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Materials

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Contents
Articles
Materials science Ionic bond Covalent bond Metal Intermetallics Semiconductor Polymer Composite material Glass 1 10 12 15 22 24 32 45 52

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Materials science

Materials science
Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With significant media attention focused on nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years, materials science has been propelled to Simulation of the outside of the Space Shuttle as it heats up to over 1500C (2730F) the forefront at many universities. It is during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis. Materials science also deals with fundamental properties and characteristics of materials.

History
The material of choice of a given era is often its defining point. Phrases such as Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Steel Age are good examples. Originally deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy, materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science. Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining and (likely) ceramics and the use of fire. A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century, when the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs demonstrated that the thermodynamic properties related to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys, and silica and carbon materials, used in the construction of space vehicles enabling the exploration of space. Materials science has driven, and been driven by, the development of revolutionary technologies such as plastics, semiconductors, and biomaterials. Before the 1960s (and in some cases decades after), many materials science departments were named metallurgy departments, from a 19th and early 20th century emphasis on metals. The field has since broadened to include every class of materials, including: ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, magnetic materials, medical implant materials and biological materials (materiomics).

Fundamentals
The basis of materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms and phases in that material through characterization. The major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and the way in which it has been processed into its final form. These characteristics, taken together and related through the laws of thermodynamics, govern a materials microstructure, and thus its properties. The manufacture of a perfect crystal of a material is currently physically impossible. Instead materials scientists manipulate the defects in crystalline materials such as precipitates, grain boundaries (Hall-Petch relationship), interstitial atoms, vacancies or substitutional atoms, to create materials with the desired properties.

Materials science Not all materials have a regular crystal structure. Polymers display varying degrees of crystallinity, and many are completely non-crystalline. Glasses, some ceramics, and many natural materials are amorphous, not possessing any long-range order in their atomic arrangements. The study of polymers combines elements of chemical and statistical thermodynamics to give thermodynamic, as well as mechanical, descriptions of physical properties. In addition to industrial interest, materials science has gradually developed into a field which provides tests for condensed matter or solid state theories. New physics emerge because of the diverse new material properties which need to be explained.

Materials in industry
Radical materials advances can drive the creation of new products or even new industries, but stable industries also employ materials scientists to make incremental improvements and troubleshoot issues with currently used materials. Industrial applications of materials science include materials design, cost-benefit tradeoffs in industrial production of materials, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin-film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc.), and analytical techniques (characterization techniques such as electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, calorimetry, nuclear microscopy (HEFIB), Rutherford backscattering, neutron diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), etc. Besides material characterization, the material scientist/engineer also deals with the extraction of materials and their conversion into useful forms. Thus ingot casting, foundry techniques, blast furnace extraction, and electrolytic extraction are all part of the required knowledge of a metallurgist/engineer. Often the presence, absence or variation of minute quantities of secondary elements and compounds in a bulk material will have a great impact on the final properties of the materials produced, for instance, steels are classified based on 1/10 and 1/100 weight percentages of the carbon and other alloying elements they contain. Thus, the extraction and purification techniques employed in the extraction of iron in the blast furnace will have an impact of the quality of steel that may be produced. The overlap between physics and materials science has led to the offshoot field of materials physics, which is concerned with the physical properties of materials. The approach is generally more macroscopic and applied than in condensed matter physics. See important publications in materials physics for more details on this field of study.

Metal alloys
The study of metal alloys is a significant part of materials science. Of all the metallic alloys in use today, the alloys of iron (steel, stainless steel, cast iron, tool steel, alloy steels) make up the largest proportion both by quantity and commercial value. Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon steels. For the steels, the hardness and tensile strength of the steel is directly related to the amount of carbon present, with increasing carbon levels also leading to lower ductility and toughness. The addition of silicon and graphitization will produce cast irons (although some cast irons are made precisely with no graphitization). The addition of chromium, nickel and molybdenum to carbon steels (more than 10%) gives us stainless steels. Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper and magnesium. Copper alloys have been known for a long time (since the Bronze Age), while the alloys of the other three metals have been relatively recently developed. Due to the chemical reactivity of these metals, the electrolytic extraction processes required were only developed relatively recently. The alloys of aluminium, titanium and magnesium are also known and valued for their high strength-to-weight ratios and, in the case of magnesium, their ability to provide electromagnetic shielding. These materials are ideal for situations where high strength-to-weight ratios are more important than bulk cost, such as in the aerospace industry and certain automotive engineering applications.

Materials science

Polymers
Polymers are also an important part of materials science. Polymers are the raw materials (the resins) used to make what we commonly call plastics. Plastics are really the final product, created after one or more polymers or additives have been added to a resin during processing, which is then shaped into a final form. Polymers which have been around, and which are in current widespread use, include polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polystyrene, nylons, polyesters, acrylics, polyurethanes, and polycarbonates. Plastics are generally classified as "commodity", "specialty" and "engineering" plastics. PVC (polyvinyl-chloride) is widely used, inexpensive, and annual production quantities are large. It lends itself to an incredible array of applications, from artificial leather to electrical insulation and cabling, packaging and containers. Its fabrication and processing are simple and well-established. The versatility of PVC is due to the wide range of plasticisers and other additives that it accepts. The term "additives" in polymer science refers to the chemicals and compounds added to the polymer base to modify its material properties. Polycarbonate would be normally considered an engineering plastic (other examples include PEEK, ABS). Engineering plastics are valued for their superior strengths and other special material properties. They are usually not used for disposable applications, unlike commodity plastics. Specialty plastics are materials with unique characteristics, such as ultra-high strength, electrical conductivity, electro-fluorescence, high thermal stability, etc. The dividing lines between the various types of plastics is not based on material but rather on their properties and applications. For instance, polyethylene (PE) is a cheap, low friction polymer commonly used to make disposable shopping bags and trash bags, and is considered a commodity plastic, whereas Medium-Density Polyethylene MDPE is used for underground gas and water pipes, and another variety called Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene UHMWPE is an engineering plastic which is used extensively as the glide rails for industrial equipment and the low-friction socket in implanted hip joints.

Ceramics and glasses


Another application of the material sciences is the structures of glass and ceramics, typically associated with the most brittle materials. Bonding in ceramics and glasses are using covalent and ionic-covalent types with SiO2, silica or sand, as a fundamental building block. Ceramics are as soft as clay and as hard as stone and concrete. Usually, they are crystalline in form. Most glasses contain a metal oxide fused with silica. At high temperatures used to prepare glass, the material is a viscous liquid. The structure of glass forms into an amorphous state upon cooling. Windowpanes and eyeglasses are important examples. Fibers of glass are also available. Diamond and carbon in its graphite form are considered to be ceramics. Engineering ceramics are known for their stiffness, high temperature, and stability under compression and electrical stress. Alumina, silica carbide, and tungsten carbide are made from a fine powder of their constituents in a process of sintering with a binder. Hot pressing provides higher density material. Chemical vapor deposition can place a film of a ceramic on another material. Cermets are ceramic particles containing some metals. The wear resistance of tools is derived from cemented carbides with the metal phase of cobalt and nickel typically added to modify properties.

Composite materials
Another application of material science in industry is the making of composite materials. Composite materials are structured materials composed of two or more macroscopic phases. Applications range from structural elements such as steel-reinforced concrete, to the thermally insulative tiles which play a key and integral role in NASA's Space Shuttle thermal protection system which is used to protect the surface of the shuttle from the heat of re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. One example is Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), The light gray material which withstands re-entry temperatures up to 1510 C (2750 F) and protects the Space Shuttle's wing leading edges and nose cap.

Materials science RCC is a laminated composite material made from graphite rayon cloth and impregnated with a phenolic resin. After curing at high temperature in an autoclave, the laminate is pyrolized to convert the resin to carbon, impregnated with furfural alcohol in a vacuum chamber, and cured/pyrolized to convert the furfural alcohol to carbon. In order to provide oxidation resistance for reuse capability, the outer layers of the RCC are converted to silicon carbide. Other examples can be seen in the "plastic" casings of television sets, cell-phones and so on. These plastic casings are usually a composite material made up of a thermoplastic matrix such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in which calcium carbonate chalk, talc, glass fibres or carbon fibres have been added for added strength, bulk, or electro-static dispersion. These additions may be referred to as reinforcing fibres, or dispersants, depending on their purpose.

Classes of materials
Materials science encompasses various classes of materials, each of which may constitute a separate field. Materials are sometimes classified by the type of bonding present between the atoms: 1. Ionic crystals 2. Covalent crystals 3. Metals 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Intermetallics Semiconductors Polymers Composite materials Vitreous materials

Overview
Nanotechnology rigorously, the study of materials where the effects of quantum confinement, the Gibbs-Thomson effect, or any other effect only present at the nanoscale is the defining property of the material; but more commonly, it is the creation and study of materials whose defining structural properties are anywhere from less than a nanometer to one hundred nanometers in scale, such as molecularly engineered materials. Microtechnology - study of materials and processes and their interaction, allowing microfabrication of structures of micrometric dimensions, such as MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Crystallography the study of how atoms in a solid fill space, the defects associated with crystal structures such as grain boundaries and dislocations, and the characterization of these structures and their relation to physical properties. Materials Characterization such as diffraction with x-rays, electrons, or neutrons, and various forms of spectroscopy and chemical analysis such as Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), chromatography, thermal analysis, electron microscope analysis, etc., in order to understand and define the properties of materials. See also List of surface analysis methods

Materials science

Metallurgy the study of metals and their alloys, including their extraction, microstructure and processing. Biomaterials materials that are derived from and/or used with biological systems. Electronic and magnetic materials materials such as semiconductors used to create integrated circuits, storage media, sensors, and other devices. Tribology the study of the wear of materials due to friction and other factors. Surface science/Catalysis interactions and structures between solid-gas solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces.
3 4 Ceramography the study of the microstructures of high-temperature materials and refractories, including structural ceramics such as RCC, polycrystalline silicon carbide and transformation toughened ceramics

Si N ceramic bearing parts

Some practitioners often consider rheology a sub-field of materials science, because it can cover any material that flows. However, modern rheology typically deals with non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, so it is often considered a sub-field of continuum mechanics. See also granular material. Glass Science any non-crystalline material including inorganic glasses, vitreous metals and non-oxide glasses. Forensic engineering the study of how products fail, and the vital role of the materials of construction Forensic materials engineering the study of material failure, and the light it sheds on how engineers specify materials in their product Textile Reinforced Materials - materials in the form of ceramic or concrete are reinforced with a primarily woven or non-woven textile structure to impose high strength with comparatively more flexibility to withstand vibrations and sudden jerks.

A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments is commonly used for reinforcement in composite materials.

Primary topics
Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and physical chemistry, for phase equilibrium conditions, phase diagrams of materials systems (multi-phase, multi-component, reacting and non-reacting systems)

Materials science Phase transformation kinetics, for the kinetics of phase transformations (with particular emphasis on solid-solid phase transitions) Transport phenomena for the transport of heat, mass, and momentum in materials processing. Crystallography, quantum chemistry or quantum physics, for the structure (symmetry and defects) and bonding in materials (e.g., ionic, metallic, covalent, and van der Waals bonding) Mechanical behavior of materials, to understand the mechanical properties of materials, defects and their propagation, and their behavior under static, dynamic, and cyclic loads Electronic properties of materials, and solid-state physics, for the understanding of the electronic, thermal, magnetic, and optical properties of materials Diffraction and wave mechanics, for the science behind characterization systems, e.g., transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Polymer properties, synthesis, and characterization, for a specialized understanding of how polymers behave, how they are made, and how they are characterized; exciting applications of polymers include liquid crystal displays (LCDs, the displays found in most cell-phones, cameras, and iPods), novel photovoltaic devices based on semiconductor polymers (which, unlike the traditional silicon solar panels, are flexible and cheap to manufacture, albeit with lower efficiency), and membranes Household items made of various kinds of plastic. for room-temperature fuel cells (as proton exchange membranes) and filtration systems in the environmental and biomedical fields Biomaterials, physiology, biomechanics, biochemistry, for a specialized understanding of how materials integrate into biological systems, e.g., through materiomics Semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices, for a specialized understanding of the advanced processes used in industry (e.g. crystal growth techniques, thin-film deposition, ion implantation, photolithography), their properties, and their integration in electronic devices Alloying, corrosion, and thermal or mechanical processing, for a specialized treatment of metallurgical materialswith applications ranging from aerospace and industrial equipment to the civil industries

Professional organizations
Materials Research Society, MRS [1] European Materials Research Society, EMRS [2] ASM International [3] The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society, TMS [4] Materials Australia [5] American Ceramic Society, ACerS [6] NACE International [7] The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, AIME [8]

Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, SAMPE [9] The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, IOM3 [10]

Materials science Alpha Sigma Mu, [11] Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC [12]

Important journals
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces Acta Crystallographica Acta Materialia Acta Metallurgica Advanced Composite Materials Advanced Functional Materials Advanced Materials Chemistry of Materials Computational Materials Science Crystal Growth & Design Federation of European Materials Science Societies Newsletter [13] International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology [14] JOM Journal of the American Ceramic Society [15] Journal of Applied Crystallography [16] J Colloid & Interface Science Journal of Materials Chemistry Journal of Materials Research Journal of Materials Science Journal of Physical Chemistry B Materials Chemistry and Physics Materials Letters Materials Research Bulletin Materials Science and Engineering-A, B, C, and R Metallurgical and Materials Transactions Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering MRS Bulletin [17]

Physical Review B [18] Nature Materials Science and Technology of Advanced Materials - Open Access

Bibliography
Ashby, Michael; Hugh Shercliff and David Cebon (2007). Materials: engineering, science, processing and design (1st ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN978-0-7506-8391-3. Askeland, Donald R.; Pradeep P. Phul (2005). The Science & Engineering of Materials (5th ed.). Thomson-Engineering. ISBN0-534-55396-6. Callister, Jr., William D. (2000). Materials Science and Engineering - An Introduction (5th ed.). John Wiley and Sons. ISBN0-471-32013-7. Eberhart, Mark (2003). Why Things Break: Understanding the World by the Way It Comes Apart. Harmony. ISBN1-4000-4760-9. Gaskell, David R. (1995). Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials (4th ed.). Taylor and Francis Publishing. ISBN1-56032-992-0.

Materials science Gordon, James Edward (1984). The New Science of Strong Materials or Why You Don't Fall Through the Floor (eissue ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN0-691-02380-8. Mathews, F.L. & Rawlings, R.D. (1999). Composite Materials: Engineering and Science. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN0-8493-0621-7. Lewis, P.R., Reynolds, K. & Gagg, C. (2003). Forensic Materials Engineering: Case Studies. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Wachtman, John B. (1996). Mechanical Properties of Ceramics. New York: Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Son's. ISBN0-471-13316-7. Walker, P., ed (1993). Chambers Dictionary of Materials Science and Technology. Chambers Publishing. ISBN055013249X.

Further reading
Timeline of Materials Science [19] at The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) - Accessed March 2007 Burns, G.; Glazer, A.M. (1990). Space Groups for Scientists and Engineers (2nd ed.). Boston: Academic Press, Inc. ISBN0-12-145761-3. Cullity, B.D. (1978). Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (2nd ed.). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN0-534-55396-6. Giacovazzo, C; Monaco HL, Viterbo D, Scordari F, Gilli G, Zanotti G, and Catti M (1992). Fundamentals of Crystallography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN0-19-855578-4. Green, D.J.; Hannink, R.; Swain, M.V. (1989). Transformation Toughening of Ceramics. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN0-8493-6594-5. Lovesey, S. W. (1984). Theory of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter; Volume 1: Neutron Scattering. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN0-19-852015-8. Lovesey, S. W. (1984). Theory of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter; Volume 2: Condensed Matter. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN0-19-852017-4. O'Keeffe, M.; Hyde, B.G. (1996). Crystal Structures; I. Patterns and Symmetry. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America, Monograph Series. ISBN0-939950-40-5. Squires, G.L. (1996). Introduction to the Theory of Thermal Neutron Scattering (2nd ed.). Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN0-486-69447-X. Young, R.A., ed (1993). The Rietveld Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press & International Union of Crystallography. ISBN0-19-855577-6.

External links
Nanoscale Interdisciplinary Research Team [20] CMR - Centre for Materials Research [21] Materials Science and Engineering [22] - Idaho National Laboratory Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS) [23] EURELNET Technology Transfer Department at the University of Bordeaux [24] MATTER (Materials e-Learning Resources) at the University of Liverpool [25] CORE-Materials Open Educational Resources for Materials Science & Engineering [26] Materials Research [[CEIT [27]] Research Institute]

Materials science

References
[1] http:/ / www. mrs. org/ s_mrs/ index. asp [2] http:/ / www. emrs-strasbourg. com/ [3] http:/ / asmcommunity. asminternational. org/ portal/ site/ www/ [4] http:/ / www. tms. org/ TMSHome. aspx [5] http:/ / www. materialsaustralia. com. au/ [6] http:/ / www. ceramics. org/ index. aspx [7] http:/ / www. nace. org/ [8] http:/ / www. aimehq. org/ [9] http:/ / www. sampe. org/ [10] http:/ / www. iom3. org/ [11] http:/ / www. alphasigmamu. org/ [12] http:/ / www. ceitec. eu/ [13] http:/ / www. fems. org/ newsletter/ index. php [14] http:/ / www. ceramics. org/ publications/ act. aspx [15] http:/ / www. ceramics. org/ publications/ jacers. aspx [16] http:/ / journals. iucr. org/ j/ journalhomepage. html [17] http:/ / www. mrs. org/ s_mrs/ sec. asp?CID=1719& DID=38972 [18] http:/ / prb. aps. org/ [19] http:/ / www. materialmoments. org/ top100. html [20] http:/ / nirt. pa. msu. edu/ [21] http:/ / cmr. curtin. edu. au/ [22] https:/ / inlportal. inl. gov/ portal/ server. pt?open=514& objID=1650& parentname=CommunityPage& parentid=7& mode=2& in_hi_userid=200& cached=true [23] http:/ / www. doitpoms. ac. uk/ tlplib/ index. php [24] https:/ / www. eurelnet. org/ [25] http:/ / www. matter. org. uk/ [26] http:/ / core. materials. ac. uk/ [27] http:/ / www. ceit. es/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=25& Itemid=28& lang=en

Ionic bond

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Ionic bond
An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation, which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal. Pure ionic bonding cannot exist: all ionic compounds have some degree of covalent bonding. Thus, an ionic bond is considered a bond where the ionic character is greater than the covalent character. The larger the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms involved in the bond, the more ionic (polar) the bond is. Bonds with partially ionic and partially covalent character are called polar covalent bonds. Ionic bonding is a form of noncovalent bonding.

Sodium and chlorine bonding ionically to form sodium chloride. Sodium loses its outer electron to give it a stable electron configuration, and this electron enters the chlorine atom exothermically. The oppositely charged ions are then attracted to each other, and their bonding releases energy. The net transfer of energy is that energy leaves the atoms, so the reaction is able to take place.

Ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in solution, but not as a solid. They generally have a high melting point and tend to be soluble in water.

Formation
The formation of an ionic bond proceeds when the cation, whose ionization energy is low, releases some of its electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. The anion, whose electron affinity is positive, then accepts the electrons, again to attain a stable electron configuration. Typically, the stable electron configuration is one of the noble gases for elements in the s-block and the p-block, and particular stable electron configurations for d-block and f-block elements. The electrostatic attraction between these two entities forms the ionic bond. For example, common table salt is sodium chloride. When sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are combined, the sodium atoms each lose an electron, forming cations (Na+), and the chlorine atoms each gain an electron to form anions (Cl). These ions are then attracted to each other in a 1:1 ratio to form sodium chloride (NaCl). Na + Cl Na+ + Cl NaCl The removal of electrons from the cation is endothermic, raising the system's overall energy. There may also be energy changes associated with breaking of existing bonds or the addition of more than one electron to form anions. However, the action of the anion accepting the cation's valence electrons and the subsequent attraction of the ions to each other releases energy and thus lowers the overall energy of the system. Ionic bonding will occur only if the overall energy change for the reaction is favourable when the reaction is exothermic. The larger the resulting energy change, the stronger the bond. The low electronegativity of metals and high electronegativity of non-metals means that the reaction is most favourable between a metal and a non-metal.

Representation of ionic bonding between lithium and fluorine to form lithium fluoride. Lithium has a low ionization energy and readily gives up its lone valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has a positive electron affinity and accepts the electron that was donated by the lithium atom. The end result is that lithium is isoelectronic with helium and fluorine is isoelectronic with neon. Electrostatic interaction between the two atoms forms an ionic bond.

Structure

Ionic bond Ionic compounds in the solid state form lattice structures. The two principal factors in determining the form of the lattice are the relative charges of the ions and their relative sizes. Some structures are adopted by a number of compounds; for example, the structure of the rock salt sodium chloride is also adopted by many alkali halides, and binary oxides such as MgO.

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Bond strength
For a solid crystalline ionic compound the enthalpy change in forming the solid from gaseous ions is termed the lattice energy. The experimental value for the lattice energy can be determined using the Born-Haber cycle. It can also be calculated using the Born-Land equation as the sum of the electrostatic potential energy, calculated by summing interactions between cations and anions, and a short range repulsive potential energy term. The electrostatic potential can be expressed in terms of the inter-ionic separation and a constant (Madelung constant) that takes account of the geometry of the crystal. The Born-Land equation gives a reasonable fit to the lattice energy of e.g. sodium chloride where the calculated value is 756 kJ/mol which compares to 787 kJ/mol using the Born-Haber cycle.[1]

Polarization effects
Ions in crystal lattices of purely ionic compounds are spherical; however, if the positive ion is small and/or highly charged, it will distort the electron cloud of the negative ion, an effect summarised in Fajans' rules. This polarization of the negative ion leads to a build-up of extra charge density between the two nuclei, i.e., to partial covalency. Larger negative ions are more easily polarized, but the effect is usually only important when positive ions with charges of 3+ (e.g., Al3+) are involved. However, 2+ ions (Be2+) or even 1+ (Li+) show some polarizing power because their sizes are so small (e.g., LiI is ionic but has some covalent bonding present). Note that this is not the ionic polarization effect which refers to displacement of ions in the lattice due to the application of an electric field.

Comparison with covalent bonds


In an ionic bond, the atoms are bound by attraction of opposite ions, whereas, in a covalent bond, atoms are bound by sharing electrons to attain stable electron configurations. In covalent bonding, the molecular geometry around each atom is determined by VSEPR rules, whereas, in ionic materials, the geometry follows maximum packing rules. Purely ionic bonds cannot exist, as the proximity of the entities involved in the bond allows some degree of sharing electron density between them. Therefore, all ionic bonds have some covalent character. For example, NaCl and MgO bonds have a few percent covalency, while SiO bonds are usually ~50% ionic and ~50% covalent. Predominantly covalent bonds with partial ionic character are called polar covalent.

Electrical conductivity
Ionic compounds, if molten or dissolved, can conduct electricity because the ions in these conditions are free to move and carry electrons between the anode and the cathode. In the solid form, however, they cannot conduct because the electrons are held together too tightly for them to move. However, some ionic compounds can conduct electricity when solid. This is due to migration of the ions themselves under the influence of an electric field. These compounds are known as fast ion conductors.

Ionic bond

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External links
Ionic bonding tutorial [2] Video on ionic bonding [3]

References
[1] David Arthur Johnson, Metals and Chemical Change, Open University, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002, ISBN 0854046658 [2] http:/ / www. chemteam. info/ Bonding/ Ionic-Bond. html [3] http:/ / sciencehack. com/ videos/ view/ xTx_DWboEVs

Covalent bond
A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, and other covalent bonds. In short, the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.[1]
A covalent bond forming H2 where two hydrogen Covalent bonding includes many kinds of interaction, including atoms share the two electrons. -bonding, -bonding, metal to metal bonding, agostic interactions, [2] [3] and three-center two-electron bonds. The term covalent bond dates from 1939.[4] The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree, etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", essentially, means that the atoms share "valence", such as is discussed in valence bond theory. In the molecule H2, the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding. Covalency is greatest between atoms of similar electronegativities. Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity. Although covalent bonding entails sharing of electrons, it is not necessarily delocalized. Furthermore, in contrast to electrostatic interactions ("ionic bonds") the strength of covalent bond depends on the angular relation between atoms in polyatomic molecules.

Covalent bond

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History
The term "covalence" in regard to bonding was first used in 1919 by Irving Langmuir in a Journal of the American Chemical Society article entitled "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules". Langmuir wrote that "we shall denote by the term covalence the number of pairs of electrons which a given atom shares with its neighbors."[5] The idea of covalent bonding can be traced several years before 1919 to Gilbert N. Lewis, who in 1916 described the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.[6] He introduced the Lewis notation or electron dot notation or Lewis dot structure in which valence electrons (those in the outer shell) are represented as dots around the atomic symbols. Pairs of electrons located between atoms represent covalent bonds. Multiple pairs represent multiple bonds, such as double and triple bonds. Some examples of Electron Dot Notation are shown in the following figure. An alternative form of Early concepts in covalent bonding arose from this representation, not shown here, has bond-forming electron pairs kind of image of the molecule of methane. Covalent represented as solid lines. While the idea of shared electron pairs bonding is implied in the Lewis structure that indicates sharing of electrons between atoms. provides an effective qualitative picture of covalent bonding, quantum mechanics is needed to understand the nature of these bonds and predict the structures and properties of simple molecules. Walter Heitler and Fritz London are credited with the first successful quantum mechanical explanation of a chemical bond, specifically that of molecular hydrogen, in 1927.[7] Their work was based on the valence bond model, which assumes that a chemical bond is formed when there is good overlap between the atomic orbitals of participating atoms. These atomic orbitals are known to have specific angular relationships between each other, and thus the valence bond model can successfully predict the bond angles observed in simple molecules.

Physical properties of covalent compounds (polar/non-polar)


Physical Properties States(at room temperature) Electrical conductivity Covalent Compounds Solid, liquid, gas Usually none

Boiling point and Melting Point Varies, but usually lower than ionic compounds Solubility in water Thermal conductivity Varies, but usually lower than ionic compounds Usually low

Covalent bond

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Polarity of covalent bonds


Covalent bonds are affected by the electronegativity of the connected atoms. Two atoms with equal electronegativity will make non-polar covalent bonds such as H-H. An unequal relationship creates a polar covalent bond such as with H-Cl.

Subdivision of covalent bonds


There are three types of covalent substances: individual molecules, molecular structures, and macromolecular structures. Individual molecules have strong bonds which hold the atoms together, but there are negligible forces of attraction between molecules. Such covalent substances are gases. For example, HCl, SO2, CO2, and CH4. In molecular structures there are weak forces of attraction. Such covalent substances are low boiling temperature liquids (such as ethanol), and low melting temperature solids (such as iodine and solid CO2). Macromolecular structures have large numbers of atoms linked in chains or sheets (such as graphite), or in 3-dimensional structures (such as diamond and quartz). These substances have high melting and boiling points, are frequently brittle, and tend to have high electrical resistivity. Elements that have high electronegativity, and the ability to form three or four electron pair bonds, often form such large macromolecular structures.[8]

References
[1] Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life (http:/ / www. phschool. com/ el_marketing. html). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN0-13-250882-6. . [2] March, J. Advanced Organic Chemistry 4th Ed. J. Wiley and Sons, 1991: New York. ISBN 0-471-60180-2. [3] G. L. Miessler and D. A. Tarr Inorganic Chemistry 3rd Ed, Pearson/Prentice Hall publisher, ISBN 0-13-035471-6. [4] Merriam-Webster - Collegiate Dictionary (2000). [5] Langmuir, Irving (1919-06-01). "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules". Journal of the American Chemical Society 41 (6): 868934. doi:10.1021/ja02227a002. [6] Lewis, Gilbert N. (1916-04-01). "THE ATOM AND THE MOLECULE.". Journal of the American Chemical Society 38 (4): 762785. doi:10.1021/ja02261a002. [7] W. Heitler and F. London, Zeitschrift fr Physik, vol. 44, p. 455 (1927). English translation in H. Hettema, Quantum Chemistry, Classic Scientific Papers, World Scientific, Singapore (2000). [8] Stranks, D. R.; M. L. Heffernan, K. C. Lee Dow, P. T. McTigue, G. R. A. Withers (1970). Chemistry: A structural view. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. pp.184. ISBN0 522 83988 6.

Sources
"Covalent bonding Single bonds" (http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/covalent.html). chemguide. 2000. "Electron Sharing and Covalent Bonds" (http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/electronsandbonds/intro1. htm). Department of Chemistry University of Oxford. "Chemical Bonds" (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c5). Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University.

External links
Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure (http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/602/616516/ Chapter_07.html) Structure and Bonding in Chemistry--Covalent Bonds (http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/pt/harvey/gcse/covalent. html)

Metal

15

Metal

Some metal pieces

Metals
Alkali metals Lithium, Sodium, Potassium Rubidium, Caesium, Francium Alkaline earth metals Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium Strontium, Barium, Radium Transition metals Zinc, Molybdenum, Cadmium Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium Chromium, Manganese, Iron Cobalt, Nickel, Copper Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium Technetium, Ruthenium, Rhodium Palladium, Silver, Hafnium Tantalum, Tungsten, Rhenium Osmium, Iridium, Platinum Gold, Mercury, Rutherfordium, Dubnium, Seaborgium, Bohrium, Hassium, Meitnerium, Darmstadtium, Roentgenium, Copernicium Post-transition metals Aluminium, Gallium, Indium Tin, Thallium, Lead, Bismuth Ununtrium, Ununquadium Ununpentium, Ununhexium

Metal

16
Lanthanides Lanthanum, Cerium, Praseodymium Neodymium, Promethium, Samarium Europium, Gadolinium, Terbium Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium Thulium, Ytterbium, Lutetium Actinides Actinium, Thorium, Protactinium Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium Americium, Curium, Berkelium Californium, Einsteinium, Fermium Mendelevium, Nobelium, Lawrencium

A metal is a chemical element that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat and forms cations and ionic bonds with non-metals. In chemistry, a metal (from Greek "" mtallon, "mine"[1] ) is an element, compound, or alloy characterized by high electrical conductivity. In a metal, atoms readily lose electrons to form positive ions (cations). Those ions are surrounded by delocalized electrons, which are responsible for the conductivity. The solid thus produced is held by electrostatic interactions between the ions and the electron cloud, which are called metallic bonds.[2]

Definition
Metals are sometimes described as an arrangement of positive ions surrounded by a sea of delocalized electrons. They are one of the three groups of elements as distinguished by their ionization and bonding properties, along with the metalloids and non-metals. Metals occupy the bulk of the periodic table, while non-metallic elements can only be found on the right-hand-side of the Periodic Table of the Elements. A diagonal line, drawn from boron (B) to polonium (Po), separates the metals from the nonmetals. Most elements on this line are metalloids, sometimes called semiconductors. This is because these elements exhibit electrical properties common to both conductors and insulators. Elements to the lower left of this division line are called metals, while elements to the upper right of the division line are called nonmetals. An alternative definition of metal refers to the band theory. If one fills the energy bands of a material with available electrons and ends up with a top band partly filled then the material is a metal. This definition opens up the category for metallic polymers and other organic metals, which have been made by researchers and employed in high-tech devices. These synthetic materials often have the characteristic silvery gray reflectiveness (luster) of elemental metals.

Astronomy
In the specialized usage of astronomy and astrophysics, the term "metal" is often used to refer collectively to all elements other than hydrogen or helium, including substances as chemically non-metallic as neon, fluorine, and oxygen. Nearly all the hydrogen and helium in the Universe was created in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, whereas all the "metals" were produced by nucleosynthesis in stars or supernovae. The Sun and the Milky Way Galaxy are composed of roughly 74% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 2% "metals" (the rest of the elements; atomic numbers 3118) by mass.[3]

Metal The concept of a metal in the usual chemical sense is irrelevant in stars, as the chemical bonds that give elements their properties cannot exist at stellar temperatures.

17

Properties
Chemical
Metals are usually inclined to form cations through electron loss,[2] reacting with oxygen in the air to form oxides over changing timescales (iron rusts over years, while potassium burns in seconds). Examples: 4 Na + O2 2 Na2O (sodium oxide) 2 Ca + O2 2 CaO (calcium oxide) 4 Al + 3 O2 2 Al2O3 (aluminium oxide) The transition metals (such as iron, copper, zinc, and nickel) take much longer to oxidize. Others, like palladium, platinum and gold, do not react with the atmosphere at all. Some metals form a barrier layer of oxide on their surface which cannot be penetrated by further oxygen molecules and thus retain their shiny appearance and good conductivity for many decades (like aluminium, magnesium, some steels, and titanium). The oxides of metals are generally basic, as opposed to those of nonmetals, which are acidic. Painting, anodizing or plating metals are good ways to prevent their corrosion. However, a more reactive metal in the electrochemical series must be chosen for coating, especially when chipping of the coating is expected. Water and the two metals form an electrochemical cell, and if the coating is less reactive than the coatee, the coating actually promotes corrosion.

Physical
Metals in general have high electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, luster and density, and the ability to be deformed under stress without cleaving.[2] While there are several metals that have low density, hardness, and melting points, these (the alkali and alkaline earth metals) are extremely reactive, and are rarely encountered in their elemental, metallic form. Optically speaking, metals are opaque, shiny and lustrous. This is because visible lightwaves are not readily transmitted through the bulk of their microstructure. The large number of free electrons in any typical metallic solid (element or alloy) is responsible for the fact that they can never be categorized as transparent materials.

Gallium crystals

The majority of metals have higher densities than the majority of nonmetals.[2] Nonetheless, there is wide variation in the densities of metals; lithium is the least dense solid element and osmium is the densest. The metals of groups I A and II A are referred to as the light metals because they are exceptions to this generalization.[2] The high density of most metals is due to the tightly packed crystal lattice of the metallic structure. The strength of metallic bonds for different metals reaches a maximum around the center of the transition metal series, as those elements have large amounts of delocalized electrons in tight binding type metallic bonds. However, other factors (such as atomic radius, nuclear charge, number of bonding orbitals, overlap of orbital energies, and crystal form) are involved as well.[2]

Metal

18

Electrical
The electrical and thermal conductivity of metals originate from the fact that in the metallic bond, the outer electrons of the metal atoms form a gas of nearly free electrons, moving as an electron gas in a background of positive charge formed by the ion cores. Good mathematical predictions for electrical conductivity, as well as the electrons' contribution to the heat capacity and heat conductivity of metals can be calculated from the free electron model, which does not take the detailed structure of the ion lattice into account. When considering the exact band structure and binding energy of a metal, it is necessary to take into account the positive potential caused by the specific arrangement of the ion cores which is periodic in crystals. The most important consequence of the periodic potential is the formation of a small band gap at the boundary of the Brillouin zone. Mathematically, the potential of the ion cores can be treated by various models, the simplest being the nearly free electron model.

Mechanical
Mechanical properties of metals include ductility, which is largely due to their inherent capacity for plastic deformation. Reversible elasticity in metals can be described by Hooke's Law for restoring forces, where the stress is linearly proportional to the strain. Forces larger than the elastic limit, or heat, may cause a permanent (irreversible) deformation of the object, known as plastic deformation or plasticity. This irreversible change in atomic arrangement may occur as a result of: The action of an applied force (or work). An applied force may be tensile (pulling) force, compressive (pushing) force, shear, bending or torsion (twisting) forces. A change in temperature (or heat). A temperature change may affect the mobility of the structural defects such as grain boundaries, point vacancies, line and screw dislocations, stacking faults and twins in both crystalline and non-crystalline solids. The movement or displacement of such mobile defects is thermally activated, and thus limited by the rate of atomic diffusion. Viscous flow near grain boundaries, for example, can give rise to internal slip, creep and fatigue in metals. It can also contribute to significant changes in the microstructure like grain growth and localized densification due to the elimination of intergranular porosity. Screw dislocations may slip in the direction of any lattice plane containing the dislocation, while the principal driving force for "dislocation climb" is the movement or diffusion of vacancies through a crystal lattice. In addition, the nondirectional nature of metallic bonding is also thought to Hot metal work from a blacksmith. contribute significantly to the ductility of most metallic solids. When the planes of an ionic bond slide past one another, the resultant change in location shifts ions of the same charge into close proximity, resulting in the cleavage of the crystal; such shift is not observed in covalently bonded crystals where fracture and crystal fragmentation occurs.[4]

Metal

19

Alloys
An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements in solid solution in which the major component is a metal. Most pure metals are either too soft, brittle or chemically reactive for practical use. Combining different ratios of metals as alloys modifies the properties of pure metals to produce desirable characteristics. The aim of making alloys is generally to make them less brittle, harder, resistant to corrosion, or have a more desirable color and luster. Of all the metallic alloys in use today, the alloys of iron (steel, stainless steel, cast iron, tool steel, alloy steel) make up the largest proportion both by quantity and commercial value. Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon steels, with increasing carbon levels reducing ductility and toughness. The addition of silicon will produce cast irons, while the addition of chromium, nickel and molybdenum to carbon steels (more than 10%) results in stainless steels. Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper and magnesium. Copper alloys have been known since prehistorybronze gave the Bronze Age its nameand have many applications today, most importantly in electrical wiring. The alloys of the other three metals have been developed relatively recently; due to their chemical reactivity they require electrolytic extraction processes. The alloys of aluminium, titanium and magnesium are valued for their high strength-to-weight ratios; magnesium can also provide electromagnetic shielding. These materials are ideal for situations where high strength-to-weight ratio is more important than material cost, such as in aerospace and some automotive applications. Alloys specially designed for highly demanding applications, such as jet engines, may contain more than ten elements.

Categories
Base metal
In chemistry, the term base metal is used informally to refer to a metal that oxidizes or corrodes relatively easily, and reacts variably with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form hydrogen. Examples include iron, nickel, lead and zinc. Copper is considered a base metal as it oxidizes relatively easily, although it does not react with HCl. It is commonly used in opposition to noble metal. In alchemy, a base metal was a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to precious metals, mainly gold and silver. A longtime goal of the alchemists was the transmutation of base metals into precious metals.

Zinc, a base metal, reacting with an acid

In numismatics, coins used to derive their value primarily from the precious metal content. Most modern currencies are fiat currency, allowing the coins to be made of base metal.

Metal

20

Ferrous metal
The term "ferrous" is derived from the Latin word meaning "containing iron". This can include pure iron, such as wrought iron, or an alloy such as steel. Ferrous metals are often magnetic, but not exclusively.

Noble metal
Noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion or oxidation, unlike most base metals. They tend to be precious metals, often due to perceived rarity. Examples include tantalum, gold, platinum, silver and rhodium.

Precious metal
A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. Chemically, the precious metals are less reactive than most elements, have high luster and high electrical conductivity. Historically, precious metals were important as currency, but are now regarded mainly as investment and industrial commodities. Gold, silver, platinum and palladium each have an ISO 4217 currency code. The best-known precious metals are gold and silver. While both have industrial uses, A gold nugget they are better known for their uses in art, jewelry, and coinage. Other precious metals include the platinum group metals: ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, of which platinum is the most widely traded. Plutonium and uranium could also be considered precious metals. The demand for precious metals is driven not only by their practical use, but also by their role as investments and a store of value. Palladium was, as of summer 2006, valued at a little under half the price of gold, and platinum at around twice that of gold. Silver is substantially less expensive than these metals, but is often traditionally considered a precious metal for its role in coinage and jewelry.

Extraction
Metals are often extracted from the Earth by means of mining, resulting in ores that are relatively rich sources of the requisite elements. Ore is located by prospecting techniques, followed by the exploration and examination of deposits. Mineral sources are generally divided into surface mines, which are mined by excavation using heavy equipment, and subsurface mines. Once the ore is mined, the metals must be extracted, usually by chemical or electrolytic reduction. Pyrometallurgy uses high temperatures to convert ore into raw metals, while hydrometallurgy employs aqueous chemistry for the same purpose. The methods used depend on the metal and their contaminants. When a metal ore is an ionic compound of that metal and a non-metal, the ore must usually be smelted heated with a reducing agent to extract the pure metal. Many common metals, such as iron, are smelted using carbon as a reducing agent. Some metals, such as aluminium and sodium, have no commercially practical reducing agent, and are extracted using electrolysis instead.[5] [6] Sulfide ores are not reduced directly to the metal but are roasted in air to convert them to oxides.

Metal

21

Metallurgy
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

Applications
Some metals and metal alloys possess high structural strength per unit mass, making them useful materials for carrying large loads or resisting impact damage. Metal alloys can be engineered to have high resistance to shear, torque and deformation. However the same metal can also be vulnerable to fatigue damage through repeated use or from sudden stress failure when a load capacity is exceeded. The strength and resilience of metals has led to their frequent use in high-rise building and bridge construction, as well as most vehicles, many appliances, tools, pipes, non-illuminated signs and railroad tracks. The two most commonly used structural metals, iron and aluminium, are also the most abundant metals in the Earth's crust.[7] Metals are good conductors, making them valuable in electrical appliances and for carrying an electric current over a distance with little energy lost. Electrical power grids rely on metal cables to distribute electricity. Home electrical systems, for the most part, are wired with copper wire for its good conducting properties. The thermal conductivity of metal is useful for containers to heat materials over a flame. Metal is also used for heat sinks to protect sensitive equipment from overheating. The high reflectivity of some metals is important in the construction of mirrors, including precision astronomical instruments. This last property can also make metallic jewelry aesthetically appealing. Some metals have specialized uses; radioactive metals such as uranium and plutonium are used in nuclear power plants to produce energy via nuclear fission. Mercury is a liquid at room temperature and is used in switches to complete a circuit when it flows over the switch contacts. Shape memory alloy is used for applications such as pipes, fasteners and vascular stents.

Trade
The World Bank reports that China was the top importer of ores and metals in 2005 followed by the U.S.A. and Japan.[8]

References
[1] (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=me/ tallon), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Metal and ore imports in 2005

Mortimer, Charles E. (1975). Chemistry: A Conceptual Approach (3rd ed.). New York:: D. Van Nostrad Company. Sparke, Linda S.; Gallagher, John S. (2000). Galaxies in the Universe (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p.8. ISBN0521592410. Ductility strength of materials (http:/ / www. engineersedge. com/ material_science/ ductility. htm) "Los Alamos National Laboratory Sodium" (http:/ / periodic. lanl. gov/ 11. shtml). . Retrieved 2007-06-08. "Los Alamos National Laboratory Aluminum" (http:/ / periodic. lanl. gov/ 13. shtml). . Retrieved 2007-06-08. Frank Kreith and Yogi Goswami, eds. (2004). The CRC Handbook of Mechanical Engineering, 2nd edition. Boca Raton. p. 12-2. Structure of merchandise imports (http:/ / siteresources. worldbank. org/ DATASTATISTICS/ Resources/ table4_5. pdf)

Intermetallics

22

Intermetallics
Intermetallics or intermetallic compounds is a term that is used in a number of different ways. Most commonly it refers to solid-state phases involving metals. There is a "research definition" adhered to generally in scientific publications, and a wider "common use" term. There is also a completely different use in coordination chemistry, where it has been used to refer to complexes containing two or more different metals. Although the term intermetallic compounds, as it applies to solid phases, has been in use for many years, its introduction was regretted, for example by Hume-Rothery in 1955.[1] Note that many intermetallic compounds are often simply called alloys, even though strictly speaking they are not. For example, complex metallic alloys are intermetallic compounds with large unit cells.

Definitions
Research definition
This was stated by Schulze in 1967,[2] and defines intermetallic compounds as solid phases containing two or more metallic elements, with optionally one or more non-metallic elements, whose crystal structure differs from that of the other constituents. Under this definition the following are included Electron (or Hume-Rothery) compounds Size packing phases. e.g. Laves phases, Frank-Kaspar phases and Nowotny phases Zintl phases The definition of a metal is taken to include: the so-called poor metals, i.e. aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, tin and lead some, if not all, of the metalloids, e.g. silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. Alloys, which are a homogeneous mixture of metals, and interstitial compounds such as the carbides and nitrides are excluded under this definition. However, interstitial intermetallic compounds are included as are alloys of intermetallic compounds with a metal.

Common use
In common use of the research definition, including poor metals and metalloids, is extended to include compounds such as cementite, Fe3C. These compounds, sometimes termed interstitial compounds can be stoichiometric, and share similar properties to the intermetallic compounds defined above.

Complexes
The term intermetallic is used [3] to describe compounds involving two or more metals such as the cyclopentadienyl complex Cp6Ni2Zn4.

Intermetallics involving two or more metallic elements


Intermetallic compounds are generally brittle and high melting. They often offer a compromise between ceramic and metallic properties when hardness and/or resistance to high temperatures is important enough to sacrifice some toughness and ease of processing. They can also display desirable magnetic, superconducting and chemical properties, due to their strong internal order and mixed (metallic and covalent/ionic) bonding, respectively. Intermetallics have given rise to various novel materials developments. Some examples include alnico and the hydrogen storage materials in nickel metal hydride batteries. Ni3Al, which is the hardening phase in the familiar nickel-base superalloys, and the various titanium aluminides have also attracted interest for turbine blade

Intermetallics applications, while the latter is also used in very small quantities for grain refinement of titanium alloys.

23

Properties and examples


magnetic materials e.g. alnico; sendust; Permendur, FeCo superconductors e.g. A15 phases; niobium-tin hydrogen storage e.g. AB5 compounds (nickel metal hydride batteries) shape memory alloys e.g. Cu-Al-Ni (alloys of Cu3Al and nickel); Nitinol (NiTi) coating materials e.g. NiAl high temperature structural materials e.g. nickel aluminide, Ni3Al dental amalgams which are alloys of intermetallics Ag3Sn and Cu3Sn

The formation of intermetallics can cause problems. Intermetallics of gold and aluminium are a significant cause of wire bond failures in semiconductor devices and other microelectronics devices. There are 5 of them. AuAl2 is known as "purple plague". Au5Al2 is known as "white plague".

History
Examples of intermetallics through history include: Roman yellow brass, CuZn Chinese high tin bronze, Cu31Sn8 type metal SbSn German type metal is described as breaking like glass, not bending, softer than copper but more fusible than lead.[4] The chemical formula does not agree with the one above; however, the properties match with an intermetallic compound or an alloy of one.

References
Intermetallics, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 1995, 165 pages Intermetallics [5], Gerhard Sauthoff, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley Interscience. (Subscription required)
[1] Electrons, atoms, metals and alloys W. Hume-Rothery Publisher: The Louis Cassier Co. Ltd 1955 [2] G. E. R. Schulze: Metallphysik, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1967 [3] Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999), Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.), New York: Wiley-Interscience, ISBN0-471-19957-5 [4] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=joN6G1T6ZHIC& pg=PA454& dq=german+ type+ metal) Type-pounding The Penny Cyclopdia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge By Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain), George Long Published 1843 [5] http:/ / www. mrw. interscience. wiley. com/ emrw/ 9783527306732/ ueic/ article/ e14_e01/ current/ pdf

External links
Intermetallics (http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/423924/ description#description), scientific journal Intermetallic Creation and Growth (http://nepp.nasa.gov/wirebond/intermetallic_creation_and_growt.htm) an article on the Wire Bond Website of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Intermetallics project (http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/impress#IMPRESS) (IMPRESS Intermetallics project at the European Space Agency) Video of an AB5 intermetallic compound solidifying/freezing (http://www.ameslab.gov/mpc/video)

Semiconductor

24

Semiconductor
A semiconductor is a material with electrical conductivity due to electron flow (as opposed to ionic conductivity) intermediate in magnitude between that of a conductor and an insulator. This means a conductivity roughly in the range of 103 to 108 siemens per centimeter. Semiconductor materials are the foundation of modern electronics, including radio, computers, telephones, and many other devices. Such devices include transistors, solar cells, many kinds of diodes including the light-emitting diode, the silicon controlled rectifier, and digital and analog integrated circuits. Similarly, semiconductor solar photovoltaic panels directly convert light energy into electrical energy. In a metallic conductor, current is carried by the flow of electrons. In semiconductors, current is often schematized as being carried either by the flow of electrons or by the flow of positively charged "holes" in the electron structure of the material. Actually, however, in both cases only electron movements are involved. Common semiconducting materials are crystalline solids, but amorphous and liquid semiconductors are known. These include hydrogenated amorphous silicon and mixtures of arsenic, selenium and tellurium in a variety of proportions. Such compounds share with better known semiconductors intermediate conductivity and a rapid variation of conductivity with temperature, as well as occasional negative resistance. Such disordered materials lack the rigid crystalline structure of conventional semiconductors such as silicon and are generally used in thin film structures, which are less demanding for as concerns the electronic quality of the material and thus are relatively insensitive to impurities and radiation damage. Organic semiconductors, that is, organic materials with properties resembling conventional semiconductors, are also known. Silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially. Dozens of other materials are used, including germanium, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide. A pure semiconductor is often called an intrinsic semiconductor. The electronic properties and the conductivity of a semiconductor can be changed in a controlled manner by adding very small quantities of other elements, called dopants, to the intrinsic material. In crystalline silicon typically this is achieved by adding impurities of boron or phosphorus to the melt and then allowing the melt to solidify into the crystal. This process is called "doping".[1]

Explaining semiconductor energy bands


There are three popular ways to classify the electronic structure of a crystal. Band structure

atoms crystal vacuum

Semiconductor

25

In a single H-atom an electron resides in well known orbitals. Note that the orbitals are called s,p,d in order of increasing circular current.

Putting two atoms together leads to delocalized orbitals across two atoms, yielding a covalent bond. Due to the Pauli exclusion principle, every state can contain only one electron.

This can be continued with more atoms. Note: This picture shows a metal, not an actual semiconductor.

Continuing to add creates a crystal, which may then be cut into a tape and fused together at the ends to allow circular currents.

For this regular solid the band structure can be calculated or measured.

Integrating over the k axis gives the bands of a semiconductor showing a full valence band and an empty conduction band. Generally stopping at the vacuum level is undesirable, because some people want to calculate: photoemission, inverse photoemission

After the band structure is determined states can be combined to generate wave packets. As this is analogous to wave packages in free space, the results are similar.

An alternative description, which does not really appreciate the strong Coulomb interaction, shoots free electrons into the crystal and looks at the scattering.

A third alternative description uses strongly localized unpaired electrons in chemical bonds, which looks almost like a Mott insulator.

Energy bands and electrical conduction


In classic crystalline semiconductors, the electrons can have energies only within certain bands (i.e. ranges of levels of energy). Energetically, these bands are located between the energy of the ground state, corresponding to electrons tightly bound to the atomic nuclei of the material, and the free electron energy. The latter is the energy required for an electron to escape entirely from the material. The energy bands each correspond to a large number of discrete quantum states of the electrons, and most of the states with low energy (closer to the nucleus) are full, up to a particular band called the valence band. Semiconductors and insulators are distinguished from metals because the valence band in them is nearly filled with electrons under usual operating conditions, while very few (semiconductor) or virtually none (insulator) of them are available in the conduction band, the band immediately above the valence band.

Semiconductor The ease with which electrons in a semiconductor can be excited from the valence band to the conduction band depends on the band gap between the bands. The size of this energy bandgap serves as an arbitrary dividing line (roughly 4 eV) between semiconductors and insulators. With covalent bonds, an electron moves by hopping to a neighboring bond. The Pauli exclusion principle requires the electron to be lifted into the higher anti-bonding state of that bond. For delocalized states, for example in one dimension that is in a nanowire, for every energy there is a state with electrons flowing in one direction and another state with the electrons flowing in the other. For a net current to flow, more states for one direction than for the other direction must be occupied. For this to occur, energy is required, as in the semiconductor the next higher states lie above the band gap. Often this is stated as: full bands do not contribute to the electrical conductivity. However, as the temperature of a semiconductor rises above absolute zero, there is more energy in the semiconductor to spend on lattice vibration and more importantly for us on lifting some electrons into an energy states of the conduction band. The current-carrying electrons in the conduction band are known as "free electrons", although they are often simply called "electrons" if context allows this usage to be clear. Electrons excited to the conduction band also leave behind electron holes, or unoccupied states in the valence band. Both the conduction band electrons and the valence band holes contribute to electrical conductivity. The holes themselves don't actually move, but a neighboring electron can move to fill the hole, leaving a hole at the place it has just come from, and in this way the holes appear to move, and the holes behave as if they were actual positively charged particles. One covalent bond between neighboring atoms in the solid is ten times stronger than the binding of the single electron to the atom, so freeing the electron does not imply destruction of the crystal structure.

26

Holes: electron absence as a charge carrier


The concept of holes can also be applied to metals, where the Fermi level lies within the conduction band. With most metals the Hall effect indicates electrons are the charge carriers. However, some metals have a mostly filled conduction band. In these, the Hall effect reveals positive charge carriers, which are not the ion-cores, but holes. In the case of a metal, only a small amount of energy is needed for the electrons to find other unoccupied states to move into, and hence for current to flow. Sometimes even in this case it may be said that a hole was left behind, to explain why the electron does not fall back to lower energies: It cannot find a hole. In the end in both materials electron-phonon scattering and defects are the dominant causes for resistance.

Semiconductor

27

The energy distribution of the electrons determines which of the states are filled and which are empty. This distribution is described by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The distribution is characterized by the temperature of the electrons, and the Fermi energy or Fermi level. Under absolute zero conditions the Fermi energy can be thought of as the energy up to which available electron states are occupied. At higher temperatures, the Fermi energy is the energy at which the probability of a state being occupied has fallen to 0.5. The dependence of the electron energy distribution on temperature also explains why the conductivity of a semiconductor has a strong temperature dependency, as a semiconductor operating at lower temperatures will have fewer available free electrons and holes able to do the work.

Fermi-Dirac distribution. States with energy below the Fermi energy, here , have higher probability n to be occupied, and those above are less likely to be occupied. Smearing of the distribution increases with temperature.

Energymomentum dispersion
In the preceding description an important fact is ignored for the sake of simplicity: the dispersion of the energy. The reason that the energies of the states are broadened into a band is that the energy depends on the value of the wave vector, or k-vector, of the electron. The k-vector, in quantum mechanics, is the representation of the momentum of a particle. The dispersion relationship determines the effective mass, m*, of electrons or holes in the semiconductor, according to the formula:

The effective mass is important as it affects many of the electrical properties of the semiconductor, such as the electron or hole mobility, which in turn influences the diffusivity of the charge carriers and the electrical conductivity of the semiconductor. Typically the effective mass of electrons and holes are different. This affects the relative performance of p-channel and n-channel IGFETs.[2] The top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band might not occur at that same value of k. Materials with this situation, such as silicon and germanium, are known as indirect bandgap materials. Materials in which the band extrema are aligned in k, for example gallium arsenide, are called direct bandgap semiconductors. Direct gap semiconductors are particularly important in optoelectronics because they are much more efficient as light emitters than indirect gap materials.

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Carrier generation and recombination


When ionizing radiation strikes a semiconductor, it may excite an electron out of its energy level and consequently leave a hole. This process is known as electronhole pair generation. Electron-hole pairs are constantly generated from thermal energy as well, in the absence of any external energy source. Electron-hole pairs are also apt to recombine. Conservation of energy demands that these recombination events, in which an electron loses an amount of energy larger than the band gap, be accompanied by the emission of thermal energy (in the form of phonons) or radiation (in the form of photons). In some states, the generation and recombination of electronhole pairs are in equipoise. The number of electron-hole pairs in the steady state at a given temperature is determined by quantum statistical mechanics. The precise quantum mechanical mechanisms of generation and recombination are governed by conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. As the probability that electrons and holes meet together is proportional to the product of their amounts, the product is in steady state nearly constant at a given temperature, providing that there is no significant electric field (which might "flush" carriers of both types, or move them from neighbour regions containing more of them to meet together) or externally driven pair generation. The product is a function of the temperature, as the probability of getting enough thermal energy to produce a pair increases with temperature, being approximately exp(EG/kT), where k is Boltzmann's constant, T is absolute temperature and EG is band gap. The probability of meeting is increased by carrier trapsimpurities or dislocations which can trap an electron or hole and hold it until a pair is completed. Such carrier traps are sometimes purposely added to reduce the time needed to reach the steady state.

Semi-insulators
Some materials are classified as semi-insulators. These have electrical conductivity nearer to that of electrical insulators. Semi-insulators find niche applications in micro-electronics, such as substrates for HEMT. An example of a common semi-insulator is gallium arsenide.[3]

Doping
The property of semiconductors that makes them most useful for constructing electronic devices is that their conductivity may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice. The process of adding controlled impurities to a semiconductor is known as doping. The amount of impurity, or dopant, added to an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor varies its level of conductivity. Doped semiconductors are often referred to as extrinsic. By adding impurity to pure semiconductors, the electrical conductivity may be varied not only by the number of impurity atoms but also, by the type of impurity atom and the changes may be thousand folds and million folds. For example, 1cm3 of a metal or semiconductor specimen has a number of atoms on the order of 1022. Since every atom in metal donates at least one free electron for conduction in metal, 1cm3 of metal contains free electrons on the order of 1022. At the temperature close to 20 C , 1cm3 of pure germanium contains about 4.21022 atoms and 2.51013 free electrons and 2.51013 holes (empty spaces in crystal lattice having positive charge) The addition of 0.001% of arsenic (an impurity) donates an extra 1017 free electrons in the same volume and the electrical conductivity increases about 10,000 times."

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Dopants
The materials chosen as suitable dopants depend on the atomic properties of both the dopant and the material to be doped. In general, dopants that produce the desired controlled changes are classified as either electron acceptors or donors. A donor atom that activates (that is, becomes incorporated into the crystal lattice) donates weakly bound valence electrons to the material, creating excess negative charge carriers. These weakly bound electrons can move about in the crystal lattice relatively freely and can facilitate conduction in the presence of an electric field. (The donor atoms introduce some states under, but very close to the conduction band edge. Electrons at these states can be easily excited to the conduction band, becoming free electrons, at room temperature.) Conversely, an activated acceptor produces a hole. Semiconductors doped with donor impurities are called n-type, while those doped with acceptor impurities are known as p-type. The n and p type designations indicate which charge carrier acts as the material's majority carrier. The opposite carrier is called the minority carrier, which exists due to thermal excitation at a much lower concentration compared to the majority carrier. For example, the pure semiconductor silicon has four valence electrons. In silicon, the most common dopants are IUPAC group 13 (commonly known as group III) and group 15 (commonly known as group V) elements. Group 13 elements all contain three valence electrons, causing them to function as acceptors when used to dope silicon. Group 15 elements have five valence electrons, which allows them to act as a donor. Therefore, a silicon crystal doped with boron creates a p-type semiconductor whereas one doped with phosphorus results in an n-type material.

Carrier concentration
The concentration of dopant introduced to an intrinsic semiconductor determines its concentration and indirectly affects many of its electrical properties. The most important factor that doping directly affects is the material's carrier concentration. In an intrinsic semiconductor under thermal equilibrium, the concentration of electrons and holes is equivalent. That is,

If we have a non-intrinsic semiconductor in thermal equilibrium the relation becomes:

where n0 is the concentration of conducting electrons, p0 is the electron hole concentration, and ni is the material's intrinsic carrier concentration. Intrinsic carrier concentration varies between materials and is dependent on temperature. Silicon's ni, for example, is roughly 1.081010 cm3 at 300 kelvins (room temperature).[4] In general, an increase in doping concentration affords an increase in conductivity due to the higher concentration of carriers available for conduction. Degenerately (very highly) doped semiconductors have conductivity levels comparable to metals and are often used in modern integrated circuits as a replacement for metal. Often superscript plus and minus symbols are used to denote relative doping concentration in semiconductors. For example, n+ denotes an n-type semiconductor with a high, often degenerate, doping concentration. Similarly, p- would indicate a very lightly doped p-type material. It is useful to note that even degenerate levels of doping imply low concentrations of impurities with respect to the base semiconductor. In crystalline intrinsic silicon, there are approximately 51022 atoms/cm. Doping concentration for silicon semiconductors may range anywhere from 1013 cm3 to 1018 cm3. Doping concentration above about 1018 cm3 is considered degenerate at room temperature. Degenerately doped silicon contains a proportion of impurity to silicon on the order of parts per thousand. This proportion may be reduced to parts per billion in very lightly doped silicon. Typical concentration values fall somewhere in this range and are tailored to produce the desired properties in the device that the semiconductor is intended for.

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Effect on band structure


Doping a semiconductor crystal introduces allowed energy states within the band gap but very close to the energy band that corresponds to the dopant type. In other words, donor impurities create states near the conduction band while acceptors create states near the valence band. The gap between these energy states and the nearest energy band is usually referred Band diagram of PN junction operation in forward bias mode showing reducing depletion to as dopant-site bonding energy or EB width. Both p and n junctions are doped at a 1e15/cm3 doping level, leading to built-in and is relatively small. For example, potential of ~0.59V. Reducing depletion width can be inferred from the shrinking charge the EB for boron in silicon bulk is profile, as fewer dopants are exposed with increasing forward bias [5]. 0.045 eV, compared with silicon's band gap of about 1.12 eV. Because EB is so small, it takes little energy to ionize the dopant atoms and create free carriers in the conduction or valence bands. Usually the thermal energy available at room temperature is sufficient to ionize most of the dopant. Dopants also have the important effect of shifting the material's Fermi level towards the energy band that corresponds with the dopant with the greatest concentration. Since the Fermi level must remain constant in a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, stacking layers of materials with different properties leads to many useful electrical properties. For example, the p-n junction's properties are due to the energy band bending that happens as a result of lining up the Fermi levels in contacting regions of p-type and n-type material. This effect is shown in a band diagram. The band diagram typically indicates the variation in the valence band and conduction band edges versus some spatial dimension, often denoted x. The Fermi energy is also usually indicated in the diagram. Sometimes the intrinsic Fermi energy, Ei, which is the Fermi level in the absence of doping, is shown. These diagrams are useful in explaining the operation of many kinds of semiconductor devices.

Preparation of semiconductor materials


Semiconductors with predictable, reliable electronic properties are necessary for mass production. The level of chemical purity needed is extremely high because the presence of impurities even in very small proportions can have large effects on the properties of the material. A high degree of crystalline perfection is also required, since faults in crystal structure (such as dislocations, twins, and stacking faults) interfere with the semiconducting properties of the material. Crystalline faults are a major cause of defective semiconductor devices. The larger the crystal, the more difficult it is to achieve the necessary perfection. Current mass production processes use crystal ingots between 100mm and 300mm (412inches) in diameter which are grown as cylinders and sliced into wafers. Because of the required level of chemical purity and the perfection of the crystal structure which are needed to make semiconductor devices, special methods have been developed to produce the initial semiconductor material. A technique for achieving high purity includes growing the crystal using the Czochralski process. An additional step that can be used to further increase purity is known as zone refining. In zone refining, part of a solid crystal is melted. The impurities tend to concentrate in the melted region, while the desired material recrystalizes leaving the solid material more pure and with fewer crystalline faults. In manufacturing semiconductor devices involving heterojunctions between different semiconductor materials, the lattice constant, which is the length of the repeating element of the crystal structure, is important for determining the compatibility of materials.

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References
[1] IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006) " semiconductor (http:/ / goldbook. iupac. org/ S05591. html)". [2] Muller, Richard S.; Theodore I. Kamins (1986). Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits (2d ed.). New York: Wiley. p.427. ISBN0-471-88758-7. [3] J. W. Allen (1960). "Gallium Arsenide as a semi-insulator". Nature 187 (4735): 403405. Bibcode1960Natur.187..403A. doi:10.1038/187403b0. [4] A.B Sproul, M.A Green (1991). "Improved value for the silicon intrinsic carrier concentration from 275 to 375 K". J. Appl. Phys. 70: 846. Bibcode1991JAP....70..846S. doi:10.1063/1.349645. [5] http:/ / www. nanohub. org

Further reading
A. A. Balandin and K. L. Wang (2006). Handbook of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Nanodevices (5-Volume Set). American Scientific Publishers. ISBN1-58883-073-X. Sze, Simon M. (1981). Physics of Semiconductor Devices (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons (WIE). ISBN0-471-05661-8. Turley, Jim (2002). The Essential Guide to Semiconductors. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN0-13-046404-X. Yu, Peter Y.; Cardona, Manuel (2004). Fundamentals of Semiconductors : Physics and Materials Properties. Springer. ISBN3-540-41323-5.

External links
Howstuffworks' semiconductor page (http://science.howstuffworks.com/diode.htm) Semiconductor Concepts at Hyperphysics (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/semcn.html) Semiconductor OneSource Hall of Fame (http://www.semi1source.com/shof/), Glossary (http://www. semiconductorglossary.com/) Principles of Semiconductor Devices (http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/book/) by Bart Van Zeghbroeck, University of Colorado. An online textbook] US Navy Electrical Engineering Training Series (http://www.tpub.com/content/neets/14179/index.htm) NSM-Archive (http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/index.html) Physical Properties of Semiconductors] Semiconductor Manufacturer List (http://www.semiconductor-scout.com/manufacturer/ semiconductor-manufacturer.html) ABACUS (http://nanohub.org/topics/EduSemiconductor) : Introduction to Semiconductor Devices by Gerhard Klimeck and Dragica Vasileska, online learning resource with simulation tools on nanoHUB Organic Semiconductor page (http://www.organicsemiconductors.com) DoITPoMS Teaching and Learning Package- "Introduction to Semiconductors" (http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/ tlplib/semiconductors/index.php)

Polymer

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Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. Although the term polymer is sometimes taken to refer to plastics, it actually encompasses a large class of natural and synthetic materials with a wide variety of properties. Because of the extraordinary range of properties of polymeric materials,[2] they play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life.[3] This role ranges from familiar synthetic plastics and elastomers to natural biopolymers such as nucleic acids and proteins that are essential for life. Natural polymeric materials such as shellac, amber, and natural rubber have been used for centuries. A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, which is the main constituent of wood and paper. The list of synthetic polymers includes synthetic rubber, Bakelite, neoprene, nylon, PVC, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyacrylonitrile, PVB, silicone, and many more.
Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an atomic force microscope on surface under liquid medium. Chain contour length for this polymer is ~204nm; thickness is [1] ~0.4nm.

Most commonly, the continuously linked backbone of a polymer used for the preparation of plastics consists mainly of carbon atoms. A simple example is polyethylene, whose repeating unit is based on ethylene monomer. However, other structures do exist; for example, elements such as silicon form familiar materials such as silicones, examples being silly putty and waterproof plumbing sealant. Oxygen is also commonly present in polymer backbones, such as those of polyethylene glycol, polysaccharides (in glycosidic bonds), and DNA (in phosphodiester bonds). Polymers are studied in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer science.

Etymology
The word polymer is derived from the Greek words - - poly- meaning "many"; and - meros meaning "part". The term was coined in 1833 by Jns Jacob Berzelius, although his definition of a polymer was quite different from the modern definition.

Historical development
Starting in 1811, Henri Braconnot did pioneering work in derivative cellulose compounds, perhaps the earliest important work in polymer science. The development of vulcanization later in the nineteenth century improved the durability of the natural polymer rubber, signifying the first popularized semi-synthetic polymer. In 1907, Leo Baekeland created the first completely synthetic polymer, Bakelite, by reacting phenol and formaldehyde at precisely controlled temperature and pressure. Bakelite was then publicly introduced in 1909. Despite significant advances in synthesis and characterization of polymers, a correct understanding of polymer molecular structure did not emerge until the 1920s. Before then, scientists believed that polymers were clusters of small molecules (called colloids), without definite molecular weights, held together by an unknown force, a concept known as association theory. In 1922, Hermann Staudinger proposed that polymers consisted of long chains of atoms held together by covalent bonds, an idea which did not gain wide acceptance for over a decade and for which Staudinger was ultimately awarded the Nobel Prize. Work by Wallace Carothers in the 1920s also demonstrated that polymers could be synthesized rationally from their constituent monomers. An important contribution to synthetic polymer science was made by the Italian chemist Giulio Natta and the German chemist Karl Ziegler, who won the

Polymer Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 for the development of the Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Further recognition of the importance of polymers came with the award of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1974 to Paul Flory,[4] whose extensive work on polymers included the kinetics of step-growth polymerization and of addition polymerization, chain transfer, excluded volume, the Flory-Huggins solution theory, and the Flory convention. Synthetic polymer materials such as nylon, polyethylene, Teflon, and silicone have formed the basis for a burgeoning polymer industry. These years have also shown significant developments in rational polymer synthesis. Most commercially important polymers today are entirely synthetic and produced in high volume on appropriately scaled organic synthetic techniques. Synthetic polymers today find application in nearly every industry and area of life. Polymers are widely used as adhesives and lubricants, as well as structural components for products ranging from children's toys to aircraft. They have been employed in a variety of biomedical applications ranging from implantable devices to controlled drug delivery. Polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate) find application as photoresist materials used in semiconductor manufacturing and low-k dielectrics for use in high-performance microprocessors and computer screens. Recently, polymers have also been employed as flexible substrates in the development of organic light-emitting diodes for electronic display.

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Polymer synthesis
Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain. During the polymerization process, some chemical groups may be lost from each monomer. This is the case, for example, in the polymerization of PET polyester. The monomers are terephthalic acid (HOOC-C6H4-COOH) and ethylene glycol (HO-CH2-CH2-OH) but the repeating unit is The repeating unit of the polymer polypropylene -OC-C6H4-COO-CH2-CH2-O-, which corresponds to the combination of the two monomers with the loss of two water molecules. The distinct piece of each monomer that is incorporated into the polymer is known as a repeat unit or monomer residue.

Laboratory synthesis
Laboratory synthetic methods are generally divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization.[5] The essential difference between the two is that in chain growth polymerization, monomers are added to the chain one at a time only,[6] whereas in step-growth polymerization chains of monomers may combine with one another directly.[7] However, some newer methods such as plasma polymerization do not fit neatly into either category. Synthetic polymerization reactions may be carried out with or without a catalyst. Laboratory synthesis of biopolymers, especially of proteins, is an area of intensive research.

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Biological synthesis
There are three main classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides, polypeptides, and polynucleotides. In living cells, they may be synthesized by enzyme-mediated processes, such as the formation of DNA catalyzed by DNA polymerase. The synthesis of proteins involves multiple enzyme-mediated processes to transcribe genetic information from the DNA to RNA and subsequently translate that information to synthesize the specified protein from amino acids. The protein may be modified further following translation in order to provide appropriate structure and functioning.

Modification of natural polymers


Many commercially important polymers are synthesized by chemical modification of naturally occurring polymers. Prominent examples include the reaction of nitric acid and cellulose to form nitrocellulose and the formation of vulcanized rubber by heating natural rubber in the presence of sulfur.

Polymer properties
Polymer properties are broadly divided into several classes based on the scale at which the property is defined as well as upon its Microstructure of part of a DNA double helix [8] biopolymer physical basis. The most basic property of a polymer is the identity of its constituent monomers. A second set of properties, known as microstructure, essentially describe the arrangement of these monomers within the polymer at the scale of a single chain. These basic structural properties play a major role in determining bulk physical properties of the polymer, which describe how the polymer behaves as a continuous macroscopic material. Chemical properties, at the nano-scale, describe how the chains interact through various physical forces. At the macro-scale, they describe how the bulk polymer interacts with other chemicals and solvents.

Monomers and repeat units


The identity of the monomer residues (repeat units) comprising a polymer is its first and most important attribute. Polymer nomenclature is generally based upon the type of monomer residues comprising the polymer. Polymers that contain only a single type of repeat unit are known as homopolymers, while polymers containing a mixture of repeat units are known as copolymers. Poly(styrene), for example, is composed only of styrene monomer residues, and is therefore classified as a homopolymer. Ethylene-vinyl acetate, on the other hand, contains more than one variety of repeat unit and is thus a copolymer. Some biological polymers are composed of a variety of different but structurally related monomer residues; for example, polynucleotides such as DNA are composed of a variety of nucleotide subunits. A polymer molecule containing ionizable subunits is known as a polyelectrolyte or ionomer.

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Microstructure
The microstructure of a polymer (sometimes called configuration) relates to the physical arrangement of monomer residues along the backbone of the chain.[9] These are the elements of polymer structure that require the breaking of a covalent bond in order to change. Structure has a strong influence on the other properties of a polymer. For example, two samples of natural rubber may exhibit different durability, even though their molecules comprise the same monomers. Polymer architecture An important microstructural feature determining polymer properties is the polymer architecture.[10] The simplest polymer architecture is a linear chain: a single backbone with no branches. A related unbranching architecture is a ring polymer. A branched Branch point in a polymer polymer molecule is composed of a main chain with one or more substituent side chains or branches. Special types of branched polymers include star polymers, comb polymers, brush polymers, dendronized polymers, ladders, and dendrimers.[10] Branching of polymer chains affects the ability of chains to slide past one another by altering intermolecular forces, in turn affecting bulk physical polymer properties. Long chain branches may increase polymer strength, toughness, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) due to an increase in the number of entanglements per chain. The effect of such long-chain branches on the size of the polymer in solution is characterized by the branching index. Random length and atactic short chains, on the other hand, may reduce polymer strength due to disruption of organization and may likewise reduce the crystallinity of the polymer. A good example of this effect is related to the range of physical attributes of polyethylene. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) has a very low degree of branching, is quite stiff, and is used in applications such as milk jugs. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), on the other hand, has significant numbers of both long and short branches, is quite flexible, and is used in applications such as plastic films. Dendrimers are a special case of polymer where every monomer unit is branched. This tends to reduce intermolecular chain entanglement and crystallization. Alternatively, dendritic polymers are not perfectly branched but share similar properties to dendrimers due to their high degree of branching. The architecture of the polymer is often physically determined by the functionality Dendrimer and dendron of the monomers from which it is formed.[11] This property of a monomer is defined as the number of reaction sites at which may form chemical covalent bonds. The basic functionality required for forming even a linear chain is two bonding sites. Higher functionality yields branched or even crosslinked or networked polymer chains. An effect related to branching is chemical crosslinking - the formation of covalent bonds between chains. Crosslinking tends to increase Tg and increase strength and toughness. Among other applications, this process is used to strengthen rubbers in a process known as vulcanization, which is based on crosslinking by sulfur. Car tires, for example, are highly crosslinked in order to reduce the leaking of air out of the tire and to toughen their durability. Eraser rubber, on the other hand, is not crosslinked to allow flaking of the rubber and prevent damage to the paper.

Polymer Polymerization of pure sulfur at higher temperatures also explains why sulfur becomes more viscous with elevated temperatures in its molten state.[12] A cross-link suggests a branch point from which four or more distinct chains emanate. A polymer molecule with a high degree of crosslinking is referred to as a polymer network.[13] Sufficiently high crosslink concentrations may lead to the formation of an infinite network, also known as a gel, in which networks of chains are of unlimited extentessentially all chains have linked into one molecule.[14] Chain length The physical properties[15] of a polymer are strongly dependent on the size or length of the polymer chain.[16] For example, as chain length is increased, melting and boiling temperatures increase quickly.[16] Impact resistance also tends to increase with chain length, as does the viscosity, or resistance to flow, of the polymer in its melt state.[17] Chain length is related to melt viscosity roughly as 1:103.2, so that a tenfold increase in polymer chain length results in a viscosity increase of over 1000 times. Increasing chain length furthermore tends to decrease chain mobility, increase strength and toughness, and increase the glass transition temperature (Tg). This is a result of the increase in chain interactions such as Van der Waals attractions and entanglements that come with increased chain length. These interactions tend to fix the individual chains more strongly in position and resist deformations and matrix breakup, both at higher stresses and higher temperatures. A common means of expressing the length of a chain is the degree of polymerization, which quantifies the number of monomers incorporated into the chain.[18] [19] As with other molecules, a polymer's size may also be expressed in terms of molecular weight. Since synthetic polymerization techniques typically yield a polymer product including a range of molecular weights, the weight is often expressed statistically to describe the distribution of chain lengths present in the same. Common examples are the number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight.[20] [21] The ratio of these two values is the polydispersity index, commonly used to express the "width" of the molecular weight distribution.[22] A final measurement is contour length, which can be understood as the length of the chain backbone in its fully extended state.[23] The flexibility of an unbranched chain polymer is characterized by its persistence length. Monomer arrangement in copolymers Monomers within a copolymer may be organized along the backbone in a variety of ways. Alternating copolymers possess regularly alternating monomer residues:[24] [AB...]n (2). Periodic copolymers have monomer residue types arranged in a repeating sequence: [AnBm...] m being different from n . Statistical copolymers have monomer residues arranged according to a known statistical rule. A statistical copolymer in which the probability of finding a particular type of monomer residue at an particular point in the chain is independent of the types of surrounding monomer residue may be referred to as a truly random copolymer[25] [26] (3). Block copolymers have two or more homopolymer subunits linked by covalent bonds[24] (4). Polymers with two or three blocks of two distinct chemical species (e.g., A and B) are called diblock copolymers and triblock copolymers, respectively. Polymers with three blocks, each of a different chemical species (e.g., A, B, and C) are

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Polymer termed triblock terpolymers. Graft or grafted copolymers contain side chains that have a different composition or configuration than the main chain.(5) Tacticity Tacticity describes the relative stereochemistry of chiral centers in neighboring structural units within a macromolecule. There are three types: isotactic (all substituents on the same side), atactic (random placement of substituents), and syndiotactic (alternating placement of substituents).

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Polymer morphology
Polymer morphology generally describes the arrangement and microscale ordering of polymer chains in space. Crystallinity When applied to polymers, the term crystalline has a somewhat ambiguous usage. In some cases, the term crystalline finds identical usage to that used in conventional crystallography. For example, the structure of a crystalline protein or polynucleotide, such as a sample prepared for x-ray crystallography, may be defined in terms of a conventional unit cell composed of one or more polymer molecules with cell dimensions of hundreds of angstroms or more. A synthetic polymer may be lightly described as crystalline if it contains regions of three-dimensional ordering on atomic (rather than macromolecular) length scales, usually arising from intramolecular folding and/or stacking of adjacent chains. Synthetic polymers may consist of both crystalline and amorphous regions; the degree of crystallinity may be expressed in terms of a weight fraction or volume fraction of crystalline material. Few synthetic polymers are entirely crystalline.[27] The crystallinity of polymers is characterized by their degree of crystallinity, ranging from zero for a completely non-crystalline polymer to one for a theoretical completely crystalline polymer. Polymers with microcrystalline regions are generally tougher (can be bent more without breaking) and more impact-resistant than totally amorphous polymers.[28] Polymers with a degree of crystallinity approaching zero or one will tend to be transparent, while polymers with intermediate degrees of crystallinity will tend to be opaque due to light scattering by crystalline or glassy regions. Thus for many polymers, reduced crystallinity may also be associated with increased transparency.

Polymer Chain conformation The space occupied by a polymer molecule is generally expressed in terms of radius of gyration, which is an average distance from the center of mass of the chain to the chain itself. Alternatively, it may be expressed in terms of pervaded volume, which is the volume of solution spanned by the polymer chain and scales with the cube of the radius of gyration.[29]

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Mechanical properties
The bulk properties of a polymer are those most often of end-use interest. These are the properties that dictate how the polymer actually behaves on a macroscopic scale. Tensile strength The tensile strength of a material quantifies how much stress the material will endure before suffering permanent deformation.[30] [31] This is very important in applications that rely upon a polymer's physical strength or durability. For example, a rubber band with a higher tensile strength will hold a greater weight before snapping. In general, tensile strength increases with polymer chain length and crosslinking of polymer chains. Young's modulus of elasticity Young's Modulus quantifies the elasticity of the polymer. It is defined, for small strains, as the ratio of rate of change of stress to strain. Like tensile strength, this is highly relevant in polymer applications involving the physical properties of polymers, such as rubber bands. The modulus is strongly dependent on temperature.
A polyethylene sample necking under tension.

Transport properties
Transport properties such as diffusivity relate to how rapidly molecules move through the polymer matrix. These are very important in many applications of polymers for films and membranes.

Phase behavior
Melting point The term melting point, when applied to polymers, suggests not a solid-liquid phase transition but a transition from a crystalline or semi-crystalline phase to a solid amorphous phase. Though abbreviated as simply Tm, the property in question is more properly called the crystalline melting temperature. Among synthetic polymers, crystalline melting is only discussed with regards to thermoplastics, as thermosetting polymers will decompose at high temperatures rather than melt.

Polymer Glass transition temperature A parameter of particular interest in synthetic polymer manufacturing is the glass transition temperature (Tg), which describes the temperature at which amorphous polymers undergo a transition from a rubbery, viscous amorphous solid, to a brittle, glassy amorphous solid. The glass transition temperature may be engineered by altering the degree of branching or crosslinking in the polymer or by the addition of plasticizer.[32] Mixing behavior In general, polymeric mixtures are far less miscible than mixtures of small molecule materials. This effect results from the fact that the driving force for mixing is usually entropy, not interaction energy. In other words, miscible materials usually form a solution not because their interaction with each other is more favorable than their self-interaction, but because of an increase in entropy and hence free energy associated with increasing the amount of volume available to each component. This increase in entropy scales with the number of particles (or moles) being mixed. Since polymeric molecules are much larger and hence generally have much higher specific volumes than small molecules, the number of molecules involved in a Phase diagram of the typical mixing behavior of weakly interacting polymer solutions. polymeric mixture is far smaller than the number in a small molecule mixture of equal volume. The energetics of mixing, on the other hand, is comparable on a per volume basis for polymeric and small molecule mixtures. This tends to increase the free energy of mixing for polymer solutions and thus make solvation less favorable. Thus, concentrated solutions of polymers are far rarer than those of small molecules. Furthermore, the phase behavior of polymer solutions and mixtures is more complex than that of small molecule mixtures. Whereas most small molecule solutions exhibit only an upper critical solution temperature phase transition, at which phase separation occurs with cooling, polymer mixtures commonly exhibit a lower critical solution temperature phase transition, at which phase separation occurs with heating. In dilute solution, the properties of the polymer are characterized by the interaction between the solvent and the polymer. In a good solvent, the polymer appears swollen and occupies a large volume. In this scenario, intermolecular forces between the solvent and monomer subunits dominate over intramolecular interactions. In a bad solvent or poor solvent, intramolecular forces dominate and the chain contracts. In the theta solvent, or the state of the polymer solution where the value of the second virial coefficient becomes 0, the intermolecular polymer-solvent repulsion balances exactly the intramolecular monomer-monomer attraction. Under the theta condition (also called the Flory condition), the polymer behaves like an ideal random coil. The transition between the states is known as a coil-globule transition.

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Polymer Inclusion of plasticizers Inclusion of plasticizers tends to lower Tg and increase polymer flexibility. Plasticizers are generally small molecules that are chemically similar to the polymer and create gaps between polymer chains for greater mobility and reduced interchain interactions. A good example of the action of plasticizers is related to polyvinylchlorides or PVCs. A uPVC, or unplasticized polyvinylchloride, is used for things such as pipes. A pipe has no plasticizers in it, because it needs to remain strong and heat-resistant. Plasticized PVC is used for clothing for a flexible quality. Plasticizers are also put in some types of cling film to make the polymer more flexible.

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Chemical properties
The attractive forces between polymer chains play a large part in determining a polymer's properties. Because polymer chains are so long, these interchain forces are amplified far beyond the attractions between conventional molecules. Different side groups on the polymer can lend the polymer to ionic bonding or hydrogen bonding between its own chains. These stronger forces typically result in higher tensile strength and higher crystalline melting points. The intermolecular forces in polymers can be affected by dipoles in the monomer units. Polymers containing amide or carbonyl groups can form hydrogen bonds between adjacent chains; the partially positively charged hydrogen atoms in N-H groups of one chain are strongly attracted to the partially negatively charged oxygen atoms in C=O groups on another. These strong hydrogen bonds, for example, result in the high tensile strength and melting point of polymers containing urethane or urea linkages. Polyesters have dipole-dipole bonding between the oxygen atoms in C=O groups and the hydrogen atoms in H-C groups. Dipole bonding is not as strong as hydrogen bonding, so a polyester's melting point and strength are lower than Kevlar's (Twaron), but polyesters have greater flexibility. Ethene, however, has no permanent dipole. The attractive forces between polyethylene chains arise from weak van der Waals forces. Molecules can be thought of as being surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons. As two polymer chains approach, their electron clouds repel one another. This has the effect of lowering the electron density on one side of a polymer chain, creating a slight positive dipole on this side. This charge is enough to attract the second polymer chain. Van der Waals forces are quite weak, however, so polyethylene can have a lower melting temperature compared to other polymers.

Standardized polymer nomenclature


There are multiple conventions for naming polymer substances. Many commonly used polymers, such as those found in consumer products, are referred to by a common or trivial name. The trivial name is assigned based on historical precedent or popular usage rather than a standardized naming convention. Both the American Chemical Society (ACS)[33] and IUPAC[34] have proposed standardized naming conventions; the ACS and IUPAC conventions are similar but not identical.[35] Examples of the differences between the various naming conventions are given in the table below:

Polymer

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Common name Poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO Poly(oxyethylene)

ACS name

IUPAC name Poly(oxyethene)

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) or PET Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyloxycarbonyl-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl) Poly(oxyetheneoxyterephthaloyl) Nylon 6 Poly[amino(1-oxo-1,6-hexanediyl)] Poly[amino(1-oxohexan-1,6-diyl)]

In both standardized conventions, the polymers' names are intended to reflect the monomer(s) from which they are synthesized rather than the precise nature of the repeating subunit. For example, the polymer synthesized from the simple alkene ethene is called polyethylene, retaining the -ene suffix even though the double bond is removed during the polymerization process:

Polymer characterization
The characterization of a polymer requires several parameters which need to be specified. This is because a polymer actually consists of a statistical distribution of chains of varying lengths, and each chain consists of monomer residues which affect its properties. A variety of lab techniques are used to determine the properties of polymers. Techniques such as wide angle X-ray scattering, small angle X-ray scattering, and small angle neutron scattering are used to determine the crystalline structure of polymers. Gel permeation chromatography is used to determine the number average molecular weight, weight average molecular weight, and polydispersity. FTIR, Raman and NMR can be used to determine composition. Thermal properties such as the glass transition temperature and melting point can be determined by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Pyrolysis followed by analysis of the fragments is one more technique for determining the possible structure of the polymer. Thermogravimetry is a useful technique to evaluate the thermal stability of the polymer. Detailed analyses of TG curves also allow us to know a bit of the phase segregation in polymers. Rheological properties are also commonly used to help determine molecular architecture (molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and branching)as well as to understand how the polymer will process, through measurements of the polymer in the melt phase. Another polymer characterization technique is Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring of Polymerization Reactions (ACOMP) which provides real-time characterization of polymerization reactions. It can be used as an analytical method in R&D, as a tool for reaction optimization at the bench and pilot plant level and, eventually, for feedback control of full-scale reactors. ACOMP measures in a model-independent fashion the evolution of average molar mass and intrinsic viscosity, monomer conversion kinetics and, in the case of copolymers, also the average composition drift and distribution. It is applicable in the areas of free radical and controlled radical homo- and copolymerization, polyelectrolyte synthesis, heterogeneous phase reactions, including emulsion polymerization, adaptation to batch and continuous reactors, and modifications of polymers.[36] [37] [38]

Polymer

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Polymer degradation
Polymer degradation is a change in the propertiestensile strength, color, shape, or molecular weightof a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors, such as heat, light, chemicals and, in some cases, galvanic action. It is often due to the scission of polymer chain bonds via hydrolysis, leading to a decrease in the molecular mass of the polymer. Although such changes are frequently undesirable, in some cases, such as biodegradation and recycling, they may be intended to prevent environmental pollution. Degradation can also be useful in biomedical settings. For example, a copolymer of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid is employed in hydrolysable stitches that slowly degrade after they are applied to a wound.

A plastic item with thirty years of exposure to heat and cold, brake fluid, and sunlight. Notice the discoloration, swollen dimensions, and tiny splits running through the material

The susceptibility of a polymer to degradation depends on its structure. Epoxies and chains containing aromatic functionalities are especially susceptible to UV degradation while polyesters are susceptible to degradation by hydrolysis, while polymers containing an unsaturated backbone are especially susceptible to ozone cracking. Carbon based polymers are more susceptible to thermal degradation than inorganic polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane and are therefore not ideal for most high-temperature applications. High-temperature matrices such as bismaleimides (BMI), condensation polyimides (with an O-C-N bond), triazines (with a nitrogen (N) containing ring), and blends thereof are susceptible to polymer degradation in the form of galvanic corrosion when bare carbon fiber reinforced polymer CFRP is in contact with an active metal such as aluminum in salt water environments. The degradation of polymers to form smaller molecules may proceed by random scission or specific scission. The degradation of polyethylene occurs by random scissiona random breakage of the bonds that hold the atoms of the polymer together. When heated above 450 C, polyethylene degrades to form a mixture of hydrocarbons. Other polymers, such as poly(alpha-methylstyrene), undergo specific chain scission with breakage occurring only at the ends. They literally unzip or depolymerize back to the constituent monomer. The sorting of polymer waste for recycling purposes may be facilitated by the use of the Resin identification codes developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry to identify the type of plastic.

Product failure
In a finished product, such a change is to be prevented or delayed. Failure of safety-critical polymer components can cause serious accidents, such as fire in the case of cracked and degraded polymer fuel lines. Chlorine-induced cracking of acetal resin plumbing joints and polybutylene pipes has caused many serious floods in domestic properties, especially in the USA in the 1990s. Traces of chlorine in the water supply attacked vulnerable polymers in the plastic plumbing, a problem which occurs faster if any of the parts have been poorly extruded or injection molded. Attack of the acetal joint occurred because of faulty molding,

Chlorine attack of acetal resin plumbing joint

Polymer leading to cracking along the threads of the fitting which is a serious stress concentration. Polymer oxidation has caused accidents involving medical devices. One of the oldest known failure modes is ozone cracking caused by chain scission when ozone gas attacks susceptible elastomers, such as natural rubber and nitrile rubber. They possess double bonds in their repeat units which are cleaved during ozonolysis. Cracks in fuel lines can penetrate the bore of the tube and cause fuel leakage. If cracking occurs in the engine compartment, electric sparks can ignite the gasoline and can cause a serious fire.

43

Ozone-induced cracking in natural rubber tubing

Fuel lines can also be attacked by another form of degradation: hydrolysis. Nylon 6,6 is susceptible to acid hydrolysis, and in one accident, a fractured fuel line led to a spillage of diesel into the road. If diesel fuel leaks onto the road, accidents to following cars can be caused by the slippery nature of the deposit, which is like black ice.

References
[1] Roiter, Y.; Minko, S. (2005). "AFM Single Molecule Experiments at the Solid-Liquid Interface: In Situ Conformation of Adsorbed Flexible Polyelectrolyte Chains". Journal of the American Chemical Society 127 (45): 1568815689. doi:10.1021/ja0558239. PMID16277495. [2] Painter, Paul C.; Coleman, Michael M. (1997). Fundamentals of polymer science : an introductory text. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Pub. Co.. p.1. ISBN1-56676-559-5. [3] McCrum, N. G.; Buckley, C. P.; Bucknall, C. B. (1997). Principles of polymer engineering. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. p.1. ISBN0-19-856526-7. [4] "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974" (http:/ / nobelprize. org/ nobel_prizes/ chemistry/ laureates/ 1974/ ). . Retrieved 27 September 2010. [5] Sperling, L. H. (Leslie Howard) (2006). Introduction to physical polymer science. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. p.10. ISBN0-471-70606-X. [6] Sperling, p. 11 [7] Sperling, p. 15 [8] S.A. Baeurle (2009). "Multiscale modeling of polymer materials using field-theoretic methodologies: a survey about recent developments". Journal of Mathematical Chemistry 46 (2): 363426. doi:10.1007/s10910-008-9467-3. [9] Sperling, p. 30 [10] Rubinstein, Michael; Colby, Ralph H. (2003). Polymer physics. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. p.6. ISBN0-19-852059-X. [11] Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life (http:/ / www. phschool. com/ el_marketing. html). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN0-13-250882-6. . [12] C.Michael Hogan. 2011. sulfur. Encyclopedia of Earth, eds. A.Jorgensen and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the environment, Washington DC (http:/ / www. eoearth. org/ article/ Sulfur?topic=49557) [13] IUPAC; Kratochvl, P.; Stepto, R. F. T.; Suter, U. W. (1996). "Glossary of Basic Terms in Polymer Science". Pure Appl. Chem. 68: 22872311. doi:10.1351/pac199668122287. [14] Painter, pp. 96-100 [15] De Gennes, Pierre Gilles (1979). Scaling concepts in polymer physics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN0-8014-1203-X. [16] Rubinstein, p. 5 [17] McCrum, p. 37 [18] McCrum, p. 30 [19] Rubinstein, p. 3 [20] McCrum, p. 33 [21] Rubinstein, pp. 23-24 [22] Painter, p. 22 [23] Rubinstein, p. 50 [24] Painter, p. 14 [25] Painter, p. 15 [26] Sperling, p. 47 [27] "IUPAC Purple Book: Definition of terms relating to crystalline polymers (1988) See Sec.1.3 Degree of Crystallinity" (http:/ / www. iupac. org/ publications/ books/ pbook/ PurpleBook-C4. pdf) (PDF). . [28] Allcock, Harry R.; Lampe, Frederick W.; Mark, James E. (2003). Contemporary Polymer Chemistry (3 ed.). Pearson Education. p.546. ISBN0130650560. [29] Rubinstein, p. 13 [30] Ashby, Michael; Jones, David (1996). Engineering Materials (2 ed.). Butterworth-Heinermann. pp.191195. ISBN0750627662.

Polymer
[31] Meyers, M. A.; Chawla, K. K. (1999). Mechanical Behavior of Materials (http:/ / www. toodoc. com/ Mechanical-Behavior-of-Materials-ebook. html). Cambridge University Press. p.41. ISBN978-0-521-86675-0. . [32] Brandrup, J.; Immergut, E.H.; Grulke, E.A. (1999). Polymer Handbook (4 ed.). Wiley-Interscience. ISBN0471479365. [33] CAS: Index Guide, Appendix IV ((c) 1998) [34] IUPAC (1976). "Nomenclature of Regular Single-Strand Organic Polymers". Pure Appl. Chem. 48: 373385. doi:10.1351/pac197648030373. [35] "Macromolecular Nomenclature Note No. 18" (http:/ / www. polyacs. org/ nomcl/ mnn18. html). . [36] U.S. Patent 6052184 (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=6052184) and U.S. Patent 6653150 (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=6653150), other patents pending [37] Florenzano, F. H.; Strelitzki, R.; Reed, W. F. (1998). "Absolute, Online Monitoring of Polymerization Reactions". Macromolecules 31 (21): 72267238. doi:10.1021/ma980876e. [38] Alb, A. M.; Drenski, M. F.; Reed, W. F. (2008). "Implications to Industry: Perspective. Automatic continuous online monitoring of polymerization reactions (ACOMP)". Polymer International 57: 390396. doi:10.1002/pi.2367.

44

Bibliography
Cowie, J. M. G. (John McKenzie Grant) (1991). Polymers: chemistry and physics of modern material. Glasgow: Blackie. ISBN0-412-03121-3. Ezrin, Myer. (1996). Plastics failure guide : cause and preventio. Munich ; New York: Hanser Publishers : Cincinnati. ISBN1-56990-184-8. Lewis, P. R. (Peter Rhys); Reynolds, Ken.; Gagg, Colin. (2004). Forensic materials engineering : case studi. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN0-8493-1182-9. Wright, David C. (2001). Environmental Stress Cracking of Plastics. RAPRA. ISBN978-1859570647. Lewis, Peter Rhys (2010). Forensic polymer engineering : why polymer products fail in service. Cambridge [etc.]: Woodhead Publishing. ISBN1-84569-185-7. Workman, Jerome; Workman, Jerry (2001). Handbook of organic compounds: NIR, IR, Raman, and UV-Vis spectra featuring polymers and surfactants. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN978-0-12-763560-6.

External links
How To Identify the Polymer (http://fibreinfo.co.cc/?p=18) Polymer Chemistry Hypertext, Educational resource (http://www.polymerchemistryhypertext.com/) The Macrogalleria (http://www.pslc.ws/macrog/index.htm) Application notes on the characterization of polymers (http://www.campoly.com/application_notes.html) Distance learning course in polymers (http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=2937) Polymer Structures (http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=196631) Glossary of Polymer Abbreviations (http://www.theotherpages.org/abbrev.html) Sigma-Aldrich Polymer Glossary (http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/img/assets/3900/Glossary.pdf)

Composite material

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Composite material
Composite materials, often shortened to composites, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure. The most visible applications is pavement in roadways in the form of either steel and aggregate reinforced Portland cement or asphalt concrete. Those composites closest to our personal hygiene form our shower stalls and bathtubs made of fibreglass. Imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops are widely used. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments.

A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials

Composition
Wood is a natural composite of Cellulose fibres in a matrix of lignin.[1] [2] The earliest man-made composite materials were straw and mud combined to form bricks for building construction. The ancient brick-making process can still be seen on Egyptian tomb paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Composites are made up of individual materials referred to as constituent materials. There are two categories of constituent materials: matrix and reinforcement. At least one portion of each type is required. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement Plywood is a commonly encountered composite materials by maintaining their relative positions. The reinforcements material. impart their special mechanical and physical properties to enhance the matrix properties. A synergism produces material properties unavailable from the individual constituent materials, while the wide variety of matrix and strengthening materials allows the designer of the product or structure to choose an optimum combination. Engineered composite materials must be formed to shape. The matrix material can be introduced to the reinforcement before or after the reinforcement material is placed into the mould cavity or onto the mould surface. The matrix material experiences a melding event, after which the part shape is essentially set. Depending upon the nature of the matrix material, this melding event can occur in various ways such as chemical polymerization or solidification from the melted state. A variety of moulding methods can be used according to the end-item design requirements. The principal factors impacting the methodology are the natures of the chosen matrix and reinforcement materials. Another important factor is the gross quantity of material to be produced. Large quantities can be used to justify high capital expenditures for rapid and automated manufacturing technology. Small production quantities are accommodated with lower capital expenditures but higher labour and tooling costs at a correspondingly slower rate. Most commercially produced composites use a polymer matrix material often called a resin solution. There are many different polymers available depending upon the starting raw ingredients. There are several broad categories, each with numerous variations. The most common are known as polyester, vinyl ester, epoxy, phenolic, polyimide, polyamide, polypropylene, PEEK, and others. The reinforcement materials are often fibres but also commonly

Composite material ground minerals. The various methods described below have been developed to reduce the resin content of the final product, or the fibre content is increased. As a rule of thumb, lay up results in a product containing 60% resin and 40% fibre, whereas vacuum infusion gives a final product with 40% resin and 60% fibre content. The strength of the product is greatly dependent on this ratio.

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Moulding methods
In general, the reinforcing and matrix materials are combined, compacted and processed to undergo a melding event. After the melding event, the part shape is essentially set, although it can deform under certain process conditions. For a thermoset polymeric matrix material, the melding event is a curing reaction that is initiated by the application of additional heat or chemical reactivity such as an organic peroxide. For a thermoplastic polymeric matrix material, the melding event is a solidification from the melted state. For a metal matrix material such as titanium foil, the melding event is a fusing at high pressure and a temperature near the melt point. For many moulding methods, it is convenient to refer to one mould piece as a "lower" mould and another mould piece as an "upper" mould. Lower and upper refer to the different faces of the moulded panel, not the mould's configuration in space. In this convention, there is always a lower mould, and sometimes an upper mould. Part construction begins by applying materials to the lower mould. Lower mould and upper mould are more generalized descriptors than more common and specific terms such as male side, female side, a-side, b-side, tool side, bowl, hat, mandrel, etc. Continuous manufacturing processes use a different nomenclature. The moulded product is often referred to as a panel. For certain geometries and material combinations, it can be referred to as a casting. For certain continuous processes, it can be referred to as a profile. Applied with a pressure roller, a spray device or manually. This process is generally done at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Two variations of open moulding are Hand Layup and Spray-up.

Vacuum bag moulding


A process using a two-sided mould set that shapes both surfaces of the panel. On the lower side is a rigid mould and on the upper side is a flexible membrane or vacuum bag. The flexible membrane can be a reusable silicone material or an extruded polymer film. Then, vacuum is applied to the mould cavity. This process can be performed at either ambient or elevated temperature with ambient atmospheric pressure acting upon the vacuum bag. Most economical way is using a venturi vacuum and air compressor or a vacuum pump. A vacuum bag is a bag made of strong rubber-coated fabric or a polymer film used to bond or laminate materials. In some applications the bag encloses the entire material, or in other applications a mold is used to form one face of the laminate with the bag being single sided to seal the outer face of the laminate to the mold. The open end is sealed and the air is drawn out of the bag through a nipple using a vacuum pump. As a result, uniform pressure approaching one atmosphere is applied to the surfaces of the object inside the bag, holding parts together while the adhesive cures. The entire bag may be placed in a temperature-controlled oven, oil bath or water bath and gently heated to accelerate curing. In commercial woodworking facilities vacuum bags are used to laminate curved and irregular shaped workpieces. Vacuum bagging is widely used in the composites industry as well. Carbon fiber fabric and fiberglass, along with resins and epoxies are common materials laminated together with a vacuum bag operation. Typically, polyurethane or vinyl materials are used to make the bag, which is commonly open at both ends. This gives access to the piece, or pieces to be glued. A plastic rod is laid onto the bag, which is then folded over the rod. A plastic sleeve with an opening in it, is then snapped over the rod. This procedure forms a seal at both ends of the bag, when the vacuum is ready to be drawn. A "platen" is used inside the bag for the piece being glued to lay on. The platen has a series of small slots cut into it, to allow the air under it to be evacuated. The platen must have rounded edges and corners to prevent the vacuum

Composite material from tearing the bag. When a curved part is to be glued in a vacuum bag, it is important that the pieces being glued be placed over a solidly built form, or have an air bladder placed under the form. This air bladder has access to "free air" outside the bag. It is used to create an equal pressure under the form, preventing it from being crushed.[3]

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Pressure bag moulding


This process is related to vacuum bag moulding in exactly the same way as it sounds. A solid female mould is used along with a flexible male mould. The reinforcement is placed inside the female mould with just enough resin to allow the fabric to stick in place (wet lay up). A measured amount of resin is then liberally brushed indiscriminately into the mould and the mould is then clamped to a machine that contains the male flexible mould. The flexible male membrane is then inflated with heated compressed air or possibly steam. The female mould can also be heated. Excess resin is forced out along with trapped air. This process is extensively used in the production of composite helmets due to the lower cost of unskilled labor. Cycle times for a helmet bag moulding machine vary from 20 to 45 minutes, but the finished shells require no further curing if the moulds are heated.

Autoclave moulding
A process using a two-sided mould set that forms both surfaces of the panel. On the lower side is a rigid mould and on the upper side is a flexible membrane made from silicone or an extruded polymer film such as nylon. Reinforcement materials can be placed manually or robotically. They include continuous fibre forms fashioned into textile constructions. Most often, they are pre-impregnated with the resin in the form of prepreg fabrics or unidirectional tapes. In some instances, a resin film is placed upon the lower mould and dry reinforcement is placed above. The upper mould is installed and vacuum is applied to the mould cavity. The assembly is placed into an autoclave. This process is generally performed at both elevated pressure and elevated temperature. The use of elevated pressure facilitates a high fibre volume fraction and low void content for maximum structural efficiency.

Resin transfer moulding (RTM)


A process using a two-sided mould set that forms both surfaces of the panel. The lower side is a rigid mould. The upper side can be a rigid or flexible mould. Flexible moulds can be made from composite materials, silicone or extruded polymer films such as nylon. The two sides fit together to produce a mould cavity. The distinguishing feature of resin transfer moulding is that the reinforcement materials are placed into this cavity and the mould set is closed prior to the introduction of matrix material. Resin transfer moulding includes numerous varieties which differ in the mechanics of how the resin is introduced to the reinforcement in the mould cavity. These variations include everything from vacuum infusion (for resin infusion see also boat building) to vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM). This process can be performed at either ambient or elevated temperature.

Other
Other types of moulding include press moulding, transfer moulding, pultrusion moulding, filament winding, casting, centrifugal casting and continuous casting. There are also forming capabilities including CNC filament winding, vacuum infusion, wet lay-up, compression moulding, and thermoplastic moulding, to name a few. The use of curing ovens and paint booths is also needed for some projects.[4]

Tooling
Some types of tooling materials used in the manufacturing of composites structures include invar, steel, aluminium, reinforced silicone rubber, nickel, and carbon fibre. Selection of the tooling material is typically based on, but not limited to, the coefficient of thermal expansion, expected number of cycles, end item tolerance, desired or required

Composite material surface condition, method of cure, glass transition temperature of the material being moulded, moulding method, matrix, cost and a variety of other considerations.

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Properties
Mechanics
The physical properties of composite materials are generally not isotropic (independent of direction of applied force) in nature, but rather are typically orthotropic (different depending on the direction of the applied force or load). For instance, the stiffness of a composite panel will often depend upon the orientation of the applied forces and/or moments. Panel stiffness is also dependent on the design of the panel. For instance, the fibre reinforcement and matrix used, the method of panel build, thermoset versus thermoplastic, type of weave, and orientation of fibre axis to the primary force. In contrast, isotropic materials (for example, aluminium or steel), in standard wrought forms, typically have the same stiffness regardless of the directional orientation of the applied forces and/or moments. The relationship between forces/moments and strains/curvatures for an isotropic material can be described with the following material properties: Young's Modulus, the shear Modulus and the Poisson's ratio, in relatively simple mathematical relationships. For the anisotropic material, it requires the mathematics of a second order tensor and up to 21 material property constants. For the special case of orthogonal isotropy, there are three different material property constants for each of Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus and Poisson's ratioa total of 9 constants to describe the relationship between forces/moments and strains/curvatures. Techniques that take advantage of the anisotropic properties of the materials include mortise and tenon joints (in natural composites such as wood) and Pi Joints in synthetic composites.

Resins
Typically, most common composite materials, including fiberglass, carbon fiber, and Kevlar, include at least two parts, the substrate and the resin. Polyester resin tends to have yellowish tint, and is suitable for most backyard projects. Its weaknesses are that it is UV sensitive and can tend to degrade over time, and thus generally is also coated to help preserve it. It is often used in the making of surfboards and for marine applications. Its hardener is a MEKP, and is mixed at 14 drops per oz. MEKP is composed of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, a catalyst. When MEKP is mixed with the resin, the resulting chemical reaction causes heat to build up and cure or harden the resin. Vinylester resin tends to have a purplish to bluish to greenish tint. This resin has lower viscosity than polyester resin, and is more transparent. This resin is often billed as being fuel resistant, but will melt in contact with gasoline. This resin tends to be more resistant over time to degradation than polyester resin, and is more flexible. It uses the same hardener as polyester resin (at the same mix ratio) and the cost is approximately the same. Epoxy resin is almost totally transparent when cured. In the aerospace industry, epoxy is used as a structural matrix material or as a structural glue. Shape memory polymer (SMP) resins have varying visual characteristics depending on their formulation. These resins may be epoxy-based, which can be used for auto body and outdoor equipment repairs; cyanate-ester-based, which are used in space applications; and acrylate-based, which can be used in very cold temperature applications, such as for sensors that indicate whether perishable goods have warmed above a certain maximum temperature.[5] These resins are unique in that their shape can be repeatedly changed by heating above their glass transition temperature (Tg). When heated, they become flexible and elastic, allowing for easy configuration. Once they are cooled, they will maintain their new shape. The resins will return to their original shapes when they are reheated above their Tg.[6] The advantage of shape memory polymer resins is that they can be shaped and reshaped repeatedly

Composite material without losing their material properties, and these resins can be used in fabricating shape memory composites.[7]

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Categories of fiber-reinforced composite materials


Fiber-reinforced composite materials can be divided into two main categories normally referred to as short fiber-reinforced materials and continuous fiber-reinforced materials. Continuous reinforced materials will often constitute a layered or laminated structure. The woven and continuous fibre styles are typically available in a variety of forms, being pre-impregnated with the given matrix (resin), dry, uni-directional tapes of various widths, plain weave, harness satins, braided, and stitched.

The short and long fibers are typically employed in compression moulding and sheet moulding operations. These come in the form of flakes, chips, and random mate (which can also be made from a continuous fibre laid in random fashion until the desired thickness of the ply / laminate is achieved).

Typologies of fibre-reinforced composite materials: a) continuous fibre-reinforced b) discontinuous aligned fibre-reinforced c) discontinuous random-oriented fibre-reinforced.

Failure
Shock, impact, or repeated cyclic stresses can cause the laminate to separate at the interface between two layers, a condition known as delamination. Individual fibres can separate from the matrix e.g. fibre pull-out. Composites can fail on the microscopic or macroscopic scale. Compression failures can occur at both the macro scale or at each individual reinforcing fibre in compression buckling. Tension failures can be net section failures of the part or degradation of the composite at a microscopic scale where one or more of the layers in the composite fail in tension of the matrix or failure the bond between the matrix and fibres. Some composites are brittle and have little reserve strength beyond the initial onset of failure while others may have large deformations and have reserve energy absorbing capacity past the onset of damage. The variations in fibres and matrices that are available and the mixtures that can be made with blends leave a very broad range of properties that can be designed into a composite structure. The best known failure of a brittle ceramic matrix composite occurred when the carbon-carbon composite tile on the leading edge of the wing of the Space Shuttle Columbia fractured when impacted during take-off. It led to catastrophic break-up of the vehicle when it re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on 1 February 2003. Compared to metals, composites have relatively poor bearing strength.

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Testing
To aid in predicting and preventing failures, composites are tested before and after construction. Pre-construction testing may use finite element analysis (FEA) for ply-by-ply analysis of curved surfaces and predicting wrinkling, crimping and dimpling of composites.[8] Materials may be tested after construction through several nondestructive methods including ultrasonics, thermography, shearography and X-ray radiography[9]

Examples
Materials
Fibre-reinforced polymers or FRPs include wood (comprising cellulose fibres in a lignin and hemicellulose matrix), carbon-fibre reinforced plastic or CFRP, and glass-reinforced plastic or GRP. If classified by matrix then there are thermoplastic composites, short fibre thermoplastics, long fibre thermoplastics or long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics. There are numerous thermoset composites, but advanced systems usually incorporate aramid fibre and carbon fibre in an epoxy resin matrix. Shape memory polymer composites are high-performance composites, formulated using fibre or fabric reinforcement and shape memory polymer resin as the matrix. Since a shape memory polymer resin is used as the matrix, these composites have the ability to be easily manipulated into various configurations when they are heated above their activation temperatures and will exhibit high strength and stiffness at lower temperatures. They can also be reheated and reshaped repeatedly without losing their material properties. These composites are ideal for applications such as lightweight, rigid, deployable structures; rapid manufacturing; and dynamic reinforcement.[10] Composites can also use metal fibres reinforcing other metals, as in metal matrix composites or MMC. The benefit of magnesium is that it does not degrade in outer space. Ceramic matrix composites include bone (hydroxyapatite reinforced with collagen fibres), Cermet (ceramic and metal) and concrete. Ceramic matrix composites are built primarily for fracture toughness, not for strength. Organic matrix/ceramic aggregate composites include asphalt concrete, mastic asphalt, mastic roller hybrid, dental composite, syntactic foam and mother of pearl. Chobham armour is a special type of composite armour used in military applications. Additionally, thermoplastic composite materials can be formulated with specific metal powders resulting in materials with a density range from 2 g/cm to 11 g/cm (same density as lead). The most common name for this type of material is High Gravity Compound (HGC), although Lead Replacement is also used.[11] These materials can be used in place of traditional materials such as aluminium, stainless steel, brass, bronze, copper, lead, and even tungsten in weighting, balancing (for example, modifying the centre of gravity of a tennis racquet), vibration dampening, and radiation shielding applications. High density composites are an economically viable option when certain materials are deemed hazardous and are banned (such as lead) or when secondary operations costs (such as machining, finishing, or coating) are a factor. Engineered wood includes a wide variety of different products such as wood fibre board, plywood, oriented strand board, wood plastic composite (recycled wood fibre in polyethylene matrix), Pykrete (sawdust in ice matrix), Plastic-impregnated or laminated paper or textiles, Arborite, Formica (plastic) and Micarta. Other engineered laminate composites, such as Mallite, use a central core of end grain balsa wood, bonded to surface skins of light alloy or GRP. These generate low-weight, high rigidity materials.

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Products
Composite materials have gained popularity (despite their generally high cost) in high-performance products that need to be lightweight, yet strong enough to take harsh loading conditions such as aerospace components (tails, wings, fuselages, propellers), boat and scull hulls, bicycle frames and racing car bodies.[12] Other uses include fishing rods, storage tanks, and baseball bats. The new Boeing 787 structure including the wings and fuselage is composed largely of composites. Composite materials are also becoming more common in the realm of orthopedic surgery. Carbon composite is a key material in today's launch vehicles and heat shields for the re-entry phase of spacecraft. It is widely used in solar panel substrates, antenna reflectors and yokes of spacecraft. It is also used in payload adapters, inter-stage structures and heat shields of launch vehicles. Furthermore disk brake systems of airplanes and racing cars are using carbon/carbon material, and the composite material with carbon fibers and silicon carbide matrix has been introduced in luxury vehicles and sports cars. In 2007, an all-composite military High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or Hummvee) was introduced by TPI Composites Inc and Armor Holdings Inc, the first all-composite military vehicle. By using composites the vehicle is lighter, allowing higher payloads. In 2008, carbon fiber and DuPont Kevlar (five times stronger than steel) were combined with enhanced thermoset resins to make military transit cases by ECS Composites creating 30-percent lighter cases with high strength. Many composite layup designs also include a co-curing or post-curing of the prepreg with various other mediums, such as honeycomb or foam. This is commonly called a sandwich structure. This is a more common layup process for the manufacture of radomes, doors, cowlings, or non-structural parts.[13] The finishing of the composite parts is also critical in the final design. Many of these finishes will include rain-erosion coatings or polyurethane coatings.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] (http:/ / www. ncsu. edu/ bioresources/ BioRes_02/ BioRes_02_4_534_535_Hubbe_L_BioResJ_Editorial_LoveHate. pdf) David Hon and Nobuo Shiraishi, eds. (2001) Wood and cellulose chemistry, 2nd ed. (New York: Marcel Dekker), p. 5 ff. http:/ / www. prowoodworkingtips. com/ Vacuum_Systems_pg_4_-_Vacuum_bags. html PCT (http:/ / www. pactinc. com/ compositematerials. asp) Environmental Sensors (http:/ / www. crgrp. net/ technology/ systemsportfolio/ environmental-sensors. shtml) "Shape Memory Polymers: An Overview" (http:/ / www. crgrp. com/ technology/ overviews/ smp1. shtml). Cornerstone Research Group. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [7] "Shape Memory Polymer Resins" (http:/ / www. crgrp. com/ technology/ materialsportfolio/ veriflex. shtml). Cornerstone Research Group. . Retrieved 2009-09-30. [8] Waterman, Pamela J.. "The Life of Composite Materials" (http:/ / 66. 195. 41. 10/ Articles/ Feature/ The-Life-of-Composite-Materials-200704101800. html). Desktop Engineering Magazine April 2007. . [9] Matzkanin, George A.; Yolken, H. Thomas. "Techniques for the Nondestructive Evaluation of Polymer Matrix Composites" (http:/ / ammtiac. alionscience. com/ pdf/ AQV2N4. pdf). AMMTIAC Quarterly 2 (4). . [10] "Shape Memory Composites" (http:/ / www. crgrp. com/ technology/ overviews/ composites. shtml). Cornerstone Research Group. . Retrieved 2009-10-02. [11] Material Properties Data: High Gravity Compound (HGC) (http:/ / www. makeitfrom. com/ data/ ?material=HGC) [12] "Rubbn'Repair Composite Repair System" (http:/ / www. rubbnrepair. com/ ). CRG Industries, LLC. . Retrieved 2009-10-02. [13] Vantage Composites and Thermoforming, Inc. http:/ / www. vantagecandt. com

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Further reading
Autar K. Kaw (2005). Mechanics of Composite Materials (2nd ed.). CRC. ISBN0-84-931343-0. Handbook of Polymer Composites for Engineers By Leonard Hollaway Published 1994 Woodhead Publishing Matthews, F.L. & Rawlings, R.D. (1999). Composite Materials: Engineering and Science. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN0-84-930621-3.

External links
Composite material key concepts (http://www.science.org.au/nova/059/059key.htm) Distance learning course in polymers and composites (http://www3.open.ac.uk/courses/bin/p12. dll?C01T838) Composite Sandwich Structure of Minardi F1 Car (http://www.nenastran.com/newnoran/chPDF/ CASE_Chassis_Design.pdf) Teaching support materials for the University of Plymouth composites degree (http://www.tech.plym.ac.uk/ sme/mats324/)

Glass
Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent. The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, made of about 75% silica (SiO2) plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives. Often, the term glass is used in a restricted sense to refer to this specific use. In science, however, the term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense, including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i.e. amorphous) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. In this wider sense, glasses can be made of quite different classes of materials: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications (bottles, eyewear) polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative to traditional silica glasses. Glass, as a substance, plays an essential role in science and industry. Their chemical, physical, and in particular optical properties make them suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement materials (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and glass art (art glass, studio glass).

Moldavite, a natural glass formed by meteorite impact, from Besednice, Bohemia

Roman Cage Cup from the 4th century A.D.

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Silicate glass
Silica (the chemical compound SiO2) is a common fundamental constitute of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurite.

History
The history of creating glass can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotamia.[1] The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance.[2]

Glass ingredients
While fused quartz (primarily composed of SiO2) is used for some special applications, it is not very common due to its high glass transition temperature of over 1200C.[3] Normally, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the glass transition. However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass.[4] Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. Most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties. Lead glass or flint glass is more 'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eye glasses. Iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared energy, for example in heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths.[5] Borosilicate glasses (e.g. Pyrex) have as main constituents silica and boron oxide. They have very low coefficients of thermal expansion (7740 Pyrex COE is 32.5107/C as compared to 8.36105/C for one type of soda-lime glass),[6] making them more dimensionally stable. The lower COE also makes them less subject to stress caused by thermal expansion, thus less vulnerable to cracking from thermal shock. They are commonly used for reagent bottles, optical components and household cookware. Another common glass ingredient is "cullet" (recycled glass). The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. However, impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure. Fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide may be added to reduce the number of air bubbles in the glass mixture.[4] Glass batch calculation is the method by which the correct raw material mixture is determined to achieve the desired glass composition.
Quartz sand (silica) is the main raw material in commercial glass production

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Contemporary glass production


Following the glass batch preparation and mixing, the raw materials are transported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gas fired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters, pot furnaces, and day tanks.[4] After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles), the glass is formed. Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, who created a continuous ribbon of glass using a A modern greenhouse in Wisley Garden, molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the England, made from float glass influence of gravity. The top surface of the glass is subjected to nitrogen under pressure to obtain a polished finish.[7] Container glass for common bottles and jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods. Further glass forming techniques are summarized in the table Glass forming techniques. Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal of stresses. Surface treatments, coatings or lamination may follow to improve the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internal treatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshields), or optical properties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating). Architecture The use of glass in buildings is a transparent feature to allow light to enter into rooms and floors, illuminating enclosed spaces and framing an exterior view through a window. It is also a material for internal partitions and external cladding.

Glassmaking in the laboratory


New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali oxides and hydroxides, alkaline earth oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that the impurities are quantified (loss on ignition).[8] Evaporation losses during glass melting should be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodium selenite may be preferred over easily evaporating SeO2. Also, more readily reacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as Al(OH)3 over Al2O3. Usually, the melts are carried A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National out in platinum crucibles to reduce contamination from the crucible Laboratory. material. Glass homogeneity is achieved by homogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and by crushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed to prevent breakage during processing.[8] [9] In order to make glass from materials with poor glass forming tendencies, novel techniques are used to increase cooling rate, or reduce crystal nucleation triggers. Examples of these techniques include aerodynamic levitation

Glass (cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream), splat quenching (pressing the melt between two metal anvils) and roller quenching (pouring the melt through rollers). See also: Optical lens design, Fabrication and testing of optical components

55

Other glasses
Network glasses
Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specialized technical applications. These include fluoride glasses, aluminosilicates, phosphate glasses, borate glasses, and chalcogenide glasses. There are three classes of components for oxide glasses: network formers, intermediates, and modifiers. The network formers (silicon, boron, germanium) form a highly cross-linked network of chemical bonds. The intermediates (titanium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, A CD-RW (CD). Chalcogenide glasses form the magnesium, zinc) can act as both network formers and modifiers, basis of re-writable CD and DVD solid-state [10] memory technology. according to the glass composition. The modifiers (calcium, lead, lithium, sodium, potassium) alter the network structure; they are usually present as ions, compensated by nearby non-bridging oxygen atoms, bound by one covalent bond to the glass network and holding one negative charge to compensate for the positive ion nearby. Some elements can play multiple roles; e.g. lead can act both as a network former (Pb4+ replacing Si4+), or as a modifier. The presence of non-bridging oxygens lowers the relative number of strong bonds in the material and disrupts the network, decreasing the viscosity of the melt and lowering the melting temperature. The alkaline metal ions are small and mobile; their presence in glass allows a degree of electrical conductivity, especially in molten state or at high temperature. Their mobility however decreases the chemical resistance of the glass, allowing leaching by water and facilitating corrosion. Alkaline earth ions, with their two positive charges and requirement for two non-bridging oxygen ions to compensate for their charge, are much less mobile themselves and also hinder diffusion of other ions, especially the alkalis. The most common commercial glasses contain both alkali and alkaline earth ions (usually sodium and calcium), for easier processing and satisfying corrosion resistance.[11] Corrosion resistance of glass can be achieved by dealkalization, removal of the alkali ions from the glass surface by reaction with e.g. sulfur or fluorine compounds. Presence of alkaline metal ions has also detrimental effect to the loss tangent of the glass, and to its electrical resistance; glasses for electronics (sealing, vacuum tubes, lamps...) have to take this in account. Addition of lead(II) oxide lowers melting point, lowers viscosity of the melt, and increases refractive index. Lead oxide also facilitates solubility of other metal oxides and therefore is used in colored glasses. The viscosity decrease of lead glass melt is very significant (roughly 100 times in comparison with soda glasses); this allows easier removal of bubbles and working at lower temperatures, hence its frequent use as an additive in vitreous enamels and glass solders. The high ionic radius of the Pb2+ ion renders it highly immobile in the matrix and hinders the movement of other ions; lead glasses therefore have high electrical resistance, about two orders of magnitude higher than soda-lime glass (108.5 vs 106.5 Ohmcm, DC at 250 C). For more details, see lead glass.[12] Addition of fluorine lowers the dielectric constant of glass. Fluorine is highly electronegative and attracts the electrons in the lattice, lowering the polarizability of the material. Such silicon dioxide-fluoride is used in manufacture of integrated circuits as an insulator. High levels of fluorine doping lead to formation of volatile SiF2O and such glass is then thermally unstable. Stable layers were achieved with dielectric constant down to about

Glass 3.53.7.[13]

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Amorphous metals
In the past, small batches of amorphous metals with high surface area configurations (ribbons, wires, films, etc.) have been produced through the implementation of extremely rapid rates of cooling. This was initially termed "splat cooling" by doctoral student W. Klement at Caltech, who showed that cooling rates on the order of millions of degrees per second is sufficient to impede the formation of crystals, and the metallic atoms become "locked into" a glassy state. Amorphous metal wires have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk. More recently a number of alloys Samples of amorphous metal, with centimeter have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimeter. scale These are known as bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Liquidmetal Technologies sell a number of titanium-based BMGs. Batches of amorphous steel have also been produced that demonstrate mechanical properties far exceeding those found in conventional steel alloys.[14] [15] [16] In 2004, NIST researchers presented evidence that an isotropic non-crystalline metallic phase (dubbed "q-glass") could be grown from the melt. This phase is the first phase, or "primary phase," to form in the Al-Fe-Si system during rapid cooling. Interestingly, experimental evidence indicates that this phase forms by a first-order transition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the q-glass nucleates from the melt as discrete particles, which grow spherically with a uniform growth rate in all directions. The diffraction pattern shows it to be an isotropic glassy phase. Yet there is a nucleation barrier, which implies an interfacial discontinuity (or internal surface) between the glass and the melt.[17]

Electrolytes
Electrolytes or molten salts are mixtures of different ions. In a mixture of three or more ionic species of dissimilar size and shape, crystallization can be so difficult that the liquid can easily be supercooled into a glass. The best studied example is Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4.

Aqueous solutions
Some aqueous solutions can be supercooled into a glassy state, for instance LiCl:RH2O in the composition range 4<R<8.

Molecular liquids
A molecular liquid is composed of molecules that do not form a covalent network but interact only through weak van der Waals forces or through transient hydrogen bonds. Many molecular liquids can be supercooled into a glass; some are excellent glass formers that normally do not crystallize. A widely known example is sugar glass. Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may exhibit large structural and physical changes which can lead to polyamorphic phase transitions.[18] In 2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide using extreme pressure. The substance was named amorphous carbonia(a-CO2) and exhibits an atomic structure resembling that of silica.[19]

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Colloidal glasses
Concentrated colloidal suspensions may exhibit a distinct glass transition as function of particle concentration or density.[20]

Glass-ceramics
Glass-ceramic materials share many properties with both non-crystalline glass and crystalline ceramics. They are formed as a glass, and then partially crystallized by heat treatment. For example, the microstructure of whiteware ceramics frequently contains both amorphous and crystalline phases. Crystalline grains are often embedded within a non-crystalline intergranular phase of grain boundaries. When applied to whiteware ceramics, vitreous means the material has an extremely low permeability to liquids, often but not always water, when determined by a specified test regime.[21] [22]

A high strength glass-ceramic cooktop with negligible thermal expansion.

The term mainly refers to a mix of lithium and aluminosilicates which yields an array of materials with interesting thermomechanical properties. The most commercially important of these have the distinction of being impervious to thermal shock. Thus, glass-ceramics have become extremely useful for countertop cooking. The negative thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of the crystalline ceramic phase can be balanced with the positive TEC of the glassy phase. At a certain point (~70% crystalline) the glass-ceramic has a net TEC near zero. This type of glass-ceramic exhibits excellent mechanical properties and can sustain repeated and quick temperature changes up to 1000C.[21] [22]

Scratch resistant glass


A recent development is scratch resistant glass for touch screens.

Structure
As in other amorphous solids, the atomic structure of a glass lacks any long range translational periodicity. However, due to chemical bonding characteristics glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect to local atomic polyhedra.[23]

Glass versus supercooled liquid


In physics, the standard definition of a glass (or vitreous solid) is a solid formed by rapid melt quenching.[24] [25] [26] [27] [28] However, the term glass is often used to describe any amorphous solid that exhibits a glass transition temperature Tg. If the cooling is sufficiently rapid (relative to the characteristic crystallization time) then crystallization is prevented and instead the disordered atomic configuration of the supercooled liquid is frozen into the solid state at Tg. Generally, the structure of a glass exists in a metastable state with respect to its crystalline form, although in certain circumstances, for example in atactic polymers, there is no crystalline analogue of the amorphous phase.[29]

The amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2) in two dimensions. No long range order is present, however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of Oxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms.

Glass Glass is an amorphous solid. It exhibits an atomic structure close to that observed in the supercooled liquid phase but displays all the mechanical properties of a solid.[30] [31] The notion that glass flows to an appreciable extent over extended periods of time is not supported by empirical research or theoretical analysis (see viscosity of amorphous materials). Some people consider glass to be a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phase transition[30] [32] where certain thermodynamic variables such as volume, entropy and enthalpy are discontinuous through the glass transition range. However, the glass transition may be described as analogous to a second-order phase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermal expansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous.[33] Despite this, the equilibrium theory of phase transformations does not entirely hold for glass, and hence the glass transition cannot be classed as one of the classical equilibrium phase transformations in solids.[27] [34] Although the atomic structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure in a supercooled liquid, glass tends to behave as a solid below its glass transition temperature.[35] A supercooled liquid behaves as a liquid, but it is below the freezing point of the material, and in some cases will crystallize almost instantly if a crystal is added as a core. The change in heat capacity at a glass transition and a melting transition of comparable materials are typically of the same order of magnitude, indicating that the change in active degrees of freedom is comparable as well. Both in a glass and in a crystal it is mostly only the vibrational degrees of freedom that remain active, whereas rotational and translational motion is arrested. This helps to explain why both crystalline and non-crystalline solids exhibit rigidity on most experimental time scales.

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Behavior of antique glass


The observation that old windows are sometimes found to be thicker at the bottom than at the top is often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a timescale of centuries. The assumption being that the glass was once uniform, but has flowed to its new shape, which is a property of liquid.[36] However, this assumption is incorrect; glass does not flow. The reason for the observation is that in the past, when panes of glass were commonly made by glassblowers, the technique used was to spin molten glass so as to create a round, mostly flat and even plate (the crown glass process, described above). This plate was then cut to fit a window. The pieces were not, however, absolutely flat; the edges of the disk became thicker as the glass spun. When installed in a window frame, the glass would be placed thicker side down both for the sake of stability and to prevent water accumulating in the lead cames at the bottom of the window.[37] Occasionally such glass has been found thinner side down or thicker on either side of the window's edge, the result of carelessness during installation.[38] Mass production of glass window panes in the early twentieth century caused a similar effect. In glass factories, molten glass was poured onto a large cooling table and allowed to spread. The resulting glass is thicker at the location of the pour, located at the center of the large sheet. These sheets were cut into smaller window panes with nonuniform thickness, typically with the location of the pour centred in one of the panes (known as "bull's-eyes") for decorative effect. Modern glass intended for windows is produced as float glass and is very uniform in thickness. Several other points can be considered which contradict the "cathedral glass flow" theory: Writing in the American Journal of Physics, physicist Edgar D. Zanotto states "...the predicted relaxation time for GeO2 at room temperature is 1032 years. Hence, the relaxation period (characteristic flow time) of cathedral glasses would be even longer."[39] (1032 years is many times longer than the estimated age of the Universe.) If medieval glass has flowed perceptibly, then ancient Roman and Egyptian objects should have flowed proportionately more but this is not observed. Similarly, prehistoric obsidian blades should have lost their edge; this is not observed either (although obsidian may have a different viscosity from window glass).[30] If glass flows at a rate that allows changes to be seen with the naked eye after centuries, then the effect should be noticeable in antique telescopes. Any slight deformation in the antique telescopic lenses would lead to a dramatic decrease in optical performance, a phenomenon that is not observed.[30]

Glass There are many examples of centuries-old glass shelving which has not bent, even though it is under much higher stress from gravitational loads than vertical window glass. The above does not apply to materials that have a glass transition temperature close to room temperature, such as certain plastics used in daily life like polystyrene and polypropylene. Over time, they may well show viscoelastic behaviour, and this is a serious concern when applying these materials in construction.

59

Physical properties
Optical properties
Glass is in widespread use largely due to the production of glass compositions that are transparent to visible wavelengths of light. In contrast, polycrystalline materials do not in general transmit visible light.[40] The individual crystallites may be transparent, but their facets (grain boundaries) reflect or scatter light resulting in diffuse reflection. Glass does not contain the internal subdivisions associated with grain boundaries in polycrystals and hence does not scatter light in the same manner as a polycrystalline material. The surface of a glass is often smooth since during glass formation the molecules of the supercooled liquid are not forced to dispose in rigid crystal geometries and can follow surface tension, which imposes a microscopically smooth surface. These properties, which give glass its clearness, can be retained even if glass is partially light-absorbing i.e. colored.[41] Glass has the ability to refract, reflect and transmit light following geometrical optics, without scattering it, and it is used in the manufacture of lenses and windows. Common glass has a refraction index around 1.5. According to Fresnel equations, the reflectivity of a sheet of glass is about 4% per surface (at normal incidence), and its transmissivity about 92%. Glass also finds application in optoelectronics e.g. for light transmitting optical fibres.

Color
Color in glass may be obtained by addition of electrically charged ions (or color centers) that are homogeneously distributed, and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles (such as in photochromic glasses).[42] Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colorless to the naked eye when it is thin, although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0.1 wt%[43] produce a green tint which can be viewed in thick pieces or Common soda-lime float glass appears green in with the aid of scientific instruments. Further FeO and Cr2O3 additions thick sections because of Fe2+ impurities. may be used for the production of green bottles. Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost black.[44] A glass melt can also acquire an amber color from a reducing combustion atmosphere. Manganese dioxide can be added in small amounts to remove the green tint given by iron(II) oxide.

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Glass art
. From the 19th century, various types of fancy glass started to become significant branches of the decorative arts. Cameo glass was revived for the first time since the Romans, initially mostly used for pieces in a neo-classical style. The Art Nouveau movement in particular made great use of glass, with Ren Lalique, mile Gall, and Daum of Nancy important names in the first French wave of the movement, producing colored vases and similar pieces, often in cameo glass, and also using lustre techniques. Louis Comfort Tiffany in America specialized in secular stained glass, mostly of plant subjects, both in panels and his famous lamps. From the 20th century, some glass artists began to class themselves as in effect sculptors working in glass, and as part of the fine arts. Several of the most common techniques for producing glass art include: blowing, kiln-casting, fusing, slumping, pate-de-verre, flame-working, hot-sculpting and cold-working. Cold work includes traditional stained glass work as well as other methods of shaping glass at room temperature. Glass can also be cut with a diamond saw, or copper wheels embedded with abrasives, and polished to give gleaming facets; the technique used in creating Waterford crystal.[45] Art is sometimes etched into glass via the use of acid, caustic, or abrasive substances. Traditionally this was done after the glass was blown or cast. In the 1920s a new mould-etch process was invented, in which art was etched directly into the mould, so that each cast piece emerged from the mould with the image already on the surface of the glass. This reduced manufacturing costs and, combined with a wider use of colored glass, led to cheap glassware in the 1930s, which later became known as Depression glass.[46] As the types of acids used in this process are extremely hazardous, abrasive methods have gained popularity. Another technique is devitrification. Objects made out of glass include not only traditional objects such as vessels (bowls, vases, bottles, and other containers), paperweights, marbles, beads, but an endless range of sculpture and installation art as well. Colored glass is often used, though sometimes the glass is painted, innumerable examples exist of the use of stained glass.

A vase being created at the Reijmyre glassworks, Sweden

Paperweight with items inside the glass, Corning Museum of Glass

Museums

Apart from historical collections in general museums, modern works of art in glass can be seen in a variety of museums, including the Chrysler Museum, the Museum of Glass in Tacoma, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Toledo Museum of Art, and Corning Museum of Glass, in Corning, NY, which houses the world's largest collection of glass art and history, with more than 45,000 objects in its collection.[47]

A glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly, The Sun at the Gardens of Glass exhibition in Kew Gardens, London. The piece is 13 feet (4 metres) high and made from 1000 separate glass objects.

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The Harvard Museum of Natural History has a collection of extremely detailed models of flowers made of painted glass. These were lampworked by Leopold Blaschka and his son Rudolph, who never revealed the method he used to make them. The Blaschka Glass Flowers are still an inspiration to glassblowers today.[48]

References
[1] "Glass Online: The History of Glass" (http:/ / www. glassonline. com/ infoserv/ history. html). . Retrieved 2010-09-30. [2] Douglas, R. W. (1972). A history of glassmaking. Henley-on-Thames: G T Foulis & Co Ltd. ISBN0854291172. [3] M. I. Ojovan (2004), "Glass Formation in Amorphous SiO2 as a Percolation Phase Transition in a System of Network Defects" (http:/ / www. shef. ac. uk/ content/ 1/ c6/ 02/ 92/ 47/ glassform. pdf), JETP Letters 79: 632-634, Bibcode2004JETPL..79..632O, doi:10.1134/1.1790021, [4] B. H. W. S. de Jong, "Glass"; in "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; 5th edition, vol. A12, VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1989, ISBN 3-527-20112-5, pp. 365432. [5] Heinz G. Pfaender (1996). Schott guide to glass (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=v5q4Hje3iFgC& pg=PA135). Springer. pp.135, 186. ISBN9780412620607. . Retrieved 8 February 2011. [6] http:/ / www. siliconwafers. net/ optical-glass. htm Properties of optical glasses [7] "PFG Glass" (http:/ / www. pfg. co. za/ about glass. htm). Pfg.co.za. . Retrieved 2009-10-24. [8] "Glass melting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory" (http:/ / depts. washington. edu/ mti/ 1999/ labs/ glass_ceramics/ mst_glass. html). Depts.washington.edu. . Retrieved 2009-10-24. [9] Alexander Fluegel. "Glass melting in the laboratory" (http:/ / glassproperties. com/ melting/ ). Glassproperties.com. . Retrieved 2009-10-24. [10] Greer, A. Lindsay; Mathur, N (2005). "Materials science: Changing face of the chameleon". Nature 437 (7063): 12461247. Bibcode2005Natur.437.1246G. doi:10.1038/4371246a. PMID16251941. A display at Canberra Glassworks, Australia Glass tiles mosaic (detail).

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Glass Encyclopedia A comprehensive guide to all types of antique and collectable glass, with information, pictures and references (http://www.20thcenturyglass.com/glass_encyclopedia_home.htm) The Canadian Museum of Civilization The Story of Glass Making in Canada (http://www.civilisations.ca/ cmc/exhibitions/hist/verre/vemak01e.shtml) Corning Museum of Glass (http://www.cmog.org/) "How Your Glass Ware Is Made" (http://books.google.com/books?id=pCEDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA61& dq=popular+science+1951+car+lights+flash&hl=en&ei=Z7fCTPTtJsLYnAeTxryECg&sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=true) by George W. Waltz, February 1951, Popular Science

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Yamamoto Ichiro, Yekrats, Yosri, Yskyflyer, Yurik, YusrSehl, Yuyudevil, Yvwv, Z2trillion, Z8, ZZninepluralZalpha, Zack Howes, Zaereth, Zaphod-Swe, Zerida, Zidonuke, Zombaid, Zzyzx11, , , 1731 anonymous edits

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:Stsheat.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stsheat.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Cwbm (commons), Huntster, Kozuch, Turbojet, Wikier, 1 anonymous edits Image:Si3N4bearings.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Si3N4bearings.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: David W. Richerson and Douglas W. Freitag; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (federal lab.) 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http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chlorine_attack1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Peterlewis Image:Ozone cracks in tube1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ozone_cracks_in_tube1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Peterlewis File:Plywood.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plywood.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Original uploader was Rotor DB at en.wikipedia File:Fiber-reinforced composites tipology.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fiber-reinforced_composites_tipology.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Aushulz Image:Moldavite Besednice.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Moldavite_Besednice.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: User:Vesta File:Roman diatretglas.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Roman_diatretglas.jpg License: unknown Contributors: 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Original uploader was Afluegel at de.wikipedia

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:Glass worker, Reijmyre glasbruk, Sweden.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Glass_worker,_Reijmyre_glasbruk,_Sweden.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: User:Jake73 Image:Paperweight, Corning Museum of Glass.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paperweight,_Corning_Museum_of_Glass.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alexander Fluegel Image:Glass.sculpture.kewgardens.london.arp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Glass.sculpture.kewgardens.london.arp.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arpingstone, Bridesmill, Gerardus, Man vyi, WereSpielChequers, Yarl File:Hakatai mosaic glass tile mural.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hakatai_mosaic_glass_tile_mural.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Hakatai File:GlassworksCanb.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GlassworksCanb.jpg License: Creative Commons Zero Contributors: User:Photnart

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/