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Formula sheet to accompany ME204 quizzes and exams

Exergy
Irreversibility: I =
destroyed
= !
o
"
#en
= $
rev%out
& $
u%out
= $
u%in
& $
rev%in
"econd la' e((iciency:
)on(lo' exer#y:
Flo' Exer#y:
Exer#y balance bet'een states * and 2: Fixed mass:
Exer#y balance bet'een states * and 2: Flo'in# stream:
Exer#y trans(er by heat:
heat
= +*,!
o
-!./
Exer#y trans(er by 'or0:
Exer#y trans(er by mass
mass
= m .
Exer#y balance% #eneral expression:
P-v relations for ideal gas (with constant Cp):

,
_

,
_

v
v
=
p
p
=
T
T

v P
= v P = constant =
Pv
2
1
1 - n
n n
1
2
1
2 n
2 2
n n
/ 1
1 1
du = c
v
d!% dh = c
1
d!% entropy calculations (or ideal #as :
engines heat for
W
W
rev
u
rev th
th
II

,

pumps heat and rs efrigerato r for


W
W
COP
COP
u
rev
rev
II

supplied Exerg
destroed Exerg
supplied Exerg
recovered Exerg
II
1
) ( ) ( ) (
o o o o o
! ! T " " P E E # +
g$ " s s T h h
o o o
+ + 2 ) ( ) (
2

( )
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2
) ( ) ( $ $ g
" "
s s T h h
o
+

+
) ( ) ( ) (
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
s s T v v P e e
o o
+
%or& of forms other for W #
%or& 'oundar for W W #
%or&
surr %or&


sstem destroed out in
# # # #
( ) [ ] ( )
cv destroed
out in
o &
&
o
# # # m m " " P W (
T
T
1 2 1 2
1 +

,
_



v
dv
)
T
dT
c ds
v
+
P
dP
)
T
dT
c ds
P

Psychrometrics
Mass fraction:
*

=
n
+
* n
n
+
* n
=
* n
* n
=
m
m
=
c
,
,
i
i
tot , i
tot i i
, i
i i
tot
i
i

Mole fraction:
*
+
c
*
+
c
=
-
m *
. +
m
-
m *
. +
m
=
*
+
m
*
+
m
=
n
n
=
, ,
i i
tot , ,
tot i i
, ,
i i
tot
i
i

Relative humidity:
v
v
= =
P
P
=
v
g
g
v
g
v

Humidity ratio:
P
P
/0122 =
a
v

% relative humidity
P
/0122
P
=
g
a

Gas Mixtures
Property Relations:
Mathematical relations: 1 =
x

x
$ $

,
_

,
_

and 1 - =
x
$

$

x
x $

,
_

,
_

,
_

Maxwell relations:
,
_

,
_

s
P
- =
v
T
v s
%
,
_

,
_

s
v
=
P
T
p s
%
,
_

,
_

v
s
=
T
P
T v
%
,
_

,
_

P
s
- =
T
v
T P
2
Clapeyron euation:
Tv
h
=
v
s
=
v
-
v
s
-
s
=
dT
dP
fg
fg
fg
fg
f g
f g
sat

,
_

1
]
1

) (
) (
ln
2 1
1 2
1
2
T T
T T
)
h
P
P
fg
Reduced temperature! pressure and volume:
2)T = P0v
v
v
=
v
3
T
T
=
T
3
P
P
=
P
c
r
c
r
c
r
"he change in enthalpy: dP
T
v
T v dT C dh
P p
1
]
1

+ ) (
"he change in internal energy: dv P
T
P
T dT C du
v v
1
]
1

+ ) (
"he change in entropy: dv
T
P
T
dT
C ds
v v
) (

+ and dP
T
v
T
dT
C ds
P P
) (


#uations for generali$ed ta%les:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
s
-
s
4
s
-
s
4
s
-
s
- =
s
-
s

h
-
h
4
h
-
h
4
h
-
h
- =
h
-
h
2
5
2
5
2
5
1 1
5
1 2 1
2
5
2
5
2
5
1 1
5
1 2 1

&
i
i m
m m
1
%

&
i
i m
6 6
1
%
m
i
i
m
m
mf
%
m
i
i
6
6

%

&
i
i i m
* *
1
%
m
i
i i
*
*
mf
3alton 4a': ( )

&
i
m m i m
" T P P
1
, % 5ma#at 4a': ( )

&
i
m m i m
P T " "
1
,
6ay7s rule:

&
i
i cr i m cr
P P
1
,
'
,
%

&
i
i cr i m cr
T T
1
,
'
,
&7 u 6 u m 8 8
&
i
i i
&
i
i i
&
i
i m


1 1 1
&7 h 6 h m 9 9
&
i
i i
&
i
i i
&
i
i m


1 1 1
: &7 s 6 s m ! !
&
i
i i
&
i
i i
&
i
i m
/
1 1 1



: &g &7 c mf c
&
i
i p i m p
. /
1
, ,

1 ,
2 ,
1 ,
2 ,
,
1 ,
2 ,
1 , 2 ,
ln ln ln
i
i
u
i
i
i P
i
i
u
o
i
o
i i
P
P
)
T
T
c
P
P
) s s s
Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions &uel-air ratio:
m
m
=
;<
fuel
air
mass and
n
n
=
;<
fuel
air
mole
#uivalence ratio: ;< +
;<
=
<;
+ <; =
s s

#nthalpy of com%ustion:
( ) ( ) h 4
h

n h 4
h
n
=
h

9
-
9
=
h
o
f
i
i

)
o
f
e
e

P
)P
) P
)P
-