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# PEKA SCIENCE

FORM 2

## SCIENCE FORM 2 SET 3

STUDENT MANUAL
LEARNING AREA: 7.0 Dynamics
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: 7.3 Application of Frictional Force
Element 1 : C3, C4, C6, C8, C9, C10, C11
Element 3 : C17
INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Conduct activity.
2. Make observation, collect, analyze and interpret data.
1. Title: Application of Frictional Force
2. AIM: To study the effect of different types of surfaces on the
magnitude of frictional force.
3. C11 : State the relationship between the type of surface and the
magnitude of frictional force
4. Variables: C10:
(i) Manipulated:..
(ii) Responding:
(iii) Fixed/Controlled:..
5. Apparatus/Materials.
6. Procedure (in passive form)
7. Results/Observation.

## C6 Communicating. (record readings/results in Table

6.1)
Based on the data collected, also draw a bar graph to show
the effect of different types of surfaces on the magnitude
frictional force.

## C 3 Measuring and using numbers. (table showing

correct
measurement and units.)

## C8 Based on the experimental data.

1. a) Between the different types of surfaces, which gives the
(i) greatest magnitude of frictional force?
(ii) lowest magnitude of frictional force?
b) What is the condition of the surface that cause the:
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FORM 2

## (i) increase of the frictional force on the wooden block?

(ii) decrease of the frictional force on the wooden block?
c) Arrange in descending order the types of surfaces based
on the magnitude of frictional force.
C9 Define operationally frictional force.
C4
3. a) What can you infer from the results of the experiment?
b) Suggest one way to decrease frictional force on the
surface of table

9. Conclusion:
Do different types of surfaces change the magnitude of friction?
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Content

Yes

Title
Aim
Variables
Apparatus/ materials
Procedure
Observation
Discussion/ analysis
Conclusion

PEKA SCIENCE
FORM 2

## SCIENCE FORM 2 SET 3

1.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVE : 7.3 APPLICATION OF FRICTIONAL FORCE.
2.0 AIM : To study the effect of different types of surfaces on the

## magnitude of frictional force.

3.0 HYPOTHESIS: The rougher the surface, the greater is the
magnitude of frictional force on the wooden block. C11-3
4.0 VARIABLES : a) Manipulated
b) Responding

: Type of surfaces
: magnitude of frictional force /
c) Controlled/fixed : Size of wooden block
C10-3

## 5.0 APPARATUS/MATERIALS : Spring balance, thread, wooden block, table,

oil/grease, aluminium foil, sandpaper, graph paper.
6.0 PROCEDURE(& diagram) :

1)
2)
3)
4)

## The apparatus setup is as shown in the figure.

A wooden block is hooked to a spring balance with a thread.
The wooden block is then placed on the surface of the table.
The wooden block is pulled along the table and the reading of the spring
balance is taken when the block starts to move.
5) The experiment is repeated by pulling the wooden block on three other
different types of surfaces
6) All the readings were recorded in a table.
7.0 OBSERVATION/RESULTS :
a) Table of results:

C3-3
Type of Surface

Condition of Surface

Balance/(N)

Rough

5.8 N

Smooth

4.5 N

Very smooth

3.6 N

Very rough

6.5 N

## Oil on surface of table

Sandpaper on surface of table

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FORM 2

## b) Graph of magnitude of frictional force by types of surface.

MAGNITUDE OF FRICTIONAL FORCE BY TYPE OF SURFACE

Magnitude 7
of
frictional 6
force
5

6.5
5.8
4.5

3.6

3
2
1
0
wooden table

aluminium foil

sandpaper

oil/grease

Types of surface
C6-3
7.1 Reading of spring balance is the magnitude of frictional force.
7.2 The reading of spring balance just before/ when object starts to move
represents the maximum magnitude of friction that acts on object.

C1-3
7.3 Yes, the different types of surfaces affect the magnitude of frictional force.
8.0 DISCUSSION/ANALYSIS:
8.1 a) i) The surface of sandpaper gives the greatest magnitude of friction.
ii) The oily surface gives the lowest magnitude of friction
b) i) The rough surface increases the frictional force on the wooden block.
ii) The smooth surface decreases the frictional force on the wooden block

C8-3
8.2 a) Frictional force is the reading of spring balance when the wooden
block is pulled on the surface.
b) Frictional force varies with / depends on the types of surfaces.
8.2 a) The types of surface influences the magnitude of frictional force
b) We can reduce friction by putting oil/grease/aluminium foil on the surface
of table.
9.0 CONCLUSION :
Different types of surfaces can change the magnitude of frictional force.

C4-3

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FORM 2

## SCIENCE FORM 2 SET 3

LEARNING AREA:................. LEARNING OBJECTIVE:.............
1.0 TITLE: 7.3 APPLICATION OF FRICTIONAL FORCE.
2.0 AIM : To study the effect of .........................................on the magnitude of

frictional force.
3.0 VARIABLES : a) Manipulated
b) Responding

: .............................................
: ...........................................

## c) Controlled/fixed : Size/ mass of wooden block

4.0 APPARATUS/MATERIALS : Spring balance, thread, wooden block, wooden
table, oil/grease, aluminium foil, sandpaper, graph
paper.
5.0 PROCEDURE(& diagram) :

## 1.The apparatus setup is as shown in the figure.

2.A wooden block is hooked to a spring balance with a thread.
3.The wooden block is then placed on the surface of the table.
4.The wooden block is pulled along the table and the reading of the spring
balance is taken when the block starts to move.
6.The experiment is repeated by pulling the wooden block on three other
different types of surfaces
7.All the readings were recorded in a table.
6.0 OBSERVATION/RESULTS :
a) Table of results:
Type of Surface
Surface of wooden table
Aluminium foil on surface table
Oil on surface of table
Sandpaper on surface of table

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Condition of Surface

rough
smooth
Very smooth
Very rough
5

Balance/(N)

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FORM 2

## b) Graph of magnitude of frictional force by types of surface.

Types of surface
6.1 Reading of spring balance is ........................................................
6.2 The maximum magnitude of friction that acts on object is ........................
6.3 ......., the ..................................change the magnitude of frictional force.
7.0 DISCUSSION/ANALYSIS:
7.1 a) The .......................................gives the greatest magnitude of friction.
b) The ..............surface increases the frictional force on the wooden block.
7.2.

## By putting ..................................................on the surface of table, we can

reduce friction .

7.3
Ways to increase friction
1.
2.

1.
2.

## 7.4 The ......................the type of surface, the ......................is the magnitude of

frictional force on the wooden block.
8.0 CONCLUSION :
8.1

## The magnitude of frictional force depends on .....................................

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FORM 2

supplementary
6.1 .............................. is used to measure the magnitude of frictional force.
6.2 The maximum magnitude of friction that acts on object is the................
..................................................................................................................
6.3 The .............................................change the magnitude of frictional force

Magnitude of
frictional force

Types of surface

## 7.1 a) The surface of............................gives the greatest magnitude of friction.

b) The ............................surface increases the frictional force on the wooden
block.
7.2.

## By putting ............................................. on the surface of table will reduce

frictional force.

7.3
Ways to increase friction

1.
2.
7.4

1.
2.

## The ..............................the type of surface, the ........................is the

magnitude of frictional force on the wooden block.

8.1

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