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ABSTRACT

Google Chrome OS is a Linux operating system designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. It is intended to focus on Web applications while running a fast and simple interface, based off Google's existing Chrome browser. Google announced the operating system on July 7, 2009 and made it an open source project, called Chromium OS, that November. Unlike Chromium OS, which can be compiled from the downloaded source code, Chrome OS will only ship on specific hardware from Googles manufacturing partners. The user interface takes a minimalist approach, resembling that of the Chrome web browser. Because Google Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Internet, the only application on the device will be a browser incorporating a media player. Google Chrome OS is initially intended for secondary devices like net books, not as a user's primary PC, and will run on hardware incorporating an x86 or ARM-based processor. Chrome OS as a "hardened" operating system featuring auto-updating and sandbox features that will reduce malware exposure. Google claimed that Chrome OS would be the most secure consumer operating system due in part to a verified boot capability, in which the initial boot code, stored in read-only memory, checks for system compromises. Companies working with Google to develop hardware for the operating system include Acer, Adobe, Asus, Free scale, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, Toshiba, Intel, Samsung, and Dell.

Chapter - 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview This Seminar on Google Chrome Operating System discusses the features, capabilities and functioning of the Google Chrome Operating System, along with its divergence from a typical Operating System covering its expected advantages and setbacks. The new operating system, aptly named Google Chrome OS, will be a Linux-based, open-source operating system initially geared toward notebooks. The Chrome OS, originally planned for release in the second half of 2010 and currently slated for release in early 2011, is mostly just the Chrome browser running on top of a very lightweight Linux base. It is intended to focus on Web applications while running a fast and simple interface, based off Google's existing Chrome browser. Speed, simplicity and security are the key aspects of Google Chrome OS.Quite suitably; this Seminar involves major discussions on how it is a concept for a very portable and low cost "cloud" terminal. This also explains how and why the operating system is the browser and how it behaves like a browser, in the case of this unique Operating System 1.2 Google Chrome Os Google Chrome OS is an upcoming Linux-based, open source operating system designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. Chrome OS will not be available as a download to run and install. Instead, the operating system will only ship on specific hardware from Google's manufacturing partners. On account of the cloud concept, the weightlessness feature is a plus under this OS, which implies virtually no data storage hassles. Also, it is heavily web-centric, considering the fact that the operating system uses a high speed internet connection facility. Chrome OS has a few

more unique features, the most useful of which are panels, which can be best described as drawers that hang around the bottom of the screen. Security maintenance is a major growing concern in every industry, and Google Chrome OS splendidly provides a great security cover to its user. Chrome OS's security infrastructure is so designed, that users don't have to deal with viruses, malware and security updates. Google Chrome OS will run on both x86 as well as ARM chips and multiple OEMs are being worked with, to bring a number of notebooks to market next year. future of web-only computing.
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Google offers its users, a

Chapter 2

FEATURES EXPLORED
2.1 Basic Features 2.1.1 Speed Speed is an unsaid feature of the Google Chrome OS. With Google Chromes tremendous booting speed and more, users have a lot to say about experiencingwitlessness.witlessness, in Googles terms, means never having to wait for the web. Chrome notebooks boot in about 10 seconds and resume from sleep instantly. Websites load quickly and run smoothly, with full support for the latest web standards and Adobe Flash. The web evolves rapidly. Your Chrome notebook evolves with it. Every time you turn it on, it upgrades itself with the latest features and fixes. Annoying update prompts not included The portion of the operating system needed to operate the device will reside in a read-only section of memory. The rest of the operating system is integrated with the Chrome browser and, like the browser, security updates require nothing more than a reboot. Chrome OS can run multiple Web applications in multiple tabs and each one is locked down from all others, so vulnerability in one Web app can't lead to exposure in another 2.1.2 Quick Booting The Chrome operating system is designed to allow computers to boot up to the Web within seconds, onto a home screen that looks like that of a Web browser. Chrome OS boots up in mere seconds. In these precious seconds, Chrome OS scans critical parts of the OS to make sure they have not been modified 2.1.3 Simplicity Basic user interface and features lend simplicity to the Google Chrome OS, making user interaction easier and adaptable. 2.1.4 Ultimate Security The most fascinating and intriguing features presented by the Google Chrome OS is Security Maintenance. Chrome OS is the first operating system designed to counter security threats. It uses the principle of defense in depth to provide multiple layers of protection, so if any one layer is bypassed, others are still in effect.

2.1.5 Sandboxing On the Chrome notebook, each web page and application visited runs in a restricted environment called an sandbox. So if you visit an infected page, it cant affect the other tabs or apps on your computer, or anything else on your machine. The threat is contained. Google expands its

security by running each tab through a dedicated sandbox. These sandboxes have no access to hard drive. This means the browsing is separated from the other areas of the system; this gives a total security from malware intrusion in to the hard drive. 2.1.6 Verified Boot Even if malware manages to escape the sandbox, the Chrome notebook is still protected. Every time the computer is booted, it does a self check called Verified Boot. If it detects that the system has been tampered with, or corrupted in any way, typically it will repair itself. 2.1.7 Data Encryption When you use web apps on your Chrome notebook, all the users documents are stored safely in the cloud. But certain kinds of files, like downloads, cookies, and browser cache files, may still be present on the computer. The Chrome notebook encrypts all this data using tamper- resistant hardware, making it very difficult for anyone to access those files. 2.1.8 Continuous Update The web evolves rapidly. Your Chrome notebook evolves with it. Every time you turn it on, it upgrades itself with the latest features and fixes. Annoying update prompts not included. 2.1.9 Printing Google plans to create a service called Google Cloud Print, which will help any application any device to print on any printer. This method of printing does not require any drivers and therefore will be suitable for printing from Google Chrome OS. Mike Jazeera, Google group product manager, wrote that the service was prompted by a paradox inherent in an operating system designed expressly for cloud computing. While the cloud provides virtually any connected device with information access, the task of "developing and maintaining print subsystems for every combination of hardware and operating system-- from desktops to notebooks to mobile devices -- simply isn't feasible. The service would entail installing a piece of software, called a proxy, as part of Chrome OS. The proxy would register the printer with the service, manage the print jobs and give status alerts for each job.

2.1.10 Use of Cloud Users of devices running Chrome will have to perform all their computing online or in the cloud, without downloading traditional software applications like iTunes and Microsoft Office, or storing files on hard drives. Devices running Chrome will receive continuous software updates, providing added security, and most user data will reside on Googles servers. User data stored on the device, which is minimal, is encrypted. User data is limited to items such as user preferences. All other data will be stored in the cloud. User preferences will also be synched to a cloud account, so like any thin client. Should you lose the device, you would merely log in from another one and your data and preferences should be there. Googles Chrome OS, is designed to be a very fast, lightweight flavor of Linux that will be available on some notebooks and other PCs by the end of the year. Google hopes to achieve this small footprint and high performance by shipping an OS with only one installed program their own Chrome browser. Users would work, live, and save things online, using Googles own cloud computing services and other similar utilities, like Microsofts Office Web Apps. This is of course a shift from todays computing environment, where most programs are installed locally on the computers hard drive. 2.1.11 Minimal User Interface The user interface is minimal to stay out of your way, and most of the user experience takes place on the web. Google is going back to the basics and completely redesigning the underlying security architecture of the OS so that users don't have to deal with viruses, malware and security updates. 2.1.12 Same Experience Everywhere All of the users apps, documents, and settings are stored safely in the cloud. So even if the computer is misplaced, data can be recovered through another Chrome notebook and worked upon as efficiently and with ease. 2.2 Cloud Computing Cloud Computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to clientserver in the early 1980s. Details are abstracted from the users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. Cloud computing
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describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves over the Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through common centers and built on servers. Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs 2.3 Netbook Net books (sometimes also called mini notebooks or ultra-portables) are a branch of

subnotebooks, a rapidly evolving category of small, lightweight, and inexpensive laptop computers suited for general computing and accessing Web-based applications; they are often marketed as "companion devices", i.e. At their inception in late 2007 as smaller notebooks optimized for low weight and low cost notebooks omitted certain features, featured smaller screens and keyboards, and offered reduced specification and computing power. Over the course of their evolution, notebooks have ranged in size from below 5" screen diagonal to over 11.6". A typical weight is 1 kg. Often significantly less expensive than other laptops, by mid- 2009, some wireless data carriers began to offer notebooks to users "free of charge", with an extended service contract purchase.

Chapter - 3

THE CHROME DESIGN AND INTERFACE


3.1 The Basics Design goals for Google Chrome OS's user interface include using minimal screen space by combining applications and standard Web pages into a single tab strip, rather than separating the two. Designers are considering a reduced window management scheme that would operate only in full-screen mode. Secondary tasks would be handled with "panels": floating windows that dock to the bottom of the screen for tasks like chat and music players. Split screens are also under consideration for viewing two pieces of content side-by-side. Google Chrome OS will follow the Chrome browser's practice of leveraging HTML5's offline modes, background processing, and notifications. Designers propose using search and pinned tabs as a way to quickly locate and access applications.

Fig: 3.1 Basic designs of Google chrome os Design goals for Google Chrome OS's user interface include using minimal screen space by combining applications and standard Web pages into a single tab strip, rather than separating the two. Designers are considering a reduced window management scheme that would operate only in full-screen mode. Secondary tasks would be handled with "panels": floating windows

That dock to the bottom of the screen for tasks like chat and music players. Split screens are also under consideration for viewing two pieces of content side-by-side. Google Chrome Swill follows the Chrome browser's practice of leveragingHTML5s offline modes, background processing, and notifications. Designers propose using search and pinned tabs as a way to quickly locate and access applications. 3.2 Windows, Tabs and Panels The interface of Chrome is currently composed of three types of views: windows, tabs, and panels. However, this interface is likely to change quite a bit over the coming year, as the open source community contributes new code to the project. Applications, which are essentially just Web pages, live in tabs, just as they do in most browsers now. In Chrome OS, there are two kinds of tabs: page tabs and application tabs. Application tabs are intended to give users quick access to the Web apps they use most, and any page can be made into an application tab with one click. Application tabs remain persistent at the left of the tabs bar, while ordinary page tabs behave just as they do in current browsers. Tabs live in windows, which on the Chrome OS are more similar to Linux-style virtual workspaces. You can drag and drop page and application tabs from one window to another to group them according to any organization scheme you like. The final view is the panel, which is a persistent window that can contain a variety of applications. To demonstrate this, Pichai opened up Contacts and Notepad--two apps included with Chrome OS--in panel views, which sit in the lower-right area of the screen. This view is intended to allow users to interact with specific files or Web content while still viewing another page or app in the main window. Content created in panel apps is instantly shared with the rest of the Google apps, as demonstrated by a bit of sample text being entered into the Notepad panel, and then immediately opened in Google Docs. Other uses for the panel view include searching for music and playing songs or videos in a smaller view during the course of Web browsing. As with documents, these panels can be quickly opened into a tab or full-screen. The design would include the same basic layout as on netbooks, but with a touch interface; an onscreen QWERTY keyboard in different layouts; large, square icons placed above the tabs; and panels placed along the bottom edge that could be opened with an upward dragging motion.

3.3 The Three Tier Architecture Google describes three-tier architecture: firmware, browser and window manager, and system-level software and user-land services. The firmware contributes to fast boot time by not probing for hardware, such as floppy disk drives, that are no longer common on computers, especially netbooks. The firmware also contributes to security by verifying each step in the boot process and incorporating system recovery. System-level software includes the Linux kernel that has been patched to improve boot performance. User land software has been trimmed to essentials, with management by Upstart, which can launch services in parallel, re-spawn crashed jobs, and defer services in the interest of faster booting. The window manager handles user interaction with multiple client windows much like other X Window managers. 3.4 Form Factors Exploration While its primary focus is netbooks, Chrome OS could eventually scale to a wide variety of devices. Each would have vastly different input methods, available screen space, and processing power. Below is an illustration of the forms we are considering along with notes for each.

Fig: 3.2 Different form factors

Netbook 10-12" Because of their small screen resolution, the netbook us is tailored to one web page on the screen at a time. Interaction is primarily via mouse and keyboard, and the UI is adapted to this, with primary targets distributed along the screen edges. Panels would dock against the bottom of the screen and could be moved to the sides as well. Full Screen, Compact/Classic/Sidebar UI Omni box may auto hide on devices with limited vertical height Docking panels Tabs and Windows

Fig: 3.3 Netbook 10-12 Tablet 5-10 On tablets, the UI would be adjusted to handle larger touch targets. Initial explorations have maintained the same basic chrome layout, but enlarged the controls. Icons could be placed above tabs to provide larger, square targets. Panels would be placed along the bottom edge and could be opened with upward dragging motions. Full screen, Touch UI Docking panels Touch panel UI Tabs only High-res display Visual explorations

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Fig: 3.4 Tablet 5-10 Laptop 15-17" On laptop-sized devices, full screen mode is not suitable for most web pages. At this point we would re-introduce multiple windows on screen, using either overlapping or tiling windowing systems. Panels would now be able to dock to edges or float freely on the screen. Windowed, Classic UI Overlapping or tiled window management Floating or docking panels

Fig: 3.5 Laptop15-17" Desktop 24-30" The desktop UI is similar to the laptop UI, but benefits more from freely positioned windows and access points near the cursor Other potential enhancements include magnetic windows/panels that can be moved around with each other to create workspaces. Windowed, Classic UI Overlapping window managemen Floating or docking panels

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Fig: 3.6 desktop 24-30

3.5 UI Elements
3.5.1 Form Controls The base UI elements in Chrome OS are styled after the default form controls. Any CSS changes are applied to this base, rather than causing a dramatic change from a native widget to a CSS one. Default button style is a simple white to gray gradient

Fig: 3.7 Form control Buttons


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3.5.2 Menus Menus use the same gradient with a stronger drop shadow. When possible, they are displayed attached to their source.

Fig: 3.8 Drop shadow options in Menus 3.5.3 Scroll Bars Scroll bar options: Transient scroll indicators Wave-style scroll widgets Rollover scroll bars (when you press screen edge

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Standard scroll bar Reflective scroll bar

Fig: 3.9 Different types of scroll bars 3.5.4 Cursors

Fig: 3.10 Different types of Cursors

Future directions: Resolution Independent cursors Black with white outline (for contrast) Movement in Z space when clicking Pulse emitted when you shake

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3.6

Panels

Panels in Chromium OS are used as containers that allow a user to multitask without leaving the view of their current application. For example, with a music player and chat in panels, a user can control the playback of their music and chat with a friend while watching a video or reading a long document in their main view. This is one of Chrome OS's true innovations: For things like IM and Notifications, these small windows remain on top of the main browsing window. Window manager interactions Panels are always-on-top, and are not attached to a specific window. New panels open to the left of existing panels. Open behavior Panels are minimized and maximized by clicking on their title bar. When minimized, a panel is shifted so that only a few pixels of its title bar are visible on-screen (this is the 'minimized' state). When the user's mouse hits the bottom edge of the screen, any minimized panels slide up to reveal the text in their title bars (this is the 'peeking' state). Clicking on these title bars will restore the panel to its original size. If a panel is restored with the mouse cursor at the bottom edge of the screen, a widget will appear under the user's mouse cursor that will minimize the panel when clicked. The widget disappears as soon as the user's mouse moves away from the edge. This allows users to quickly open and close panels

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Fig: 3.11 Open behaviors of Panels Auto-arrange Panels are right-aligned, and automatically arrange themselves in order to not overlap. If a user drags a panel to the left away from the main group of panels, it is pushed to the left of all auto-arranged panels until the user explicitly reorders it into the auto arranged set. It will attempt to hold the defined position until it is pushed out of the way.

Fig: 3.12 Auto Arrange behaviors of Panels


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3.7 Pinned Tabs Many users of existing browsers keep their 'primary' tabs to the left of their tab-strip. This allows easy access to commonly used applications that users keep open all the time. Others use bookmarks to quickly access their favorite apps without leaving them open, though bookmarks will replace their current window which may be undesirable. Pinned tabs are an acknowledgement of both of these behaviors:

Any tab can be converted into a 'pinned tab' where it shrinks to the size of its favicon, and remains locked to the left of the tab-strip Any external link opened from a pinned tab will be opened outside of the group of pinned tabs, ensuring that the group remains consistently accessible Applications open with the pinned tabs automatically, and pinned tabs are removed when they are closed

Pinned tabs remain available across sessions, allowing users to always access their favorite apps from a consistent location. Pinned tabs can be created via contextual menu, dragging a tab to the pinned area, or opening an application

Fig: 3.13 Pinned tabs

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3.8 Chrome and Window Manager The window manager is responsible for handling the user's interaction with multiple client windows. It does this in a manner similar to that of other X window managers, by controlling window placement, assigning the input focus, and exposing hotkeys that exist outside the scope of a single browser window. Parts of the ICCCM (Inter-Client Communication Conventions Manual) and EWHM (Extended Window Manager Hints) specifications are used for communication between clients and the window manager where possible.

Fig: 3.14 Communication b/w window manager and Clients 3.9 Remote Application Access In June 2010, Google software engineer Gary Kamark wrote that Chrome OS will access remote applications through a technology unofficially called "Chromoting", which would resemble Microsoft's Remote Desktop Connection. The name has since been changed to "removing," and is "probably closer to running an application via Terminal Services or by first connecting to a host machine by using RDP or VNC." 3.10 Chrome OS Versus Browser Google Chrome OS is to Chromium OS what Google Chrome browser is to Chromium. Chromium OS is the open source project, used primarily by developers, with code that is available for anyone to checkout, modify and build their own version with. Meanwhile, Google Chrome OS is the Google product that OEMs will ship on Netbooks next year.

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Chrome Window Features


WIndow Frame | Tabs | Throbber | Toolbar | Omnibox Browsing Bookmarks | History | New Tab Page Additional UI Downloads | Status Bubble | Find in Page | Options | Incognito Notifications | Infobars | Multiple Profiles Appearance Visual Design | Resolution Independence | Themes Accessibility Keyboard Access | Low-Vision Support | Screen reader support

Chrome OS Features
Note: UI under development. Designs are subject to change. Primary UI Window UI Variations | Window Management | Pinned Tabs | Apps Menu | Panels UI Elements | Gestures | System Status Icons Core Applications Notifications | Settings | Content Browser | Open/Save Dialogs | Shelf Devices Form Factors | Resolution

Independence

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Chapter 4

HARDWARE AND COMPATIBILITY


4.1 Cr-48 Prototype Hardware The Cr-48 notebook was released by Google, as a piece of reference hardware created to test the Chrome OS operating system. The Cr-48 is the test notebook designed for the Pilot program. The Cr-48 is intended for testing only, and will not be sold to the general public. Google also

addressed complaints that the operating system offers little functionality when the host device is not connected to the Internet. The company demonstrated an offline version of Google Docs

running on Chrome OS and announced a 3G plan that would give Chrome OS users 100 MB of free data each month, with additional paid plans available from Verizon. Google's Cr-48 prototype "met the basic requirements for Web surfing, gaming, and personal productivity, but falls short for more intensive tasks". 4.2 Hardware Support and Compatibility Chrome OS is based on the open-source Chromium OS. Google Chrome OS will run on both x86 as well as ARM chips and we are working with multiple OEMs to bring a number of netbooks to market next year. The software architecture is simple Google Chrome running within a new windowing system on top of a Linux kernel. For application developers, the web is the platform. While Chrome OS will support hard disk drives, Google has requested that its hardware partners use solid-state drives due to their higher performance and reliability, as well as the lower capacity requirements inherent in an operating system that accesses applications and most user data on remote servers. All web-based applications will automatically work and new applications can be written using your favorite web technologies. And of course, these apps will run not only on Google. Chrome OS, but on any standards-based browser on Windows, Mac and Linux thereby giving developers the largest user base of any platform. The Google chrome OS will run on will run on hardware incorporating an x86 or ARM-based processor. The solid-state drives are the drives primarily supported by the OS for speed and reliability issues but hard disk drives will also be supported. It is expected to consume onesixtieth as much drive space as Windows 7.
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Google Chrome OS is initially intended for secondary devices like netbooks, not a user's primary PC, and will run on hardware incorporating an x86 or ARM processor and a solid state drive. Google favors solid state drives over hard disk drives because the former provide faster boot-up times and the latter's higher capacity isn't essential for an operating system

that accesses applications and most user data on remote servers. In addition, Google Chrome OS consumes 60 times less drive space than Windows 7. Companies developing hardware for the operating system include Hewlett-Packard, Acer, Adobe, Asus, and Lenovo, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, Free scale and Intel.

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Chapter 5

CHROMIUM OS
5.1 The Basics Google Chrome and Chromium are the same OS. Except operating system can be extended by anyone. for the fact that the Chromium

Because the official Chrome OS has not been

released, Google Chromium is basically the advanced version. This does not necessarily mean it is the best version, it simply means that it includes the most up-to-date features and specifications. Because the Chromium operating system is up-to-date, it means that some of the more important Google OS characteristics will be fixed and expanded. The Chromium OS is basically a test environment for Google developers, which means it, can be quite buggy and problematic. 5.2 User Interface Chromium OS uses the new: tab page found in Google Chrome to open web apps. Compared to prior builds, this replaces the applications page. Chromium OS provides a clock, battery indicator and network status indicator. The F8 function key toggles a keyboard overlay that shows the function of all the shortcut keys used in Chromium, including task and memory managers also found in the Chrome browser, and a command-line interface that accepts common Linux commands. 5.3 Architecture In preliminary design documents, Google describes a three-tier architecture: firmware, web browser and window manager, and system-level software and user land services. The firmware contributes to fast boot time by not probing for hardware, such as floppy disk drives, that are no longer common on computers, especially netbooks. The firmware also contributes to security by verifying each step in the boot process and incorporating system recovery. System-level software includes the Linux kernel that has been patched to improve boot performance. User land software has been trimmed to essentials, with management by Upstart, which can launch services in parallel, re-spawn crashed jobs, and defer services in the interest of faster booting.

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The window manager handles user interaction with multiple client windows much like other X WIndow managers. 5.4 Software Architecture Chromium OS (the basis of Chrome OS) consists of three major components: The Chromium-based browser and the window manager System-level software and user-land services: the kernel, drivers, connection manager, and soon Firmware

Fig: 5.1 High level designs System-level and user-land software From here we bring in the Linux kernel, drivers, and user-land daemons. Our kernel is mostly stock except for a handful of patches that we pull in to improve boot performance. On the userland side of things we have streamlined the in it process so that we're only running services that are critical. All of the user-land services are managed by Upstart. By using Upstart we are able to start services in parallel, re-spawn jobs that crash, and defer services to make boot faster. Here's a quick list of things that we depend on: D-Bus: The browser uses D-Bus to interact with the rest of the system. Examples of this include the battery meter and network picker. Connection Manager: Provides a common API for interacting with the network devices, provides a DNS proxy, and manages network services for 3G, wireless, and Ethernet. WPA Supplicant: Used to connect to wireless networks.

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Auto-update: Our auto-update daemon silently installs new system images. Power Management: (ACPI on Intel) Handles power management events like closing the lid or pushing the power button. xscreensaver: Handles screen locking when the machine is idle. Standard Linux services: NTP, syslog, and cron.

Fig: 5.2 Snapshot of xscreensaver Firmware ; The firmware plays a key part to make booting the OS faster and more secure. To achieve this goal we are removing unnecessary components and adding support for verifying each step in the boot process. We are also adding support for system recovery into the firmware itself. We can avoid the complexity that's in most PC irmware because we don't have to be backwards compatible with a large amount of legacy hardware. For example, we don't have to probe for floppy drives. The firmware will implement the following functionality: Systemrecovery: The recovery firmware can re-install Chromium OS in the event that the system has become corrupt or compromised. Verified boot: Each time the system boots, Chromium OS verifies that the firmware, kernel, and system image have not been tampered with or become corrupt. This process starts in the firmware.
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Fastboot: We have improved boot performance by removing a lot of complexity that is normally found in PC firmware.

Fig: 5.3 Chrome and the window manager 5.4 Chrome OS Versus Chromium OS Google Chrome OS is to Chromium OS what Google Chrome browser is to Chromium. Chromium OS is the open source project, used primarily by developers, with code that is available for anyone to checkout, modify, and build. Google Chrome OS is the Google product that OEMs will ship on Netbooks this year.Some specific differences: The two projects fundamentally share the same code base, but Google Chrome OS has some additional firmware features, including verified boot and easy recovery, which require corresponding hardware changes and thus also don't work in Chromium OS builds. Google Chrome OS runs on specially optimized hardware in order to get enhanced performance and security.Chromium OS does not auto-update (so that changes you may have made to the code are not blown away), whereas Google Chrome OS seamlessly auto-updates so that users have the latest and greatest features and fixes.Google Chrome OS is supported by Google and its partners; Chromium OS is supported by the open source community.

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Chapter 6

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT GOOGLE CHROME OS


6.1 Green Flag For Chrome OS The main advantage of Chrome OS is that it is free. Microsofts Windows 7 is reported to cost netbook makers at least $45 per computer. Even if Microsoft is forced to cut the price to the $25 level that it has been charging netbook makers for its ancient Windows XP system, a Chrome netbook may well be in stores for $30 to $50 less than an equivalent Windows machine.The price point of Chrome OS devices would be low-cost at around the same price as current generation netbooks. Those prices are completely determined, by the way, by the costs of the glass, the costs of the processor and things like that, but in our case Chrome OS and Android are free so there is no software tax associated with all of this.Google also says that Chrome will be faster to start, easier to use and more secure than Windows. Well have to see about that. So far the other versions of Linux sold on netbooks have confounded users, who have largely rejected them in favor of Windows machines. Chrome OS will be optimized for one thing: accessing the Web. But in Googles view of the world, anything you would ever want to do reading your e-mail, writing documents, playing games can be done through browsers. The latest browser standard, HTML 5, has technology that allows Web sites to store information on your computer, so you can keep writing your novel even when you are on the airplane. The premise is that in a world where computers are connected to the Internet almost all the time, your computer doesnt need to do that much. 6.2 Google Chrome OS Achieves People want to get to their e-mail instantly, without wasting time waiting for their computers to boot and browsers to start up. They want their computers to always run as fast as when they first bought them. They want their data to be accessible to them wherever they are and not have to worry about losing their computer or forgetting to back up files. Even more importantly, they dont want to spend hours configuring their computers to work with every new piece of hardware, or have to worry about constant software updates.

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There is a tiny little downside here: no local software. Browsers dont yet do everything, and there are two decades of Windows applications that have been written, performing functions that cant yet be replicated in a browser. If you want to load music onto your iPod, for example, you need a computer that runs iTunes. Web sites often require programs to run alongside the browser, like Adobes Acrobat viewer. Even Google writes Windows programs for its Picasa photo editing product and Google Earth 3-D mapping system.But over time, more and more functions can be moved onto Web sites.

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CONCLUSIONS
No discussion of cloud operating systems is complete without a mention of Google's Chrome OS. While it is certainly not the first cloud operating system created, it is what has brought the concept to the attention of many.There is a major twist to the story of Google Chrome OS though, as was revealed in a conversation between Ars and Google. In this discussion what Google said clarified the position of Chrome OS as an OS for specialized internet surfing devices, not personal computers.Imagine this, a company unveils a new operating system for the sole purpose of playing games. An operating system is optimized for the heavy multimedia requirements of such a task. What if then, later on they also reveal that the OS will only be available on special devices which are optimized for same purpose? What do you get? A gaming console of course! The idea of a gaming computers seems slightly ridiculous for the masses, surely everyone can't possibly like it. That however is the point; it is not for everyone but just those who enjoy gaming. In much the same way the operating system which runs on the PS3 wouldn't be considered a replacement OS for your desktop, Chrome OS is not a replacement OS either. It is instead an OS for a brand new category of devices. As an OS for a cloud device, Chrome OS gets straight to the point. You boot into the browser, and you start working. A review of Chrome OS is likely to sound much more like a review of the Chrome browser. Now we know though that the OS will feature some kind of application to handle multimedia, although it is easy to guess that such an application would, once again, run in the browser itself and be an HTML5 based interface. Such an web app, if included in Chrome OS would be able to play most popular kinds of audio (mp3, mp4, vorbis), and video (theora, h.264, mp4, etc).

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. www.chromium.org/chromium-os 2. www.wikipedia.com 3. www.inforamationweeklyanalytics.com 4. Digit Magazine Jan 2010 issue

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