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Subject: Grade:

Chemistry 10

Type of Lesson: CSEC OBJ:

Lecture, Research A2.1, A2.2, A2.3 Students should be familiar with the concept of the atom as a basic building block of matter. Atoms and the Periodic Table The Atom and its structure

Term: Duration:

Christmas 80 minutes

UNIT: Lesson: 14 Week: 5

Objectives As a result of this lesson, you will be able to: 1) Describe with illustrations the structure of atoms of atomic number 1 to 20. 2) State the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons. 3) Define atomic number and mass number. Prerequisite Student Knowledge 1) Knowledge of matter as comprised of tiny particles Important Points 1) All matter is made up of microscopic particles called atoms. 2) Atoms consist of even smaller particles called electrons, protons and neutrons. 3) The electrons are arranged in shells. Key Terms atom atomic number mass number electron element neutron proton

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Challenge Areas Construct a model of an atom using material of your choice.

Equipment/Material Needed: Textbooks, pictures/diagrams/charts of atoms and how the particles are arranged in the atom A bag of brown sugar and sheets of paper towel. Picture of a dish with pieces of sodium, calcium or another metal Note to Student You must understand that atoms cannot be seen by the naked eye. They are microscopic particles.

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1) Introductory Activity a. Let us investigate a sample of brown sugar by pouring some onto the sheet of paper towel. i. What do you see? ii. What makes up the bag of sugar? iii. How are these arranged in the bag? Imagine that these particles are atoms. Then this is how they are arranged in the solid sugar. b. Look carefully at the picture of the dish of sodium in Figure 14.1.

Figure 14.1

i. ii.
Important Point Atoms are tiny particles that make up matter. Elements are made up of only one kind of atom.

Can you see the particles in this substance? A piece of sodium is made up of billions of tiny particles called sodium atoms. Atoms are too small to be seen even under a microscope. Two million hydrogen atoms would be needed to cover an average full stop. Sodium is made of sodium atoms atom only, so it is an element. Copper atoms are found in copper metal and iron atoms are found in iron metal. Copper and iron are therefore elements too. An element is a substance that is made of only one kind of atom. Every element has a name and a symbol.

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Body of Lesson 1) Whats inside the atom? a. Go to the PowerPoint presentation on Whats Inside The Atom to view a. What are the particles inside the atom? b. Click on the link to learn more about the subatomic particles. http://education.jlab.org/atomtour/listofparticles.html c. After viewing the PowerPoint presentation and the website, complete the following paragraph on the particles inside an atom. Review the presentation to check your answers.

A tom s have three basic particles: _____________, ______________ and ________________ . T he ___________ and _________ are found inside the nucleus. T he __________ m ove around the nucleus on shells. T he positively charged particles are the __________. T he negatively charged particles are the __________. T he __________ have no charge.

2) Elements and their symbols a. The symbol for an element is an abbreviated way of referring to the element and is derived from the name or the Latin form of the element. The symbol of an element can be written to include the mass number and the atomic number:

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Mass number SYMBOL Atomic number b. Below is an example: 19

F
9

represents one atom of fluorine

Mass number Atomic number Number of protons

= 19 =9 =9

Number of electrons = 9 Number of neutrons = 19 9 = 10 c. Na is the symbol for sodium and is derived from its Latin name. It can also be expressed as: 23

Na
11 i. ii. iii. iv. v. What is the mass number? What is the atomic number? What is the number of protons? What is the number of electrons? What is the number of neutrons? ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

3) Arrangement of electrons a. Electrons are arranged in a particular way in the shells. The first shell, that is, the shell closest to the nucleus can hold a maximum of two electrons and the second shell can hold a maximum of eight electrons. The third shell can hold a maximum of eighteen; however, for elements 1 - 20, it can
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only hold a maximum of eight. So for the atom of fluorine whose atomic number is 9, two electrons will go into the first shell. Since no more electrons can hold in the first shell, the remaining electrons will go into the second shell. The electrons are then arranged as 2.7. This notation is called the electronic configuration. 4) Activity a. Draw the structure of fluorine atom. You should end up with a structure with 10 neutrons and 9 protons in the nucleus, two electrons on the first shell and seven on the second shell. b. Find a partner to do some research to find the names and symbols of the first twenty elements. Complete Worksheet 1. 5) Each pair of students will be assigned two elements, their atomic numbers and mass numbers. You are expected to create a model of the atom for each element, using the materials provided. Remember the order of the filling of the shells. Hand in the models for grading.

Closure In-Class Assignments 1) Summarize the main points in the lesson by answering the following questions. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Name the particles found inside the atom? How are these particles arranged within the atom? What are the charges of these particles? What is an element? What is the atomic number of an element? What is the mass number of an element? How does one arrive at the symbol for an element? How are electrons arranged in an atom?

2) Draw a flow chart to show the relationship between atom, element, electron, neutron, proton, atomic number, mass number. 3) Atomic Structure Quiz a. Visit the following link to review atomic structure http://chemistry.about.com/od/atomicmolecularstructure/a/a a062804a.htm
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b. Do the quiz found at http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/blatomquiz.htm on Atomic structure to see how well you have grasped the concepts. You might also want to try: http://www.chem4kids.com/extras/quiz_atomstruct/index.h tml

Out-of-Class Assignment 1) Write a short summary of the main points in your notebook. 2) Complete the following diagram in Figure 14.2. List with characteristics or features to be used to complete the diagram in Figure 14.2: 109 types mass 1 mass ~0 charge +1 charge -1 no charge invisible pure substance has characteristics of element

Element
has feature

Atom
has feature

Proton
has feature

Neutron
has feature

Electron
has feature

Figure 14.2 Five ideas and their characteristics 3) Identify the following elements and draw a labeled diagram to illustrate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in each atom: 27 24 16

Al
13 12

Mg
8

4) Read up on isotopes for the next lesson.


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Supplemental Glossary of Terms Atom The smallest, indivisible part of an atom that can take part in a chemical change A substance made up of one kind of atom A positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom A negatively charged particle found orbiting around the nucleus in the shells of an atom A particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It has no charge. The number of protons found in an atom The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Element Proton Electron Neutron Atomic number Mass number

CSEC Question 1) Complete the following table: Species Atomic Number of Element 6 27 32 2,8,3 16 Mass Number of Element Arrangement of electrons in species Number of neutrons in the nucleus 6

X Y Z

Recommended Materials None Bibliography Tindale, A. Chemistry: A Concise Revision Course for CXC 2nd Revised Edition, Nelson Thornes Publishers 1998 Gallagher, R.M. & Ingram, P. Complete Chemistry 2nd Edition Oxford University Press 2000
Student Instructional Material

Worksheet 1: Information on the first twenty elements Name of element


Hydrogen

Symbol

Atomic Number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Mass Number Number of neutrons

Electronic configuration

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