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EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN THE COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY by Olayide Abosede Aina

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership

University of Phoenix August 2013

UMI Number: 3576344

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Abstract In the quantitative correlational research study the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers was investigated in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Because middle managers are developmental resources in organizations and are crucial to the achievement of goals of the organizations, their job satisfaction and organizational commitment must be a priority for senior managers in the communications industry. Data was collected using three preexisting validated instruments and a demographic questionnaire. A total of 166 middle managers participated in the quantitative correlational research study. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, the analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a significant relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment was found to be higher for middle managers who had senior managers who exhibited transformational leadership style than those with transactional and laissez-faire leaders. The study also found that the demographic variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers. Demographic variable age moderated the leadership style and organizational commitment of the middle managers. An essential recommendation of the study is the need for further research involving more than one communications organization to enhance the generalizability of the results.

Dedication I dedicate this doctoral dissertation to the four wonderful Princesses in my life, my four daughters, Tola, Tomi, Tory, and Teni. My precious daughters, thank you for your love and support that I needed to complete this program. The positive effect of your usual question Mom when are you finishing your program? was revealed in my determination to excel and finish this doctoral degree. You have inspired me. With the achievement of the doctoral degree mummy has proofed to you that you can do all things through God. To my dear husband and my priest, Laolu, thank you for your love. I appreciate your encouragement and for attending residencies with me.

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Acknowledgements All thanks to God Almighty for the grace and enablement to start and finish this doctoral program. I appreciate HIM for provision, good health, and determination. It is not by my power, but His compassion over me. The journey through ivory tower is fraught with bumps and sometimes gullies, but the cruise to the final destination is a function of the wind speed. I want to thank the academic gurus who stood in the gap bringing stability to the momentum of the wind. I am earnestly appreciative of the outstanding work of my dissertation chair, Dr. Kewal Verma. Dr. Kewal, thank you for believing in me and for encouraging me toward critical and creative thinking. I could not have advanced this far without your dedication to my progress. I owe a heartfelt appreciation to my committee members Dr. Louiseann (Mickey) Richter and Dr. Jack Crews. Dr. Mickey, thank you for your tremendous guidance, encouragement, and uncommon support in this doctoral journey. I will always be grateful for your love and kindness. Dr. Jack, I appreciate the time dedicated to the completion of my dissertation. Thanks for your immense support. To my late mother who encouraged me when I started the program. I am sure you are proud of me. Thanks for your sweet words and love in challenging periods. Continue to rest in the bosom of God. I appreciate Dr. Tom Granoff who provided guidance with statistics technicalities, Solomon Alawiye and Uzorma Uponi for their encouragement, and Alhaji Bashir Abubakar for his love and the gift of an iPad. The iPad was very useful during the program. I appreciate all my faculties, academic counselor, financial advisor, colleagues, and the respondents who participated in the research study.

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Table of Contents LIST OF TABLES.xiii LIST OF FIGURES.xv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION..1 Background of the Problem...2 Statement of the Problem...5 Purpose of the Study..6 Significance of the Study..8 Significance of Study to Leadership.9 Nature of the Study.........10 Research Questions.12 Hypotheses..14 Theoretical Framework...15 Definition of Terms.17 Assumptions20 Limitations...21 Delimitations21 Summary..22 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE..23 Organization of Literature Review...23 Historical Overview of Leadership Theories...24 The Trait Theory..25 Participative Leadership Style.26

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The Path-goal Theory of Leadership..27 Situational Leadership Theory28 Contingency Leadership Model..30 Theory X and Y Management Styles..31 Characteristics of Theory X and Y Management Styles.32 Charismatic Leadership Style..34 The Full-Range Leadership Theory....35 Transformational Leadership Style.36 Individual Consideration.37 Intellectual Stimulation...37 Inspirational Motivation..38 Idealized Influence...38 Transactional Leadership Style...........39 Contingent Reward..39 Management-by-Exception.40 Laissez-Faire Leadership Style...............40 Historical Overview of Job Satisfaction..41 The Range of Affect Theory of Job Satisfaction.44 Current Findings on Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction..44 Leadership Style and Employees Job Satisfaction.............................................46 Transformational Leaders and Employees Job Satisfaction...48 Pseudo-Transformational Leaders and Employees Job satisfaction...50 Transactional Leaders and Employee Job Satisfaction...50

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Pseudo-Transactional Leaders and Employee Job Satisfaction....51 Laissez-Faire Leaders and Employee Job Satisfaction.52 Leadership style, Job satisfaction, and Employee commitment....52 Employee Commitment and Job Retention...55 Leadership and Organizational Culture.56 Leadership and Organizational Structure..57 Effective Leadership.59 Attribute of Effective Leaders...60 Effective Leaders and Organizational Change..60 Effective leaders and Productivity....63 Gaps in Literature..65 Conclusion66 Summary...67 CHAPTER 3: METHOD..68 Research Method..69 Research Design... 70 Appropriateness of Design....71 Research Questions...72 Hypotheses....73 Population.75 Sampling Frame....75 Informed Consent.76 Confidentiality..78

Geographical Location.79 Instrumentation....80 Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X-Short.81 Job in General (JIG) Questionnaire.82 Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)83 Demographic Questionnaire84 Data Collection.84 Data Analysis...85 Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)...86 Descriptive Statistics...86 Pearson Correlation Coefficient..87 The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) .88 Multiple Regression Analysis 88 Validity and Reliability ..89 Internal Validity and External Validity..90 Reliability90 Summary.91 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS93 Research Questions.94 Hypotheses..95 Data Collection96 Sample size..98 Participation and Demographics.99

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Results and Analysis.101 Research Question One.104 Research Question Two106 Research Question Three..108 Summary...118 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...121 Overview of Research Study121 Limitations of the Study...123 Interpretations of the Literature Review...124 Summary of Research Study....124 Research Question One.125 Comparisons of the Findings to the Literature.....125 Research Question Two126 Comparisons of the Findings to the Literature.....128 Research Question Three..128 Comparisons of the Findings to the Literature.130 Implications of the Study..130 Significance to Leadership133 Recommendations for Actions and Future Research...134 Recommendations for Actions.134 Recommendations Future Research.136 Conclusions..138 REFERENCES.139

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APPENDIX A: INFORMED CONSENT FORM162 APPENDIX B: PARTICIPATION IN RESEARCH STUDY SOLICITATION...164 APPENDIX C: END OF SURVEY APPRECIATION LETTER165 APPENDIX D: PERMISSION TO USE PREMISES, NAME, AND/OR SUBJECTS...166 APPENDIX E: DATA ACCESS AND USE PERMISSION..167 APPENDIX F: MULTIFACTOR LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE (MLQ)...168 APPENDIX G: JOB IN GENERAL QUESTIONNAIRE ...169 APPENDIX H: ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT QUESTIONNAIRE...170 APPENDIX I: DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE ...171 APPENDIX J: PERMISSION TO USE MULTIFACTOR LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE (MLQ)..172 APPENDIX K: PERMISSION TO USE JOB IN GENERAL (JIG) QUESTIONNAIRE..173 APPENDIX L: PERMISSION TO USE ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT QUESTIONNAIRE..174 APPENDIX M: SURVEY REMINDER LETTER..176

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List of Tables Table 1 Summary of Major Database Search Result..24 Table 2 Sample Description98 Table 3 Frequency Counts for Demographic Variables (N = 166)..100 Table 4 Descriptive Statistics for the Research Variables (N = 166)..................102 Table 5 Pearson Correlations for Demographic Variables with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment (N = 166).. .104 Table 6 Relationship between Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction (N = 166)..............................................................................................................106 Table 7 Relationship between Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment (N = 166)...107 Table 8 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Gender (N = 166)109 Table 9 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Age Group (N = 166)...110 Table 10 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Highest Education (N = 166)...111 Table 11 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Years with Current Company (N=166)..113 Table 12 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Years with Current Manager (N = 166)115 Table 13 Predicting Job Satisfaction Based on Demographics and Leadership Style (N = 166)116

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Table 14 Predicting Organizational Commitment Based on Demographics and Leadership Style (N=166).118

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List of Figures Figure 1. Leader and employee productive behaviors64

Chapter 1: Introduction The communications industry requires skillful employees who can render quality service to the organizations, but leadership can make a remarkable difference in employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Morris & Venkatesh, 2010). Proper understanding of the significance of senior managers leadership style and the effect on middle managers job satisfaction could enhance the success of organizations operating in the competitive business environment. Leadership style is the approach and manner of providing directions, accomplishing plans, and motivating employees to achieve goals of the organization (Morris & Venkatesh, 2010; Rizwan, Mahmood, & Mahmood, 2010). Morris and Venkatesh further stated organizations may lose creative and innovative employees to competitors if the senior managers fail to discern the importance of employees job satisfaction and employ the right leadership style. Job satisfaction can increase employees commitment to their organizations (Yukl, 2006), and it is crucial to achieving positive results such as employees dedication to work and consistent quality services (Morris & Venkatesh, 2010). Organizations in the 21st century require managers who possess the ability to create employee satisfaction, commitment through the right leadership style. The relationship between leadership style of senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA was investigated in the current quantitative correlational research study. The goal of this research study was to add to the available knowledge by providing new facts and information that will allow communications organizations to understand the effect of leadership style on employee behaviors. The research study may be useful to develop and promote the leadership style and behaviors that motivate and influence

employee satisfaction. The results of the research study and the empirical data may be useful also to other high technological organizations and provide the necessary leadership tools to enhance employee job satisfaction. Organizational leaders may apply the findings from the study to become more effective and to improve employee commitment to goals of the organization. Chapter one includes the background of the problem, problem statement, purpose of the study, significance of the study, nature of the study, research questions, hypotheses, the theoretical framework, definition of terms, assumptions, scope and limitations, delimitations, and chapter summary. Background of the Problem Organizational leaders should be responsible for ensuring employees job satisfaction that can lead to achievement of organizational goals. Research has revealed that many senior managers do not use their formal authority to influence their subordinates to commit to the organizational goals (Bataineh, 2011; Boleslaw, 2009; Davis, 2010; Yiing & Ahmad, 2009; Yukl, 2006). Boleslaw added that some senior managers believe leadership is about power-holding to manipulate and control the employees, but this may result into employees dissatisfaction with their jobs. Bataineh stated that satisfied employees are more likely to remain committed to an organization, but dissatisfied employees are less likely to remain committed to an organization. Satisfied and committed employees are necessary for organizations operating in the 21st century dynamic business world to remain competitive and achieve goals. Organizations leaders need to understand the effect of leadership style on employee satisfaction. The behavior and actions of the senior managers could determine if the middle managers are experiencing job satisfaction at work. Authors of leadership theories and models may claim that their theories would yield expected results (Northouse,

2005; Porter, 2004), but a particular leadership style has not been recognized as the most effective in high-tech organizations (Luftman, 2004). The leadership style adopted by a manager focuses on how the manager acts and relates to the employees to enhance organizational performance because leadership actions are antecedent to achievement of organizational goals (Northouse, 2006). Some senior managers employ the leadership style that promotes the middle managers engagement in accomplishing a goal (Hoopes, 2003). Some managers undervalue human asset, but rely on technology to provide solution to organizational problems and challenges (Stevens, 2011). Such managers believe employees needs are unimportant, and ignore the effect of employees job satisfaction and organizational commitment on achievement of goals of the organization. Some senior managers employ transformational leadership style that involves the leader inspiring the middle managers to support the accomplishment of goals of the organization (Bass, 2006). Fredrick Taylors Scientific Management Theory as cited in Wren (2005) with its dehumanizing conditions and restrictions on employee rights is adopted by some senior managers. Another leadership style is Mc Gregors Theory X management method; an autocratic style of management (McGregor, 1960). Managers who practice theory X management style believe employees dislike work and management must coerce and control them, but theory Y managers believe employees are ready to work and managers should facilitate the job instead of controlling it (McGregor, 1960). A manager can suggest solutions without imposing them on the employees on the basis of his or her organizational power, but another manager can exert high level of power over employee to achieve compliance.

Leaders constant display of effective leadership behaviors can promote admirable standards of performance in organizations. Many organizations are underestimating human capitals and fail to realize that employee creativity can result into innovation and competitive advantage for the organizations (Santos-Rodrigues, Dorrego, & Jardon, 2010). Organizations may not benefit from managers who only specialize on past management theories, but managers who can work with employees as team members to achieve organizational goals. A manager needs to go beyond the level of managing to effective leading by understanding the effect of leadership styles on employees and by displaying the characteristics of effective leaders. According to Young and Dulewicz (2008), leaders require more functions and skills than managers. A manager works with resources that include people to achieve goals but a leader requires several traits that include integrity, inspiration, determination, self-sacrifice, and clear vision to lead effectively. One primary responsibility of an effective leader is to enable followers to grow and become valuable contributors to the team. Managers who adopt effective leadership style may ensure employee satisfaction and enhance employee commitment to goals of the organization. According to Morris and Venkatesh (2010), proper understanding of the right leadership style may help senior managers in the communications industry to exercise several options to improve their leadership skills for achievement of goals of the organizations. The quantitative correlational research study may produce a new way of exhibiting leadership roles that guarantees employee satisfaction and commitment to goals of the organization. The results of the research study and the empirical data may be useful to other high technological organizations and provide the necessary leadership tools to enhance employees job satisfaction and commitment to goals of the organization.

Statement of the Problem The general problem is the relationship between managers and employees that does not always promote employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Rizwan, Mahmood, & Mahmood, 2010). Statistics from US Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that employees who quit their jobs voluntarily in 2010 were about 46% (U. S Department of Labor, 2010). Employees are an organizations valuable resource and effective management of employees should be an important component of an organizations strategy. Excessive employees turnover may have a negative effect on organizations potential and operational efficiency (Rizwan et al., 2010). Employees may leave their jobs because of discharges, involuntary layoffs, and voluntary quits. However, the cost of replacing employees who either leave or change job because of job dissatisfaction may be avoided or reduced if senior managers use their formal authority to establish positive work-related actions from the employees (Morris & Venkatesh, 2010). The specific problem is that the leadership style of the senior managers may affect the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Proper understanding of the relationship between leadership style of senior managers and the job satisfaction of middle managers may assist leaders in communications industry to adopt the leadership style that will ensure employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, and achievement of organizational goals. Quantitative correlational research design was used in this research study to investigate the relationship between the leadership styles of senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The geographical location was the communications companys corporate headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose of the Study The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The independent variable was the leadership style of the senior managers and was measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Rater Form 5X- Short from Bass and Avolio (2004) was used by the middle managers to determine the leadership styles of the senior managers as defined in Bass and Avolio (1997) full-range leadership continuum. Bass and Avolio revealed the instrument is useful in measuring the full-range leadership model. The full-range leadership model consists of the components of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The MLQ Rater Form 5X- Short was used to assess the leadership style of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers. The MLQ Rater Form 5X is useful in distinguishing between effective and ineffective leadership. Avolio and Yammarino (2008) as well as Kanste, Miettunen, Kyngas (2007) noted that MLQ 5X, a multidimensional instrument to assess leadership style is reliable for revealing leadership behaviors. The repeated use of the instrument has increased its accuracy for researchers to understand the leadership style of a manager (Hunt, 1999). Job satisfaction of the middle managers in response to leadership style of senior managers was measured with the use of Job in General Survey (JIG) survey, a survey instruments for evaluating overall job satisfaction developed by the Bowling Green State

University. Nasser (2005) as well as Onder and Basim (2008) supported the reliability of JIG scales in measuring employee job satisfaction. Onder and Basim added that the JIG scale is a popular, reliable, valid, and leading instrument for measuring employees global job satisfaction. Organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) by Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) was used to measure the organizational commitment of the middle managers. Mowday et al. defined organizational commitment as employees desire and willingness to remain with an organization and support the organization to achieve its goals. The OCQ, a 15-item and 7-point Likert-type questionnaire has remained a reliable instrument used by researchers to study employees desire, commitment, and willingness to remain with an organization (Metcher, 2005; Mowday et al., 1997). A demographic survey concerning gender, age, level of education, years with current company, and years with current manager was developed to understand the participants demographic distribution and to analyze the sub-groups of the participants of the research study. Analysis of the demographic variables established if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The research study included 166 middle managers working in the communications company, who report to their respective senior managers, and have been with their current managers for a minimum of six months. Quantitative correlational research was used to investigate the relationship between the independent variable, senior managers leadership style represented by the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and the dependent variables middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

The quantitative correlational research was suitable for this research study because the use of a quantitative method and correlational design can expose non-causal relationships that can be measured by survey instruments (Creswell, 2009; Neuman, 2006). The authors added that quantitative correlational research provides opportunity for researchers to analyze the relationship among variables. The use of quantitative correlational research provided the opportunity to investigate the relationship between leadership styles of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. A qualitative research design would not be suitable for this study because qualitative research design is only suitable to answer questions about human behavior, attitude, and perception with the intention of describing the phenomena from the participants viewpoint (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). Findings of the current quantitative correlational research study may serve as a means of promoting effective leadership style at the communications company under study and possibly in other similar organizations. The research study result may provide useful self-assessment tool for managers interested in employees job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The research study may contribute to the body of literature on leadership style and employees job satisfaction in general, and in the communications industry specifically. The identification of the effect of leadership styles of senior managers on job satisfaction of the middle managers is essential to understanding factors affecting employees job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the communications industry. Significance of the Study According to Drucker (2007), many managers control and manage the employees like materials rather than leading them effectively to achieve goals. Thompson (2008)

noted that many organizational leaders undervalue the contribution of the employees to the achievement of organizational goals and assume technology is a remedy to every organizational problem. Although many organizations have attempted to focus on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment, employees still experience job dissatisfaction (Moores, 2007). An investigation is necessary to determine possible reasons employees are not satisfied with their job and remain committed to their organizations. According to Moores, human relations problem in the high-tech industry can have a negative impact on the morale of employees and hinder achievement of organizational goals. The research study may identify a leadership style that may be appropriate for senior managers in communications industry. Because of the effect of leadership style on employees job satisfaction and organizational commitment, senior managers may learn to make necessary adjustments to accommodate the needs of the middle managers. The research study may add to leadership knowledge and literature by providing understanding of the context of leadership in communications industry. In addition, the findings may help organizations to discover strategies for ensuring employees job satisfaction and to develop a sustainable strategy for employees commitment and effective global competition. Significance of Study to Leadership Organizations usually have goals, and the goals may range from growth, market share, or profitability. Effective organizational leaders inspire and stimulate employees to achieve extraordinary outcomes for their organizations (Bass & Riggio, 2006). According to Sharkie (2009), positive organizational culture, career development opportunities, and good leadership skills are important in retaining skilled employees. When managers employ the right leadership style the skills and knowledge needed to sustain

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organizational effectiveness might be enhanced. Information from the study could help organizations to understand why some employees leave their organizations voluntarily for other organizations. The study of leadership style may provide useful guidance in identifying managers who can motivate employees toward the achievement of organizational goals. The study may generate useful knowledge in relation to leadership style and motivational behavior of employees in the organization. Results from the study can be useful to identify necessary leadership training for both senior managers and middle managers that can promote organizational effectiveness. In addition, study results may provide information for maximizing leadership potential and create a positive influence to ensure employee satisfaction. Nature of the Study The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Other research method might be useful for this research study but quantitative approach was appropriate for the nature of this study. Quantitative research method was selected for three reasons. First, quantitative method measures variables and establish relationship among variables (Creswell, 2009). Second, quantitative method can test different theories and analyze issues for larger population (Borrego, Douglas, & Amelink, 2009). Third, Borrego et al. added that the use quantitative method can determine relationship between variables and establish the validity and reliability of the research instruments.

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The correlational research design was selected to examine the influence of the leadership style of the senior managers on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the employees. Creswell (2009) stated that correlational research designs are useful in exploring relationship between variables without including the researcherimposed manipulation. The correlational research design was suitable for this study because the investigation between the independent variable leadership style, and the dependent variables, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the employees was important to the understanding of the research findings. The independent variable in the research study was leadership style that was operationalized with attributes of the fullrange leadership theory (Bass, 1985). The attributes of the full-range leadership are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. The dependent variables were the middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A correlation exists if a change in one variable effects change in another variable (Creswell, 2009). The use of quantitative correlational design provided the opportunity of analyzing the effect of independent variable on the dependent variables. Survey instruments were used to collect data for the research study. An Internetbased survey administrator, SurveyMonkey.com hosted the survey instrument and the survey responses collected from the participants of the research study. Electronic mails (e-mails) were used to invite the middle managers who work in various departments in the communications company to participate in the research study. A convenience sampling method was used to conduct the survey. The method was appropriate for the research study because every middle manager in the communications company had the opportunity to choose to participate or not to participate in the research study. The participants titles

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and position in the company were made available through the communications companys directory. Creswell (2009) suggested a researcher may develop a new appropriate instrument for a research study, obtain permission to use an existing instrument, or modify an existing instrument to fit into the research study. A demographic survey concerning gender, age, level of education, years with current company, and years with current manager was developed to understand the participants demographic distribution and to analyze the subgroups of the participants of the research study. Job satisfaction of the middle managers in response to leadership style of senior managers was measured with the use of Job in General Survey (JIG), a job satisfaction survey instruments developed by Bowling Green State University. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Rater Form 5X- Short from Bass and Avolio (2004) was used by the middle managers to determine the senior managers leadership styles as defined in Bass and Avolio (1997) full-range leadership continuum. The MLQ was used to assess the leadership styles of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers. Organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) that measures employees desire, commitment, and willingness to remain with an organization created by Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) was used to measure the middle managers organizational commitment in relation to their job satisfaction. The research study included 166 middle managers who work in the communications company, who report to their respective senior managers, and have been with their current managers for a minimum of six months. Research Questions The main focus of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction

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and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Obtaining a better understanding of the effect of senior managers leadership styles on the job satisfaction of the middle managers may provide information that may prove beneficial to communications organizations. The sample for the research study was the middle managers working in various departments in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Demographic information was collected in the research study to describe the characteristics of the sample and analyze the sub-groups of the sample. Analysis of the demographic variables established if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The demographic variables are gender, age, educational level, years in the current job, and years with the current manager. This information may assist in the development or implementation of more effective leadership style that would enhance employees commitment to the goals of the organization. The following research questions guided the quantitative correlational study. RQ1: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA? RQ2: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia? RQ3: Which demographic variable or a combination thereof moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and

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organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia, USA? Hypotheses The following three hypotheses provided the basis to evaluate leadership styles of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers at the communication company: H10: There is no significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H1A: There is a significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H20: No significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia. H2A: A significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia. H30: No demographic variables, individually or combined, significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H3A: One or more demographic variables significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational

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commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework for this study was derived from two primary areas, Bass (1985) full-range leadership theory and the range of affect theory of job satisfaction by Edwin Locke (1976). The full-range leadership theory acknowledges three types of leadership styles: transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire (Bass, 1985), and the range of affect theory assumes employee satisfaction is determined by the discrepancy between employees wants and haves (Locke, 1976). The following sections contain a summary of theories of leadership style and the range of affect theory of job that provided a foundation for the research study. The premise of Edwin Locke (1976), range of affect theory was that the job satisfaction of an employee is determined by the discrepancy between what the employee wants in a job and what the employee obtains or has in the job. The wider the discrepancy between what an employee wants and what the employee has, the higher the job dissatisfaction of the employee (Locke, 1976). Locke indicated that the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction the employee derives from a particular aspect of job depends on the value and judgment of importance the employee attached to that aspect of job. For instance, an employee who needs and values effective leadership or a particular leader style would experience job satisfaction if no discrepancy exists between the need and the leadership style employs by the manager. A discrepancy between the employees need and the leadership style of the manager might result in the employees dissatisfaction and lack of commitment to the organization. Authority and position symbolize leadership, but leadership styles illustrate what transpires between a managers and employees in an

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organization (Yukl, 2006). According to Yukl, leadership is an important factor that can create employee commitment to organizations goals. Adopting the right leadership style by the senior managers in the communication industry might ensure middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Young and Dulewicz (2008) indicated that managers can obtain the cooperation of the employees to achieve goals and objectives through right leadership behavior. The multiple approaches to leading can result in application of power and influence on employees to achieve goal (Jandaghi, Matin, & Farjami, 2008). A balanced leadership perspective does not neglect employees needs. Meeting the needs of the employees with the right leadership style can encourage employees to perform beyond the level required by the organization (Avolio & Yammarino, 2008). Many leadership researchers emphasize employees job satisfaction is, to a reasonable degree, influenced by leadership behaviors (Bolman & Deal, 2008; Morris & Venkatesh, 2010; Osterman, 2009; Yukl, 2006). The behaviors exhibited by a manager determine the leadership style adopted by the manager. Transformational leaders focus on ethical behaviors and the ability of the leaders to inspire and empower employees to achieve shared objectives (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders focus on exchange process, positive or negative reinforcement is employed in dealing with employees (Burns, 1978). Employees receive rewards such as promotion and increase in salary for meeting the leaders expectation, and receive punishment such as demotion or reduction in pay for not meeting the leaders expectation (Burns, 1978). Most often, transformational leadership is seen as a contrast to transactional leadership (Bass, 1990). However, transactional leaders are more involved in managing employees than leading employees (Yiing & Ahmad, 2009). Transformational leaders

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exceed the scope of transactional leaders by influencing employees to exceed the level of expectation to achieve increased performance (Jandaghi, Martin, & Farjami, 2007). In laissez-faire leadership style leaders give little direction to the employees and abstain from participating except to answer questions (Lewin, Lippit, & White, 1939). The pioneering study on laissez-faire was by Lewin et al. (1939) during a study of adults given instructions on how to lead boy club effectively. In the study, laissez-faire leadership style was compared with authoritarian and democratic leadership styles. Democratic leaders believe in the collective skills of the employees and they motivate employees instead of autocratic leaders who command and control employees (Kinnie, 2005). The study revealed laissez-faire leadership behavior was in contrast to autocratic leadership behaviors, but closely related to democratic leadership behavior (Lewin et al., 1939). A manager needs to perceive the leadership needs of the employees thereby aligning with the organizations need for committed employees (Gillard, 2004). Business environment requires strategic forms of leadership who can incorporate skills in role modeling, employees empowerment, effective communication, compassion, interpersonal relationship, and team building (Osterman, 2009). Application of the range of affect theory complements the full-range leadership theory by exposing the discrepancy between leadership style of senior managers and middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Definition of Terms To enhance proper understanding of terms used in the research study that focused on leadership style and employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment, a definition of terms was needed to ensure that the meanings of certain phrases presented in

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this study are understood. The process of providing a definition of terms may also help in avoiding any potential misrepresentation of data. The defining terminology for the study is presented below. Employees: In this quantitative correlational research study employees are the middle managers. Middle managers and employees are used interchangeably. Middle managers are developmental resources for organizations (Osterman, 2009). Middle managers report to their respective senior managers, implement organizational strategies, oversee departments within organizations, and maintain effective flow of information from the senior managers to the workers (Osterman, 2009). Employee Commitment: Employee commitment is the emotional attachment and the level at which an employee identifies with goals of the organization (Bayo-Moriones & Larraza-Kintana, 2009). Empowerment: Empowerment is encouraging and giving opportunities to others to excel and achieve their fullest potential (Bolman & Deal, 2008). Organizational leaders who foster opportunity to employees to develop to their full potential may ensure employee satisfaction and achievement of goals of the organization (Bolman & Deal). Bolman and Deal advised organizational leaders not to do less but use their leadership position to foster opportunities for others to grow. Goals: Goals are a projected state of affairs or a desired end-point an organization plans or aspires to achieve or bring about (Pandey, Sanjay, Hal, & Rainey, 2006). Organizations set goals such as making profits, surviving, and growing (Stazyk & Goerdel, 2011). Employees also have unsatisfied needs to fulfill, desires to achieve, and career goals to actualize within the organization (Webb, Jeffrey, & Schulz, 2010).

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Mohanty and Rath (2012) suggested that employee satisfaction is a key to achieving organizational goals. Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the fulfillment an employee experiences with his or her job and the support received from the superior in the areas of personal growth and development (Rizwan, Mahmood, & Mahmood, 2010). Velnampy (2008) described job satisfaction as the positive influence that promotes greater performance and influences employee commitment to an organization. Leader: In this quantitative correlational research study leaders are the senior managers. Senior managers are the top level members of organizations involved with strategy development and operational decision making (Albrecht & Travaglione, 2003). The authors added that senior managers include the chief executive officers and the division heads, they create strategies and the middle managers implement the strategies. Leadership: Leadership is the actions and efforts to influence the behaviors of employees toward the achievement of goals of the organization (Wren, 2005; Yukl, 2006). Leadership also includes empowering employees to accomplish shared responsibilities (Blanchard & Hodges, 2006). Motivation: Motivation is the desire to satisfy a need or want, satisfaction occurs when the need or want is met (McGregor, 2006). Hayenga and Corpus (2010) noted that motivation is a concept used to explain the factors in an individual that arouse, excite, maintain, and direct behavior toward achievement of a goal. Maslow (1954) described motivation as an interaction of conscious and unconscious needs occurring at five hierarchical levels of needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. Herzberg (1987) identified two types of human motivation: intrinsic that comes from

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within an individual and extrinsic that comes from outside an individual. Herzberg added that employees are not motivated by extrinsic factors such as working conditions and salary though they are maintenance factors necessary to avoid dissatisfaction, but are motivated by intrinsic factors such as recognition, achievement, growth, advancement, and responsibility. Organizational citizenship behavior: Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are employees actions or behaviors that supersede the basic job requirements but help in facilitating achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Jiao, Richards, & Zhang, 2011). OCBs happen as a result of employees volunteering to help willingly beyond the normal expectation of the job (Jiao et al., 2011). Assumptions The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. There were five main assumptions in this study. The first assumption was that the survey instrument would be appropriate for the quantitative correlational study. Data would be collected, analyzed, and interpreted in the ways consistent with the study design. The second assumption was that the participants would have an understanding of the computer technology to fill out the survey instrument. The third assumption was that the respondent would provide honest response to the questions in the survey instrument based on self-interest and genuine desire to participate in the study. The fourth assumption was that participants would volunteer their time with the understanding that their anonymity was guaranteed and their answers were confidential.

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The fifth assumption was that effective leadership is important in the communications industry and a key to ensuring employees job satisfaction and commitment to the goals of the organizations (Morris & Venkatesh, 2010). Limitations Limitations are factors beyond the control of the researcher (Creswell, 2009). In this quantitative correlational research study, the limitations may include four points. First, the effect of leadership style on employees job satisfaction and organizational commitment can be established in this research study, but the relationships do not designate causation. Second, some respondents may not comprehend the intent of the study fully and may therefore have provided inaccurate or wrong responses. Third, the accuracy of the result depends on the level of understanding of the survey questions by the respondents. Fourth, the study population included middle managers in a communication company located in Atlanta, Georgia, which may not be applicable to communications companies in other geographical locations. Delimitations The research study was limited to investigation of senior manager leadership style and to determine the relationship between senior managers leadership style and middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Generalization and application of the study findings to the noncommunication companies may be difficult. The focus of the research study was on a specific communication company and not every company in the communications industry. The study research study was limited only to 166 middle managers who report to their respective managers and have been with the current managers for a minimum of six months in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The exclusion of

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middle managers who have been with their senior managers for less than six months was necessary because recently employed middle managers may not possess explicit perception of their leaders behaviors to determine their leadership styles. Summary The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The study included 166 middle managers working in various departments in the communications company, who report to their respective managers, and have been with the current manager for a minimum of six months. The general problem was the relationship between managers and employees that does not always promote employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Rizwan, Mahmood, & Mahmood, 2010). The specific problem was that the leadership style of the senior managers may affect the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Chapter 2 will include review of the relevant literature on leadership styles, employee satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Historical overview and current findings will be discussed. These topics in addition to a summary of significant studies on leadership will be provided. The link between leadership style and employee job satisfaction will be examined. Connection between leadership style and employee commitment to goals of the organization will also be explored in the literature review.

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Chapter 2: Review of the Literature The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. According to (Senge, 2006), leadership style of managers has an association with employees job satisfaction and is one important reason employees leave their jobs voluntarily. Certain leadership styles may enhance employees job satisfaction, but other leadership style may result in job dissatisfaction to the employees. The purpose of the literature review was to evaluate existing research in the areas of leadership styles, job satisfaction, employee commitment, organizational change, leadership behaviors, effective leadership, and organizational productivity. A discussion of organizational structure and organizational culture was also included in the literature review to understand the roles of effective leaders in managing organizational change. The chapter was divided into six main subsections: (a) organization of literature review, (b) historical overview, (c) current findings, (d) gaps in literature (e) conclusion and (f) summary. Organization of Literature Review Scholarly books and research documents available at University of Phoenix online databases and websites provided the means for related articles and documents appropriate for the quantitative correlational research study. The online databases include EBSCOhost, Emerald, ProQuest, Gale PowerSearch, and UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertation database. Articles were obtained through title searches using topic list criteria such as leadership styles, employee commitment, leadership and employee job satisfaction, and effective leader. Other title searches include employee turnover,

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employee productivity, organizational culture, and organizational structure. Table 1 contains a summary of the literature used for the literature review. Table 1 Summary of Major Database Search Result _______________________________________________________________________ Search Term Peer Reviewed Articles Non-Peer Reviewed Dissertations Books Websites

Articles ________________________________________________________________________ Leadership Styles Employee Commitment Employee job Satisfaction Effective Leader Employee turnover Employee productivity Organizational culture Organizational structure Total 44 12 30 15 3 3 6 4 117 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 7 15 3 7 8 0 2 2 0 37 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2

________________________________________________________________________ Historical Overview of Leadership Theories Purposeful stories have been told and many books written about leaders abilities, effectiveness, competencies, roles, responsibilities, and imperfections. Leadership behaviors have advanced over time from the advancement of organizations to the industrial revolution and to the current postmodern period (Wren, 2005). Theories of

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leadership evolve as researchers seek to understand the influence of leadership in the accomplishments of goals of organizations. The view of leadership theorists included theories on leadership traits, influence of situational circumstances on leaders behavior, expectancy theory, and contingency theory (Blanchard & Hodges, 2006; Wren, 2005). As the understanding of leadership behaviors increased, prominent writers in the field of leadership such as Burn (1978) introduced transactional leadership theory and Bass (1985) introduced transformational leadership theory to describe the leadership style of every individual in position of authority (Blanchard & Hodges, 2006). The full range leadership theory (Bass, 1985) represents a continuum of leadership from lasses faire to transformational leadership. Examining the works of the prominent theorists provided the direction for the understanding of leadership styles and employee job satisfaction. The Trait Theory The earliest leadership theory was the great-man or trait theory with the assumptions that leaders were born with identifiable abilities and traits (Wren, 2005). Carlyle (1849), a historian and philosopher in the 19th century, was recognized as the author of the great man theory. According to Carlyle, leaders were born and are different from followers because of the inherent attributes in them, but missing in the followers. The trait theory assumes a leader is endowed with unique characteristics suited for leadership and the characteristics that can capture the imagination of people (Carlyle, 1849). However, efforts of researchers during the 1930s to categorize the traits and attributes that distinguish leaders from followers yielded no success because of lack of convincing support (Spector, 1997; Syptak, Marsland, & Ulmer, 1999). House and Mitchell (1974) believed that leaders are individuals who know what they want, how to

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communicate their plan to others to gain support, and who know the best method to fulfill their purpose and achieve their goals. Participative Leadership Style In Lewin, Lippit, and White (1939) participative leadership style, managers involve employee in decision-making process and make the employee feel as a valuable asset to the organization. Participative leaders include employees in identifying important goals and to develop strategies to reach the goals. Involving employees in decisionmaking encourage creativity and abilities to use talents effectively (Ismail, Zainuddin, & Ibrahim, 2010). Participative leaders can be described as facilitators rather than transactional or autocratic leaders who simply issues orders and directions to the employees. The basis for this theory is that when employees participate in decisions they would be committed to it, and it would facilitate achievement of goals of the organization (Yukl, 2006). Rather than the directive style of situational leadership that assumes leader needs one-way communication to give directions to followers, participative leadership style assumes that effective two-way communication between leader and employees would result in greater organizational performance. Leaders can employ the humanistic style of leadership or the mechanistic type of leadership (Yukl, 2006). In humanistic type of leadership all levels of employees are involved in decision-making, but the mechanistic type of leadership restricts decision-making to managers. The humanistic style of leadership is the premise of participative leaders. Managers who can practice participative leadership may promote employees satisfaction, and this may lead to achievement of goals of the organization.

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The Path-goal Theory of Leadership The path-goal theory by House and Mitchell (1974) assumed that the purpose of leadership in organizations is to stimulate performance and satisfaction of the employees. According to Leonard (2003), the basis of path-goal leadership theory was that effective leader organizes, direct, and promotes activities that lead to achievement of goals. As the name suggests, path-goal leaders clarify their followers performance, provides training if necessary, and remove any obstacle that comes between followers and organizational goals. The three major components of the path-goal theory of leadership are the leadership style, subordinate choice, and the task structure (House & Mitchell, 1974). Leonard added that four behaviors of leadership suitable in different situations are directive leadership, participative leadership, supportive leadership, and achievementoriented leadership. The variation in approach depends on the situation, the employees motivation, employees capability, and the difficulty of the task (Leonard, 2003). Leonard (2003) explained the different situations for the application of the leadership behaviors. Directive leadership is employed for unstructured and complex task to increase employees sense of security. Participative leadership is employed when the employees are expert in an area and their advice is important to achieve the task. Supportive approach is employed when the task is stressful, boring, or cumbersome. Supportive approach is useful in stressful, boring, and cumbersome situations to increase employees self-esteem and make the task more interesting. Achievement-oriented leadership is employed when task is complex and high standard is expected to show faith in the abilities of the employees. Path-goal theory implies that the same leader can display the four leadership styles. The theory also assumes that a leader can respond to specific

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situations, but many responsibilities on the leaders may inhibit the growth of the employees and make them more dependent on the leader (Leonard, 2003). Situational Leadership Theory The focus of the trait theory was on the innate attributes of an individual, but the situational leadership assumes that situational variables determine the effectiveness of a leader. As in House and Mitchell (1974) path-goal leadership theory, the presumption of situational leadership according to Hersey and Blanchard (1982) was that one particular style of leadership is not suitable for every situation. In situational leadership leaders alter their style of leadership based on situations and the environment they operate. The popular view of situational leadership theory was that leadership style should be adapted to the preparedness of the employees in relation to the situation (Hersey & Blanchard, 1982). Hersey and Blanchard (1982) revealed that the right leadership style depends on the appropriate proportion of the leadership task behavior, relationship behaviors, and the maturity level of the employees. Task behavior represents the degree or extent of the managers focus on procedures, structures, and accomplishment of goal. Relationship behavior is the degree to which the manager is supportive of employees. Maturity of the employees is the degree to which the employees are willing to accept responsibility and accomplish a task. In situational leadership model, the manager must possess proper understanding of how each leadership style fit into the situation for effective maximization of employees performance (Hersey & Blanchard, 1982). According to Hersey and Blanchard (1982), four leadership styles emerge from the situation leaders task and relationship behaviors. First, the leadership style is the telling and directing style (Hersey & Blanchard, 1982). In telling and directing style, the

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managers directive behavior is high and supportive or relationship behavior is low. The communication is one-way in telling and directive leadership style because the managers responsibility is to give directions to employees on what to do to achieve the goal of the organization. Second, the manager can employ selling and coaching leadership style (Hersey & Blanchard, 1982). Selling and coaching involves two-way communication (Lerstrom, 2008). The manager gives guidance to employees and creates opportunity for clarification and dialogue. Lerstrom (2008) asserted that selling and coaching leadership style is useful when the employees are willing and confident but do not possess the required knowledge to achieve a task. Third, the manager can employ participating leadership style (Hersey & Blanchard, 1982). In the participative leadership style, the emphasis of the leader is on two-way collaborative and supportive relationship with the follower. The manager gives opportunity to employees to be more responsible in making decisions that would result into achievement of goals of the organization. Fourth, the manager observes and monitors employees with the aim of encouraging the employees to assume responsibility for completion of task (Hersey & Blanchard, 1982). The manager does not withdraw completely in leadership roles, but the manager is less involved in providing assistance and support that will create confidence for the employees. Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) perspective of leadership reinforced the premise of Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership theory. According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958), three forces determine leadership action. These forces are the forces in the situation, the forces in the follower and also forces in the leader. Tannenbaum and Schmidt view of leadership declared that leadership style is highly variable and is determined by the combination of the leader, the follower, and the situation.

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Contingency Leadership Model Hersey and Blanchard (1982) and Fielder (1964, 1996) contingency leadership theories are similar because both theories suggested there is no best method of leading, best leadership style depends on the situation and the employees level of maturity. Situational and contingency leadership theorists believed that a leadership style may be effective in a situation and ineffective in another situation. However, contingency model provided additional assumptions not present in situational leadership (Farmer, 2005). Contingency leaders believed that it may be more convenient for managers to change circumstances than to alter leadership style because personality is relatively constant (Amiri, Amiri, & Alireza, 2010). Fiedler (1996) added that leadership style in contingency model is determined by examining three conditions. Leader-Member Relations. Leader-member relations relate to the degree of mutual trust, confidence, and respect between the manager and the employee. If the relationship between the manager and the employee is positive, the manager would be able to influence the employees toward the achievement of goal of the organization. If the atmosphere is characterized with friction, the leader-member relationship is poor (Amiri, Amiri, & Alireza, 2010; Fielder, 1964). Task Structure. Task structure refers to the extent to which employees tasks are cleared and structured (Amiri, Amiri, & Alireza, 2010). Structured tasks provide manager with more control. Unstructured tasks reduce managers control and influence on the employees. Position Power. Position power relates to the power inherent in the management position (Amiri, Amiri, & Alireza, 2010). Position power includes the level of authority

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the managers possesses regarding employees appointment, discipline, salary adjustment, and other activities involving human resource. Wren (1995) noted that formal authority and leadership are not the same. A leader may hold a position and not be an effective leader. A manager may possess leadership power and may not be effective in influencing employees to achieve goals of the organization. Wren (1995) effective managers require more than legitimate or formal authority to be effective. Effective managers make use of power and skill to create a positive atmosphere that encourages every team member to collaborate toward the achievement of a goal (Wren, 1995). Theory X and Y Management Styles McGregors (2006) identified Theory X and Theory Y on the opposing sides of leadership. Theory X assumption is that a manager must be an authoritarian leader to accomplish goal through employees. Theory Y states that a manager should adopt participative management method to achieve the goal of the organizations. McGregor presented a platform for leaders to understand employee behavior and alter the leadership style according to employees behaviors. McGregor theory X management styles is an approach to managing employees with command and directive strategies. Managers using theory X believe that average employee dislikes work, lazy, lack self-direction, and will not want to be involved in hard work. McGregor theory X asserted that managers must use coercion and directives to ensure work accomplishment. On the contrary to theory X, McGregors theory Y represents positive belief about employees. Theory Y suggested employees are not lazy, but will exercise self-control and self-direction to achieve the goals of the organization. McGregor expressed that managers practicing this pattern

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decentralize authority, ensure effective communication, and equip employees with resources to succeed. Characteristics of Theory X and Y Management Styles. McGregor (2006) presented two contradictory approaches to leadership. Theory X leaders display authoritarian management style and Theory Y leaders employ collaborative management style. Theory X leaders believe followers would not function effectively without close supervision. Theory Y leaders trust in the followers ability and encourage employees involvement in decision-making. McGregor described theory X leadership theory as an austere style of management that could lead to employee dissatisfaction, low productivity, mutual distrust, sabotage, and restriction in production. McGregor (2006) asserted that theory Y is a considerate and gentle style of management that can cause employees to perform below expectation because employees may take advantage of a permissive and considerate manager to become lazy. McGregor employed the work of Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) hierarchy of needs motivational theory to analyze why theory X management style causes ineffective management and employee dissatisfaction. According to Maslow (1943), employee motivation is an internal force or individual desire to achieve goals or satisfy a personal need. Motivation is the desire to pacify and satisfy a need or want. Maslow explained that individual needs are organized in levels (Maslow, 1943). Physical and safety needs are at the bottom of the needs. Other needs such as social, ego, and self-actualization occupy the upper levels. Maslow expressed that a need that is met does not motivate any longer. Only unmet needs can motivate an individual. Lawler (1973) added that satisfaction of the need or want occurs with achievement of the intrinsic or extrinsic motivating factors. Intrinsic motivation

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comes from the performer deriving satisfaction for performing an act and extrinsic motivation refers to performing a task to attain certain outcome, such as promotion or approval. Frederick Herzberg was also a known theorist of workplace motivation. Herzbergs two-factor theory of job satisfaction, also known as the motivation-hygiene theory stated that two types of needs can create job satisfaction (Herzberg, 1968). The needs are labeled as hygiene factors and motivators. Hygiene (dissatisfiers) factors include things such as working conditions, benefits, job security, and salary. Herzberg as well as Syptak, Marsland, and Ulmer (1999) noted that these factors can result in dissatisfaction if not available, but they can never lead to positive feelings toward work. In contrast, the motivators (satisfiers), such as achievement, recognition, striving for growth and individual expression can produce positive feelings of job satisfaction. McGregor (2006) indicated that most employees already met their physical and safety needs or dissatisfiers. The unmet needs: social, ego, and self-actualization needs remain the motivating factors. Employees expect management to create opportunity for these higher level needs or they would be dissatisfied and not motivated to remain committed to the goals of the organization (McGregor & Cutcher-Gershenfeld, 2006). Rad and Mohammadian (2006) asserted that opportunity to meet higher level needs can occur if employees are allowed to be part of decisions that affect them. McGregor was of the opinion that some organizational managers may not be able to practice theory Y assumptions without employing some features of theory X assumption. McGregor concluded that Theory Y assumptions would result in effective management and yield expected result for organizations. Managerial acts consistent with theory Y

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leadership style include delegation of power, decentralization of decision-making and participative leadership. McGregors theory Y with its basic assumption that if given the opportunity employees will exhibit self-motivation toward achieving the goal of the organization can be likened to the Bass (1985) transformational leadership style. Bass (1985) concluded that transformational leaders inspire the employees and create a bond with the employees to achieve a shared vision. McGregor theory X that assumes that managers need threat and coercion to induce employees productive effort is not only comparable to transactional leadership style, but can also result into high employee turnover. Charismatic Leadership Style In charismatic leadership developed by House (1976), the manager facilitates and sustains activities in the organization through individual actions and personal characteristics. The charismatic leader as stated by House (1976) leads by examples and influences the employees with high moral characters and positive self-image. Bass (1985) asserted that charismatic leaders make use of their abilities to articulate vision and motivate employees to join in achieving the vision. The leader formulates vision, communicates the vision to the followers, and energizes the followers to fulfill the vision by providing motivation and emotional assistance. Charismatic leaders arouse employees confidence by creating a strong bond between them and the employees (House, 1976). The bond produces enthusiasm in the employees and inspires loyalty, devotion, obedience, and commitment to the leader and the vision to be achieved. Bass indicated that charismatic leaders possess referent power that makes employees emulate them and desire to identify with them. Referent power is the potential influence a leader possesses as a result of the strength in relationship between the leader and followers (Wren, 1995).

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Jandaghi, Martin, and Farjami (2008) stated that transformational leadership and charismatic leadership possess some similar attributes, but they are two different leadership theories. A charismatic leader focuses on personal ability to formulate vision and inspires followers to fulfill the vision, but transformational leaders encourage input from the followers. According to Takala (2009), a charismatic leaders selfish presumption may not produce the desired result, whereas the self-sacrificing attitude of a transformational leader may bring admirable result. The Full-Range Leadership Theory Burns (1978) introduced transforming leadership model that suggests reciprocal relationship between managers and employees. The relationship between managers and employees in transforming leadership involves manager and employee elevating one another to a higher level of morality and motivation. Transforming leadership results into reciprocal relationship. The employees are motivated to displaying leadership features and leaders are converted into agents who shape the motives, values, and goals of the employees. Unlike Burns transforming leaders with reciprocal influence between leader and employee, Bass (1985) transformational leadership style involves the leader elevating the employees level of success by motivation employees to perform beyond their own or the leaders level of expected success. Burns (1978) noted that the differences between leadership and management are in behaviors and characteristics, and he established the transactional leadership concept. Transactional leaders establish individual goals for the employees and make use of systems of reward and punishment to achieve high performing employees and to gain employees support toward the goal of the organization (Tucker & Russell, 2004). Tucker and Russell added that the influence of transactional leaders is on the legitimate power

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granted by the authority. Such leaders dominate the employees and display low levels of leadership by making decisions without the participation of the employees (ShiversBlackwell, 2006). Transactional leadership behaviors are management by exception, active management by exception, and passive management by exception (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Bass (1985) transformed Burns (1978) transforming leadership theory and incorporated it into transformational leadership style. Transformational leadership theory has four basic aspects: (a) individual consideration, (b) intellectual stimulation, (c) inspirational motivation, and (d) idealized influence (Bass, 1985). Unlike transforming leadership in which the direction of influence is reciprocal transformational leaders influence employees into highly motivated people who transcend self-interest for the goal of the organization (Tucker & Russell, 2004). The full-range leadership theory, an extension of Burns (1978) transactional and Bass (1985) transformational theories recognizes three different types of leadership: transformational, transactional, and Laissez-faire (Avolio & Bass, 1997; Bass, 1985). The full-range leadership theory encompasses laissez faire leadership style in addition to transformational and transactional leadership styles (Avolio & Bass, 1997). Laissez-faire leadership is distinct from transactional and transformational leadership styles. Managers who practice laissez faire leadership style avoid taking responsibility, giving directions, making decisions, and ignore the development of the employees (Bass, 1985). Transformational Leadership Style Transformational leaders transform the priorities and values of the employees and motivate them to perform beyond the level of expectancy (Bass, 1985). Bass (1985) noted that transformational leaders lead by examples, creates awareness of purpose, broaden

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employees interest, and create a bond with the employees to achieve a shared vision. Bass (1985) added that first the leaders increase the employees knowledge about the significance of goal and values of the expected results. Second, leaders motivate employees to rise above personal interest for the benefit of the organizational goals. Lastly, leaders stimulate the employees by meeting their needs and act as role models to excel in leadership roles (Bass, 1985). Bass (1985) indicated that by allowing employees to grow, transformational leaders expand organizations leadership capacity. Transformational leader focuses on transforming employees with the assumption that transformed individual would possess passion to achieve goals of the organization. The transformational leadership theory has four basic aspects: (a) individual consideration, (b) intellectual stimulation, (c) inspirational motivation, and (d) idealized influence (Bass, 1985). Individual Consideration. Individual consideration is the ability of a manager to deal with each employee as a unique individual with unique needs, abilities, and aspirations (Bass, 1985). The manager assigns tasks to the employee and provides the employee with support, encouragement, guidance and coaching to achieve the tasks. Avolio and Yammarino (2008) noted that individual consideration helps the manager to provide emotional and social support to the employee. Such managers empower, support, listen, and communicate effectively with employees (Chitwood, 2010; Eliyana, 2010; Soliman, 2011). Intellectual Stimulation. Intellectual stimulation refers to the managers ability to stimulate the employees intellectually to challenge the status quo and develop creative and innovative solutions to problems (Bass, 1985; Bass & Riggio, 2006). Soliman (2011) revealed that transforming an organization to become a knowledge-based and innovative

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organization is an important feature that managers should possess in the dynamic business environment. Managers who stimulate the employees intellectually encourage expression of ideas and reasons, reexamine assumptions to make sure they are still suitable, and encourage employees to view problems from different perspectives. As a result of intellectual stimulation, employees make extra efforts to resolve issues and forecast ideas that enhance teamwork and achievement of goals of the organizations (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Inspirational Motivation. Inspirational motivation is the leadership act of motivating and inspiring employees self-confidence to achieve ambitious goals (Bass, 1985; Bass, 2008; Bass & Riggio, 2006). Managers who use inspirational motivation create meaning and enthusiasm in employees toward the achievement of the goal of the organization. The manager creates an appealing vision of the future, creates awareness of path to achieve the vision, and provides continuous encouragement to the employees to achieve the vision. Employees develop commitment to the goals of the organization because of the managers appealing approach that includes participatory management and employees personal growth and development (Bass, 1985). Idealized Influence. Idealized influence is the ability of a manager to demonstrate high ethical behaviors, set good personal examples, and sacrifice for the benefit of the team (Alyn, 2010; Avolio & Yammarino, 2008). Alyn also noted that managers who display idealized influence are known to possess humility, honesty, loyalty, and competency. Avolio and Bass (2003) stated that with idealized influence transformational leaders instill pride in employees and functions to build trust and respect in subordinates. The manager builds respect and trust that create emotional and social connection with the employees through positive leadership behaviors that employees can see and perceive

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(Bass, 2008; Bass & Riggio, 2006). Bass added that managers who demonstrate idealized influence are respected and admired as role model by the employees. Transactional Leadership Style Burns (1978) viewed the relationship between the manager and the employees as leader achieving goals through employees. Major difference between transactional leadership style and other styles is the exchange relationship that exists between the manager and the employee in transactional leadership. Burns stated that transactional leaders make use of positive reinforcement such as promotion and pay increase to reward expected performance, and negative reinforcement such as demotions or pay deduction to punish followers for unsatisfactory performance. The basis of transactional leadership style is the linkage between effort and reward, inducement and performance, and the use of power for task completion (Burns, 1978). Wren (1995) stated that the purpose of a transactional leader and the employee is related only to the transaction bargain. The purpose can be sustained by keeping the bargain or neglected by eliminating the bargain. Wren added that the leadership act in transactional leadership does not bind manager and employee together to pursue a higher purpose. Transactional leadership style causes employees to perform up to expectation, but does not encourage performance beyond expectation. Transactional manager focuses on job execution to achieve the goal of the organization not in employees growth and development (Northouse, 2006). Managers who employ transactional leadership style accomplish the exchange process through contingent reward, active management-byexception, and passive management-by-exception (Bass, 1985; Bass and Riggio, 2006). Contingent Reward. The contingent reward theory states that leaders establish terms and procedures to stimulate employees to greater level of performance (Northouse,

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2006). Transactional leader and employee adhere to a well-defined process and procedure that state expectations, reward for performance, and punishment for underperformance. If an employee achieved the managers expectation the manager will execute the reward. The manager also executes punishment for underperformance. Management-by-Exception. In management-by-exception, the manager only takes action if significant disparity occurs between the set plan and employees performance. The manager can exercise managerial role passively or actively in this area. These managers do not offer constructive advice that can enhance professional development to the employees (Seidman & McCauley, 2011). The style of leadership is considered as ineffective (Bass, 1985; Northouse, 2006; Seidman & McCauley). In active management-by-exception, the manager does not give employee any advance coaching to prevent or manage problems, but the manager watches employee closely to discover any problem. However, the concentration of the manager is to find any mistake and not to praise employees for achievements (Northouse, 2006). If any problem exists the manager takes active role to correct the problem. In passive management-byexception, the manager does not get involved until the employee could not meet the expectation. When the problem arises, the manager takes care of the problem and use managerial role to punish the employee. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style Laissez-Faire leaders offer little or no guidance to group members, evade responsibility, and provide employees with total freedom to make decisions (Bass, 1985; Yukl, 2006). According to Yukl, laissez-faire simply represents no leadership because the managers avoid involvement in conflict resolution, do not interact with employees, and

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signify no interest at situations around them. Such managers are not approachable but believe employees should solve problems on their own. Yukl (2006) posited that effective leaders promote group interactions and influence the behaviors of employees to achieve the goals of the organization, but laissezfaire leaders do not provide guidance for the employees (Sidle, 2007). Unlike a transformational leader who care for and motivate the employees and transactional leaders who provide work structure and establish goals employees must achieve, laissez-faire leaders are not proactive and reactive, but avoid involvement with the employees (Sidle, 2007). Historical Overview of Job Satisfaction The Hawthorne studies between 19241933 by Elton Mayo and his colleagues examined the effects of many working conditions on workers productivity. Though the studies revealed that various changes in work conditions can result in increased productivity, the study also revealed that other factors different from pay can determine job satisfaction (Mayo, 1933). Various authors have examined the topic of job satisfaction (Al-Hussami, 2008; Lawler, 1973; Locke, 1976; Rapti & Karaj, 2012), and many agreed that satisfaction varies among different levels of employees (Lawler; Locke; Vroom, 1964). John (1982) stated that job satisfaction means the extent to which job reward aligns with employees perception. Adams (1965) in his equity theory described employees job satisfaction and motivation in relation to a fair balance between input and outcomes when compared to others. Because employees perform the main functions or inputs that lead to the realization of the organizations goals; the theory suggests managers should treat the employees same way managers prefer to be treated.

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Lock (1976) described job satisfaction as a positive and exciting feelings or condition an employee derives from a job. Locke (1976) reported that Fredrick Taylor (1911) in his scientific management theory was among the first theorists to notice that employees subjective belief about job determines his or her actions toward the job. In Taylors (1911) scientific management managers select, train, and develop each element of employees job and employees must cooperate without making suggestions. The theory of scientific management is based on four principles. First, the manager alone understands the best procedure to employ to achieve high productivity. Second, the manager recruits and trains employees to achieve desired result in short time. Third, the manager divides the job and the process of achieving high productivity among himself or herself and the employees. Fourth, the manager harnesses and controls employees by giving reward for positive performance. Scientific management was criticized for lacking extrinsic motivation and employee satisfaction, and reducing the work of employees to repetitive and menial job for increase in organizational profit (John, 1982). The works of Herzberg (1968, 1974) and Maslow (1943) contributed to the theory of job satisfaction. Herzbergs (1968, 1974) developed the two-factor theory to promote satisfaction of employees in the workplace. The theory suggests that workplace is affected by two set of factors independent and autonomous of each other: hygiene factors that create job dissatisfaction and motivators that create positive satisfaction. The hygiene factors such as salary, working conditions, company policies, interpersonal relations do not lead to higher motivation but required to ensure employees do not become dissatisfy with job (Herzberg, 1968). Motivation factors such as achievement, interest in job, growth are required to motivate employees to attain higher performance (Herzberg, 1968). Maslows (1943) hierarchy of needs theory implies that employees seek to satisfy

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five levels of needs starting from the lower that is physiological needs to selfactualization that is the top level need. According to Maslows pyramid the five levels of needs are the physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and selfactualization needs. The needs relate to and are arranged in hierarchy of influence. Once a need is met it does not influence behavior any longer, but the next higher needs influence behavior (Maslow, 1943). Researchers developed many theories to measure the effect of job satisfaction on organizations performance. Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997) proposed the dispositional theory of job satisfaction that suggests that the personality of an employee is a key determinant of his or her level of job satisfaction. For example an extrovert may be perceived to have a higher level of job satisfaction than an introvert with low self-esteem. Judge et al. stated that four important self-appraisal factors determine an employees attitude toward job satisfaction. The factors are (1) self-esteem, (2) self-efficacy, (3) locus of control, and (4) neuroticism. The authors added that high level of self-esteem, trust in personal competence, the confidence and belief an employee possess over his or her life, and low level of neuroticism lead to employee job satisfaction. According to Spector (1997), the two basic factors that determine employees job satisfaction are the job environment and the associated factors such as interpersonal relationships, job tasks, and leadership style. Organizations desire to achieve goals and each individual in an organization has personal goals (Spector, 1997). Organizations desire to achieve goals and employees desire their expectations be met. Employees may experience job satisfactions because of factors such as personal, emotional, interpersonal, and organizational. The theories of job satisfaction reveal the factors responsible for employees contentment and fulfillment with their jobs.

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The Range of Affect Theory of Job Satisfaction The range of affect theory propounded by Locke (1976) states that job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what an employee wants in his or her job and what the employee has in the job. Locke further suggested that the wider the discrepancies between what employees want and what employees have or obtain from the job the larger the job dissatisfaction. The range of affect theory is important for the success of a manager. The more a manager is able to close the discrepancy between employees wants and haves the more likely the manager would be able to influence the employees to remain committed to the goals of the organization. The range of affect theory and theory of job satisfaction are the foundation of the study. Current Findings on Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction In the 21st century, a large number of researchers have suggested that managers could motivate employees to experience job satisfaction and succeed in the global business environment with effective leadership styles (Drucker, 2007; Kotter, 2007; Senge, 2006; Yukl, 2006). When managers and employees work together toward a common goal, they could help organizations achieve and maintain a competitive edge in the global business environment. Historically, prior researchers attempted to explore the relationship between leadership styles and organization performance (Chitwood, 2010; Ismail, Zainuddin, & Ibrahim, 2010; Wei, Yuan, & Di, 2010). Chitwood (2010) conducted a study to analyze the degree of relationship between the perceived leadership style of the front-line managers on the satisfaction and performance of enrollment personnel. The author made use of the Multifactor Leadership questionnaire (MLQ), Third Edition, Form 5X-Short from Bass and Avolio (2004) to measure the leadership style of the front-line enrollment managers as perceived by the

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enrollment personnel. The statistical criterion used by the author to establish a substantive result was a .05 level of significance. The study revealed a moderate correlation for transformational leadership and a weaker correlation for transactional leadership. Wei, Yuan, and Di (2010) carried out a quantitative correlational study to investigate the relationship between transactional leadership and creative performance and empowerment of the subordinates in a large multinational company in China. The authors believed that employee empowerment has gained attention from scholars and that empowerment involves the ability of the leaders to delegate power to the subordinates. The participants for the study were 750 team members and 150 team leaders. Questionnaires were administered to both team leaders and team members. Bass and Avolios (1995) multifactor leadership (MLQ) was adopted to measure the transactional leadership behaviors of the team leaders and subordinates were asked to rate their leaders on a seven-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 7 (frequently, if not always). The result of the study indicated that both transactional leadership style and empowerment climate in organizations were positively related to employee creative performance. Ismail, Zainuddin, and Ibrahim (2010) conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of participative and consultative leadership styles on job satisfaction of employees of a city-based local authority in East Malaysia. The in-depth interviews conducted involved six experienced employees. The information gathered from the interviews was used to develop the content of the questionnaires for the pilot study. The survey questionnaire was administered on 100 employees of the local authority in the East Malaysia. The findings of this study showed a correlation between participative leadership and job satisfaction of the employees.

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In their research study, Ejaz, Ejaz, Rehman, and Zaheer (2009) investigated the impact of effective leadership on employees of banking sector in Pakistan. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed and 93 respondents participated in the survey. The authors identified various leadership qualities such as business acumen, commitment, pursuit of excellence, interpersonal skills, and recognizing the pains of the employees. The study revealed that effective leadership qualities are useful in motivating employees thereby nurturing an effective working environment in high contact service industries like banks. The focus of many organizations is to retain qualified employees who can render quality service to their organizations and customers (Morris & Venkatesh, 2010; Osterman, 2009). Many factors can affect employees satisfaction, but job satisfaction of the employees is an important factor every manager should consider. According to House (2004) Lack of effective leaders can reduce organization performance and prevent the achievement of corporate goal. Leadership Style and Employees Job Satisfaction Young and Dulewicz (2008), as well as Yukl (2006) asserted that leadership plays vital roles in ensuring employee job satisfaction and achievement of goals of the organizations. Organizations in the 21st require managers with effective leadership practices who can manage the complex business environment and transform the organizations into a high performance entity in the competitive market. As the business environment becomes more dynamic, the need for capable and exemplary leaders would become more important. Leaders listen to understand employee behaviors and motivators. Leaders give direction and create opportunities for employees to learn and grow (Cole, 2009; OBrien, 2008; Onder & Basim, 2008; Udechukwu, 2009). Leaders communicate with followers and align followers goal with the goals of the organization. Various

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authors have tried to defined and explain leadership in different ways. However, most authors agreed that leadership is about influencing the followers to achieve the goals of an organization (Biron & Bamberger, 2011; Wren, 1995; Yang, 2009; Wilson & Madsen, 2008). Employee job satisfaction is a major research topic in organizational leadership (Bataineh, 2011). The study of employee satisfaction in the workplace is valuable to every organization because satisfaction of employees has been recognized to be closely related to increase in productivity and employee retention (Bataineh, 2011; Ghorbanian, Bahadori, & Nejati, 2012; Malik, Danish, & Usman, 2010). Job satisfaction is the positive feelings of employees about their jobs and the level of contentment with their jobs. Job satisfaction comprises employees psychological and emotional feelings regarding their jobs (Roelen, Koopmans, & Groothoff, 2008). The feelings and emotion can be positive or negative depending on the employees believe and judgment about the job. Positive state of emotion emanates from positive job experience and negative state of emotion is derived from negative job experience (Roelen et al., 2008). Factors responsible for employees job satisfaction include monetary benefits, nature of job, personal adjustment, working condition, organizational climate, and leadership style (Ghorbanian et al., 2012; Rashid & Rashid, 2011; Riaz & Haider, 2010;
Roelen, Koopmans, & Groothoff, 2008). Riaz and Haider asserted that leadership plays

critical roles in ensuring employees job satisfaction. Choi and Lee (2011) argued that employees dissatisfaction with their jobs has been a major cause of employees turnover. Employee turnover is very expensive for any organization because of its negative effect on productivity. Jiao, Richards, and Zhang (2011) argued that job satisfaction can lead to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). OCBs are innovative

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and voluntary behaviors that exceed the required performance to achieve goals of the organization. OCBs contribute to the effectiveness of the organization and enhance organizational productivity. Managers can create an organizational structure, organizational culture, and working environment that would create employees satisfaction with their jobs. Ghorbanian (2012) posited that managers should understand and employ the right leadership style essential for achieving goal of the organization. Kouzes and Posner (2007) noted that the ability to plan and make the goals of the organizational tangible is a unique characteristic of inspirational leaders. Leaders articulate an appealing vision that employees can identify with, and makes the accomplishment of group objectives an avenue to accomplishing individual advancement. Kouzes and Posner added that effective leaders honors the employees, challenge employees with high standards, give employees credit for hard work, and stimulate team spirit through constant maintenance of employees interest and job satisfaction. Transformational Leaders and Employees Job satisfaction Bass and Riggio (2006) pointed out transformational managers have satisfied employees because the managers care about employees needs and individual development. Transformational leaders use their personal attribute to sell the goal of the organization to the employees and to enhance employee commitment to the goal. Transformational leaders are people-oriented leaders and possess positive attitudes that stimulate employees to actions (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Ghorbanian, Bahadori, and Nejati, (2012) carried out a descriptive and cross-sectional study to study the relationship between managers leadership ability and emergency medical technicians job satisfaction. The research population consisted of 21 managers and 87 emergency medical technicians in

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Iran. The result stated that a significant relationship was found between transformational leader and medical technicians satisfaction. Mitchell and Boyle (2009) pointed out that transformational leaders possess the potential to manage diverse workgroups effectively. Many studies have revealed that diverse teams can produce more innovative ideas and solutions than less diverse groups (Birasnav, Rangnekar & Dalpati, 2011; Hickman, 2011; Messarra & Karkoulian, 2008). Innovative idea is important for organizations to remain competitive in the dynamic market. DellaCorte (2005) encouraged every organization to innovate because an organization that does not innovate would perish eventually. Birasnav et al. also stated that employee innovative behaviors are contingent on his or her psychological and emotional empowerment by the manager. The motivating and inspiring nature of a transformational leader can engender innovative behaviors of the employees. Wei, Yuan, and Di (2010) asserted that innovative behaviors in organizations are affected by leadership style and the availability of enabling climate. Wei et al. added that transformational leaders create a good atmosphere for employee creativity ideas, but transactional leaders reduce opportunities for employees creative performance. Transactional leaders possess predictive effect on employees innovative behaviors. Transactional leaders encourage employees to perform tasks the usual way, employing usual method to yield expected result. Transactional leaders make decisions without allowing employees participation, the employees are expected only to follow the directions from the leaders or receive punishment for not following the leaders direction (Hickman, 2010). Contrary to transactional leaders, transformational leaders engender trust of the employees, develop leadership in employees, encourage employees to propose solutions, and display self-sacrifice.

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Pseudo-transformational Leaders and Employees Job Satisfaction. Leaders who are weak in moral and ethical foundations may abuse power and display the behaviors of a pseudo-transformational (Tucker and Russell, 2004). Barling, Christie, and Turner (2008) as well as Hickman (2010) distinguished between authentic and inauthentic or pseudo-transformational leadership. Authentic transformational leadership is grounded in the four major components of transformational leadership theory: (a) individual consideration, (b) intellectual stimulation, (c) inspirational motivation, and (d) idealized influence (Bass, 1985). Pseudotransformational leaders may manifest some features of authentic transformational leaders, but they usually have personal goal and self-aggrandizing intentions (Barling, Christie, & Turner, 2008; Hickman, 2010). Pseudo-transformational leaders appear to the employees to be authentic transformational leaders, but they are more interested in themselves not in the employees. They present a deceitful vision difficult to achieve (Hickman, 2010). Pseudo-transformational leaders may be manipulative in their effort to gain the enthusiasm and morale of the employees. They do not encourage independent thoughts in employees, and they fail to uphold the standard required by authentic transformational leaders (Barling, Christie, & Turner, 2008). According to Bass and Steidlmeier (1999), inauthentic leaders are willing to reduce the number of employees to receive recognition for saving dollars for the organization and do not care to sacrifice the organization to fulfill their personal dreams. Transactional Leaders and Employees Job Satisfaction Bass and Avolio (2004) noted that 1980s researchers believed transformational leadership is more effective than transactional leadership. According to Avolio and Bass,

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an effective transactional leader could employ both transactional and transformational leadership styles to influence the performance of the employees to remain commitment to the goals of the organization. However, a transformational leader may shift into a transactional leadership style by taking control of a situation to accomplish an immediate goal (Avolio & Bass, 2002). Because transactional leadership involves the manager and the employees seeking reward for performance based on the agreed terms, the employees may not exhibit the creative potential that could engender innovation required for organization in the 21st century. Though transactional leadership is associated with higher level of task motivation, it may be effective only in a constant situation that does not require frequent change. According to Seidman and McCauley (2011), transactional leaders make decisions for employees to follow and believe employees must fulfill preset standards. Employees cannot think outside the box because deviation from set rules attracts corrective actions. Transactional leaders are task-oriented leaders who believe employees must work within the acceptable levels of success. Despite its limitation, transactional leadership is a popular approach with many managers (Avolio & Bass, 2003; Seidman & McCauley, 2011; Tucker & Russell, 2004). Pseudo- transactional Leaders and Employees Job satisfaction. Pseudotransactional leaders promise to reward employees upon fulfillment of performance, but fail to deliver the promises of rewarding employees after performance results (Avolio & Bass, 2002). Pseudo-transactional leaders are interested in employees performance, but not willing to fulfill their part of the bargain. Managers who exhibit the behaviors of pseudo-transactional leaders fail to be involved and take corrective actions anytime the employees need directions (Avolio & Bass, 2002).

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Laissez-Faire Leaders and Employee Job Satisfaction Laissez-faire leadership style that represents lack of leadership represents the most inactive leadership style in the full-range theory (Sidle, 2007; Yukl, 2006). According to Sidle, because laissez-faire leadership style is characterized by leaders refrain from providing guidance to the employees it can only be effective in situations where group members are skillful employees, motivated, experienced, and capable of working on their own. Laissez-faire leadership style might lead to situations in which project can go offtrack and employees are not meeting with deadlines because leaders are not providing guidance or feedback to the employees. Sidle (2007) posited that some employees may possess pride in their job and perform successfully without leaders guidance, but some employees may experience a feeling of insecurity at the unavailability of the manager. Such employees might conclude that the manager does not understand his or her responsibility, but depend on subordinates to do the cover up. Leadership style, Job Satisfaction, and Employee Commitment Job satisfaction is a key pointer to the feelings of employees toward their jobs and a key determinant of employees behavior such as commitment to goals of the organization (Bataineh, 2011). Employees may develop positive attitude toward their jobs and experience job satisfaction because of a good relationship between the manager and the employees. Bataineh viewed job satisfaction as a stimulating and emotional condition that an employee experiences as a result of assessment of job and affective response to the job. Job satisfaction can be determined by many factors such as job environment, level of fulfillment with job, monetary or non-monetary benefits, but leadership is an essential indicator of employee positive attitude and satisfaction level of employees (Davis, 2010).

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Bowling, Hendricks, and Wagner (2008) posited that five main aspects of job satisfaction are the job itself, opportunity for promotion, compensation, interpersonal relationship among coworker, and supervision. Employees evaluate the job with opportunity for creativity, opportunity for training, knowledge advancement, and job enrichment. Promotion is evaluated with fairness in policies regarding promotion, and employees right to promotion at the appropriate time. Employees evaluate compensation as the difference between the expected and actual compensation. Interpersonal relationship is evaluated in term of group interaction and positive relationship between the leader and the employees. Supervision is evaluated using employee inclusiveness, employee consideration, and modest supervision instead of abusive supervision. Abusive supervision may cause employee to perform retaliatory actions such as withholding organizational citizenship behaviors that may be undetected but affect the organization negatively. In a research study by Rehman, Shareef, Mahmood, and Ishaque (2012) to examined the effect of transformational and transactional leader on the employees of Pakistan educational sector. The research study found that both transformational and transactional leadership styles have a positive relationship with organizational commitment of the employees, but transformational leadership has a stronger relationship with organizational commitment. Sabir, Sohail, and Khan (2011) found leadership style to be a major influence of organizational commitment. In a research study conducted by Bushra, Usman, and Naveed (2011) to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of banking sector in Lahore, Pakistan. The authors found positive relationship between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.

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McShane and Travaglione (2007) described employee commitment as the emotional connection and psychological attachment between employees and their organizations. The commitment of employees to their organizations may be a critical factor that determines the achievement of goals of organizations in the dynamic business environment with consistent implementation of new technologies. Employee commitment to the organization may motivate the employee to make sacrifices for the organization without expecting any reward from the organization. According to Lynn and Redman (2005), a characteristic of dedicated and committed employees is self-determination. When employees only do what is in the job description or what they have to do, they are simply complying with an order. When employees decide to do more than what is required of them, they are volunteering their affective commitment to the organization. Messarra and Karkoulian (2008) asserted that employee commitment to goals of organization consists of three fundamental components namely affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. High employee commitment may result into effectiveness and positive results, but low employee commitment may lead to poor performance. Affective commitment is the positive emotional and psychological commitment an employee has for the organization that results into dedication to organizations values and goals (Ariani, 2012). Such employee feels part of the organization, stays committed to the organizations mission, and feels a sense of belonging. Continuance commitment is motivated by employees perception of lack of alternative or loss of economic value if they leave the organization (Messarra & Karkoulian, 2008). Normative commitment is employees commitment to an organization because of obligation or indebtedness. Obligation and indebtedness could be because the

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organization has invested on the employees education and the employee needs to stay back and pay the loan. Biggs and Swailes (2006) as well as Fu, Deshpande, and Zhao (2011) stated that positive correlation exists between employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs are most likely to remain committed to their organizations. Jex and Britt (2008) suggested that employees who are committed to their organizations tend to be more goal-directed and spend little time to achieve goals, thereby saving the organizations resources. Job commitment can also motivate employees to be more creative, make effort to solve problems, and use their best abilities to perform tasks effectively. Muhammad and Mahmood (2010) reported a strong linkage between organization culture, job satisfaction, and employee commitment. Organizational leaders formulate organizational culture and organizational culture defines the operations of an organization. Managers should strive to build a community conducive for employees to give their bests to their organizations. Managers vision can inspire and unite the workforce. Organizational culture should promote activities that would ensure employee job satisfaction such as job autonomy, effective communication between manager and employees, and recognition of good job performance. Employee Commitment and Job Retention The dynamic nature of the business environment and increase in competition are part of the reasons organizational leaders should employ and retain skillful and high performer employees. If an organization expended resources in hiring professionals, the attention should shift from hiring again to retaining the professionals. Statistics from US Bureau of labor Statistics indicates that employees who quitted their job voluntarily in

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2010 were about 46% (U. S Department of Labor, 2010). Employee who derived satisfaction from job would not be willing to quit such job for another. Job satisfaction and commitment act as mediating factors for employees decision to quit an organization (Muhammad & Mahmood, 2010). Turnover may have a negative effect on an organizations competitiveness. High recruitment cost, poor product or service quality, and low productivity are some of the consequences of turnover that may affect an organizations ability to compete effectively. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment reveal a positive emotional attitude toward an organization, thereby enhancing a positive influence on employees turnover decision (Bowling, Hendricks, & Wagner, 2008). Organizations might not be able to retain talented employees if the employees cannot make use of their full potentials and cannot feel important to the organization. Leadership and Organizational Culture Organizational culture is the personality or attribute of an organization that differentiates the organization from another (Rahmati, Darouian, & Ahmadinia, 2012). The culture of an organization describes the collection of norms and values shared by people in the organization. The norms and values dictate the interaction between people within the organization and interaction with stakeholders outside the organization. Cameron and Quinn (2006) stated that every successful organization possesses a unique and apparent organization culture that influences the organizations performance and effectiveness. Organizational culture is a key determinant of the effectiveness of an organization. Organizational leaders create organizational culture to direct the affairs of organizations, but few leaders give maximum attention to culture that would enhance

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employee satisfaction and efficiency (Madu, 2011). Boomer and McCormack (2010) added similar view to leaders attitude to organizational culture. The authors further suggested that leaders should maximize leadership potential in developing organizational culture that can promote employees satisfaction and promote organizational effectiveness. Researchers have stated that modifying or altering the culture of an organization can help to revive a declining organization and enhance the effectiveness of a growing organization (Madu; Mohanty & Rath, 2012; Rahmati, Darouian, & Ahmadinia, 2012). An appropriate organizational culture can promote an ethical environment that may develop people in the organization to work together in collaboration to achieve goal of the organization. Culture influences decision-making and enhance employee cooperation and promote attitudes that can promote organizational effectiveness. Leadership and Organizational Structure Every organization consists of individuals with different experiences and values, but the structure of the organization influences the behavior of the members. Organizational structure is the established task and reporting relationship between leaders and employees (Scott & Davies, 2007). Organizational structure includes formal or informal relationships as specified by the organizational charts. It states behaviors expected of members, decision-making process, and the flow of communication as stated in the organizational rules. Organizational structure influences the actions of an organization in two major ways: (1) it creates the framework that guides operating procedures, and (2) it dictates who can participate in decision-making process and how their decisions affect organizational activities. In organizations with a centralized structure, the top layers of management controls decision-making and business activities (Shane, 2009). Organizations leaders

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who employ decentralized structure remove many unnecessary levels of management and control, but place authority in the hands of first-line manager and staff, thereby increasing the span of control. Centralized structure prevents employees to use their initiatives without prior approval from the top. The management of activities is from top to down. Ozdemir and Erdem (2011) stated that removing centralized organizational structure would result into better management of individual knowledge and generate creativity and innovative thinking in organizations. Tidd and Bessant (2009) expanded on two main structures that dictate the flow of communication between members of organizations: (1) mechanistic, (2) organic structure. In mechanistic structure that is also known as bureaucratic structure, communication flows from the decision makers to the employees who act on the decisions. The flow of information from top to down provides employees with precise information of their obligations and methods of performing their duties, but the process can be too rigid resulting into employee dissatisfaction. Unlike mechanistic structure, organic structure decentralizes decision-making (Tidd & Bessant, 2009; Shane, 2009). In organic structure, authority to make decisions is distributed throughout the organizations hierarchy as needs arise. Activities are integrated through teams and coordination is actualized through positive interaction and mutual adjustments by team members. In bureaucratic organizations in which power resides only at the top, there is possibility of a manager abusing power for political or personal need instead of using it to lead organization effectively (Furner, Mason, Mehta, Munyon, & Zinko, 2009). Depending on managers behavior and leadership skill, an employee can experience job satisfaction and stay committed to goal of the organization. Leadership style can also

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make employee experience a feeling of job dissatisfaction. Such employee may decide to ingratiate the manager and stay in the managers circle or oppose the manager and quit the organization. Effective Leadership House (2004) described effective leadership as combination of various commonly approved traits that include integrity, self-sacrifice, visionary, and good performance. Sharma and Bajpai (2010) indicated that effective leadership helps nations through perilous time and organizations to fulfill missions. Effective leaders create employees who follow and contribute to the achievement of goal of the organization willingly. Wren (1995) added that effective leaders possess ability to listen to followers with empathy and respond to needs accordingly. Effective leaders spend time with employees, promote inter-personal relationship, ensure two-way communication, and strive to promote camaraderie among employees (Hofman, 2008; Ejaz, Ejaz, Rehman, & Zaheer, 2009). Hofman (2008) revealed that effective leaders are not concerned about their titles, but allow the employees to develop positive relationship with the individual behind the title. Leadership determines influence. Effective leaders inspire employees toward greater performance and win employees commitment to goal of the organization. Effective leaders create organizations in which employees grow and expand to understand the complexity of the changing business environment (Sharma & Bajpai, 2010). Effective leadership is required in business organizations because managing multicultural individuals with different interests may not be effective without the right leadership. The style and behavior of a leader focus on what the leaders does and how a leader acts in the context of employees. Dimensions of leadership styles include the extent to which the leader is willing to delegate responsibility, encourage collaboration,

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motivate employee to achieve goals of the organization, and ensure employee satisfaction (Yukl, 2006). Leaders can create climates that allow employees to excel in support of goals of the organization. Yukl further suggested that outstanding leaders influence the development and sustenance of high-performing organizations and act as organizational cantilever encouraging employees to remain committed to goals of the organization. Attributes of Effective Leaders. Thornton (2011) pointed out some teams achieve goals and some do not achieve goals because of leadership. Thornton added that effective leaders succeed at four things: (1) facing current situation, (2) recognizing opportunities, (3) explaining ideas to others to take action, and (4) creating change. Thornton expressed leaders see opportunities while non-leaders only see the status quo (p. 18). A leader who does not recognize opportunities may develop plans that do not support effective strategies and achieve accomplishments below expectation. Effective leaders describe ideas and proposals to the employees in a clear, understanding, and inspiring manner. Thornton pointed that effective leaders express ideas clearly and keep communication simple. Implementing necessary change requires effective leadership abilities. Effective leaders do not resist change but lead organizational change (OBrien, 2008). Managers in the 21st century operate in complex and dynamic situations that require systematic thinking and updated actions to handle the changing nature of the business environment. Komai and Stegeman (2010) stated that credibility is an essential attribute of effective leadership. Lack of credibility can cause employees to lose trust in a leader and not to stay committed to goals of the organization. Effective Leaders and Organizational Change. Organizations in the 21st century encounter both internal and external forces that create the need for organizational

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change (Chrusciel, 2008). According to Stotler, the external forces are: demographic characteristics, technological advancements, customer and market changes, and social and political pressure. Internal forces are human resources problems and managerial behaviors (Chrusciel, 2008). The need for organizational change has prompted researchers to focus on leadership, entrepreneurship, innovation, and ability to mobilize employees for improved performance (Chrusciel, 2008). Komai and Stegeman (2010) advised organizational leaders to make use of their motivational skills, social contribution, lifestyle, and transformational ability to facilitate change in organizations. Leadership is the dynamics of collective actions to meet various individual and organizational needs (Yukl, 2006). Peter Senge, a scientist and a lecturer of leadership and organizational sustainability who has lectured in many business schools on organizational change suggested organizations need to experience change. As stated by Senge (2006), the quest for a new leadership paradigm in organizations has increased because of the significance of effective leadership to the success of the 21st century global business environment. Leading organizational change may require the ability of leaders to deviate from authoritative and primitive leadership styles, but to embrace the leadership styles that encourage collaboration of effort between leaders and employees. Senge (2006) argued that only adaptive and flexible organizations can excel in the competitive market place and that a key to the desired change in organization is the ability of leaders to gain the commitment of the employees. Senge also added that leaders who employ the right leadership attributes to draw employee efforts may pave way for employees unwavering commitment and dedication to the goals of the organization.

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Change is a challenge to some organizations (Kotter, 1997). Effective change management should be one of the core responsibilities of leaders. Senge (2006) further suggested that effective change management is the ability to channel change process through a competent renewal process. Failure to manage change properly can result in a dysfunctional culture where employees apply outdated methods of operation that compatible with new improved methods. Kotter (1997, 2007) noted that leading a successful change is crucial to the role of leaders. Change in organizations include re-strategizing, reengineering, developing new methods of production, new technology, increase in product quality, or provision of better service to customers. Kotter believed organizations could prosper during the change process with the participation and commitment of the employees to the change strategy. According to Kotter (2007), change leaders are people who envision, initiate, and build support for change. Kotter in his eight-step model of change emphasized the importance of effective leader and committed employees to successful organizational change. The steps are creating sense of urgency, building strong coalition, defining the vision and making it a shared vision, communicating the vision, removal of obstacles, empowering employees to act, celebrating short-term win, consolidating improvement, and incorporating the new approaches. According to Kotters eight-step model of organizational change the main challenge of organizational change is not structure, strategy, systems, or culture but changing peoples behaviors. The core issue is behavior and how to modify behaviors to achieve the required change. Ivancevich, Konopaske, and Matterson (2011) asserted that successful organizational change requires change in individuals and that structural or technological change may not yield the expected returns if individuals are unreceptive to

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change. Understanding of how to change and modify employees behaviors to achieve the goals of the organization is important in effective leadership (Kotter, 1997). Effective Leaders and Productivity. The study of effective leadership has occupied special place in the field of organizational behavior (Avolio & Yammarino, 2008). Jex and Britt (2008) suggested that organizations need leaders who can cope with many challenges that can affect organizational productivity and ability to compete effectively. Vries, Jehn, and Terwel (2012) concluded that employee level of productivity positively correlates to leaders effectiveness. Employee productivity is the totality of employees performance, competency, and effectiveness in relation to output (Ahmadi & Ahmadi, 2011; Vries et al., 2012). Ahmadi and Ahmadi asserted that productivity can be measured by comparing the quantity of goods produced or service rendered to the resources invested in the production of the goods or services. The comparison between input and output determines the totality of efficiency and effectiveness of employees. Inputs in production process include labor, capital, energy, and materials. Productive employees play positive roles in achieving goals of the organization, but unproductive employees may work against the achievement of organizational goals. Jex and Britt (2008) pointed out that employees can display productive or unproductive behavior in an organization, but revenues can be created only to organizations through employee productive behavior. Employee who focuses on performing core tasks and accomplishes goal in fewer time is a productive employee. Employee who is involved in unsafe practices at workplace or struggles with absenteeism displays unproductive behavior. Losses of loyalty, work avoidance, and low morale are among the factors that can reduce employees productivity.

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Most employees productive or unproductive behaviors are driven by the leadership style (Jex & Britt, 2008). Effective leaders can increase employees confidence and trust in leadership by exhibiting positive behaviors such as delegation, empowerment, motivation, and effective communication. Leaders positive behaviors can result into employees productive behaviors such as job satisfaction, creativity, high morale, trust in leadership, and commitment to goals of the organization. Leaders who see employee as a potential competitor and feel insecure about employees development are unlikely to display positive behaviors that can enhance the achievement of goals of the organization. Figure 1 depicts effective leaders behaviors and affective employees productive behaviors.
LeaderBehaviors Delegation Empowerment Motivation EmployeeBehaviors JobSatisfaction Creativity Commitmenttogoals

Figure 1. Leader and employee productive behaviors. Figure one shows the resultant effect of leaders positive behaviors on the employees. Effective leaders possess the ability to motivate the employees to remain committed to their work and maintain high productivity for their organizations (Sharkie, 2009). A leaders poor performance may affect the morale of the employees and cause employee to display counterproductive behaviors. An effective leader does not employ a wrong leadership style to manage employees, but choses a leadership style that promotes employees performance and increase productivity (Komai & Stegeman, 2010). Employees need supports from the leader to possess and maintain productive attitudes.

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Leaders who facilitate employees productive behaviors in employees might develop leadership abilities in the employees. Gaps in Literature Existing literature has addressed employee motivation with special attention to different motivation theories such as Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs, Fredrick Herzbergs hygiene theory, Victor Vrooms expectancy theory, and Clayton Alderfers ERG (existence, relatedness, growth) theory (Muhammad & Mahmood, 2010; Hayenga & Corpus, 2010). Related studies have examined the relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance (Wiley, 2010; Stevens, 2011). Studies also exist on employee empowerment (Gill, Mathur, Sharma, & Bhutani, 2011; Spreitzer, 2007). A number of articles and books have also focused on topic of authentic leadership, as George and Jones (2005) and Senge (2006). Bass and Riggio (2006) asserted that topic on authentic leadership has not received enough attention. Though literature exists that explores factors that may affect leadership style and organizational performance, gaps in literature exists. The gaps in literature is that prior researchers have not investigated the direct effect of leadership style on employee job satisfaction in the specific environment, specific populations, and the specific geographical location of the current study. In the current quantitative correlational research study, the focus is investigating the effect of leadership style of senior managers on the job satisfaction of the employees, resulting into employee commitment to goal of the organization. The structural framework for the study is that leaders who practice effective and right leadership style could stimulate employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment resulting in achievement of goal of the organization.

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Conclusion The findings from the literature review suggest that every organization requires managers who employ the right leadership style to influence employees to withstand the challenges in the dynamic 21st century business environment (Hofman, 2008; Sharma & Bajpai, 2010; Thornton, 2011). Leadership is regarded as a critical factor in the success or failure of organizations. The literature review explored published empirical and theoretical findings on topics related to leadership styles, employee job satisfaction, employee commitment or lack of commitment to goals of organizations. Literature research also revealed that effective and innovative leadership behaviors are needed in organizations operating in the competitive business environment (Wiley, 2010; Stevens, 2011). The review of the literature also explicated the challenges of organizational leaders in ensuring employees remain committed to goals of the organization (Hofman; Spreitzer, 2007). Some authors concluded that no one particular leadership style is appropriate for all situations, but managers must use their judgment to decide on the best leadership style required for different situation (Farmer, 2005;Lerstrom, 2008). Some authors argued that leadership is directly correlated to employee performance and suggested certain leadership styles that can instill confidence in employees and promote job satisfaction (Wei, Yuan, & Di, 2010; Stevens, 2011). However, research has generated limited support for study involving highly proficient employees in highly volatile environment such as the communications industry. Considering the limited research study on leadership style and employee job satisfaction in communications industry, the current quantitative correlational research study provided valuable insights to the research done by other researchers in the field.

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Summary The purpose of the current quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The purpose of the literature review was to evaluate existing research in the areas of leadership styles, leadership behaviors, effective leadership, job satisfaction, employee commitment, and organizational productivity. The literature review findings indicated that the main objective of the right leadership style in organizations is to achieve increased performance, effectiveness, and efficiency. The majority of the studies suggested that effective leadership style is a prerequisite to the success of any organization in the ever-changing business world. The review of the literature analyzed and synthesized prior studies to extend the current research concerning leadership style and employee satisfaction. In the current quantitative correlational research study, the Chapter 3 includes a detailed discussion of the methodology used to examine the effect of independent variable on the dependent variables as well as the appropriateness of the methodology. The independent variable, dependent variables, and the research instruments used for data collection are also described in details. The independent variable was the leadership style of the senior managers that was measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

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Chapter 3: Method The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The quantitative research method was appropriate for the current research study because values can be assigned to the variables with the use of the chosen survey instruments, and the results can be compared to determine if relationships exists among the variables. The instruments used to collect data for the current research study were the MLQ Rater Form 5X-Short to investigate leadership style, Job in General Survey (JIG) instrument to evaluate job satisfaction, and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) to measure organizational commitment of the employees. A demographic questionnaire was developed for the research study to describe the participants and analyze sub-groups of the participants. Analysis of the demographic variables established if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The correlational method was appropriate because using the correlational method revealed the degree of association between the independent variable, leadership style of the senior managers and the dependent variables, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The survey instruments were completed by the middle managers of the communications company. Other research design may accomplish the goal of the research study, but a quantitative design was chosen for this current research study. Neuman (2006) stated that quantitative research is an objective and systematic method of gathering information to

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examine statistically testable theories. Burns and Grove (2004) added that the procedure employed in quantitative research design is useful in determining generalizations applicable to other population. A review of relevant literature indicated that correlational research method was the most applicable in examining the effect of one variable on another (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010; Neuman, 2006). Chapter 2 provided a review of related literature on leadership styles, employees job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The works of germinal theorists on different leadership styles were presented with research related to the benefits and problems of leadership styles, employees job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. In analyzing the existence literature in the body of knowledge the gaps in the literature were identified. The review of the quantitative approach and the appropriateness of the research design were presented in chapter 3. Chapter 3 also includes the research populations, method of data collection, sampling methods, data analysis, internal and external validity, reliability of the instrumentation, population sample, research questions, and hypotheses. In addition, chapter 3 also includes detailed discussion of the population sample, independent and dependent variables, data collection, and privacy measures. Research Method Quantitative research method was the most suitable research method for the research study because the method provides a system of understanding the association between variables that can be converted to numerical data and projected to a larger population (Creswell, 2009; Neuman, 2006). The intent of the study was to investigate the independent variable and its effect on the dependent variables. In this quantitative correlational research study, the independent variable was the leadership style of the

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senior managers that was measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Borrego, Douglas, and Amelink (2009) believed the choice of research method must be in agreement with the intent of the study and the subject under investigation. Qualitative research method would not be appropriate for the research study because qualitative research method does not collect numerical data of the identified variables and employ statistical measure to assess the result, resulting into objectivity of the analysis. In qualitative research methods the variables are unknown and the researcher is required to learn the details and the complexity of the phenomena through exploring the perspectives of the participants (Creswell, 2009). The theoretical perspective that leadership style may affect employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment suggested that a quantitative approach would be more suitable for the research study. Research Design Research design provides systematic direction for a research study by establishing the link between the studys research questions, data collected, and the conclusions drawn from the collected data (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). The authors further added that developing a purposeful plan for the research method and research design would enhance a researchers ability to acquire relevant data appropriate for the research problem. Research design is the detailed approach of the methods and process for gathering and analyzing the needed data for a research study. Considering the problem under investigation, the purpose of the study, and the theoretical framework of the study, the correlational research design was preferred for the research study over other research methods. The correlational study investigates variables in their conditions without adding

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researcher-imposed intention. The correlational research design was also suitable for the study because of the intent of associating two or more variables in which a change in one may reflect in the other without necessarily identifying causation (Cooper & Schindler, 2006). The independent variable was the leadership style of the senior managers that was measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Appropriateness of Design The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership styles of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The focus of the study was to draw conclusion from an unbiased and unambiguous result that may be useful for communications organizations. The quantitative correlational approach provided the means of analyzing the effect of leadership style on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Because the objective of the research study was to collect data from the respondents of the survey instruments about leadership style, employee satisfaction, and organizational commitment; case study, ethnographic study, and grounded study would not have achieved the objective (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010; Neuman, 2006). The sample size and the scope of study also rendered phenomenological and narrative research incapable of achieving the desire objective. Quantitative correlational research study possesses a high degree of reliability because of standardization of instruments and elimination of researchers bias.

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According to Neuman (2006), surveys for investigating quantitative variables with numerical analyses are useful in collecting information on behaviors, beliefs, and attitude. The surveys also can be employed in making deduction about data to answer research questions and hypotheses. Neuman further stated that correlational research method seems to be the most suitable research method to investigate the effect of one variable on another. An important feature of correlational study that is applicable to the present research study is examination of association among variables without implying that a variable causes changes in another. The nature or degree of correlations between two variables would be represented statistically as correlation coefficient (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). The use of quantitative correlational study would be more appropriate for the study than qualitative observations or interviews Research Questions Understanding of the relationship between leadership style and employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment provided important information that might be useful for senior managers in communications industry. Demographic information was collected in the current quantitative correlational research study to describe the characteristics of the sample and analyze the sub-groups of the sample. Analysis of the demographic variables established if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The research study investigated the following research questions to investigate the effect of leadership style on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment and to analyze the subgroups of the sample in the communications industry:

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RQ1: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA? RQ2: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA? RQ3: Which demographic variable or a combination thereof moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia, USA? Hypotheses The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The independent variable in the quantitative correlational research study was the leadership style of the senior managers that was measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Rater Form 5X- Short was used to determine the leadership style of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers. Job satisfaction of the middle managers was measured using the JIG survey instruments, and organizational commitment was measured with the OCQ survey instruments. Demographic questionnaire was developed for the research study to analyze the sub-groups among the participants. Analysis of the demographic

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variables established if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The demographic variables are gender, age, educational level, years with the company, and years with the current managers. The following three hypotheses provided the basis to evaluate senior managers leadership styles and job satisfaction and organizational commitment and to analyze the sub-groups of the sample of the middle managers at the communications company: H10: There is no significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in the communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H1A: There is a significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in the communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H20: No significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in the communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H2A: A significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in the communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H30: No demographic variables, individually or combined, significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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H3A: One or more demographic variables significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Population Population in quantitative study refers to the totality of people who belong to the same group or conform to a particular standard (Polit & Beck, 2004). The population for this research study included all the middle managers working at the corporate headquarters of the communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Approximately 300 employees are middle managers at the communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Each middle manager in the company is responsible to a senior manager. The senior managers include the chief executive officers and the division heads who create strategies for the middle managers to implement. The middle managers are developmental resources for organizations who implement organizational strategies, oversee departments within organizations, and maintain effective flow of information from the senior managers to the lower-level employees. Sampling Frame Neuman (2006) stated that a sample is a subset of the population that possesses the characteristics of the population and represents the population as closely as possible. Leedy and Ormrod (2010) suggested the correct sample size is important in any research study to avoid biased report and reduce the risk of intervention and manipulation of result. A convenience sampling method was used in this study and all the middle managers at the communications company received an invitation to participate in the research study. The use of convenience sampling method provided opportunity to the middle managers to choose to participate or not to participate in the research study. The sample of 166 as

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calculated with Raosoft sample size calculator (Raosoft Inc., 2004) was sufficient based on a 95% confidence level and 5.1% margin of error. The middle managers were from different departments in the communications company, but the data was assembled as a unit. The intent was to evaluate the effect of leadership style of the senior managers on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of all middle managers and analyze the sub-groups of the sample in the communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Survey instruments were provided to the study participants to investigate the preferred leadership style. The instruments included the demographic questionnaires to analyze the samples sub-groups, the MLQ 5X Rater form to investigate leadership style of the senior managers, JIG survey to measure middle managers job satisfaction, and OCQ to measure middle managers organizaional commitment. The middle managers were invited to participate in the research study by electronic mails (e-mails). To ensure participants privacy and confidentiality of the provided information the survey questionnaire was sent to the participants home e-mail addresses. The participants answered the survey items via an Internet survey hosted by SurveyMonkey .com. Informed Consent The informed consent form (See Appendix A) and participation in research study solicitation letter (See Appendix B) were sent to the prospective participants through their e-mail contacts. The participation in research study solicitation letter stated the importance of participating in the research study and described the process of accepting or not accepting to be part of the research study. The survey solicitation letter also stated the data collection tools for the research study and that participants contribution would involve an estimated time of 35 minutes to complete the survey questionnaire. The potential participants were informed about confidentiality and that the information

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provided would not be shared with anyone within the organization. The potential participants also were informed that individual responses would not be separated, but all responses would be combined for data analysis. The informed consent form was completed, signed in ink, and submitted by the participants before participation in the research study. The informed consent stated that the participants of the research study must be 18 years of age or older. The informed consent letter also stated that the participant would not experience any foreseeable risks and will not receive any possible benefit from the participation beyond the benefit to the body of knowledge. Information concerning the participants rights that include voluntary participation in the research study and anonymity and confidentiality of the provided information was stated also in the informed consent. The informed consent also included information that participants may withdraw anytime from the research study without fear of penalty or loss. It was also stated in the informed consent that the participants possess the right to decide if their information be included or not included in the research study and that information can be removed from the study by contacting the researcher on phone or e-mail. The participants were assured in the informed consent form that information relating to participants who decided that their information should not be included in the research study will be removed from the data and destroyed permanently. Potential participants who agreed with the terms and conditions in the informed consent checked the box signifying consent, signed the informed consent form in ink, and scanned the informed consent form back to the researcher to qualify as a participant of the research study. After receiving the informed consent form the link to the survey instruments was sent to the participants home e-mail contacts to ensure privacy and confidentiality of the provided information. The participants answered the survey items

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via an Internet survey hosted by SurveyMonkey.com. The instruments included the demographic questionnaires to identify demographic characteristics, the MLQ 5X Rater form to investigate leadership style of the senior managers, JIG survey to measure middle managers overall job satisfaction, and OCQ to measure middle managers employee commitment. At the end of the data collection process, each participant received a letter of appreciation for participating in the research study (See Appendix C). Confidentiality Confidentiality is the ethical protection of participants of a research study by keeping data secret from the public and avoiding possible linkage of information to the participants (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010; Neuman, 2006). Prior to participation in the research study, potential participants were informed that maintenance of confidentiality of the responses is fundamental to the research design. Participation in the current research study was voluntary, and the use of online technology was employed to maintain participants confidentiality. An Internet-based survey administrator, SurveyMonkey hosted the survey instrument and the survey responses gathered from the participants of the research study. SurveyMonkey upholds a privacy policy that limits access to survey responses to researcher alone through an account login procedure. SurveyMonkey protects survey instruments and ensures the security of the collected data. The survey was sent to the participants home e-mail contacts to ensure confidentiality, the completed survey did not contain the participants name and the participants were not asked not to present any identifying information on the surveys. Confidentiality was guaranteed also by assigning numbers rather than names to participants. Participant 1 through participant 166 was used for the participants. The numbers were used on every scoring sheet and testing material.

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Documents obtained in the study such as responses to the survey and decisions to participate or not to participate in the study will not be compromised or shared with anyone. No personal information or information that could identify a participant appeared in the final report of the research study. Though the results of the research study will be published as a dissertation in partial fulfillment of doctoral degree requirements and may be presented at professional meetings, the participants privacy will be kept confidential. The inform consent forms and the survey data will be stored by the researcher on a personal storage device for 36 months. Documents maintained during the course of the study will also be kept in a locked file and will be accessed only by the researcher for 36 months. At the end of the 36-months period the consent form and data will be destroyed permanently and any data stored in a locked file will be shredded and destroyed. Geographical Location The research study included 166 middle managers at a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The middle managers were from various departments within the company and have been working with their current senior managers for a minimum of six months. The Senior Business Analyst of the communications company consented to give permission to use the premises and to gain access to the participants of the research study. The permission to use the premises and access to the subjects for the research study is provided (See Appendix D. The use of electronic survey in research studies has been commended because of its many advantages that include less cost, high response rate, easy protection of participants privacy, and ability to cover large sample size in a short time (Neuman, 2006). The middle managers were invited to participate in the research study through a participation in research study soliciting letter that was sent by electronic mails (e-mails). The middle managers work in the same company and report

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to the respective senior managers. Included in the email were the nature, purpose, significance of the research study, and that participants contribution would involve an estimated time of 35 minutes to complete the survey questionnaire. The titles and position of the prospective participants in the company was made available through the communications companys directory (See Appendix E). Instrumentation Three instruments that have been tested for validity and reliability, including the demographic questionnaire were used to measure the variables in this research study. The MLQ Rater Form 5X-Short from Bass and Avolio (2004) developed for measuring leadership style was used to measure the leadership style of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers (See Appendix F). Job in General (JIG), a survey instrument for evaluating job satisfaction developed by Bowling Green University was used to measure the job satisfaction of the middle managers in relation to leadership style of the senior managers (See Appendix G). Organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) that measures employees desire, commitment, and willingness to remain with an organization created by Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) was used to measure organizational commitment of the middle managers (See Appendix H). The instruments were appropriate based on prior reliability and validity and because they provide relevant questions that allows participants to remain focus on the topics, reducing the likelihood of errors. A demographic questionnaire concerning gender, age, level of education, years with current company, and years with current manager was used to describe the participants and analyze the sub-groups of the participants (See Appendix I).

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Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Rater Form 5X- Short The MLQ Form 5X-Short Rater Form from Bass and Avolio (2005) was used by the middle managers to assess the leadership styles of the senior managers. The MLQ 5X consists of 45-item, 5-point Likert-type scale that identifies transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The responses in the five-point Likerttype scale are not at all, once in a while, sometimes, fairly often, or frequently, if not always. The MLQ 5X was useful to evaluate the middle managers acceptance of each leadership behavior. The sub-scales in the MLQ 5X is based on (a) the elements of transformational competencies: individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, inspirational motivation; (b) three transactional competencies: contingent reward, active management-by-exception, passive management-by exception; and (c) the laissez-faire leadership style. Bass and Avolio (2004) noted the MLQ 5X can reveal the impact of different leaders on subordinates, teams, and achievement of organizational goals. Using the MLQ 5X to assess leadership style is a significant development for the leadership research community (Bass & Avolio), and the survey instrument has been used to measure leadership style in many research studies (Kanste, Miettunen, & Kyngas, 2007). The authors also noted that the MLQ is a valid and prominent leadership style survey that can be integrated into leadership development programs. The use of the MLQ 5X for this research study revealed if the senior managers in the communications company adopt a transformational, transactional, or laissez-faire leadership style and to determine the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the adopted leadership style. Mind Green Inc. is the publisher of the MLQ 5X survey, the permission to use the MLQ 5X was be obtained from the organization (See Appendix J).

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An alternative instrument to evaluate leadership style in this research study is the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) by Kouzes and Posner (2007). Though the Kouzes and Posner instrument is rated high in reliability and validity, it was not appropriate for the research study because the instrument is more useful in a workshop-type or group training environment. Major components of the LPI are the five leadership practices (Kouzes & Posner, 2007). The leadership practices are model the way, challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging the heart, and enabling others to act. Job in General (JIG) Questionnaire Job in General (JIG) survey developed by Bowling State University is a widely used instrument for evaluating job satisfaction in organizations (Nasser, 2005). Nasser stated that the JIG is useful in evaluating job satisfaction from every aspect of job including leadership style of the manager. The participants in the research study were expected to answer 18 questions on JIG scales to evaluate their overall job satisfaction. The participants answered yes, no, or ? if uncertain about the short and easy-to-understand word or phrase that describes job satisfaction. Permission to use the JIG was obtained from Bowling Green University, the inventor of the survey questionnaires (See Appendix K). The JIG has been proven effective at measuring overall job satisfaction in both private and public organizations (Balzer, Kihm, Smith, Irwin, Bachiochi, & Robie, 2000; Yang, 2009). One alternative job satisfaction survey available to measure job satisfaction is the Job Descriptive Index also invented by the Bowling Green University. The JDI is useful in examining five facets of job satisfaction. The five facets of job satisfaction are (a) present job, (b) present pay, (c) promotion opportunity, (d) supervision, and (e) coworkers. Employees evaluate their present jobs by assessing opportunity for creativity,

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autonomy, task variety, knowledge acquisition, compensation (Yang, 2009). Because the instrument emphasizes the job characteristics not employees psychological and emotional feelings that can result into satisfaction or dissatisfaction about job, the instrument was not appropriate for this research study. Job in General (JIG) that measures overall job satisfaction including employees feelings and emotions and has been validated by numerous empirical studies (Balzer, Kihm, Smith, Irwin, Bachiochi, & Robie, 2000; Nasser, 2005; Yang, 2009) was preferred for this research study. Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) Organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) by Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) was used to measure the organizational commitment of the middle managers. The OCQ scale measures employees belief in the organization, the acceptance and support for the goals of the organization, willingness of the employee to expend effort for the organization, and employee desire to remain a committed member of the organization (Mowday et al., 1979). The instrument is designed to measure the affective commitment of employees to an organization. Affective commitment is the positive emotional and psychological commitment an employee has for the organization that results into dedication to organizations values and goals (Ariani, 2012). Such employee feels part of the organization, experiences a sense of belonging, and stays committed to the goals of the organization. The OCQ consists of a 15 question, 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree except the negatively worded items for questions 3, 7, 9, 11, 12, and 15 that require reverse scoring. The Employee Commitment Survey (TSM) is an alternative organizational commitment instrument that can be used in this research study. The TSM measures three types of commitment that are affective commitment, normative commitment, and

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continuance commitment (Meyer & Allen, 2004). Continuance commitment is motivated by employees perception of lack of alternative or loss of economic value if they leave the organization and normative commitment is employees commitment to an organization due to obligation or indebtedness (Messarra & Karkoulian, 2008). The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) that measures the positive emotional and psychological desire and commitment an employee has for the organization that results into dedication to organizations values and goals was appropriate for this research study. According to Kiefer et al. (2005), OCQ is in the public domain and its availability is free for research studies. However, request for permission to use the OCQ was made and Dr. Rick Mowday one of the authors of the instrument confirmed freedom to use the instrument without permission (See Appendix L). Demographic Questionnaire Demographic information was collected in the research study to describe the characteristics of the participants, to understand the demographic distribution of the participants, and to analyze the sub-groups of the participants of the research study. Analysis of the demographic variables established if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Included in the demographic survey are gender, age, highest educational level completed, year with current company, and year with current manager. Data Collection A sample size of 166 middle managers was ideal for the statistical analysis of the relationship between senior mangers leadership style, the independent variable and middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment, the dependent

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variables as suggested by (Raosoft, Inc., 2004). The middle managers who agreed with the terms and conditions in the informed consent checked the box signifying consent, signed the informed consent form in ink. The middle managers then scanned the informed consent form to the researcher to qualify as the participants of the research study. The link to the survey instruments was sent to the respondents after receiving the signed informed consent. The link to the survey instruments was sent to the participants home e-mail contacts to ensure privacy and confidentiality of the provided information. Survey Monkey.com, a professional firm and Internet based that renders service in developing and disseminating survey to the public hosted the survey. Data was collected for the research study with preexisting validated instruments and a demographic tool developed by the researcher. Three preexisting validated instruments were the Multifactor Leaders Questionnaire (MLQ) 5X Rater Form, Job in General (JIG) survey, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). Survey reminder letter was sent to the respondents every week to increase the response rate (See Appendix M). The estimated time for the survey completion was 35 minutes. The 166 required responses for the survey questionnaire was achieved within a period of four weeks. Once the 166 completed responses were achieved, the data were accessed for analysis. The data were presented in aggregate form and did not include personal information that can be used to identify the each respondent. Data Analysis Creswell (2009) as well as Neuman (2006) stated that raw data must be reorganized systematically and coded before hypotheses can be tested. After the required response to survey was achieved, the data analysis procedures for the current research study began by downloading the survey data from the Internet-based survey administrator

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(SurveyMonkey) into a Microsoft Excel worksheet to code the responses. Only completed surveys were used for data analysis. Excluding invalid responses enhanced the validity of the participant responses. The data from the survey recorded in the Excel spreadsheet and numerical values were assigned to each participants response. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Bass and Avolio (2004) recommended that mean scores be calculated for questions that relate to each sets of leadership behavior representing specific leadership style. The transformational leadership has four basic aspects: (a) individual consideration, (b) intellectual stimulation, (c) inspirational motivation, and (d) idealized influence (Bass, 1985). The transactional leadership measures are the contingent reward, active management-by-exception, and passive management-by-exception (Bass, 1985; Bass and Riggio, 2006). The laissez-faire leadership that is the hands off leadership style represents no leadership. The statistical analysis for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0 was used to analyze the data for the current quantitative correlational research study. The statistical analysis SPSS Version 20.0 was used to collate and analyze data to calculate descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum for each leadership style, overall job satisfaction (JIG), and organizational commitment (OCQ). Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistical techniques were used in the research to present information that describes the data. Descriptive statistics makes the overview of data collected about the variables possible for researcher to access the reliability and validity of the data (Neuman, 2006). Descriptive analysis was conducted on the sample data to describe the mean and the standard deviation. Mean and standard deviation were calculated to summarize the data. Standard deviation was used to measure variability

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because it is a comprehensive measurement of variability in research studies (Neuman, 2006). The standard deviation was used to describe the variability of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationships between the variables to measure the leadership style of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers and the effect on the middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment as stated in the hypotheses. Pearson correlation test also was used to measure the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. The relationship between leadership style and organizational commitment also was measured with Pearson correlation test. A correlation existed if the independent variable of leadership style (transformational, transactional, or laissez-faire leadership styles) as measured by MLQ 5X Rater form and the dependent variable of organizational commitment as measured by OCQ vary in either positive or negative direction. Pearson correlation coefficient is useful to indicate the strength and the direction of linear relationship that exists between variables (Neuman, 2006). The correlation coefficient, referred to as (r) can take a value between 1.0 and + 1.0. Positive correlation indicates the variables increase or decrease together and negative correlation reveals that as one variable increases the other decreases, and vice versa. Relationships between variables were described as weak, moderate, and strong. Higher value of correlational coefficient indicated strong association between variables, lower value indicated a lower relationship, and zero value revealed no relationship between variables. Leedy and Ormrod (2010) stated that values close to zero and between .15 .22 indicate weak correlations, .40 .50

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represent moderate correlations, and values between .76 1.0 indicate strong correlations. As stated by Cohen (1988), values between .10 .29 indicate weak correlations, .30 49 represent moderate correlations, and values between .50 1.0 represent strong correlations. Cohen (1988) correlational range analysis was applied in the current research study. The 95% confidence level and 5.1% margin of error was used for all the statistical tests. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Demographic information was collected in the research study to understand the demographic distribution of the participants and to analyze the sub-groups of the participants of the research study. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to analyze if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The demographic factors are gender, age, highest educational level completed, year with current company, and year with current manager. ANOVA was conducted for each demographic variable to determine the differences in the perception of leadership style among the different demographic groups. A result of any value greater than .05 indicated no significant relationship between a demographic variable and the middle managers perception of senior managers leadership style (Black, 1999). Scheffe post hoc tests were conducted to compare the sub-groups of respondents and their perception of the leadership style of the senior managers. Multiple Regression Analysis Creswell (2009) suggested multiple regression equation is used to predict and analyze the relationship between multiple variables. Leedy and Ormrod (2010) added that a multiple regression analysis is useful if two or more independent variables are used

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to examine and predict the dependent variable. The main purpose of multiple regression analysis in this research study was to understand the functional relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis also was used to predict job satisfaction and organizational commitment using the five demographic variables along with the three leadership styles. The ANOVA tables resulting from the multiple regressions analysis display the results of the F test for determining the percentage of the total variation in the dependent variables as a result of the independent variables. Neuman (2003) stated that the level of significance p-value in a research study should be set at 0.05 to establish 95% confidence that results are as a result of relationship and not a chance occurrence. To test the null hypotheses in the research study, the level of significance was established at p-value of 0.05. The p-value represented the strength of the null hypothesis. Low p-value of less than .01 signifies a strong reason for rejecting the null hypothesis. However, p-value higher than .05 indicates an insufficient reason to reject the null hypothesis and p-value of .01 to .05 signifies adequate evidence against the null hypotheses (Neuman, 2003). Validity and Reliability Validity establishes the accuracy of a research study and the generalizability of instrumentation and results (Neuman, 2006). The author added that reliability shows the consistency of the instrumentation and result of a research. The use of MLQ 5X Rater form, JIG, and OCQ provided the basic validity and reliability for the research study (Avolio & Bass, 2004; Nasser, 2005). The reliability and validity are covered in the following sections.

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Internal Validity and External Validity Internal validity shows the extent to which the study confirms the relationship between independent and dependent variable (Vogt, 2007). Internal validity also refers to the effectiveness and the ability of the research instrument in measuring the variables (Neuman, 2006). External ability occurs when the results of a research study extend beyond the sample size and is generalizable to the population (Vogt, 2007). External validity is not focused on the effect of independent variable on the dependent variable, but whether the result of the research study can be generalized to a different group of participants or a larger population. Avolio and Bass (2004) endorsed the validity of the MLQ 5X Rater instrument for accuracy and generalizability. Nasser (2005) as well as Onder and Basim (2008) supported the use of JGI as a true measure of accuracy and generalizability. Metcher (2005) noted the OCQ has remained a reliable instrument used by researchers to study employees desire, commitment, and willingness to remain with an organization. Although the sampling technique (convenience sampling) may be a potential threat to the validity, all the middle managers who met up with the requirements of the research study had the opportunity to participate in the research study. The middle managers must have been working with the communications organizations for a minimum of six months and must be responsible to their various senior managers. The findings in the current research study might be useful to communications companies with similar features such as companys size, demographic variables, and leadership behaviors. Reliability Reliability is the ability of an instrument to demonstrate consistence results in repeated applications (Borrego, Douglas, & Amelink, 2009). The MLQ 5X Rater form has been administered to several individuals and results have revealed test-retest reliability

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at adequate and applicable levels for scientific research (Avolio & Bass, 2004; Kanste Miettunen, & Kyngas, 2007). The research studies conducted by the authors supported the reliability of the 5X Rater instrument. Hwang and Chi (2005) supported the reliability of the JIG survey instrument. The authors stated that the survey instrument is available in different languages and is used to collect data in several countries. The OCQ is the first overall commitment measure considered to be reliable and valid (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979) and the most widely used organization commitment instrument (Meyer & Allen, 2004). Summary The purpose of the current quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership styles of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The MLQ Rater Form 5X-Short from Bass and Avolio (2005) was used to measure the leadership style of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers. Job in General (JIG) was used to measure the job satisfaction of the middle managers in relation to leadership style of the senior managers. Organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) was used to measure organizational commitment of the middle managers. The demographic questionnaire was used to establish if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The current quantitative correlational research study derived its conclusions by analyzing the data provided by the study participants. The independent variable was the leadership style of the senior managers that was measured with the attributes of

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transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The results of this study provided useful knowledge in relation to leadership style that might enhance organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Chapter 4 included a discussion of the results based on the analysis that resulted in accepting or rejecting the hypotheses of the current research study.

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Chapter 4: Results The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Understanding of the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction of the middle managers can assist leaders in communications industry to adopt the leadership style that can ensure employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, and achievement of organizational goals. The current research study included 166 middle managers working in the communications company, who report to their respective senior managers, and have been with their current managers for a minimum of six months. The quantitative correlational research was chosen for this research study because the use of a quantitative method and correlational design can expose non-causal relationships that can be measured by survey instruments (Creswell, 2009; Neuman, 2006). The independent variable examined in the research study was the leadership style of the senior managers measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Demographic data on the study participants were also presented and analyzed in the research study. The analysis of the demographic variables established if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The demographic variables were gender, age, educational level, years with the company, and years with the current managers.

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Chapter 3 included the description of the appropriate methodology, research design, data collection procedure, and data analysis methodology used in the current quantitative correlational study. Chapter 4 includes data presentation and results of the current quantitative correlational research study investigating the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Research Questions The research questions were designed to provide information related to the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in the communications industry. Information about the respondents demographic variables was included also in the research questions. Chapter 4 presents a summary of the analysis that addresses the three research questions related to the research study. RQ1: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA? RQ2: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia? RQ3: Which demographic variable or a combination thereof moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia, USA?

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Hypotheses Chapter 4 contains the summary of the data analysis and findings to accept or reject the hypotheses. The hypotheses provided the basis to evaluate leadership styles of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers at the communication company. Included in the hypotheses was the basis to analyze if any of the demographic variables or a combination thereof moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The following hypotheses were addressed in the current quantitative correlational research study: H10: There is no significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H1A: There is a significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H20: No significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia. H2A: A significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia.

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H30: No demographic variables, individually or combined, significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H3A: One or more demographic variables significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Data Collection Data was collected for the current quantitative correlational research study with preexisting validated instruments and a demographic tool developed by the researcher. Three preexisting validated instruments were the Multifactor Leaders Questionnaire (MLQ) 5X Rater Form, Job in General (JIG) survey, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Rater Form 5XShort was used to determine the leadership style of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers. The JIG survey was used to measure the level of job satisfaction of the middle managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers was measured with the OCQ survey. The demographic survey questionnaire was used to describe the characteristics of the sample and analyze the sub-groups of the sample. The demographic data consisted of the following variables: (a) gender, (b) age, (c) highest education, (d) years with current company, and (e) years with the current manager. The demographic data were used to analyze if any of the demographic variables or a combination of the variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the

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senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. A sample size of 166 middle managers required in the current research study to investigate the relationship between senior managers leadership style and middle managers job satisfaction and organizational commitment was calculated with the use of Raosoft sample size calculator (Raosoft, Inc., 2004). Informed consent and participation in research solicitation letter were sent to the middle managers in the communications organization. The middle managers who agreed with the terms and conditions in the informed consent checked the box signifying consent, signed the informed consent form in ink. The middle managers scanned the informed consent form to the researcher to qualify as the participants of the research study. The link to the survey instruments was sent to the respondents after the researcher received the signed informed. The link to the survey instruments was sent to the participants home e-mail contacts to ensure privacy and confidentiality of the provided information. Survey Monkey.com, an Internet site that renders service in developing and disseminating survey to the public hosted the survey (Survey Monkey, 2007b). A total of 177 middle managers responded to the survey, but 6 were returned uncompleted. Survey reminder letter was sent to the respondents every week to increase the response rate. The first 166 completed responses were included in the current research study. The 166 required responses for the survey questionnaire were achieved within a period of four weeks. Once the 166 completed responses were achieved the data were accessed for analysis. The data collected in the current research study were compiled and reported in aggregate form. The data did not include any identifying information to maintain the anonymity of the participants.

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Sample Size The sample size for the current quantitative correlational research study consisted of the middle managers in the communications organization who have worked with the organization for at least six months and report to their respective senior managers. A convenience sampling technique was chosen and used for the study. Because convenience sampling involves self-selection of participants every middle manager who has worked with the communications organization for at least six months and report to their respective senior managers had opportunity to participate in the study. The sample size for the current research study included 166 middle managers who have worked with the organization for a minimum of six months, who reports to their respective managers, and answered all the questions in the survey. Table 3 provides the total number of respondents included in the data analysis. More men (59.0%) than women (41.0%) participated in the research study. Table 2 Sample Description ________________________________________________________________________ Frequency Percentage Valid Percent Cumulative Percent ________________________________________________________________________ 1.00 Female 2.00 Male 68 98 41.0 59.0 41.0 59.0 41.0 100.00

________________________________________________________________________

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Participation and Demographics More men (59.0%) than women (41.0%) participated. Ages of the respondents ranged from 18 to 56 years with 60.8% being between 31-43 years. Ninety-four percent of the sample had at least a bachelors degree and 56.0% also had earned a masters degree or higher. Years with the current company ranged from six months to 15 years and 57.7% of the participants had been with the company at least five years. Years with the current manager ranged from six months to 14 years with over half the respondents (57.2%) having been with their current managers for two years or less. Table 3 displays the frequency counts for selected variables.

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Table 3 Frequency Counts for the Demographic Variables (N = 166) _______________________________________________________________________ Variable Gender Female Male Age 18-30 31-43 44-56 Highest education High School Diploma College/Associate degree Bachelors degree Masters degree Post-Masters studies Years with current company 6 months-4 years 5-10 years 11-15 years 67 78 21 40.4 47.0 12.7 3 7 63 92 1 1.8 4.2 38.0 55.4 0.6 33 101 32 19.9 60.8 19.3 68 98 41.0 59.0 Category n %

________________________________________________________________________

Years with current manager 6 months -2 years 3-6 years 7-10 years 11-14 years 95 58 12 1 57.2 34.9 7.2 0.6

______________________________________________________________________

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Results and Analysis Descriptive statistics included the analysis of the collected data with the calculation of the means, standard deviations, minimums, and maximums for the variables. The independent variable examined in the current quantitative correlational research study was the leadership style of the senior managers measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The dependent variables were the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The data collected for the current research study was entered into an Excel spreadsheet and statistical analysis SPSS Version 20.0 was used for data analysis. The descriptive statistics for the independent and dependent variables were calculated to compare the summary of the scores for each variable. These included the scores for organizational commitment (M = 4.59) and job satisfaction (M = 2.40) as well as the three leadership scores. The highest rated leadership score was transactional (M = 2.73), followed by transformational leadership (M = 2.59) and laissez-faire leadership (M = 1.01). Table 4 displays the descriptive statistics for the research variables.

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Table 4 Descriptive Statistics for the Research Variables (N = 166) ______________________________________________________________________ Research Variable M SD Minimum Maximum

________________________________________________________________________ Organizational commitment Job satisfaction Laissez-faire Leadership Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Note: M = Mean; SD = standard deviation The correlation coefficient, referred to as (r) can take a value between 1.0 and + 1.0. Positive correlation indicates the variables increase or decrease together and negative correlation reveals that as one variable increases the other decreases, and vice versa (Cohen, 1988). Neuman (2003) stated that the level of significance p-value in a research study should be set at 0.05 to establish 95% confidence that results are as a result of relationship and not a chance occurrence. To test the null hypotheses in the research study, the level of significance was established at p-value of 0.05. The p-value represented the strength of the null hypothesis. Low p-value of less than .01 signifies a strong reason for rejecting the null hypothesis. However, p-value higher than .05 indicates an insufficient reason to reject the null hypothesis and p-value of .01 to .05 signifies adequate evidence against the null hypotheses (Neuman, 2003). 4.59 2.40 1.01 2.59 2.73 0.62 0.45 0.92 0.44 0.54 3.07 0.72 0.00 1.25 1.50 6.60 3.00 3.75 3.70 3.88

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As a preliminary set of analyses, the results of the Pearson product- moment correlations for job satisfaction and organizational commitment for the three leadership and the five demographic variables are displayed in table 5. In the table are the 17 correlations coefficients r (18 values for job satisfaction and organizational commitment except 1.00 that is a whole number). The p-values are referenced by the asterisks. For the 17 correlations, seven were significant at the p <.05 level. Specifically, a higher level of job satisfaction was related to lower levels of laissez-faire leadership (r = -.20, p < .01 and higher levels of transformational leadership (r = .56, p <.001). Job satisfaction was positively related to higher levels of organizational commitment (r = .71, p <.001). In addition, higher level of organizational commitment was: (a) negatively related to laissezfaire leadership (r = -.38, p <.001); (b) positively related to transformational leadership (r = .44, p <.001); (c) negatively related to age (r = -.30, p <.001); and (d) negatively related to education (r = -.18, p <.05).

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Table 5 Pearson Correlations for Demographic Variables with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment (N = 166) ______________________________________________________________________ Variable Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment _____________________________________________________________________ r p r p _________________________________

Job Satisfaction Laissez-faire Leadership Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Gender a Age category Highest education Years with current company

1.00 -.20 .56 -.05 -.10 -.08 -.13 .07 ** ****

.71 -.38 .44 -.04 -.08 -.30 -.18 -.07

**** **** ****

**** *

Years with current manager .09 -.01 ______________________________________________________________________ Note: p = probability, r = correlations coefficients. *p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .005. **** p < .001. a Gender: 1 = Female 2 = Male. Research Question One The first research question for the current quantitative correlational research study was: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA? In the related null hypothesis, it was predicted: There is no significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle

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managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. It was stated in the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Research question one was addressed by testing the strength and significance of the relationship between the independent variable (leadership style) and dependent variable (job satisfaction). Table 6 displays the results of the multiple regression model examining the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. The overall ANOVA model was significant (p = .001) and accounted for 48.6% of the variance in job satisfaction. Inspection of the table revealed job satisfaction to be higher for respondents who had managers who exhibited: (a) less laissez-faire leadership ( = -.31, p = .001); (b) more transformational leadership ( = .73, p = .001); and (c) less transactional leadership ( = .23, p = .001). The combination of the findings revealed there is a relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in the communications company. Transformational leadership was a strong predictor of job satisfaction and related positively to job satisfaction in the communications company. Hence, the result of the research study provided support to reject the null hypothesis and retain the alternative hypothesis.

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Table 6 Relationship between Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction (N = 166) ______________________________________________________________________ B Intercept Laissez-faire Leadership Transformational Leadership 1.09 -0.16 0.76 SE 0.18 0.03 0.06 -.31 .73 p .001 .001 .001 _____________________________________________________________________

Transactional Leadership -0.19 0.05 -.23 .001 _______________________________________________________________________ Note. Full ANOVA Model: F (3, 162) = 51.04, p = .001. R2 = .486. B = unstandardized regression coefficients, SE = standard error, = population values of regression coefficients, p = probability, F = degree of freedom, R2 = coefficient of determination. Research Question Two The second research question for the current quantitative correlational research study was: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia? The related null hypothesis predicted: No significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia. The alternative hypothesis stated: A significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia. To answer the research question, table 7 displays the results of the multiple regression model examining the relationship between leadership style and organizational commitment. The overall ANOVA model was

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significant (p = .001) and accounted for 45.9% of the variance in organizational commitment. Inspection of the table revealed organizational commitment to be higher for respondents who had managers who exhibited: (a) less laissez-faire leadership ( = -.50, p = .001); and (b) more transformational leadership ( = .62, p = .001). The extent that the manager exhibited transactional leadership was not related to organizational commitment ( = -.10, p = .11. The combination of the findings revealed there is a relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and organizational commitment of the middle managers in the communications company. Transformational leadership was a strong predictor of organizational commitment and related positively to job satisfaction in the communications company. The result of the research study provided support to reject the null hypothesis and retain the alternative hypothesis. Table 7 Relationship between Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment (N = 166) ______________________________________________________________________ B Intercept Laissez-faire Leadership Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership 2.97 -0.33 0.88 -0.12 SE 0.25 0.04 0.09 0.08 -.50 .62 -.10 p .001 .001 .001 .11 ______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ Note. Full ANOVA Model: F (3, 162) = 45.90, p = .001. R2 = .459 B = unstandardized regression coefficients, SE = standard error, = population values of regression coefficients, p = probability, F = degree of freedom, R2 = coefficient of determination.

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Research Question Three The third research question for the current quantitative correlational research study was: Which demographic variable or a combination thereof moderates the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia, USA? The related null hypothesis predicted: No demographic variables, individually or combined, significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This hypothesis was addressed in two ways: one way ANOVA models were conducted to determine whether differences existed in the perception of leadership styles among the different demographic groups (Tables 8-12). Multiple regression models were created predicting job satisfaction (Table 13) and organizational commitment (Table 14) using the five demographic variables along with the three leadership scores as predictors. Table 8 displays the results of the one-way ANOVA tests for the three leadership scores based on gender. Female respondents perceived their managers as exhibiting significantly more laissez-faire leadership behaviors (p = .001) and more transformational leadership behaviors (p = .001).

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Table 8 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Gender (N = 166) ________________________________________________________________________ Leadership Style Gender n M SD F p ________________________________________________________________________ Laissez-faire Female Male Transformational Female Male Transactional Female 68 2.77 0.51 68 98 2.76 2.48 0.50 0.34 .07 0.72 .40 68 98 1.37 0.76 0.91 0.84 .32 18.72 .001 .33 19.60 .001

Male 98 2.70 0.55 ________________________________________________________________________ Note. Ratings based on a 5-point scale: 0 = Not at all to 4 = Frequently, if not always. n = number in each group, M = Mean, SD = standard deviation, = linear predictor, F = degree of freedom, p = probability. Significant differences were noted for the perceptions of laissez-faire leadership based on age group (p = .05). Scheffe post hoc tests found respondents in the 44 to 56 year-old group (M = 1.35) (p = .07) tended to have perceived their managers as exhibiting more laissez-faire leadership behaviors than respondents in the 18 to 30-year-old group (M = 0.83). No other Scheffe post hoc differences were significant at the p <.10 level. Table 9 displays the results of the one-way ANOVA tests for the three leadership scores based on age group.

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Table 9 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Style Based on Age Group (N = 166) ________________________________________________________________________ Leadership Style Age Group n M SD F p ________________________________________________________________________ Laissez-faire a .19 3.11 .05 1. 18-30 2. 31-43 3. 44-56 Transformational b 1. 18-30 2. 31-43 3. 44-56 Transactional b 1. 18-30 2. 31-43 33 101 2.71 2.69 0.59 0.52 33 101 32 2.53 2.62 2.57 0.54 0.38 0.50 .13 1.40 .25 33 101 32 0.83 0.96 1.35 0.86 0.91 0.93 .08 0.58 .56

3. 44-56 32 2.87 0.51 ________________________________________________________________________ Note. Ratings based on a 5-point scale: 0 = Not at all to 4 = Frequently, if not always. a Scheffe post hoc test: 3 > 1 (p = .07); all other pairs were not significantly different. b Scheffe post hoc test: 1 2 3; no pair of means were significantly different from each other. n = number in each group, M = Mean, SD = standard deviation, = linear predictor, F = degree of freedom, p = probability. Significant differences were noted for the perceptions of laissez-faire leadership (p = .03) and transformational leadership (p = .02) based on education level. For laissez-faire leadership, Scheffe post hoc tests found respondents with a bachelors degree (M = 1.24) rated their managers significantly higher (p = .05) than did respondents with graduate degrees (M = 0.88). For transformational leadership, Scheffe post hoc tests found

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respondents with less than a college degree (M = 2.86) tended (p = .06) to perceive their managers as exhibiting more transformational leadership behaviors than did those respondents who possessed a graduate degree (M = 2.52). No other Scheffe post hoc differences were significant at the p <.10 level. Table 10 displays the results of the oneway ANOVA tests for the three leadership scores based on education level. Table 10 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Highest Education (N = 166) ________________________________________________________________________ Leadership Style Educational Level n M SD F p ________________________________________________________________________ Laissez-faire a 1. Less than college degree 2. Bachelors degree 3. Graduate degree Transformational b 1. Less than college degree 2. Bachelors degree 3. Graduate degree Transactional c 1. Less than college degree 2. Bachelors degree 10 63 2.51 2.70 0.46 0.57 10 63 93 2.86 2.66 2.52 0.37 0.48 0.39 .12 1.16 .32 10 63 93 0.75 1.24 0.88 0.73 1.04 0.82 .22 4.00 .02 .20 3.47 .03

3. Graduate degree 93 2.77 0.52 _______________________________________________________________________ Note. Ratings based on a 5-point scale: 0 = Not at all to 4 = Frequently, if not always. a Scheffe post hoc test: 2 > 3 (p = .05); all other pairs were not significantly different. b Scheffe post hoc test: 1 > 3 (p = .06); all other pairs were not significantly different. c Scheffe post hoc test: 1 2 3; no pair of means were significantly different from each other. n = number in each group, M = Mean, SD = standard deviation, = linear predictor, F = degree of freedom, p= probability.

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Significant differences were noted for the perceptions of laissez-faire leadership (p = .001) and transformational leadership (p = .001) based on years with the current company. In addition, transactional leadership scores (p = .08) tended to be different among the three groups. For laissez-faire leadership, Scheffe post hoc tests found respondents in the 11 to 15 years with the company group (M = 1.96) rated their managers with significantly higher scores (p = .001) than in the other two groups. Also, respondents with 5 to 10 years with the company (M = 1.03) (p = .06) tended to perceive their managers as exhibiting more laissez-faire leadership behaviors than did those respondents who had been with the company between six months to four years (M = 0.69). For transformational leadership, Scheffe post hoc tests found that respondents with 11 to 15 years with the company (M = 3.08) rated their managers with significantly higher scores (p = .001) than in the other two groups. No other Scheffe post hoc differences were significant at the p <.10 level. Table 11 displays the results of the one-way ANOVA tests for the three leadership scores based on years with the company.

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Table 11 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Years with Current Company (N = 166) ________________________________________________________________________ Leadership Style Years Current with Company n M SD F p _______________________________________________________________________ Laissez-faire a 1. 6 months-4 years 2. 5-10 years 3. 11-15 years Transformational b 1. 6 months-4 years 2. 5-10 years 3. 11-15 years Transactional c 1. 6 months-4 years 2. 5-10 years 67 78 2.64 0.53 2.76 0.53 67 78 21 2.48 0.33 2.56 0.41 3.08 0.49 .18 2.61 .08 67 78 21 0.69 0.73 1.03 0.85 1.96 1.03 .44 19.14 .001 .43 18.79 .001

3. 11-15 years 21 2.93 0.51 _______________________________________________________________________ Note. Ratings based on a 5-point scale: 0 = Not at all to 4 = Frequently, if not always. a Scheffe post hoc test: 3 > 1 and 2 (p = .001); 2 > 1 (p = .06). b Scheffe post hoc test: 3 > 1 and 2 (p = .001); 2 1 (p = .49). c Scheffe post hoc test: 3 > 1 (p = .09); all other pairs were not significantly different. n = number in each group, M = Mean, SD = standard deviation, = linear predictor, F = degree of freedom, p= probability. Significant differences were noted for the perceptions of laissez-faire leadership (p = .001), transformational leadership (p = .001) and transactional leadership (p = .04). For laissez-faire leadership, Scheffe post hoc tests found that respondents with six months to

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two years with their current manager (M = 0.71) rated their managers with significantly lower scores (p = .001) than in the other two groups. Also, respondents with 3 to 6 years with their manager (M = 1.25) perceived their managers as exhibiting less laissez-faire leadership behaviors than did those respondents who had been with the company between 7 to 14 years (M = 2.13). For transformational leadership, Scheffe post hoc tests found respondents with 7 to 14 years with their current manager (M = 3.16) rated their managers with significantly higher scores (p = .001) than in the other two groups. Also, respondents with six months to two years with their current manager (M = 2.48) rated their managers with significantly lower scores (p = .003) than did those respondents who had been with the company between 3 to 6 years (M = 2.65). For transactional leadership, Scheffe post hoc tests found respondents with 7 to 14 years with their current manager (M = 3.06) rated their managers with significantly higher scores (p = .04) than did those respondents who had been with the manager between 3 to 6 years (M = 2.65). Table 12 displays the results of the one-way ANOVA tests for the three leadership scores based on the number of years with the current manager.

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Table 12 One-Way ANOVA Tests for Leadership Styles Based on Years with Current Manager (N = 166) ________________________________________________________________________ Leadership Style Years with Current manager n M SD F p ________________________________________________________________________ Laissez-faire a .45 20.78 .001 1. 6 months-2 years 2. 3-6 years 3. 7-14 years Transformational b 1. 6 months-2 years 2. 3-6 years 3. 7-14 years Transactional c 95 58 13 2.48 0.32 2.65 0.49 3.16 0.40 .20 3.22 .04 95 58 13 0.71 0.72 1.25 0.95 2.13 0.90 .42 17.53 .001

1. 6 months-2 years 2. 3-6 years 3. 7-14 years

95 2.74 58 2.65 13 3.06

0.56 0.49 0.42

________________________________________________________________________ Note. Ratings based on a 5-point scale: 0 = Not at all to 4 = Frequently, if not always. a Scheffe post hoc test: 1 < 2 and 3 (p = .001); 2 < 3 (p = .003). b Scheffe post hoc test: 3 > 1 and 2 (p = .001); 1 < 2 (p = .04). c Scheffe post hoc test: 3 > 2 (p = .04); all other pairs were not significantly different. n = number in each group, M = Mean, SD = standard deviation, = linear predictor, F = degree of freedom, p = probability. Table 13 displays the overall ANOVA model predicting job satisfaction based on the five demographic variables and three leadership scores. The overall ANOVA model

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was significant (p = .001) and accounted for 49.0% of the variance in job satisfaction. Inspection of the table found job satisfaction to be higher for respondents who had managers who exhibited: (a) less laissez-faire leadership ( = -.28, p = .001); (b) more transformational leadership ( = .76, p = .001); and (c) less transactional leadership ( = .24, p = .001). Table 13 Predicting Job Satisfaction Based on Demographics and Leadership Style (N = 166) ______________________________________________________________________ Variable B SE p ______________________________________________________________________ Intercept 1.07 0.28 .001 Gender a Age category Highest education Years with current company Years with current manager Laissez-faire Leadership Transformational Leadership 0.02 -0.01 0.01 0.01 -0.05 -0.14 0.80 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.03 0.07 .02 -.01 .01 .01 -.07 -.28 .76 .77 .83 .90 .90 .44 .001 .001

Transactional Leadership -0.21 0.06 -.24 .001 ______________________________________________________________________ Note. Full ANOVA Model: F (8, 157) = 18.85, p = .001. R2 = .490. a Gender: 1 = Female 2 = Male. B = unstandardized regression coefficients, SE = standard error, = population values of regression coefficients, p = probability, F = degree of freedom, R2 = coefficient of determination. Table 14 displays the results of the overall ANOVA model predicting organizational commitment based on the five demographic variables and the leadership styles. The overall ANOVA model was significant (p = .001) and accounted for 51.6% of the variance in organizational commitment. Inspection of the table found organizational

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commitment to be higher for younger respondents ( = -.22, p = .001) and for those who had managers who exhibited less laissez-faire leadership ( = -.48, p = .001) and more transformational leadership ( = .57, p = .001). This combination of findings (tables 8 to 14) provided support to reject the null hypothesis and retain the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis stated: No demographic variables, individually or combined, significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The alternative hypothesis is supported. It stated: One or more demographic variables significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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Table 14 Predicting Organizational Commitment Based on Demographics and Leadership Style (N = 166) ______________________________________________________________________ Variable B SE p ______________________________________________________________________ Intercept 3.78 0.38 .001 Gender a Age category Highest education Years with current company Years with current manager Laissez-faire Leadership Transformational Leadership -0.04 -0.22 -0.09 -0.02 0.03 -0.33 0.81 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.05 0.10 -.03 -.22 -.08 -.02 .03 -.48 .57 .61 .001 .16 .81 .74 .001 .001

Transactional Leadership -0.07 0.08 -.06 .36 ______________________________________________________________________ Note. Full ANOVA Model: F (8, 157) = 20.93, p = .001. R2 = .516. a Gender: 1 = Female 2 = Male. B = unstandardized regression coefficients, SE = standard error, = population values of regression coefficients, p = probability, F = degree of freedom, R2 = coefficient of determination. Summary The purpose of the current quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The research study involved examining the independent variable, leadership style, using (MLQ) Rater Form 5X- Short from Bass and Avolio (2004). The independent variables, job satisfaction and organizational commitment also were measured in the research study. Job in General Survey (JIG) instrument by Bowling

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Green State University was used to evaluate job satisfaction, and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) created by Mowday, Steers, & Porter (1979) was used to measure organizational commitment of the employees. The demographic survey developed by the researcher was used to analyze the sub-groups of the participants of the research study. Analysis of the demographic variables established that demographic variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers. The demographic variables were gender, age, highest education, years with the current company, and years with current manager. Age moderated the leadership style and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Organizational commitment was higher for younger respondents at ( = -.22, p = .001). The applications of the research design and methodology provided the basis to answer the research questions and test hypotheses as described in Chapter 3. The survey responses of 166 participants were used to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. All three alternative hypotheses were supported. Specifically, leadership style related to job satisfaction (hypothesis One, table 6), leadership style related also to organizational commitment (hypothesis two, table 7). Demographic variables moderated the relationship between leadership style and employee job satisfaction. The demographic variables were gender, age, highest education, years with the current company, and years with current manager. Age moderated the leadership style and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Organizational commitment was higher for younger respondents at ( = -.22, p = .001) (hypothesis three, tables 8-14).

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Implications of the data analysis based on the insights gained from the results are discussed in chapter 5. The chapter also included the comparison of the findings of the research study to the literature leading to conclusions, implications, and recommendations. Suggestions on how the findings may be applied to a larger body of knowledge of leadership in organizations and a summary of recommendations for future research are discussed in chapter 5.

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Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The investigation was conducted to determine the effect of leadership style on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the communications industry. As the business environment becomes more dynamic, the need for capable and exemplary leaders is becoming more important in organizations (Cashman, 2008). Leadership styles contribute differently to employees behaviors and leaders should exhibit the right qualities, skills, and abilities to enhance good organizational performance. Employees are an organizations valuable resource and effective management of employees should be an important component of an organizations strategy. Knowledge of employee perceptions about leadership style could assist leaders to identify areas of improvement and change. Chapter 5 provides the interpretation of the results of the quantitative correlational research study. The chapter also includes the comparison of the findings of the research study to the literature leading to conclusions, implications, and recommendations. Suggestions on how the findings may be applied to a larger body of knowledge of leadership in organizations and a summary of recommendations for future research are discussed in the chapter. Overview of Research Study The general problem is the relationship between managers and employees that does not always promote employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Rizwan, Mahmood, & Mahmood, 2010). The specific problem is that the leadership style

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of the senior managers may affect the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. The instruments used to collect data included the demographic questionnaires to identify demographic characteristics, the MLQ 5X Rater form to investigate leadership style of the senior managers, JIG survey to measure middle managers overall job satisfaction, and OCQ to measure middle managers employee commitment. The middle managers answered the 78-item survey and the demographic questions. A total of 177 middle managers responded to the survey, but 6 were returned uncompleted. The first 166 completed responses were included in the research study. An Internet-based survey administrator, SurveyMonkey.com hosted the survey instrument and the survey responses collected for the research study. N = 166, representing the number of the respondents of the research study. More men (59.0%) than women (41.0%) participated in the research study. Ages of the respondents ranged from 18 to 56 years with 60.8% being between 31-43 years. Ninety-four percent of the sample had at least a bachelors degree and 56.0% also had earned a masters degree or higher. Years with the current company ranged from six months to 15 years and 57.7% of the participants had been with the company at least five years. The data was coded to translate the response choices into a quantifiable dataset to facilitate analysis and interpretation and numerical values were assigned to each participants response to ensure confidentiality. The statistical analysis SPSS Version 20.0 was used to analyze data and calculate descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviations, range, percentage of respondents for leadership style, overall job satisfaction (JIG), organizational commitment (OCQ), and the demographic variables. Pearson correlation test, multiple regression, and ANOVA models were used to examine the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variables. The

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independent variable was leadership style of the senior managers measured with the attributes of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and the independent variables were job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Limitations of the Study The purpose of the current quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The limitations of the research study must be considered carefully for proper interpretation of the findings and recommendations. Creswell (2005) noted that limitations are the potential weaknesses of a research study and advised researchers to state the limitations of a research study to prevent future researchers from repeating same weaknesses. This research study had some limitations. First, the accuracy of the result depends on the level of understanding of the survey questions by the respondents. Second, some respondents of the survey may not comprehend the intent of the study fully and may have provided inaccurate or wrong responses. Third, the study population included middle managers in a communication company located in Atlanta, Georgia, which may not be applicable to communications companies in other geographical locations. Fourth, individuals with negative emotions or negative predisposition possess a tendency to rate others low or perceive others as possessing lower level of positive behaviors (Fried, Levy, Ben-David, Tiegs, & Avital, 2000). Another limitation of the study was the emotional or cognitive state of the respondents that may cause the respondents to rate their managers low in positive characters. Fifth, only the middle managers were surveyed in the research study about their perceptions of the leadership

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styles of the senior managers. The senior managers were not surveyed to gain direct responses about their leadership styles. Interpretations of the Literature Review The influence of leaders on organizations success indicates the need for leaders to identify leadership acumen capable of moving organization and employees to achieve full potential. In the rapid changing environment communications industry operates, leaders should possess a good understanding of how their behaviors influence employees actions. Farmer (2005) as well as Lerstrom (2008) noted some authors concluded managers must use their judgment to decide on the best leadership style, but effective leaders chose leadership style that promotes employees performance and increase productivity (Komai & Stegeman, 2010). The focus of this research study was on the leadership style that can ensure employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the communications industry. Summary of Research Study Identification of the effect of leadership styles of senior managers on job satisfaction of the middle managers is essential to understanding factors affecting employees job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the communications industry. Satisfied and committed employees are necessary for organizations operating in the 21st century dynamic business world to remain competitive and achieve goals. Because of the need for information that may be useful for communications organizations to implement effective leadership style the findings are summarized below.

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Research Question One RQ1: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA? The related hypotheses predicted: H1o: There is no significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H1A: There is a significant relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The combination of the findings in the research study provided support to reject the null hypothesis and retain the alternative hypothesis. The overall ANOVA model was significant (p = .001) and accounted for 48.6% of the variance in job satisfaction. The result indicated other reasons not identified in this research study accounted for 51.4% variance of job satisfaction of the middle managers. Comparisons of the Findings to the Literature. The current research study finding supports the research of Ejaz, Ejaz, Rehman, and Zaheer (2009) who found leadership useful in motivating and ensuring job satisfaction of the employees, thereby nurturing an effective working environment that promotes achievement of organizational goals. This finding also supports the view of (Senge, 2006) that leadership style of managers has an association with employees job satisfaction and is one important reason

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employees leave their jobs voluntarily. According to Morris and Venkatesh (2010), proper understanding of the right leadership style may help senior managers in the communications industry to exercise several options to improve their leadership skills for achievement of goals of the organizations. Leaders possess influence that determines the actions of the followers. To ensure the job satisfaction of the employees, leaders need to connect with the employees through the right leadership style. The result of the research study found job satisfaction to be higher for respondents who had managers who exhibited: (a) less laissez-faire leadership ( = -.31, p = .001); (b) more transformational leadership ( = .73, p = .001); and (c) less transactional leadership ( = -.23, p = .001). This finding supports Bass and Riggio (2006) finding that transformational managers have satisfied employees because the managers care about employees needs and individual development. The current research also supports Ghorbanian, Bahadori, and Nejati (2012) who found a positive correlation between transformational leadership and medical technicians satisfaction. Research Question Two RQ2: What is the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia? The related hypotheses predicted: H20: No significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia.

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H2A: A significant relationship exists between the leadership style of the senior managers and the organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia. The finding in the current quantitative correlational research study provided support to reject the null hypothesis and retain the alternative hypothesis. The overall ANOVA model was significant (p = .001) and accounted for 45.9% of the variance in organizational commitment. Jex and Britt (2008) noted that employees who are committed to their organizations tend to be more goal-directed and spend little time to achieve goals, thereby saving the organizations resources. In general employees are more supportive to the goals of their organizations with high commitment (Biggs & Swailes, 2006). The commitment of employees to their organizations is an important issue in the communications industry characterized with consistent implementation of new technologies. Employee commitment to the organization may motivate the employee to make sacrifices for the organization without expecting any reward from the organization. Committed employees are connected to their organizations emotionally and work toward the success of their organizations. Inspection of the result of the current research revealed organizational commitment was: (a) less for laissez-faire leadership ( = -.50, p = .001) and (b) more for transformational leadership ( = .62, p = .001). The extent that the manager exhibited transactional leadership was not related to organizational commitment ( = -.10, p = .11). This combination of findings provided support to reject the null hypothesis and to retain the alternative hypothesis because transformational leadership has a positive relation with organizational commitment.

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Comparisons of the Findings to the Literature. In their research study, Rehman, Shareef, Mahmood, and Ishaque (2012) examined the effect of transformational and transactional leader on the employees of Pakistan educational sector. The authors found that both transformational and transactional leadership styles have a positive relationship with organizational commitment of the employees, but transformational leadership has a stronger relationship with organizational commitment. Though Rehman et al. (2012) found positive relationship between organizational commitments of employee in Pakistan educational sector and transactional leadership, transactional leadership was not related to organizational commitment of the middle managers of communications industry in the current study. The current research study supported Sabir, Sohail, and Khan (2011) who found leadership style to be a major influence of organizational commitment. The current research study also supported the research study conducted by Bushra, Usman, and Naveed (2011) to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of banking sector in Lahore, Pakistan. The authors found positive relationship between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Research Question Three RQ3: Which demographic variable or a combination thereof moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta Georgia, USA?

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The related hypotheses predicted: H30: No demographic variables, individually or combined, significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. H3A: One or more demographic variables significantly moderate the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This hypothesis was addressed in two ways. One way ANOVA models were conducted to determine whether differences existed in the perception of leadership styles among the different demographic groups. Multiple regression models were created predicting job satisfaction and organizational commitment using the five demographic variables along with the three leadership scale scores as predictors. The results of the multiple regression model predicted job satisfaction based on the five demographic variables and three leadership scores. The overall ANOVA model was significant (p = .001) and accounted for 49.0% of the variance in job satisfaction. Predicting organizational commitment based on the five demographic variables and three leadership scores the overall ANOVA model was significant (p = .001) and accounted for 51.6% of the variance in organizational commitment. The results revealed organizational commitment was higher for younger respondents ( = -.22, p = .001) and for those who had managers who exhibited less laissez-faire leadership ( = -.48, p = .001) and more

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transformational leadership ( = .57, p = .001). This combination of findings provided support to reject the null hypothesis and retain the alternative hypothesis. Comparisons of the Findings to the Literature. The result of the current quantitative correlational research study is consistent with the results of Khan, Rahman, and Butt (2013) who found age and gender related to job satisfaction. The result of the current research study is also in support of the study of Zee and Lillian (2012) who found a positive correlation between age and organizational commitment. The result is not in support of the study by Rapti and Karaj (2012) who found demographic variables negligibly related to job satisfaction and Kessuwan and Muenjohn (2010) who found no relationship between educational level and job satisfaction. Implications of the Study Organizations operating in the 21st century characterized with perpetual change and organizational complexity would require effective leaders who can build leadership capabilities in the subordinates and encourage subordinates to achieve goals. Gaining a proper understanding of the effect of leadership style on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment therefore is useful for organizations that want to survive in the ever-changing business world. The findings of the research study have many implications for organizations, present leaders, future leaders, and researchers. The implications of this study may be of utmost importance for communications organizations that require skilled employees who are committed to their organizations. The results of the survey questionnaires distributed to 166 middle managers in a communications organization revealed the need for transformational leaders to enhance job satisfaction and organizational commitment of skillful employees. The following can also be implied from the research study.

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1. Leadership style has important influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. As the business environment becomes more dynamic, the need for capable leaders is becoming more important (Bataineh, 2011). Organizations in the 21st century require managers with right leadership style who can manage the complex business environment and transform the organizations into a high performance entity in the competitive market. 2. Leadership is not about setting goals only; it is also about creating a favorable and healthy environment for the achievement of goals. 3. Because job satisfaction and organizational commitment are major determinants of achievements of organizational goals leaders should be aware that different leadership styles and behaviors have different impact on employees. 4. Middle managers would likely experience job satisfaction and be more committed to the organization if the senior managers display the features of transformational leadership. 5. Organizational leaders need to have the basic understanding of concept of leadership to lead effectively. Proper identification of behaviors and attributes of transformational leadership that was found to have a positive correlation with job satisfaction and organizational commitment may facilitate its adoption. The understanding of basic components of transformational leadership style that are individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence as stated by Bass (1985) is important for organizational leaders who are interested in employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment. 6. Perks and money could attract and retain people to an organization, but skillful employees may require more than financial rewards and benefits. Leadership can

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make a remarkable difference in employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Exemplary managers with effective leadership styles can influence employee satisfaction, thereby creating and sustaining a high performing teams and goal achieving organizations. 7. To retain skillful employees leaders must make conscious efforts to adjust to their needs and meet their demands. 8. In the data analysis significant differences were noted about the perceptions of leadership style of senior managers based on the demographic variables. As shown in table 11 Scheffe post hoc tests found that respondents with 11 to 15 years with the company (M = 3.08) rated their managers with significantly higher scores (p = .001) for transformational leadership than in the other groups. Respondents with 5 to 10 years with the company (M = 1.03) (p = .06) tended to perceive their managers as exhibiting more laissez-faire leadership behaviors than respondents who had been with the company between six months to four years (M = 0.69). Organizational commitment was higher for younger respondents ( = -.22, p = .001) (table 14). This means that the expectation of the employees could be different based on demographic factors. Therefore leaders should possess the ability to lead diverse employees effectively to achieve organizational goals. Many studies have revealed that diverse teams can produce more innovative ideas and solutions than less diverse groups (Birasnav, Rangnekar & Dalpati, 2011; Hickman, 2011; Messarra & Karkoulian, 2008).

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Significance to Leadership Failure of leaders to live up to the expectations of the business environment may limit an organizations ability to thrive in an increasingly complex and global business world. Carnall (2003) advised organizational leaders to put more effort on the ability to manage constant change not on stability, to organize business activities around good network not on hierarchies, and to build business performances on useful leadership practices not on outdated principles that cannot cater for the current business demand. Managers who do not face current situation may not be effective in fulfilling leadership roles and may fail to see what is happening and the changes required in enhancing the organizations effectiveness. Such managers may be blinded by past success and hold on to an accustomed idea that might not take the organization to the desired end. The current quantitative correlational research study provides a convincing evidence of a positive correlation between leadership style of senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational commitment of middle managers. The current study also found that demographic variables such as gender, age, educational level, year with manager, and year with the company moderate the relationship between leadership style of senior managers and job satisfaction. Age moderated the leadership style and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Organizational commitment was higher for younger respondents at ( = -.22, p = .001). The outcome of the research study supported transformational leaders as possessing the ability to transform employees with the assumption that transformed individual would possess passion to achieve goals of the organization (Bass, 1985). The current study also found that employees, most especially, middle managers of communications industry preferred their senior managers to exhibit more of transformational leadership features, less of transactional leadership, and little or

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no of laissez-faire leadership features. Leaders in organizations can use the findings from the research study to enhance positive changes such as increased job satisfaction and organizational commitment, unity of purpose, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), and reduction in employee turnover in their organizations. Recommendations for Actions and Future Research The results and the interpretation of results of the data analysis for the current quantitative correlational research study prompted many recommendations for actions for organizational leaders and for future research study. Understanding of actions to ensure job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the employees can be a valuable tool for achieving organizational goals. Literature on leadership embraces many theories and the theories are conceptualized in various ways. Relationship that enhances collective efforts of leaders and followers serves as the foundation of effective leadership. Employees may leave their jobs because for various reasons. However, the cost of replacing employees who leave their organizations because of job dissatisfaction may be avoided or reduced if the senior managers use their formal authority to establish positive work-related actions from the employees (Morris & Venkatesh, 2010). This section includes recommendations for actions and for future research. The impact of the research study can range from leadership selection criteria to implementation of transformational leadership training for existing leaders. Organizational leaders may use the recommendations of this research study as a blueprint for effective leadership development. Recommendations for Actions 1. Theories of leadership advance as theorists study the influence of leaders in achieving organizational goals. Though leadership theory and practices can be

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learned, awareness of present position can lead to the discovery of required progress and generation of new ideas. Self-assessment can arouse personal and professional development by the active process of reviewing, analyzing, and evaluating skills and experiences. Through the subjectivity of reflective practice, a leader can engage in critical thinking about his or her strengths and weaknesses thereby leading to behaviors that can improve practice and aid achievement of goals. Every leader might need to consider periodic self-assessment with a determination to lead effectively. 2. The dynamic state in the business world requires leaders to upgrade their leadership skills to face business challenges. Training is an important part of skill development for both senior and middle managers. Organizational leaders need to learn and master the level of agility required for effective leadership in the everchanging business world. Leadership training and development programs through workshops, seminars, and retreats, might be useful to enhance leadership effectiveness. 3. Kotter (1997, 2007) noted that leading a successful change is crucial to the role of leaders. Changes in organizations include re-strategizing and re-examining priorities and issues. Senge (2006) further suggested that effective change management is the ability to channel change process through a competent renewal process. Leaders cannot achieve goals alone and therefore need to possess the quality of working with employees effectively. The findings of this research study revealed transformational leadership has a positive correlation on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers, the senior

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managers might want to be more of transformational leaders to achieve organizational goals. 4. Diversity is an important issue that should be addressed in organizations. Diversity represents the different human behavior in the workplace as a result of differences in demographic variables. A diverse workforce can be said to be a reflection of the marketplace with various customers with different needs. Diversity in the workplace can add additional values to organizations therefore leaders need to develop and encourage an organizational culture that can make every employee feel comfortable with their jobs and feel appreciated by their leaders and coworkers. Effective management of the diverse workforce can lead to retaining the employees, resulting in increase in employees morale, job satisfaction, and commitment to the goals of the organizations (Hesselbein & Goldsmith, 2006). Mandatory periodic diversity-based programs that focus on topics such as effect of differences such gender, age, educational level, and other demographic variables on employees might be a good suggestion for mangers in the communications industry. 5. To achieve organizational goal and sustain competitive advantage in the business environment organizational leaders might need to take cognizant of the present and have adequate plan for the future by becoming future-oriented leaders. Futureoriented leaders should lead by examples, display the right leadership practices, and have adequate plan for the future by retaining skillful employees. Recommendations for Future Research Leadership actions are the antecedents to achievement of organizational goals (Northouse, 2006). Depending on leadership style, an employee can experience job

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satisfaction and stay committed to goal of the organization. The following recommendations must be considered for the future research studies: 1. In the current quantitative correlational research study only the middle managers were surveyed about their perceptions of the leadership styles of the senior managers. The senior managers were not surveyed to gain direct responses about their leadership styles. A first recommendation if replicated is that the senior managers could be included in the survey. Middle managers are developmental resources for organizations; they oversee departments within organizations, and maintain effective flow of information from the senior managers to the workers (Osterman, 2009). 2. A second recommendation is that the number of years in the supervisory positions of the middle managers could be included in the demographic variables. Inclusion of the number of years in the supervisory position could be useful to test the middle managers managerial potentials, capabilities, and challenges in leading others. 3. A third recommendation is that mixed method could be used this research study by future researcher. Qualitative data could yield additional information to support the findings of the quantitative research study. 4. A fourth recommendation is that future research could involve more than one communications organization or communications organizations in other parts of the country to enhance the generalizability of the findings of the research study in various organizational contexts.

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Conclusions The purpose of the current quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers in a communication company in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The MLQ Rater Form 5X- Short was used to assess the leadership style of the senior managers as perceived by the middle managers. Job satisfaction of the middle managers in response to leadership style of senior managers was measured with the use of Job in General Survey (JIG) survey. Organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) by Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979) was used to measure the organizational commitment of the middle managers. Demographic survey concerning gender, age, level of education, years with current company, and years with current manager was developed to understand the participants demographic distribution and to analyze the sub-groups of the participants of the research study. A total of 166 responded to the survey questionnaires. The findings of the current research study found transformational leadership style has a positive correlation on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Analysis of the demographic variables found that demographic variables moderated the relationship between leadership style of the senior managers and job satisfaction and organizational of the middle managers. The demographic variables were gender, age, highest education, years with current company, years with current manager. Age moderated the leadership style of the senior managers and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Hence, the findings substantiated the research questions and provided evidence to reject the null hypotheses and retain the alternative hypotheses.

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APPENDIX A: Informed Consent Form

INFORMED CONSENT: PARTICIPANTS 18 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER Dear Participants, My name is Olayide Aina and I am a student at the University of Phoenix working on a Doctorate degree in Management, focusing on Organizational Leadership. I am doing a research study entitled Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in the Communications Industry. The purpose of the research study is to investigate the relationship between the leadership style of the senior managers and the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. Your participation will involve completion of 78 questions and demographic questions that should require no more than 35 minutes to finish. For you to participate in this study you must have been working with your current manager for a minimum of six months. Your participation in this research study is voluntary, you can decide to be a part of this study or not. Once you start, you can withdraw from the study at any time without any penalty or loss of benefits. The research study requires a sample size of 166 middle managers and your participation may be terminated without your consent if you do not respond to all the questions and/if the required 166 responses is achieved before you return the survey questionnaire. You possess the right to decide if your information be included or not included in the study. The results of the research study may be published but your identity will remain confidential and your name will not be made known to any outside party. Your information can be removed from the study by contacting the researcher on phone or e-mail. In this research, there are no foreseeable risks to you. Although there may be no direct benefit to you, but your participation may provide specific information on job satisfaction and organizational commitment that has the potential to enhance achievement of goals in communications industry. With this insight, senior managers in communications industry may employ the leadership style that promotes job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the middle managers. If you have any questions concerning the research study, please call me at (770) 608-9111. You may also reach me by e-mail at olayide4@email.phoenix.edu As a participant in this study, you should understand the following: 1. You may decide not to be part of this study or you may want to withdraw from the study at any time. If you want to withdraw, you can do so without any problems by contacting me on above e-mail or phone number. 2. Your identity will be kept confidential.

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3. Olayide Aina, the researcher, has fully explained the nature of the research study and has answered all of your questions and concerns. 4. The researcher will develop a way to code the data to assure that your name is protected. 5. Data will be kept in a secure and locked area. The data will be kept for three years, and then destroyed. 6. The results of this study may be published. By signing this form, you agree that you understand the nature of the study, the possible risks to you as a participant, and how your identity will be kept confidential. When you sign this form, this means that you are 18 years old or older and that you give your permission to volunteer as a participant in the study that is described here. ( ) I accept the above terms ( ONE) ) I do not accept the above terms.(CHECK

Signature

of

the

interviewee

____________________________________

Date

_____________

Signature

of

the

researcher

_____________________________________

Date

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APPENDIX B: Participation in Research Study Solicitation


Dear Potential Study Participant: I am a doctoral student and writing to ask for your help. I am conducting a research study on Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in the Communications Industry. I am very excited to provide this opportunity to allow the middle managers within your organization provide their feedback on trust. It is my goal that the data obtained in the study will make a positive difference in the relationship between the leaders and the employees in the communications industry. The data collection tools for this study are Job in General Survey (JIG) survey instruments for evaluating job satisfaction and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Rater Form 5X- Short to determine the leadership styles of the senior managers. The other tools are the Organizational commitment questionnaire (OCQ) to measure the organizational commitment of the middle managers and a demographic survey that will not ask for identifiable questions. Your participation in this study is voluntary; your answers will be confidential and not shared with anyone in the organization. I will not ask for names or report individual responses, but will combine all responses and perform data analysis. I will be more than happy to share the final research report with you if you so desire. This survey will take about 35 minutes to complete. The data collected by this survey will add to the existing body of research on employee satisfaction and organizational commitment. Volunteers like you who are willing to provide your time and effort to answer questions online are the backbone of this research and your time is greatly appreciated. If you are participating in the research study please read through the Informed Consent Form attached to this letter, print the form, check I accept the above terms, add your signature in ink, and scan the form back to me at olayide4@email.phoenix.edu or olayide@olayideaina.com. The survey questionnaire will be sent to you through a Web based tool after the receipt of the Inform Consent Form signifying your interest in participating in the research study. I want to thank you in advance for agreeing to participate in this study. Your participation is greatly appreciated. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. Thank you! Sincerely, Olayide Aina Doctoral Student, University of Phoenix Phone: (770) 608-9111 E-mail: olayide4@email.phoenix.edu OR olayide@olayideaina.com

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APPENDIX C: END OF SURVEY APPRECIATION LETTER

Dear Research Study Participant, Now that the survey collection period is completed I want to appreciate you for your participation in a doctoral research study to examine the effect of leadership style on employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the communications industry. Thank you for accepting my invitation. I am confident that your survey responses will be so useful toward the successful completion of the research study. If you are interested in obtaining a copy of the research study after completion please contact me, I will not hesitate to send a copy to you. Once again, thank you so much for helping me with the research study. Best Regards, Olayide Aina Doctoral Student, University of Phoenix Email: olayide4@email.phoenix.edu olayide@olayideaina.com Phone: (770) 608-9111

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APPENDIX D: Permission to Use Premises, Name, and/or Subjects

APPENDIX D: Permission to Use Premis

APPENDIX E: DATA ACCESS AND USE PERMISSION AAapp

APPENDIX E: DATA ACCESS AND USE PERMISSION

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APPENDIX E: DATA ACCESS AND USE PERMISSION

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APPENDIX F: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)

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APPENDIX G: Job in General (JIG) Questionnaire

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Appendix H: Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) By R.T Mowday, R.M.Steers, and L.W.Porter, 1979. Used after contacting with the first author. Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire consists of 15 items, six of which are negatively phrased and reversed scored with a seven-point response dimension. Below is the OCQ Survey: 1. I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful. 2. I talk up this organization to my friends as a great organization to work for 3. I feel very little loyalty to this organization. 4. I would accept almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working for this organization. 5. I find that my values and the organizations values are very similar. 6. I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization. 7. I could just as well be working for a different organization as long as the type of work was similar. 8. This organization really inspires the very best in me in the way of job Performance. 9. It would take very little change in my present circumstances to cause me to leave this organization. 10. I am extremely glad that I chose this organization to work for, over others I was considering at the time I joined. 11. Theres not too much to be gained by sticking with this organization Indefinitely. 12. Often, I find it difficult to agree with this organizations policies on important matters relating to its employees. 13. I really care about the fate of this organization. 14. For me this is the best of all possible organizations for which to work. 15. Deciding to work for this organization was a definite mistake on my part. The rating scale is below: Strongly disagree = 1; Moderately disagree =2; Slightly disagree =3; Neither disagree nor agree= 4; Slightly agree =5; Moderately agree =6; Strongly agree =7

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Appendix I: Demographic Questionnaire


Please complete the demographic questionnaire. All survey information is strictly confidential and for research purposes only. 1. Gender: (a) Female 2. Age: (a) (c) (b) Male

18-30 44-56

(b) 31-43 (d) 57-69

(e) 70 and above

3. Highest educational level completed: (a) High School Diploma (b) College/Associate degree (c) (e) 4. Bachelors degree (d) Masters degree Post-Masters studies

Years with current company: (a) 6mths-4yrs (b) 5-10yrs (c) 11-15yrs (d) 16-20yrs

(e) 20 and above 5. Years with the current manager: (a) 6mths-2yrs (c) 7-10yrs (e) 15yrs and above (b) 3-6yrs (d) 11-14yrs

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APPENDIX X J: Perm mission to Use Multif factor Lea adership Questionna aire (MLQ)

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APPENDIX K: Permission to Use Job in General (JIG) Questionnaire

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APPENDI A IX L: Perm mission to Use Orga anizationa al Commit tment (OC CQ) Questionna Q aire
Pe ermission to use Org ganizationa al Commitm ment Ques stionnaire (OCQ) Inbox x

OLAYIDE AINA <olayide4@email.phoenix.ed u> to rmowday

10/2/12

Dear Dr. Mowday, I am a doctoral student of management at the University of Phoenix focusing on Organizational Leadership. I am about to submit my proposal and I want to request permission to use the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by you, Dr. Steers, and Dr. Porter in 1979. My research study is on the effect of leadership style on employee satisfa ction and organizational commitment among middle managers in a communications company in Atlanta, Georgia. In addition to your scales that measures organiz ational commitment, I will also be using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnair e (MLQ) and the Job in General (JIG) surveys that measure leadership style a nd employee satisfaction respectively. At ttached is the permission to use existing sur vey letter from my University. Kindly send back the signed copy to me if my reques t is granted. I am looking forward to hear from you. Thanks so much. Olayide Aina Doctor of Management Learner. University of Phoenix (770) 608-9111. Permis ssion to us se existing g survey.do oc 32K View Download Reply Forward 10/ /2/12

Rick Mowday <rmowday@uoregon.edu> to me

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Olayide Th heOrganizationalComm mitmentQuestionnaire(O OCQ)wasor riginallydevelopedby ProfessorLymanPorter.He H decidednot n tocopyriighttheinstrumenttoencourageits suse inresearchbyothers.Asaconsequen nce,youarefreetouset theOCQwit thoutexplici it pe ermission. Goodluckonyourresearch. Ri ick
Reply Forward

OLAYIDE AINA <olayide4@email.phoenix.ed u> to Rick

10/2/12

Dear Dr. Mowday, Thank you for the prompt reply to my e-mail. I really appreciate the guidance you provided on the use of Organizatio O onal Commiitment Que estionnaire ( (OCQ). I wish you success in all your endeavors. Best Regards. Olayide Aina.

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APPENDIX M: SURVEY REMINDER LETTER


Dear Participant, I am a student of University of Phoenix working on a Doctorate degree in Management with focus on Organizational Leadership. You should have received the link to the questionnaires about my dissertation titled Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in the Communications Industry. I am writing to request about 35 minutes of your time to complete the survey, if you have not done so already. Although I hope you chose to participate, your participation in this research study is voluntary. Your input will help to identify leadership style and behaviors that can result in employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in communications industry. You can participate in the online survey by visiting: https://www.research.net/s/olayideaina Or https://www.research.net/s/4050 I appreciate your participation.

Sincerely, Doctoral Student, University of Phoenix. olayide4@email.phoenix.edu olayide@olayideaina.com