ (3ns er all questions) ($ o questions from each unit)

,a4 ,ar8s?-$$

Part B5 6 4 3 @ #$ (3ns er all questions) (;ne question from each unit ith internal choice)

Part C5 6 4 -# @ <$ (3ns er all questions) (;ne question from each unit ith internal choice) (-n Part B out of total 19 question 1 questions may be problem oriented) %. Passin/ ,ini!1!5 $he candidate shall be declared to have passed the examination if the candidate secures not less than 19 marks in the *niversity examination in each theory paper& ?or the practical paper a minimum of 19 marks out of 199 marks in the *niversity examination and the record notebook taken together is required to Pass the examination& $here is no passing minimum for record notebook& Ho ever submission of record notebook is a must& '. C.assi"ication o" S1ccess"1. can i ates5 Candidates ho secure not less than 49@ of the aggregate marks in the hole examination in ?irst Class& 3ll other successful candidates shall be declared to have passed in Second Class& Candidates ho obtain 52@ of the marks in the aggregate shall be deemed to have passed in ?irst Class ith >istinction provide they pass all the examinations prescribed for the course at first appearance& Candidates ho pass all the examinations pres cribbed for the course in the first attempt and ithin a period of three academic years from the year of admission to the course alone are eligible for *niversity Aanking& A. ,a4i!1! 1ration "or the co!7.etion o" UG Pro/ra!5 $he maximum duration for the completion of *# Program shall not exceed six years -$. Co!!ence!ent o" this Re/1.ation5 $hese regulations shall take effect from the academic year .995:96 and thereafter& --.Pattern o" =1estion Pa7er "or Practica. E4a!inationsB /ach set of question paper should contain S/7/< questions and the candidate has to choose one by lot& 1.& A(ar in/ o" !ar8s "or Practica. e4a!inations. $otal !arks+ 199 (Practical 69 !arks B Aecord .9 !arks) >istribution for 69 !arks+ ?ormula" circuit diagram and tabular column+ ;bservation+ Aesult+ Presentation+ $otal 14 !arks (.9@) 0. !arks (19@) 6 !arks (19@) 6 !arks (19@) 69 !arks

UNIT5I PROCECTILE5 Aange up and do n and inclined plane:maximum range:t o directions of pro%ection for a given velocity and range& I,PULSE?I,PACT5 ,a s or impact coefficient of restitution impact of a smooth sphere on a fixed smooth plane:>irect impact bet een t o smooth spheres: ,osses in kinetic energy in direct impact:;blique impact bet een t o smooth spheres& UNIT5II S>,5 Composition of t o SH!Cs of same period along a straight line and at right angles to each other:,issa%ous figures& DYNA,ICS OF RIGID BODIES5 Compound pendulum:theory:condition for minimum period:interchangeability of center of suspension and center of oscillation:g using compound pendulum:Bifilar pendulum:parallel and non:parallel threads& UNIT5III CENTER OF GR*ITY5 Center of gravity of a solid cone" Solid hemisphere" hollo hemisphere and a tetrahedron& FRICTION5 ,a s of friction:angle of friction:resultant reaction and cone of friction: equilibrium of a body on an inclined plane under the action of a force& CENTER OF PRESSURE5 >efinition:center of pressure of a rectangular lamina and triangular lamina& AT,OSP>EREIC PRESSURE5 7ariation of atmospheric pressure ith attitude: height of homogenous atmosphere& UNIT5I* CLASSICAL ,EC>ANICS+ !echanics of system of particles:conservation theorem for angular momentum and energy: constraints:classification: generaliDed coordinates:transformation equations:principle of virtual ork:>C3lembertCs principle:derivation of ,agrangian formulation of conservation theorems : generaliDed momentum:energy and linear momentum& UNIT5* SOUND5 $heory of damped and forced vibrations:sharpness of resonance: ?ourier theorem :application for sa tooth ave and square ave& ULTRASONICS5 Production:pieDoelectric crystal method:magnetostriction method: detection properties:applications& ACOUSTICS OF BUILDINGS5 Aeverberation:derivation of SabineCs formula: determination of absorption coefficient& BOODS FOR STUDY5 1&!echanics and !athematical !ethods(.992) by A&!urugesan& S&Chand and Co& .&>ynamics by !&<arayanamurti and ! <agarathnam& (.992) $he <ational Publishing Company& 0&Statics" Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics& (.992) By !&<arayanamurti and !&<agarathnam& 2

$he <ational Publishing Company 1& Properties of matter and 3coustics& (.992) By A&!urugesan& S&Chand and Co& BOODS FOR REFERENCE5 1&Sound by Ehanna and Bedi& (.992) 3tmaram and Sons& .&3 $ext Book of Sound(.992) By !&#hosh&S&Chand F Co 0&3 $ext Book of Sound(.992) By A&,&Saighal&S&Chand F Co 1&3 $ext Book of Sound(.992) By <& Subrahmanyam and Bri%lal S&Chand and Co&" 2&Classical !echanics by H&#oldstein(.992) 3ddison Gesley Publications 4&!echanics (.992)by >&S&!athur&S&Chand and Co&"

UNIT?I Houle: $homson effect: porous plug experiment: $heory: 3diabatic demagnetisation ,iquefaction of air" nitrogen" Helium gases: Practical applications of lo temperature: Aefrigerators: 3ir conditioning machines: effect of chloro fluoro carbon on oDone layer& Unit II Ieroth" first" second and third la s of thermodynamics: Heat engines: Carnot";tto and >iesel engines: Gorking and efficiency:entropy: Change in entropy in reversible and irreversible process: temperature entrpy diagram: !ax ellCs thermodynamic relations: applications: $ds equations: Clausius Clayperon latent heat equations Unit? III $hermal conductivity: ?orbes method: ,eeCs disc method: Black body radiation: GienCs la : Aayleigh Heans la : PlanckCs la :StefanCs la : >etermination of StefanCs constant: Pyrometers: Pyrheliometers: Solar costant: determination of temperature of sun& Unit?I* Bending of beams: expression for bending moment:depression of the loaded end of cantilever uniform and nonuniform bending: theory and experiment:Eoenigs method: theory and experiment: - form of girders: $orsion: expression for couple per unit t ist: $orsion pendulum theory and experiment: Static torsion method of determining rigidity modulus& Unit * Coefficient of viscosity: ;s ald"s viscometer:SearleCs viscometer:$heory and experiment: 7iscosity of gases: !eyerCs formula:AankineCs method Surface tension: excess pressure inside a curved surface:surface tension and interfacial surface tensin: method of drops: =uinckeCs method: surface tension and angle of contact of mercury: variation of surface tension ith temperature& Boo8s "or st1 y an re"erence. 1& Heat and $hrmodynamics Bri%lal and Subramaniam S&Chand F Co <e >elhi (.995) .&Heat and $hrmodynamics >& S& !athur S Chand F Co <e >elhi .992 0& Heat and $hermodynamics H&B Aa%am F C&,& 3rora S Chand F Co <e >elhi .991 1&Properties of !atter A !urugesan S Chand F Co <e >elhi .995 2&Proprties of matter Bri%lal F Subramani S Chand F Co <e >elhi (.992) 4&/lements of Properties of matter >& S !athur S Chand F Co <e >elhi ( .994)

P>YSICS ,AIN PRACTICALS &I 1& JoungCs modulus <on uniform Bending pin F microscope method .& JoungCs modulus uniform bending scale and telescope method 0& $orsion pendulum : dynamic method Aigidity !odulus 1& Surface tension and interfacial surface tension >rop Geight method 2& Sonometer : frequency of a fork 4& Sonometer A&> of a solid and liquid 5& Specific heat capacity of a liquid !ethod of a mixtures BartonCs correction 6& Spectrometer i d curve 8& Spectrometer #rating StandardiDation normal incidence measurement of Gavelength 19& Potentiometer calibration of lo range 7oltmeter 11& Potentiometer -nternal resistance of a cell 1.& ?ield along the axis of a coil deflection magnetometer 10& P ; Box $emperature coefficient of resistance 11& HouleCs calorimeter Specific heat capacity of a liquid BartonCs correction 12& B& # current and voltage sensitive 14& B& # charge sensitivity 15& Bridge rectifier 16& Iener diode 7oltage regulator 18& ,o range po er pack .9& <3<> " <;A gates as *niversal Building Block

UNIT?I <e tonCs rings in reflected light:determination of avelength and refractive index:!ichelson interferometer:construction and orking:types and visibility of fringes:determination of avelength" resolution of spectral lines" refractive index and thickness of a thin sheet& Unit II ?resnels assumptions: rectilinear propagation of light:Done plate: action for plane and spherical ave fronts:comparison of Done plate and convex lens: ?resnel and ?raunhofer diffraction:Plane diffraction grating:normal and oblique incidence: determination of avelength using grating:dispersive po er of grating: resolving po er of telescope" microscope" prism and grating& Unit III >ouble refraction: <icol prism: ;ptical activity: ?resnelCs explanation: specific rotatory po er by ,aurentCs half shade polarimeter ;ptical fibres:propagation of light: acceptance angle: numerical aperture: mode propagation:step and grade index fibres:absorption" scattering and bending losses: core and cladding losses:fibre communication advantages: light sources& UNIT?I* Aotation spectra of molecules:$heory: instrumentation: applications:-nfrared spectroscopy: energy of diatomic molecule: vibration rotation spectrum: -A spectrometer: Aaman effect: Classical and quantum theory:Pure rotational and vibrational Aaman spectra: $echniques and instrumentation: 3pplications& Unit * Basic theory of <!A" /SA and <=A: $echniques and instrumentation applications Boo8s "or st1 y an re"erence 1& 3 text book of ;ptics Bri%lal and Subramani S Chand F Co (.995) .& ;ptics A !urugesan S Chand F Co (.994) 0&;ptic fibres and ?ibre ;ptic Communication systems Subir Eumar Sarkar SChand F Co (.990) 1& ?undamentals of molecular Spectroscopy Ban ell F !c#agh $!H 2& 7ibrational spectroscopy > < Sathyanarayana <e 3ge -nternational (.991)

UNIT?I *ector s7ace an Tensors

7ector Space:>efinitions:,inear independence of 7ector:Bilinear and quadratic forms:change of basis:SchmidtCs orthogonalisation processes:S artD inequality: 3pplication of vectors to hydrodynamics the equation of flo in solids& $ensors: definitions: <:dimensional spacesuperscripts:subscripts:coordinate: transformations kronecker delta symbol:properties of kronecker generaliDed kronecker delta $ensors of higher ranks:3lgebric operation of $ensors:symmetric and asymmetric $ensors:3pplication of $ensors:>ynamics of a particle:/lasticity:Aigid bodies UNIT?II La7.ace an Fo1rier Trans"or!s

,aplace transforms definitions and properties: methods of finding ,aplace transforms: inverse transform and its properties: methods of finding inverse ,aplace transform applications of ,aplace transforms: solution to differential equations& ?ourier transform properties of ?ourierCs transform:?ourier transform of a derivative: ?ourierCs Sine and cosine transform of a derivative:?inite ?ourier transforms:Simple application of ?ourier transforms& *nit --- !atrices Solutions to linear equations: CramerCs rule: Characteristic matrix and characteristic equations of a matrix eigen values and eigen vectors sub space and null spaces: transformations:Hermitian form: diagonalisation of 0 by 0 symmetric matrices. *nit -7 Special ?unctions Beeta functions : definitions properties" #amma functions: definitions: properties: relation bet een beeta and gamma functions: reduction of definite integrals using these functions 3pplications Bessel:,egendre:,agure and Hermite differential equation:properties:#enerating functions:AodrigueCs formula:orthogonal properties:recurrence relations Unit * N1!erica. ,etho s Cure fitting: principle of least squares: fitting a straight line linear regression: fitting a parabola: fitting an exponential curve& Solving non liner equations: bisection method: successive approximation method: /ulerCs method: <e ton Aapson method: A&E method& Boo8s For St1 y 1& P&E&Chattopadhyay !athematical Physics"Giley /astern ,td"<&>elhi(1889) .& B&>&#upta"!athematical Physics 7ikar Publishing House Pvt&,td&(1882) 0& Sathyaprakash"!athematical Physics"Sultan Chand F Sons"<e >elhi(.991)

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1& !&E&7enkataraman" <umerical methods in Science and /ngineering: PH- " <e >elhi 1885 2& S&S& Sastry " -ntroductory methods of numerical analysis: PH-" <e .999 delhi:

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1& JoungCs modulus non uniform bending pin and microscope .& JoungCs modulus uniform bending scale and telescope method 0& $orsion pendulum: !- and rigidity modulus symmetrical masses 1& Coefficient of viscosity of a liquid graduated burette radius by mercury pellet method& 2& !eldeCs apparatus frequency transverse and longitudinal modes& 4& Specific heat capacity of a liquid by cooling verification of <e tonCs la of cooling & 5& !eldeCs apparatus A> of a solid and liquid & 6& 3ir edge thickness of a ire and its insulation& 8& Spectrometer dispersive po er of a prism& 19& Spectrometer grating minimum deviation& 11& Potentiometer ammeter calibration&& 1.& Potentiometer specific resistance& 10& ! and BH >eflection !agnetometer $3< 3 and $3< B positions 11& Cary ?osterCs bridge specific resistance& 12& B# Comparison of capacities& 14& B# comparison if /!?Cs of t o cells& 15& Half and ?ull adder& 16& Half and ?ull subtractor& 18& 7erification of >e!organCs theorems & .9& ;P3!P: -ntegrator and differentiator&

1.

*nit Carey ?osterCs bridge:theory: determination of temperature coefficient $hermoelectricity: determination of Pelltier coefficient: thermodynamics of thermocouple:expression for Peltier and $homson coefficients:uses of thermoelectric diagrams:#ibbs: HelmholtD equation for the emf of a reversible cell: calculation of emf of >aniel cell: emf of thermocouple using potentiometer: calibration of high range voltmeter& *nit:-!agnetic induction on the axis of a solenoid:!oving coil ballistic galvanometer:theory:damping correction:charge sensitivity of a B#: determination of absolute capacity of a condenser:thermo emf of a thermocouple using B#:absolute mutual inductance bet een pair of coils using B#: coefficient of coupling bet een pair of coils: induction coil and its uses& *nit: --#ro th and decay of currents in ,A circuits:gro th and decay of charge in CA circuits:determination of high resistance by leakage: gro th and decay of charge in ,CA circuit:condition for gro th and decay to be ocillatory:expression for frequency of oscillation:series and parallel resonant circuits:theory: comparision:Po er in ,CA circuit:skin effect:$esla coil& *nit -7 >ifferent types of magnetic materials:classical theory of diamagnetism:,angevin theory of paramagnetism: Geiss theory of paramagnetism:molecular field theory of ferromagnetism:quantum theory of ferromagmetism:domain theory of ferromagnetism: applications of soft magnetic materials and ferrites& *nit: 7 ?undamental definitions in dielectrics:types of electric polariDation: frequency and temperature effects on polariDation: Classius !osotti relation: determination of dielectric constant:dielectric breakdo n:properties and different types of insulating materials& Books for study+ 1& /lectricity and !agnetism A !urugesan S & Chand F Co .&/lectricity and !agnetism: <arayanamurthy and <agarrthnam <ational Publishing Company 0&!aterial Science >r ! 3rumugam 3nuradha 3gencies Books for reference 1&/lectricity and !agnetism > < 7asudeva S Chand F Co .&/lectricity and !agnetism E E $i ari S Chand F Co 0&-ntroduction to Solid State Physics C Eittel Hohn Giley 1&Solid state Physics >eckker 10

*nit: 7ector atom model:quantum numbers:coupling schemes:%:% coupling and ,:S coupling: application of spatial quantiDation:PauliCs exclusion principle:selection rule:intensity rule:interval rule: ,andeCs g factor:Bohr magneton:applications of vector atom model:periodic classification electronic configurations: magnetic dipole moment due to spin: Stern: #erlach experiment& *nit: -Spectral terms and notations:fine structure of sodium > lines:fine structure of HK line: effect of electron spin on fine structure of spectral lines: fine structure of alkali spectra and ioniDed He: Ieeman effect:,armorCs theorem: quantum mechanical explanation of normal Ieeman effect: anomalous Ieeman effect of >1" >. lines of sodium: Paschen Bach effect: Stark effect& *nit --<uclear detectors: solid state detector: proportional counter:cloud chamber: Bubble chamber: scintillation counter:3ccelerators:cyclotron: synchrocyclotron:betatron& 3rtificial transmutation: AutherfordCs experiment:theory of nuclear disintegration: = value threshold energy: types of nuclear reaction: energy balance and = value: threshold energy of endo energic reaction: scattering crosssection& *nit -7 <uclear structure: nuclear siDe:experimental measurement of nuclear radius:neutron interaction method: isotope structure method:mirror nuclei method:nuclear charge: measurement by the method of alpha scattering: !eson theory of nuclear forces:nuclear models: liquid drop model: GeisDackerCs semi empirical mass formula: shell model& *nit 7 <uclear fission: types of nuclear fission:Bohr Gheeler theory:chain reaction:critical siDe:critical mass:nuclear fusion: source of stellar energy: Carbon nitrogen cycle: proton: proton cycle:thermonuclear reaction: controlled thermo nuclear reaction & /lementary particles:types of interactions:classification of elementary particles:elementary pareticle quantum number: Baryon number:leppton number:strangeness number:hypercharge:isospin and isospin quantum numbers:conservation la s and symmetry:parity" charge con%ucation symmetry: time reversal symmetry:combined inversion of CP$& Books for studyL 1&!odern Physics A !urugesan S Chand F Co .&3tomic Physics H B Aa%am S Chand F Co 11

0& <uclear Physics > C $ayal Himalaya Publishing Co Books for reference+ 1&3 Source book of atomic energy Samuel #lasstone /ast Gest Press .&3tomic and <uclear Physics 3lbright Semat Chapman and Hall 0&Basic <uclear Physics and Cosmic rays B < Srivatsava Pragati Prakashan

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UNIT & I Breakdo n of classical mechanics inadequacy of old quantum theory !atter aves ave packet #&P& $homsonCs verification HeisenbergCs uncertainty principle illustrations : Gave function physical significance ell: behaved ave functions ;perators Postulates of quantum mechanics :normaliDation expectation value and /hrenfestCs theorem SchrodingerCs time dependent and time independent ave equation derivation& UNIT & II ;ne dimensional problems particle in a box eigen functions and eigen values linear harmonic oscillator rectangular potential barrier one dimensional potential ell and infinitely deep potential ell note on tunneling and alpha decay& UNIT & III $hree dimensional problems separation of variables rigid rotator rotational energy levels and eigen functions hydrogen atom separation of variables aDimuthal" polar and radial equations energy levels and eigen functions quantum numbers& UNIT & I* Statistical equilibrium phase space microstates and macrostates !ax ell BoltDmann distribution la application to ideal gas =uantum statistics ?ermi >irac distribution la application to electron gas Bose:/instein distribution la application to photon comparison of the three statistics& Unit *5 S7ecia. theory o" Re.ati9ity Postulates ,orenD transformations $ime dilation ,ength contraction >oppler effect $ in paradox velocity addition relativistic momentum !ass energy equivalence /lectricity and !agnetism in relativity -ntroduction to general relativity& TEFT BOOD5 1& A& !urugeshan" !odern Physics" S&Chand F Co&" <e >elhi" .992 .& Bri%lal and Subramaniam" Heat and thermodynamics" S&Chand F Co&" <e >elhi" .992& Re"erence Boo85 1& H&B&Aa%am" !odern Physics" S&Chand F Co&" <e >elhi"

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Unit I Se!icon 1ctor S7ecia. De9ices H?/$ Construction" characteristics : common source amplifier:>esign guide lines !;S?/$S depletion and enhancement mode !;S?/$S !;S?/$S as s itches *H$ : relaxation oscillator SCA $unnel diode" #unn diode" P-< diode -!P3$$ diode >-3C and $A-3C construction and characteristics& *<-$ -Gave form generators and 3ctive filters Sine ave oscillation ith phase shift and einCs net orks:Comparator:Schmitt $rigger:3stable and !onostable operations:$riangular ave generator& 3ctive filters:Butter orth filters design:Second order la :,o "High and Band pass filters:Band notch filter& UNIT & III O7erationa. a!7.i"ier an ana.o/ co!71tation ;perational amplifiers characteristics and parameters !athematical operations logarithmic antilog amplifiers 3nalog multiplier and divider solutions to simultaneous equations differential equations" harmonic oscillator" damped harmonic oscillator" rocket launching& Unit &I* Di/ita. E.ectronics <umber systems: binary" octal hexa: logic gates: *niversality of <3<> and <;A gates: binary adder and subtractors Half adder full adder half subtarctor: ?ull subtractor: Boolean algebra simplification of Boolean expressions: E&!aps (Simple systems only): Unit & * Re/isters an Co1nters ?lip:flops: AS Clocked AS: >: $: HE HE !MS flip flops: binary counters: decade counters: *pM>n counters : Shift registers: >igital to analog Converters : Binary eighted Aesistor" >3C AM.A ladder >3C Successive approximation method Single slope and >ual slope 3>C: counter type:Aesolution" 3ccuracy and ,inearity& Boo8s For St1 y 1& /lectronic devices and Circuits #&E& !ithal Ehanna Publishers <e >elhi& .& -ntegrated Circuits E&A& Bothkar& 1& -ntegrated /lectronics 3nalog F >igital Circuits and Systems $ata !c #ra Hill Hacob !illman F Christor& S&C& Halkias& 2& ;perational amplifier #ayak ad $!# Hill

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1& Cantilever: JoungCs modulus mirror and $elescope .& Static torsion Aigidity modulus 0& Compound pendulum 1& Coefficient of viscosity ungraduated burette radius by mercury pellet 2& EundtCs tube JoungCs modulus velocity of sound 4& ,eeCs disc thermal conductivity of a bad conductor and emissivity 5& <e tonCs rings refractive index of a lens 6& Spectrometer -:- curve 8& Spectrometer small angled prism 19& Potentiometer calibration of high range voltmeter 11& >eflection magnetometer m and BH $3< C position 1.& Copper 7oltameter : BH 10& Principle of multimeter 11& B# >etermination of absolute capacity 12& >etermination of $hermo emf: direct method B# 14& ?/$ characteristics 15& *H$ characteristics 16& SCA characteristics 18& Hartley oscillator .9& Colpitt oscillator

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1& EoenigCs method non uniform bending .& EoenigCs method uniform bending 0& Cantilever dynamic method 1& Bifilar pendulum parallel threads 2& 7iscosity of highly viscous liquid SearleCs viscometer 4& $hermal conductivity of good conductor ?orbes method 5& <e tonCs rings Aefractive index of a liquid 6& Spectrometer dispersive po er of a grating 8& Spectrometer CauchyCs constant 19& Potentiometer: emf of a thermocouple 11& ?ield along the axis of a coil 7ibration magnetometer 1.& Carey ?osterCs bridge temperature of coefficient of resistance 10& B# comparison of Capacities >e SautyCs bridge 11& B# comparison of mutual inductances 12& B# absolute determination of mutual inductance 14& 3stable multivibrator using 222 timer 15& !onostable multivibrator using 222 timer 16& Bistable multivibrator using 222 timer 18& ?lip flops using gates .9& AC coupled amplifier single stage

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UNIT & I !odulation definition types of modulation 3!" ?m" Pm expression for amplitude modulated voltage Gave form of amplitude modulated ave collector modulation circuit single side band generation balanced modulator 3m transmitter block diagram and explanation frequency modulation expression for frequency modulated voltage side bands in ?!" ?! production by transistor reactance modulator expression for phase modulation Comparison of 3!" ?!" P! UNIT & II >emodulation definition >iode detection of 3! signals ?! detection ?oster Seely discriminator Aadio receivers straight receivers $A? receivers super heterodyne receivers Block diagram explanation of each stage ?! receivers Block diagram 3#C UNIT & III $7: plumbicon vidicon scanning simple and interlaced scanning composite video signal horiDontal" vertical and synchroniDing pulses block diagram of $7 transmitter and receiver Color $7 generation A" #" B signals Simplified block diagram of color $7 transmitter and receiver $7 transmitting antennas turnstile array: dipole panel $7 receiving antenna Jagi antenna log periodic antenna UNIT & I* A3>3A principle of radar: aDimuth and range measurement radar: transmitting systems radar antennas duplexer radar receivers uses of radar ;pto electronic devices photoconductive cell solar cell phototransistor ,/>: ,C> construction and orking UNIT?* >igital communications digital technology fundamentals of data communication systems characteristics of data transmission circuits digital codes error detection and correction data sets and inter connection requirements modem classification modem interfacing Boo8s "or st1 y5 1& Hand book of electronics #upta F Eumar Pragati Prakashan(.992) .& /lectronics communication systems Eennedy and >avis" $!H

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UNIT?I -ntroduction Basic structure of C Programs:Character set:Eey ords and identifiers:constants 7ariables >ata types declaration of variables:assigning values to variables:defining symbolic constants" ;perators and /xpressions UNIT?II Aeading F Griting a character formatted input F output if:ifNelseNelse if ladder:s itch statement&:O ;perator go to statement" : hile:do:for statements& UNIT?III 3rray -ntroducing:one dimensionalF t o dimensional arrays:initialiDing t o dimensional arrays& Handing of character strings UNIT?I* *ser defined functions form of C functions:Aeturn values Ftheir types: Calling a function :$hree categories of functions Structures and unions:introduction:structure definition:giving values to members structure initialisation unions& UNIT?* Pointers:introduction *nderstanding pointers:accessing the address of a variable declaring F initialiDing pointers& ?ile management: introduction defining " ;pening and closing a file -M; operation on files& TEFT BOODS5 PA;#A3!!-<# -< 3<S- C by /&Balagurusamy $ata !c#ra Publications co &,td:/d .&1 REFERENCE BOODS5 $H/ SP-A-$ ;? C by !ullish Copper:H3-C; publications Hill

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UNIT?I SOLAR ENERGY Solar radiation at the earthCs surface Solar radiation measurements solar cells for direct conversion of solar energy to electrical po ers solar cell parameters efficiency single crystal silicon solar cells cadmium sulphide solar cells 3pplications solar heaters solar cookers solar green house UNIT?II GIND ENERGY Basic principles of ind energy conversion: energy estimation : #enerating systems Schemes for electrical generation generator control local control applications of ind energy energy from aves and tides UNIT &III BIO ,ASS ENERGY Bio mass energy classification Photosynthesis biomass conversion process gobar gas plants ood gasification ethanol from ood merits and demerits of biomass energy sources UNIT & I* ENERGY STORAGE ,ead acid batteries rechargeable batteries *PS Hydrogen as fuel liquid petroleum gas energy UNIT & I* I,PACTS OF NON? CON*ENTIONAL ENERGY /nergy crisis: possible solutions energy transportation patterns of energy consumption in domestics" industrial agricultural sectors: global arming Boo8s "or st1 y 1& Solar energy #&>& Aai " 1882 edition .& Solar energy S& P& Suhatme $!H Second edition 1885 0& <on conventional energy sources #&>&Aai ?ourth edition Ehanna publications 1& Principles of Solar /ngineering Ereith F Erieder $!H 2& Solar /nergy !&P 3gar al S Chand F Co&"

..

UNIT & I5 Aepresenting numbers in a computer !achine precision -ntroduction to numerical errors /rrors in mathematical approximations /rror propagation -ntroduction to !3$,3B Gorkspace Creating arrays !atrix operators #enerating vectors 3ccessing sub:matrices Control flo statements -nfinite loops -ntroduction to M:files #raphics in !3$,3B Creating .> graphs Creating parametric function plots -ntroduction to !esh and Surface plots -ntroduction to toolboxes& UNIT & II5 !atrices and linear system of equations #auss:Hordan elimination method #auss method to compute the -nverse ,* decomposition Cholesky decomposition Aevie of rotation matrices Householder transformation =A decomposition #auss:Seidel iterative method /igenvalues and eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix by HacobiCs method >etermination of largest eigenvalue by Po er method& UNIT & III5 -ntroduction to ,agrange polynomials <umerical differentiation and integration $rapeDoidal single segment and multiple segment rules SimpsonPs single segment and multiple segment rules <e ton:Cotes formulas Aomberg integration #aussian quadrature formula /stimation of errors in evaluating the integrals -ntroduction to random numbers Aandom number generation !onte:Carlo integration& UNIT & I*5 <umerical solution of ordinary differential equations solution by $aylorCs series /ulerCs method Aunge Eutta methods ith AungeCs coefficients& <umerical solution of partial differential equations using finite difference method& UNIT & *5 La0oratory E4ercise Session :- ho1r 7er (ee8; $he laboratory exercise involves riting programs in C M CBB M ?;A$A3< M !3$,3B to solve problems of numerical techniques for the topics listed above& Te4t0oo8 Aichard Hamming& Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. >over publications& >uane C& Hanselman and Bruce ,& ,ittlefield (.991)& Mastering MATLAB 7& Prentice Hall& S177.e!entary Rea in/ H&!& $hi%ssen (1888)& Computational Physics& Cambridge *niversity Press& $ao Pang (1885)& An ntroduction to computational physics& Cambridge *niversity Press& Aubin H& ,andau (1885)& Computational Physics! Pro"lem sol#ing $ith computers& Hohn Giley& Hames B& Scarborough& Numerical mathematical analysis& ;xford -BH&

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SA,PLE ,ODEL =UESTION PAPER BSc: Physics; ELECTRICITY Ti!e5 Three >o1rs Ans(er a.. the H1estions Part? A : -$ 4 #@ #$ ,ar8s; 1& Ghat is a capacitorO State the unit of capacity& .&#ive the principle of attracted disc electrometer& 0&>efine thermo electric po er& 1&Ghat is the effect of iron core in a solenoidO 2&State t o uses of B#& 4&>efine time constant of a ,A circuit& 5&>efine coefficient of coupling bet een t o coils& 6&#ive the principle of choke coil& 8&>istinguish bet een series and parallel resonance& 19&Ghat is skin effectO Part? B : 6 4 3@ #$ ,ar8s; 11&a) >erive expressions for potential of a soap bubble& ( ;r) b) >erive expression for capacity of cylindrical condenser& 1.&a)>erive expressions for Peltier and $homson coefficients (;r) b)Grite a note on thermoelectric diagrams 10&a)>erive expression for the magnetic induction at any point due to a solenoid& (;r) b)>erive expression for self inductance of a long solenoid& 11&a) ;btain an expression for the gro th of a current in a ,A circuit& (;r) b)3 condenser is charged in a >C source thorough a resistance of . !egohms& -f it takes 9&2 seconds for the charge to reach Q of itCs initial value" hat is the capacity of the condenserO 12& a) 3n alternating emf of .99 7olts and 29 HD is applied to a condenser in series ith a .9 7 " 2 G lamp&?ind the capacity of the condenser required to run the lamp& (;r) b)>erive expression for po er factor in ,A circuit& ,a4 5 -$$ ,ar8s

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Part C: 6 4 -# @ <$ ,ar8s; 14&a)>erive expression for the capacity of a spherical condenser& Prove that there is al ays loss of energy hen condensers share their charges& (;r) b)/xplain ith necessary theory the measurement of large potential difference using attracted disc electrometer& 15a)&>escribe a Carey: ?osterCs bridge and explain ho it can be used to find the temperature coefficient of resistance& (;r) b)/xplain calibration of a high range voltmeter using potentiometer& 16a)&/xplain ith necessary theory measurement of absolute capacity using B#& (;r) b)#ive the theory of moving coil ballistic galvanometer& 18&a)>iscuss the gro th and decay of current in a CA circuit& (;r) b)/xplain ho high resistance is measured using B# by leakage method& .9&a) >erive expression for the maximum current in a series resonance circuit& ?ind the frequency of oscillation& (;r) b) /xplain the theory of transformer ith and ithout load&

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