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PRESENT PERFECT

O present perfect uma forma verbal muito comum na lngua inglesa. usado principalmente para aes
passadas que tenham ainda alguma ligao com o tempo presente.
verb have + present participle of main verb
I have studied German for three years.
He has gone shopping.
Para a sentena I have worked hard these days, h em portugus as seguintes possveis tradues:
Trabalhei muito nesses dias.
Estou trabalhando muito ultimamente [nesses dias].
Tenho trabalhado muito nesses dias.
Usamos o present perfect:
quando no h referncia temporal precisa quanto ao passado;
quando um fato teve incio no passado e continua at o presente, em especial com as palavras for e since;
quando o perodo especificado segue vigente;
quando o fato ocorreu recentemente;
em relatos de noticirios;
em situaes que acabaram de acontecer;
com os time markers ever never already still yet recently lately;
quando usamos a expresso de superlativo: this is the best the most fantastic etc.
Examples:
Mary hasnt been to Paris [indefinite time].
They have lived in Salvador since 1997 [time words].
I havent had a vacation this year [unfinished time period].
Argentine president has launched a new economic plan [giving news].
She has just left the room [time words].
This is the most fantastic fi lm I have ever seen [personal experience].
This is the third time I watch Ghost [personal experience].

PRESENT PERFECT X SIMPLE PAST


A diferena principal entre esses dois tempos que:
o passado simples refere-se s ocasies especficas no passado.
o presente perfeito no especifica o tempo da ao.
- I went there last year [estive l ano passado].
- I have been there three times [estive l 3 vezes].
, sobretudo, o uso do presente perfeito com time markers already / yet que confundimos com o uso
do pretritoperfeito em portugus.
I have already seen that film [j vi aquele filme].
Have you seen it yet? [Voc j o viu?]
Exercises
1.Complete the sentences with the present perfect:
(Complete as frases com o presente perfeito)
a) we_______________________(to travel) to Miami .
b) I ____________________( not to go) to office.
c) She ____________________( always to see) her family.
d) ____________they____________(to walk) to square?
2. Use the adverbs in parentheses:
(Use os advrbios em parnteses)
a)they have taken this train.(never)
__________________________________________________________
b) have you seen this film?( ever)
__________________________________________________________
c) I have read a newspaper.( always)
__________________________________________________________
d) she hasnt talked to me.( yet)

___________________________________________________________

3.Use: since or for in the sentences below.


a) she has studied here _______________ 2000.
b) They have been married ________________ five years.
c) My brother has lived in New York ____________ 1999.
d) Elaine has worked at Gerdau _______________ so many years.
4. Formulate 5 questions and answers with ``Have you ever..?``
a. ________________________________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________________________________
c.________________________________________________________________________
d.________________________________________________________________________
e. _______________________________________________________________________

5. Write 8 sentences in Present Perfect ( contracted- affirmative and negative).


____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Choose one of the following Relative Clauses who, which or that to complete the sentences.

1) Mr Richards, _______ is a taxi driver, lives on the corner.


3) We often visit our aunt in Norwich _________ is in East Anglia.
4) This is the girl _______comes from Spain.
5) That's Peter, the boy ________has just arrived at the airport.
6) Thank you very much for your e-mail ________ was very interesting.