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ARTHROPODS

Phylum Arthropoda

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Arthropoda.ppt

Phylum Arthropoda
(jointed feet )
Huge group, > 1,000,000 species. estimate: 1,000,000 spp. arthropods 1,190,000 spp. animals ~ 84% of all animal species are arthropods!!

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Arthropoda.ppt

Phylum Arthropoda
How can we explain the success of the arthropods?
Exoskeleton!

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Arthropoda.ppt

Phylum Arthropoda
Exoskeleton of chitin and protein (= cuticle) structure: epicuticle (oily, waxy) exocuticle (chitin & protein) endocuticle (chitin only) epidermis secretes cuticle

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Arthropoda.ppt

Problems associated with exoskeleton.


Problem 1. MOVEMENT
Solution: Joints in exoskeleton.
arthro-, = joint -pod, = leg, foot

Exocuticle absent from joints; may form hinges. Endocuticle alone allows flexibility.

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Problems associated with exoskeleton.


Problem 2. GROWTH Solution: Molting

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Molting (1)
Secretion of "molting fluid" to dissolve old endocuticle.

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Molting (2)
New cuticle formed under old exocuticle. Break out of old cuticle
Old cuticle breaks at line of weakness

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Molting (3)
Inflate with water/air to increase size while skeleton soft,
but soft skeleton & gravity limit size; arthropods are mostly small.

Hardening of new exocuticle.

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Growth stages
Arthropod passes thru 3-20+ growth stages in life cycle. Some stop molting as adults (insects, most spiders) Some continue to molt (crayfish, tarantulas)

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Problems associated with exoskeleton.


Problem 3. SENSORY INPUT
touch sensory setae connected to neurons smell & taste hollow sensory setae w/ chemosensitive nerve endings

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Problems associated with exoskeleton.


Problem 3. SENSORY INPUT vision
clear cuticle over compound or simple eyes

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Problems associated with exoskeleton.


Problem 3. SENSORY INPUT hearing
tympanum = endocuticle, vibrates like eardrum trichobothria (right )

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Benefits of Exoskeleton:
to individuals:
Support Locomotion
lever system walk, swim, fly

Mechanical protection (armor) Retards evaporation (in air) and/or osmosis (in water)
water balance.
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Benefits of Exoskeleton:
to the phylum:
Reduction of coelom & segmentation
Abandoned hydrostatic system of annelid-like ancestor) Coelom reduced to pericardial cavity

Segments fused = tagma, tagmata


Tagmosis Specialization of body regions (= tagmata) Specialization of appendages
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Tagmosis
Head (~ 4-6 segments)
feeding, sensation

Head appendages
mandibles, maxillae, maxillipeds, chelicerae antennae

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Tagmosis
Thorax (~ 3-6 segments)
locomotion, grasping.

Thoracic appendages
walking legs, wings chelipeds

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Tagmosis
Abdomen (~8- 30+ segments)
respiration, reproduction, etc.

Abdominal appendages

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abdominal gills (aquatic insect larvae) swimmerets (crayfish) filtering legs (barnacles) gonopods (crayfish, etc.) spinnerets (spiders)
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Tagmosis
Number of segments/legs in each tagma varies by subphylum, class.
Cephalothorax of 6 segments in Chelicerata
1 pr. chelicerae 1 pr. pedipalps 4 pr. walking legs

Cephalothorax of 13 segments in Crustacea (shrimps)



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2 pr. antennae 1 pr. mandibles 2 pr. maxillae 3 pr. maxillipeds 5 pr. walking legs (1st pair modified as chelipeds)
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Other arthropod characters


Open circulatory system
Dorsal heart pumps hemolymph over brain Hemolymph moves through hemocoel back toward heart Ostia (holes) in sides of heart let hemolymph in to go around again.

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Other arthropod characters


Respiratory systems
Gills in aquatic/marine arthropods Tracheal systems in most terrestrial arthropods Book lungs (modified gills) in spiders & scorpions

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Other arthropod characters


Nervous system resembles that of annelid
Dorsal brain with nerves around esophagus Paired ventral nerve cords Segmental ganglia
Often fused into 1-2 ganglia in each tagma

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Distinguishing Characters of Ph. Arthropoda


Jointed exoskeleton Tagmosis Compound eyes

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Trilobita Subphylum Crustacea Subphylum Chelicerata Subphylum Uniramia

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Trilobita Class trilobites
Three-lobed head & body (left, middle, right) Diverse in Paleozoic ~540-240 MYA Extinct

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Crustacea
2 pr. Antennae (antennules, antennae) Cephalothorax
13 segments & appendage pairs

Abdomen
variable among Classes

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Crustacea
Class shrimps Class barnacles

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Chelicerata
Cephalothorax
Jaws are chelicerae Pedipalps 4 pr. Walking legs

Abdomen

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Chelicerata
Class Horseshoe crabs
Horseshoe crabs Scorpions ??

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Chelicerata
Class Arachnids
Lost compound eyes Spiders Daddy-long-legs Amblypygi Mites & ticks more Scorpions ??

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Uniramia
Legs unbranched Class Centipedes
1st legs are fangs

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Uniramia
Class Millipedes
Double segments (2 pr. legs per segment)

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Classification of Arthropoda
Subphylum Uniramia
Class Insects
Head, thorax, abdomen 2 pr. Wings ~800,000 species, majority of all arthropods

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Why are Arthropods so successful?


Exoskeleton tagmosis evolution of flight speciation 106 species of insects.

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Why are Arthropods so successful?


Exoskeleton protection from water loss early colonization of land head start.
Arthropods were diverse and widespread on land before vertebrates!

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