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Introduction

The varistor must operate under both a continuous operating (standby) mode as well as the predicted transient (normal) mode. The selection process, therefore, requires a knowledge of the electrical environment. When the environment is not fully defined, some approximations can be made. For most applications, the selection is a five-step process: 1. Determine the necessary steady-state voltage rating (working voltage) 2. Establish the transient energy absorbed by the varistor 3. Calculate the peak transient current through the varistor 4. Determine power dissipation requirements 5. Select a model to provide the required voltage-clamping characteristic A final consideration is to choose the appropriate package style to suit the application. VM(DC) - Operation up to 180VDC applied continuously is allowed.

Energy

Transient energy ratings are given in the WTM column of the specifications in joules (watt-second). The rating is the maximum allowable energy for a single impulse of 10/1000s current waveform with continuous voltage applied. Energy ratings are based on a shift of VN of less than 10% of initial value. When the transient is generated from the discharge of an inductance (i.e., motor, transformer) or a capacitor, the source energy can be calculated readily but, in most cases the transient is from a source external to the equipment and is of unknown magnitude. For this situation an approximation technique can be used to estimate the energy of the transient absorbed by the varistor. The method requires finding the transient current and voltage applied to the varistor. To determine the energy absorbed the following equation applies:

E =

Consider the maximum continuous voltage that will be applied to the varistor including any high line conditions (i.e., 110% or more of nominal voltage). Ratings are given for continuous sinusoidal AC and DC voltages. If a nonsinusoidal waveform is applied, the recurrent peak voltage should be limited to 2x VM(AC). Specifications for the UltraMOV Series varistor, for example, are shown in Table 1 for 140V AC rated devices to illustrate the use of the ratings and specifications table. VM(AC) - These models can be operated continuously with up to 140VRMS at 50Hz - 60Hz applied. They would be suitable for 120VAC nominal line operation and would allow for about a 120% high line condition.

0 VC ( t )I ( t )t

= KV C I

where I is the peak current applied, VC is the clamp voltage which results, is the impulse duration and K is a constant. K values are given in Figure 1 for a variety of waveshapes frequently encountered. The K value and pulse width correspond to the current waveform only, assuming the varistor voltage waveform is almost constant during the current impulse. For complex waveforms, this approach also can be used by dividing the shape into segments that can be treated separately.

TABLE 1. ULTRAMOV RATINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS EXAMPLE MAXIMUM RATING (85oC) CONTINUOUS DEVICE MODEL NUMBER MODEL BRANDNUMBER ING V07E140 V10E140 V14E140 V20E140 7V140 10V140 14V140 20V140 RMS VOLTS VM(AC) (V) 140 140 140 140 DC VOLTS VM(DC) (V) 180 180 180 180 ENERGY 2ms WTM (J) 13.5 27.5 55 110 TRANSIENT PEAK CURRENT 8 x 20s ITM ITM 2 x PULSE 1 x PULSE (A) 1200 2500 4500 6500 (A) 1750 3500 6000 10000 200 200 200 200 CHARACTERISTICS (25oC) VARISTOR VOLTAGE AT 1mA DC TEST CURRENT VNOM MIN (V) 240 240 240 240 VNOM MAX MAXIMUM CLAMPING VOLTAGE 8 x 20s VC (V) 360 360 360 360 IPK (A) 10 25 50 100 TYPICAL CAPACITANCE f = 1MHz (pF) 160 400 900 1750

10-121

UltraMOV is a trademark of Littelfuse, Inc. 1-800-999-9445 or 1-847-824-1188 | Copyright Littelfuse, Inc. 1999

WAVESHAPE EQUATION K 0.637

IPK

-t PK sin --

The waveform is divided into two parts that are treated separately using the factors of Figure 1: current waveform Section (1) 0 to 5s and (2) 5s to 50s. The maximum voltage across the V130LA1 at 100A is found to be 500V from the V-I characteristics of the specication sheet.

Section (1) E = kVC I = (0.5) (500) (100) (5) (10-6) = 0.13J 3.28J Total

IPK

Section (2) E = kVC I = (1.4) (500) (100) (50-5) 10-6) = 3.15J 0.5 t I PK

t

Peak Current

The peak current rating can be checked against the transient current measured in the circuit. If the transient is generated by an inductor, the peak current will not be more than the inductor current at the time of switching. Another method for nding the transient current is to use a graphical analysis. When the transient voltage and source impedance is known, a Thevenin equivalent circuit can be modeled. Then, a load line can be drawn on the log - log, V-I characteristic as shown in Figure 3. The two curves intersect at the peak current value. The rated single pulse current, ITM, is the maximum allowable for a single pulse of 8/20s exponential waveform (illustrated in Application Note AN9767, Figure 21). For longer duration pulses, ITM should be derated to the curves in the varistor specications. Figure 4 shows the derating curves for 7mm size, LA series devices. This curve also provides a guide for derating current as required with repetitive pulsing. The designer must consider the total number of transient pulses expected during the life of the equipment and select the appropriate curve. Where the current waveshape is different from the exponential waveform of Figure 11 of AN9767, the curves of Figure 4 can be used by converting the pulse duration on the basis of equivalent energy. This is easily done using the constants given in Figure 1. For example, suppose the actual current measured has a triangular waveform with a peak current of 10A, a peak voltage of 340V and an impulse duration of 500s.

0.86

I PK sin ( t ) e

t /

1.4

IPK

I PK e

0.5 IPK

-t/1.44

IPK

IPK

1.0

Consider the condition where the exponential waveform shown below is applied to a V130LA1 type Littelfuse Varistor.

VOC

ZS IV VR

100A

50A 5s 50s t

FIGURE 2.

10-122

The pulse rise portion of the waveform can be ignored when the impulse duration is ve times or more longer. The maximum number of pulses for the above example would exceed 104 from the pulse derating curves shown in Figure 4.

VOC

VR = VOC -IZS

Varistor Voltage

VC CLAMP VOLTAGE VARISTOR V-I CHARACTERISTIC IV -VOC/ZS

The varistor nominal voltage (VNOM or VN) represents the applied voltage where the varistor transitions from its standby mode to its low impedance clamping mode. It is measured at the 1mA conduction point. The minimum and maximum limit values are specied in the ratings table.

FIGURE 3B. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE PEAK I FIGURE 3. DETERMINING VARISTOR PEAK CURRENT FROM A VOLTAGE SOURCE TRANSIENT

Transients generate heat in a suppressor too quickly to be transferred during the pulse interval. Power dissipation capability is of concern for a suppressor if transients will be occurring in rapid succession. Under this condition, the power dissipation required is simply the energy (watt-seconds) per pulse times the number of pulses per second. The power so developed must be within the specications shown on the ratings tables for the specic device type. It is to be noted that varistors can only dissipate a relatively small amount of average power and are, therefore, not suitable for repetitive applications that involve substantial amounts of average power dissipation (likewise, varistors are not suitable as voltage regulation devices). Furthermore, the operating values need to be derated at temperatures above the absolute maximum limits as shown in Figure 5.

CH, CP CS, RA SERIES

2,000 1,000 RATED PEAK PULSE CURRENT (A) 500 200 100 50 20 10 5 2 1 INDEFINITE NUMBER OF PULSES 20 100 1,000 IMPULSE DURATION (s) 10,000 106 1 2 10 102 NUMBER OF PULSES 103 104 105 MODEL SIZE 7mm V130LA1 - V300LA4

100 PERCENT OF RATED VALUE 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -55 50 BA/BB, CA, DA/DB, LA, C III, HA, NA, MA, UltraMOV, PA, ZA SERIES 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

FIGURE 4. PEAK CURRENT DERATING BASED ON PULSE WIDTH AND NUMBER OF APPLIED PULSES

Then:

E = (.5)(10)(340)(500)(10-6) = 850mJ

ETRIANGULAR = EEXP 850mJ = 1.4 VCIEXP

EXP = 850mJ 1.4 (340) (10) = 179s

Transient V-I characteristics are provided in the specications for all models of varistors. Shown below in Figure 6 are curves for 130VAC rated models of the LA series. These curves indicate the peak terminal voltage measured with an applied 8/20s impulse current. For example, if the peak impulse current applied to a V130LA2 is 10A, that model will limit the transient voltage to no higher than 340V.

Or:

EXP = K* 1.4

Where: K* and * are the values for the triangular waveform and EXP is the impulse duration for the equivalent exponential waveform.

10-123

1000 8000 6000 5000 4000 3000 MAXIMUM PEAK (V) 2000 1500 V130LA2 1000 800 600 500 400 300 200 IMPULSE GENERATOR LOAD LINES (IMPLIED) UL1449 PERMANENTLY CONNECTED CATEGORY, AND ANSI/IEEE C61.41 (IEEE587) CATEGORY B 101 102 103 104 V130LA20A V130LA5 UL1449 CORD CONNECTED AND DIRECT PLUG-IN CATEGORY MAXIMUM CLAMPING VOLTAGE COMPARED BY MODEL SIZE VM(AC) = 130V RATING TA = -55 TO 85oC

The ability of the varistor to limit the transient voltage is sometimes expressed in terms of a clamp ratio. For example, consider a varistor applied to protect the power terminals of electrical equipment. If high line conditions will allow a rise to 130VAC , then 184V peak would be applied. The device selected would require a voltage rating of 130VACRMS or higher. Assume selection of a V130LA2 model varistor. The V130LA2 will limit transient voltages to 340V at currents of 10A. The clamp ratio is calculated to be,

Clamp Ratio = VC at 10A Peak Voltage Applied 340V 184V = 1.85

=

V130LA10A

100 100

If the transient current is unknown, the graphical method of Figure 3 can be utilized. From a knowledge of the transient voltage and source impedance a load line is plotted on the V-I characteristic. The intersection of the load line with the varistor model curve gives the varistor transient current and the value of clamped peak transient voltage.

The clamp ratio can be found for other currents, of course, by reference to the V-I characteristic. In general, clamping ability will be better as the varistor physical size and energy level increases. This is illustrated in Figure 7 which compares the clamping performance of the different Littelfuse Varistor families. It can be seen that the lowest clamping voltages are obtained from the 20mm (LA series) and 60mm (BA series) products. In addition, many varistor models are available with two clamping selections, designated by an A, B, or C at the end of the model number. The A selection is the standard model, with B and C selections providing progressively tighter clamping voltage. For example, the V130LA20A voltage clamping limit is 340V at 100A, while the V130LA20B clamps at not more than 325V.

1000 MAXIMUM CLAMP RATIO AND MAXIMUM INSTANTANEOUS VOLTAGE 4 800 600 3 500 400 300 1.5 200 1 RATIO 100 0.01 0.05 0.1 0.5 1.0 5 10 50 100 500 1K 5K 10K NOTE: CLAMP RATIO EQUALS VARISTOR VOLTAGE DIVIDED BY VNOM OR 184V FOR 130VACRMS LA10 PA, LA20 BA MA4 LA4

FIGURE 7. VARISTOR V-I CHARACTERISTICS FOR FOUR PRODUCT FAMILIES RATED AT 130VAC

10-124

MAXIMUM STEADY-STATE APPLIED VOLTAGE VOLTS AC RMS 4 10 25 PEAK CURRENT ENERGY (A) (J) 80 500 VOLTS DC 3.5 14 35 150 130 200 175 264 250 275 365 330 369

460 615

0.5 - 5.0

CP, SERIES

30 1000

0603 0805 1206 1210 1812 2220 5 x 8mm 3mm 5, 7, 10, 14, 20 (mm) 5 x 8, 10 x 16, 14 x 22 (mm)

40 - 100

50 - 6500

0.1 - 52

ZA SERIES

0.4 - 160

RA SERIES

11 - 400

6500 25,000 40,000 50,000 70,000 30,000 40,000 20,000 70,000 65,000 100,000

70 - 250 270 1,050 450 10,000 270 1050 200 10,000 2,200 12,000

PA SERIES

32, 34 40 (mm)

BA/ BB SERIES

60mm

NA SERIES

34mm SQ.

CA SERIES AS SERIES

FIGURE 8. VARISTOR PACKAGE STYLES AND RATINGS RANGE

10-125

The varistor part number includes ratings information. Some types include the working voltage, others indicate the nominal voltage. See the varistor ordering nomenclature guides below.

ULTRAMOV TYPES

V

DEVICE FAMILY: Varistor DISC DIAMETER: 07, 10, 14, or 20 (mm)

XX

XXX

LX

X

NONSTANDARD LEAD SPACING OPTIONS (DO NOT ADD IF STANDARD) (NOTE 2): 5 7 1 = 5mm Lead Spacing = 7.5mm Lead Spacing = 10mm Lead Spacing

PACKAGING: ENCAPSULATION: E = Epoxy VM(AC)RMS: 130 to 625 (V) LEAD FORMATION: L1 L2 L3 L4 = = = = Straight Crimped In-Line Trim/Crimp (Bulk pack only) B = Bulk Pack T = Tape and Reel A = Ammo Pack

BA, BB, CA, CP, CS, DA, DB, HA, HB, LA, NA, PA, VARISTOR SERIES

130

LA

20

A

Selection - Clamping Voltage (A or B) Relative Energy Indicator or Disc Size Product Series

220

MA

A

Selection - Clamping Voltage (A or B) Relative Energy Indicator Product Series

The ve major considerations for varistor selection have been described. The nal choice of a model is a balance of these factors with device packaging and cost trade-offs. In some applications a priority requirement such as clamp voltage or energy capability may be so important as to force the selection to a particular model. Figure 8 illustrates the Littelfuse varistor package styles in a matrix that compares energy and current ratings to the working voltage range.

10-126

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