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Gram Staining Experiment

Lab on the Transfer of E-Coli

What's gonna work??? TEAM WORK

Research
Prokaryotes: single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. As organized in the Three Domain System,
prokaryotes include bacteria and Achaeans. Prokaryotes are able to live and thrive in various types of environments including extreme habitats such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, swamps, wetlands, and the guts of animals.

Ways Bacteria Can be Transmitted:


Food to hands to food:Germs are transmitted from raw foods, such as chicken, to hands while preparing a meal. The germs on the hands are then transferred to other uncooked foods, such as salad. Cooking the raw food kills the initial germs, but the salad remains contaminated. Infected child to hands to other children:Germs are passed from a child with diarrhea to the hands of the parent during diaper changing. If the parent doesnt immediately wash his or her hands, the germs that cause diarrhea are then passed to others. Nose, mouth, or eyes to hands to others:Germs can spread to the hands by sneezing, coughing, or rubbing the eyes and then can be transferred to other family members or friends. Simply washing your hands can help prevent such illnesses as the common cold or eye infections. Hands to food:Usually germs are transmitted from unclean hands to food by an infected food preparer who didnt wash his or her hands after using the toilet. The germs are then passed to those who eat the food. This is easily prevented by always washing your hands after using the toilet and before preparing food items. Animals to people:Wash your hands after petting animals or touching any surfaces they come into contact with.

"Minnesota Department of Health." 5 Common Ways Germs Are Spread. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.

Materials & Methods


Materials:
Agar plates x8
Alexs hands 1 controlled, 1 E-coli covered Sanitary swabs x8 Dettol hand wash Timer 3 participants Para film
Now that the experiment has begun the first swab should be taken of each persons controlled hand and use the correct aseptic technique to transfer it to the plate. Repeat this for the E-coli hand and then wrap all the Agar plates in Para Film. Place the Labeled plates into the incubator for 2 and a half days. Remove from the incubator and count the amount of colonies that where formed in each plate and separate the different ones b shape, color, and size. After counting the colonies of bacteria. Use the information you collect to differentiate between different colonies of bacteria. Once this is done gram staining will need to be done to find out how many Ecoli bacteria were passed on from the main source to the third contact. First sanitize work area and hands with Dettol solution and wash hands

Obtain 2 plates per person, there should be 8 Agar plates including the main sources plates.

Method
Establish which hand will be the control and which will be the vector for the E-coli.

Set a time limit for how long each person will shake hands and how long the vector may rest on the persons hands between shakes. Try and keep everything as constant as possible.

The First contact

Table 1: Number of Colonies and Observations


Our Aim: To see how effect hand shaking is at passing bacteria, specifically E-coli. Hypothesis: The 1st gesture contact with the main source will have more Ecoli colony growth than the 2nd gesture contact and the 2nd gesture contact will have more than the 3rd gesture contact.Third bullet point here Variables:
Independent variable = gesture contact
Second Contact Agar Plates Main source Plates Initial Control: See thru Brown Jelly E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly Final Control: See thru Brown Jelly with 1 small colonies E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly

with 10 colonies.

First Contact

Control: See thru Brown Jelly E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly

Control: See thru Brown Jelly with 31 colonies visible E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly with 17 Colonies

Control: See thru Brown Jelly E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly

Control: See thru Brown Jelly with 20 visible colonies E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly with 5 visible colonies

Dependent variable = colonies amount


Control: See thru Brown Control: See thru Brown Jelly with 13 visible colonies E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly 7 visible colonies

Controlled = Alexs controlled hand.

Third Contact

Jelly E-coli: See thru Brown Jelly

Agar plates after incubation

Amounts of Colonies Visible


Chart Title
35 30 25
Number of Colonies

20 15

10
5 0 Source 1st Contact 2nd Contact 3rd Contact

Conclusion & Analysis


Results
There are very visible difference between the Controlled and the uncontrolled Agar plates.
Evaluation
This was the first bacterial lab we did as a group and the results show that it was not done well. One of the controlled plates ended up with more bacteria then the uncontrolled plates. This may have been because the swab touched the outside of the agar plate before going onto the agar. We may not of washed our hands properly because the results came out very mixed up. We as a group did poorly on our first attempt at gram staining so instead of counting the colonies of E-coli we just used any bacteria colonies that were visible.

Conclusion
The uncontrolled Agar plates did not prove my hypothesis. It seems as though something went wrong when the bacteria was passed on. The controlled results did better at proving our Hypothesis. From the first contact to the third the bacteria colonies decreased.