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Image denoising involves the manipulation of the image data to produce a clear and high quality image. Selection of the denoising algorithm is depends on the types of images and applications area of images. Hence, it is necessary to have knowledge about the noise present in the image so as to select the appropriate denoising algorithm. Wavelet based approach is Nobel approach for denoising smooth images corrupted with Speckle noise. This paper proposed the wavelet based approach on the images corrupted with Speckle noise and performs their study by considering five major wavelet families like Haar, Daubecheis, Coiflets, Symlets and Biorthogonals. The edge preservation and sparse representation abilities of wavelet transform is utilized. A quantitative measure of comparison between original image and denoised image is provided by the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) for the smooth and textured images.

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Wavelet based Nobel Approach for Denoising Smooth Images Corrupted with Speckle Noise

Gopal Prasad*, Atul Kumar Singh#, H. V. Singh#, S. P. Gangwar#

Electronics Engineering Department K. P. Engineering College, Agra, UP, India

gprbansal@gmail.com

# *

atulda.gangwar@gmail.com harshvikramsingh@gmail.com spsingh1981@gmail.com

Abstract Image denoising involves the manipulation of the image data to produce a clear and high quality image. Selection of the denoising algorithm is depends on the types of images and applications area of images. Hence, it is necessary to have knowledge about the noise present in the image so as to select the appropriate denoising algorithm. Wavelet based approach is Nobel approach for denoising smooth images corrupted with Speckle noise. This paper proposed the wavelet based approach on the images corrupted with Speckle noise and performs their study by considering five major wavelet families like Haar, Daubecheis, Coiflets, Symlets and Biorthogonals. The edge preservation and sparse representation abilities of wavelet transform is utilized. A quantitative measure of comparison between original image and denoised image is provided by the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) for the smooth and textured images.

science, where somehow image has been degraded and needs to be restored before further processing. Image denoising is a fundamental problem in the field of image processing. Wavelets give a superior performance in image denoising due to properties such as sparsity and multiresolution structure. With Wavelet Transform gaining popularity in the last two decades various algorithms for denoising in wavelet domain were introduced. The focus was shifted from the Spatial and Fourier domain to the Wavelet domain. Ever since Donohos Wavelet based thresholding approach was published in [1], there was a surge in the denoising papers being published. Although Donohos concept was not revolutionary, his methods did not require tracking or correlation of the wavelet maxima and minima across the different scales as proposed by Mallat in [2]. Thus, there was a renewed interest in wavelet based denoising Keywords Image Processing, Gaussian Noise, DWT, Wavelet techniques since Donoho demonstrated a simple approach to a Thresholding, Smooth and Textured Images, PSNR (Peak Signal difficult problem. to Noise Ratio). Researchers published different ways to compute the parameters for the thresholding of wavelet coefficients. Data I. INTRODUCTION adaptive thresholds [3] were introduced to achieve optimum Digital images play an important role in the areas of value of threshold. Later efforts found that substantial research and technology such as geographical information improvements in perceptual quality could be obtained by systems. It is the most vital part in the field of medical science translation invariant methods based on thresholding of an such as ultrasound imaging, X-ray imaging, CT scans, MRI undecimated Wavelet Transform [4]. These thresholding etc. A very large portion of digital image processing includes techniques were applied to the non-orthogonal wavelet image compression, denoising and retrieval. Image denoising coefficients to reduce artifacts. Multi-wavelets were also used is a process of removal or reduction of noise that is incurred to achieve similar results. Probabilistic models using the during the image capturing. Noise comes from blurring as statistical properties of the wavelet coefficient seemed to well as due to analog and digital sources. Blurring is the form outperform the thresholding techniques and gained ground. of bandwidth reduction of images caused by imperfect image Recently, much effort has been devoted to Bayesian denoising formation process such as relative motion between camera and in Wavelet domain. Hidden Markov Models and Gaussian original scene or by an optical system that is out of focus. Scale Mixtures have also become popular and more research Noise is in the form of unwanted signal that interferes with the continues to be published. original signal and degrades the visual quality of digital image. In this paper wavelet based denoising scheme for denoising The main sources of noise in digital images are imperfect of smooth images which are corrupted by Speckle noise is instruments, problem with data acquisition process, presented. Denoising process is carried out by taking five interference natural phenomena, transmission and major wavelets families like Haar, Daubecheis, Coiflets, compression. Image denoising forms the preprocessing step in Symlets and Biorthogonals. The rest of the paper is divided in the field of photography, research, technology and medical the various sections. Section 2 briefly explains Speckle noise.

National Conference DIMCTAP-2014 Proceedings, Apr 04-05, 2014, MMM University of Technology, Gorakhpur Section 3 presents the Wavelet theory with Wavelet Thresholding. Section 4 presents the proposed denoising approach. Section 5 gives experimental results and analysis followed by conclusions and references. II. SPECKLE NOISE Speckle noise is a multiplicative noise. This type of noise occurs in almost all coherent imaging systems such as laser, acoustics and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. The source of this noise is attributed to random interference between the coherent returns. Fully developed speckle noise has the characteristic of multiplicative noise. Speckle noise follows a gamma distribution and is given as, =

1

In equation (5) the function (x) is the scaling function and the coefficients h0, h1, h2 are low pass scaling coefficients. The wavelet and scaling coefficients are related by the quadrature mirror relationship, which is = (1) 1 + (6)

The term N is the number of vanishing moments in equation (6). A graphical representation of DWT is shown in Fig. 1. Note that, Y0 is the initial signal.

yj Level j

where variance is and g is the gray level. III. WAVELET THEORY A. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) Wavelets are mathematical functions that analyze data according to scale or resolution [5]. They aid in studying a signal in different windows or at different resolutions. For instance, if the signal is viewed in a large window, gross features can be noticed, but if viewed in a small window, only small features can be noticed. The term wavelets is used to refer to a set of orthonormal basis functions generated by dilation and translation of scaling function and a mother wavelet [6]. The finite scale multiresolution representation of a discrete function can be called as a discrete wavelet transforms. DWT is a fast linear operation on a data vector, whose length is an integer power of 2. This transform is invertible and orthogonal, where the inverse transform expressed as a matrix is the transpose of the transform matrix. The wavelet basis or function, unlike sines and cosines as in Fourier transform, is quite localized in space. But similar to sines and cosines, individual wavelet functions are localized in frequency. The orthonormal basis or wavelet basis is defined as , = 2 /2 (2 ) The scaling function is given as , = 2 /2 (2 ) (3) (2)

Lo_D Hi_D

( 1)! 2

(1)

Hj+1

Gj+1

Level j+1

Fig. 1. A 1-Dimensional DWT - Decomposition step Wavelets are classified into a family by the number of vanishing moments N. Within each family of wavelets there are wavelet subclasses distinguished by the number of coefficients and by the level of iterations [7]. The filter lengths and the number of vanishing moments for five different wavelet families are tabulated in Table 1. Table 1 Wavelet families and their properties

Wavelet Family Haar Daubechies Coiflets Symlets Biorthogonal Filters length 2 2N 6N 2N max(2Nr,2Nd)+2 but essentially Number of vanishing moments, N 1 N 2N-1 N Nr

where is called the wavelet function and j and k are integers that scale and dilate the wavelet function. The factor j in equations (2) and (3) is known as the scale index, which indicates the wavelets width. The location index k provides the position. The wavelet function is dilated by powers of two and is translated by the integer k. In terms of the wavelet coefficients, the wavelet equation is =

1

2(2 )

(4)

where g0, g1, g2 in equation (4) are high pass wavelet coefficients. Writing the scaling equation in terms of the scaling coefficients as given below, we get, =

1

2(2 )

(5)

B. Wavelet Thresholding The term wavelet thresholding performs the decomposition of the data or the image into wavelet coefficients. It compares the detail coefficients with a given threshold value, and shrinking these coefficients close to zero to take away the effect of noise in the data. The image is reconstructed from the modified coefficients. This process is also known as the inverse discrete wavelet transform. During thresholding, a wavelet coefficient is compared with a given threshold and is set to zero if its magnitude is less than the threshold;

National Conference DIMCTAP-2014 Proceedings, Apr 04-05, 2014, MMM University of Technology, Gorakhpur otherwise, it is retained or modified depending on the threshold rule. The hard-thresholding TH can be defined by equation (7) as Find level-4 wavelet transform of noisy image , . b) Calculate noise standard deviation ( ) and estimate threshold () for each level. = (7) c) Perform Soft thresholding of wavelet coefficients at 0 each level of decomposition. d) Perform level-4 inverse wavelet transform of Here t is the threshold value. A plot of TH is shown in Fig. 2. thresholded wavelet coefficients to get denoised image (, ) . e) Obtain binary image (, ) of denoised image (, ) by global Otsu method. -t f) Find the evaluation parameters between binary version of original noise free image (, ) and to t observe the quality of denoising. The threshold () used is the Universal Threshold [8] for thresholding, which is given by equation (9) as, Fig. 2. Hard thresholding = 2 log ( ) (9) Thus, all coefficients whose magnitude is greater than the Where, ( ) is the size of the wavelet coefficient matrix selected threshold value (t) remain as they are and the others with magnitudes smaller than tare set to zero. It creates a at level and is the noise standard deviation. The value of region around zero where the coefficients are considered noise standard deviation can be calculated by Median negligible. Absolute Deviation (MAD) of high frequency wavelet Soft thresholding is where the coefficients with greater than coefficients (CH, CV and CD, in case of an image) of noisy the threshold are shrunk towards zero after comparing them to image at level 1 of decomposition. It is given by equation (10) a threshold value. It is defined by equation (8) as as, = 0 > (8) =

0.6745

a)

(| |) 0.6745

(10)

-t t

Where, represent wavelet coefficients at scale 1 [8]. In the proposed scheme, the input noisy images are decomposed in 4 levels and the threshold for each level is found then wavelet coefficients are soft thresholded to get the denoised smooth and textured image.

Noisy Image In Discrete Wavelet Transform Soft Thresholding at Level 4 Inverse Wavelet Transform Denoised Image I d

Fig. 3.Soft thresholding In practice, it can be seen that the soft threshold method is much better and yields more clear and high quality smooth and textured images. This is because the hard method is discontinuous and yields abrupt artifacts in the recovered images. Also, the soft thresholding method yields a smaller minimum mean squared error compared to hard form of thresholding.

Fig.4. Wavelet based approach V. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS C. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) The experimental evaluation is performed on smooth image like Lena of size 512 X 512 pixels at different noise levels using wavelet families like Haar, Daubecheis, Coiflets, Symlets and Biorthogonals up to level 4 decomposition. The objective quality [9] of the reconstructed image is measured by equation (11) as,

IV. PROPOSED APPROACH 255 2 Let the original image (2D signal) be represented by, (, ). = 10 log10 (11) The noisy Image (, ) is given by, , = , + where mse is the mean square error between the original . , , Where, is the noise standard deviation and (i.e. x) and the de-noised image (i.e. ) with size M x N can be , is the white noise of zero mean = 0 and unit expressed by equation (12) as, 2 variance ( = 1) . Here the objective is to obtain the best 1 2 = =1 =1 [ , (, )] (12) estimate (, ) of noisy image (, ) and binarize the denoised image (, ) to achieve its binary version (, ). Below table 2 shows PSNR of Lena image at different The wavelet based scheme for denoising is shown in noise levels using different wavelet families. Fig.4.The scheme has following main steps,

National Conference DIMCTAP-2014 Proceedings, Apr 04-05, 2014, MMM University of Technology, Gorakhpur Table 2: PSNR for speckle noise (Level 4 Decomposition), sqtwlog/ penallo/ penamle Types of Wavelets Haar db10 Coif5 Bior6.8 Sym4 = . 27.55/28.67/26.47 27.65/30.05/27.87 27.68/30.45/28.35 27.69/30.61/28.45 27.67/30.17/28.50 = . 19.84/25.56/23.96 19.86/26.59/25.11 19.88/26.05/25.50 19.88/27.45/25.65 19.88/26.85/25.35 = . 16.76/24.18/22.87 16.78/25.14/24.00 16.77/25.47/24.35 16.77/25.53/24.45 16.76/25.34/24.19 = . 10.45/20.09/19.85 10.47/21.11/20.90 10.48/21.20/20.95 10.48/21.22/20.84 10.48/21.11/20.78 = 9.04/19.00/18.96 9.06/19.74/19.74 9.05/19.77/19.70 9.05/19.80/19.64 9.05/19.59/19.65

Original Image

Denoised Image

Original Image

Noisy Image 4.

Denoised Image Level dependent Thresholding best PSNR in comparison with Global Thresholding. REFERENCES

CONCLUSIONS A large number of wavelet based image denoising methods along with several types of thresholding have been proposed in recent years. These methods are mainly reported for image such as Lena. The general methods based on wavelet transform using soft thresholding are best capable of preserving edges and fine details and therefore, suitable for denoising of smooth and textured images. From the experimental and mathematical results it can be concluded that PSNR is basically a comparison between original and de-noised image as how the de-noised image is close to original image. Tables 2 shows the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of smooth image like Lena by using wavelet families like Haar, Daubecheis, Coiflets, Symlets and Biorthogonals at level 4 decomposition. From the tables 2 we can conclude that 1. Coif5 and bior6.8 wavelets results high PSNR against haar, db10, sym4 wavelets and wiener filter for Smooth images. 2. Decomposition level 4 is the saturation level for Smooth images. 3. Bal. Sparity Norm Thresholding results high PSNR against Fixed Form Thresholding.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

D. L. Donoho, De-noising by soft-thresholding, IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol.41, no.3, pp.613- 627, May1995. http://wwwstat.stanford.edu/~donoho/Reports/1992/denoisereleas e3.ps.Z. S. G. Mallat and W. L. Hwang, Singularity detection and processing with wavelets, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 38, pp. 617643, Mar. 1992. David L. Donoho and Iain M. Johnstone, Adapting to Unknown Smoothness via Wavelet Shrinkage, Journal of American StatisticalAssociation, 90(432):1200-1224, December 1995. R. Coifman and D. Donoho, "Translation invariant de-noising," in Lecture Notes in Statistics: Wavelets and Statistics, vol. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 125-150, 1995. Amara Graps, An Introduction to Wavelets, IEEE Computational Science and Engineering , summer 1995, Vol 2, No. 2. Matlab 7.8, Wavelet tool box. Matlab7.8, Matlab, http://www.mathworks.com/, May 2009. D. L. Donoho, De -noising by soft thresholding, IEEE Transaction on Information Theory, Vol. 41, pp. 613-627, 1995. Image Processing Fundamentals-Statistics, Signal to Noise ratio, http://www.ph.tn.tudelft.nl/courses/FIP/no frames/fip-Statisti .html, 2001.

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