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UNIT 7: DNA Structure & Replication DAYSHEET 80: DNA Laboratory & Formative Assessment

Name: _______________________________

Biology I
Date: __________________

Bellringer/Catalyst: Complete the Flip-Flop using your reading strategies.


FLIP
Recall that the nucleus is a small spherical, dense body in a cell. It is often called the "control center" because it controls all the activities of the cell including cell reproduction, and heredity. The nucleus contains the cells DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is called a nucleic acid because it was first found in the nucleus. DNA has the genetic instructions to build your body! How you look is largely determined by your DNA! In 1953, Rosalind Franklin, James Watson and Francis Crick established the structure of DNA. The shape of DNA is a double helix, which is like a twisted ladder. The building blocks of DNA are nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of a deoxyribose sugar (looks like a house) and phosphate (looks like a circle), and a nitrogen base (the middle of the ladder). In the middle of the ladder are pairs of 4 types of nitrogen bases. The bases are known by their letters A, G, T, C, which stand for Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine. The bases can occur in any order along a strand of DNA. The order of these bases is the code for building proteins. Label the thymines T. Label the adenines A. Label the guanines G. Label the cytosines C. Notice: Which letters (nitrogen bases) are always paired together? Label all the parts of the DNA molecule below.

FLOP

1. Write out the full name for DNA. ____________________________

2. Where in the cell is DNA located? ____________________________

Objective: I can identify the structure and makeup of a DNA molecule. Homework: Complete HW80

Activity 1: Building the DNA Structure You can decide which order to put your SIX nucleotides in, but you must us 1 Ts, 2 As, 2 Cs and 1 Gs on the LEFT SIDE COLUMN (the dark boxes). Memory Clue: ___________________________________________________________________

Activity 2: DNA Paper Model Laboratory


Introduction: Imagine DNA as a twisted ladder. The outside of the ladder is made up of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules. The sugar is called deoxyribose. The rungs of the ladder are made of a pair of molecules called bases. There are four bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Because of the chemical structures of the bases, adenine only pairs with thymine and cytosine only pairs with guanine to form a rung. Procedure: 1. From the template packet provided, color each of the following pieces the colors listed below: a. b. c. d. e. f. Adenine: Green Thymine: Orange Guanine: Red Cytosine: Purple Deoxyribose Sugar: Blue Phosphate: White

2. Decide on the 4 nucleotide sequence of the first strand of your DNA molecule. Write this sequence down in the space below: ________________________________________ 3. Cut out 4 sugars, 4 phosphates, and the 4 bases that align with the sequence written above. 4. Carefully glue each nucleotide together (a total of 4 separate nucleotides), and then call your teacher over for a signature before your move on to step 5. _______________________ Instructors Signature 5. Glue your for nucleotides together. 6. Determine the correct sequence of nucleotides for the complimentary strand of your DNA. Write the sequence down in the space below: ________________________________________ 7. Carefully glue each nucleotide together (a total of 4 separate nucleotides), and then call your teacher over for a signature before your move on to step 8. _______________________ Instructors Signature 8. Glue your two complementary strands of DNA together. Call your teacher over to check your work and to sign in the space below: _______________________ Instructors Signature

Analysis Questions:

1. DNA is a nucleic acid. What are the building blocks of DNA? ___________________________ 2. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? a. ________________________ (looks like a circle) b. ________________________ (looks like a candy house) c. ________________________ ( the middle of the ladder!) 3. Label the 3 parts of the nucleotide on the picture:

4. In DNA, which nitrogen bases always go together? ________ always go with _________, ________ always go with _________ 5. What memory clue will help you remember the base-pairing rule: ____________________________ 6. Choose the best option below that explains how DNA and chromosomes are related. a. Chromosomes are made of DNA c. Chromosomes are made of the nuclues b. DNA is made of chromosomes d. Nucleotides are made of DNA 7. How many chromosomes are found in each of your body cells? ________________________ 8. Where did your chromosomes come from? ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 9. What would happen to you if you did not have enough chromosomes? Why do you think this? 10. What is the name of the sugar molecule in the DNA helix? ______________________________ 11. Suppose you know that the sequence of bases on one DNA strand (one side of the DNA ladder) is AGCTCAG. What is the sequence of the bases on the opposite strand? ________________________ 12. Assume that a 100-base pair DNA double helix contains 45 cytosines. How many adenines are there? _________________________ Activity 3: StudyStack Silent Study Activity 4: QuizStar Formative DNA Structure Quiz

HW80: SOL Review Name ______________________________

Biology I Date _______________________