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Service Provider Wi-Fi: Architecture and Design

Session BRKSPM-1200

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Agenda
1. Mobile DataDrivers for Change 2. Addressing the Economics 3. Access Offload Requirements 4. SP WiFi Architectures 5. Summary

Mobile Networks: Drivers for Change


Growth in Mobile Data: x18 over 5 years (CY11-16)

180% increase in signalling traffic due to smartphones

Lack of spectrum and inability to rapidly increase # cell sites

70% of mobile traffic to be video by 2016

A shift from outdoor consumption to indoor

Economics of indoor offload and small cell systems

WiFi already used to support >30% of US smartphone usage

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Drivers for Change:


Scaling Supply Delivering 18-Fold Increase in Supply
2012 VNI Traffic Growth Estimate Macro Capacity

1000

Growth

100 10 1 1990

Average Macro Cell Efficiency Spectrum

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Source: Agilent & Cisco


BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5

Drivers for Change:


Wi-Fi Availability & Usage Pattern

Majority consumption occurs indoors (home, office, venues) Wi-Fi coverage readily available at most locations According to Millennial Media, 39% of the impressions comes from

Smartphones connected over Wi-Fi networks (Nov/11) 4% rise in 5 months


BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6

Evolution Toward Heterogeneous Networks


Today HNB GW RNC

Femto Tomorrow

BYO WiFi

BBU/RRH

Small Cell GW

Metro GW

RNC

Femto

SP WiFi

Metro Wireless

BBU/RRH

BRKSPM-1200

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Delivering Converged Control


Packet Core Radio Network Controller Macro Coverage Cell Packet Core Packet Core Femto Controller Licensed Femto Cell Packet Core WiFi Controller Trusted Unlicensed SP WiFi ePDG TTG UnTrusted WiFi AP

UE
BRKSPM-1200

UE

HS2.0 Inter-Tech H/O


2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

I-WLAN IPSec Access


Cisco Public 8

Market Summary
Mobile Broadband demand growth means only a matter of time before carriers will need to start to aggressively deploying more cells Site/zoning limitations may restrict ability to deploy many more conventional macro cells in capacity situations As consumption rises, it becomes increasingly cost effective to offload onto indoor broadband networks Status quo operation will not be an option if supply side restrictions are to be avoided

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Agenda
1. Mobile DataDrivers for Change 2. Addressing the Economics 3. Access Offload Requirements 4. SP WiFi Architectures 5. Summary

Breakdown in Cost of Production


Source: ABI/Cisco May 2011
Single Cell $ per GB Percentage

Cell Site CapEx (1 Carrier, 3 Sector) Cell Site OpEx IP RAN CapEx IP RAN OpEx RNC CapEx MPC CapEx Core OpEx Total

14% 45% 18% 18% 1% 2% 2% 100%

95% of Cost of Production

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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11

Three Parallel Tracks for Macro Access Metro/Hotspot Offload Residential Access Office Based
Access
Metro WiFi deployments driven by spectrally challenged operators Stadium traffic set to dwarf any licensed capacity installed by MNOs Hotspot becoming an integral part of MNO offload strategy Metro WiFi operators leasing real estate/ power/backhaul to MNOs for Pico deployment Peak consumption occurs 10pm/indoors drives compelling macro offload economics and MNO offload targets MVNO economics motivating MVNOs to accelerate residential macro offload deployments Community deployments enhanced with seamless mobility allows increased macro offload in dense urban environments Guest WiFi evolution facilitates ease of use of WiFi offload using enterprise infrastructure Enterprise femto provides inbuilding coverage and enterprise capacity offload from macro cell Enterprise GWs allow optimized access from enterprise employees to business services (LAN access, UC&C, etc)

Macro-Cellular Offload (Cell Site, Backhaul and Controller)


BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12

Modelling Economics of Indoor Small Cells


Macro Networks Mobile Internet Economics significant incremental cost of production Ranges from ~$2/GB (3 carrier config) to ~$6/GB (1 carrier config) Indoor offload solutions deliver very low incremental cost of production, similar to fixed Internet economics As consumption rises, becomes more cost effective to offload traffic: Compared with a 1-carrier macro cell, femto delivers improved economics for users with >750 MB/mo consumption

Macro
Busy Hour Mbps

Femto SP WiFi

Busy Hour Mbps Compared with a 3-carrier macro cell, SP WiFi delivers improved economics for users with Source; ABI/Cisco Cost of Production Analysis, >500 MB/mo consumption assuming CPE offered without cost to consumer
and depreciated over 3 years
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13

Modeling Economics of Macro/micro/pico


Holistic model of an entire mobile SP (or MVNO) Initial focus on cost optimization current burning platform
Non-uniform demand across geography Wireless Economic Impact of indoor versus outdoor demand
Source: Cisco IBSG Research & Economics Practice, 2011
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14

Non-uniform demand across users

Multiple and overlapping technology choices Multiple types of offload

Model

Example Model Assumptions:


Large Western European Market
Market Data
Assumption Population 3/4G covered area 3G cell sites Spectrum Value 60M 215 km2 15,000 3x5MHz

Metro offload Assumptions


Assumption AP radius One-off cost/AP Recurring cost/AP Capacity/AP Value 50m $2950 $1740 5Mbps

% of network wide traffic

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Traffic Distribution % of sector wide traffic

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Metro Usage Distribution

Source: Cisco IBSG Research & Economics Practice, 2011


BRKSPM-1200

20 40 60 80 100% % of all cell sites


2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

20 40 60 80 100% % of sector area


Cisco Public 15

Metro Small Cell: Progressive Deployment


Macro cell splitting challenged to economically deliver increase in supply Operators will need to switch to microcell deployment to deliver more cost effective capacity Metro Small Cell is justified in areas of high traffic density model estimates $0.5bn savings compared to macro cell split Metro roll out is progressive as traffic grows, and by year 5, there are 4 mesh access points for every 3/4G macro-site
Source: Cisco IBSG Research & Economics Practice, 2011
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Investment ($B)

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Macro Cell Split Macro + Micro Deployment Macro + Small Cell Deployment
Cisco Public 16

LTE a Saviour or a Stop-gap?


LTE + 3G + WiFi LTE + 3G 3G Only

Investment

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Source: Cisco IBSG Research & Economics Practice, 2011

Both LTE and Wi-Fi contribute to reducing SP network spend as traffic grows
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17

Agenda
1. Mobile DataDrivers for Change 2. Addressing the Economics 3. Access Offload Requirements 4. SP WiFi Architectures 5. Summary

Macro Radio Access Offload


Future Networks supporting the Mobile Internet will need to seamlessly integrate a lot more smaller cells Shifting from 104 cells to 106 cells will require a change of mindset and management tools Key decisions that need to be considered: Whether to use unlicensed, licensed technology or both? Unlicensed already being deployed for BYO offload Unlicensed better suited to very high density deployments If using unlicensed, what does the architecture look like?

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

19

Different SP WiFi Standardizations Activities:


No Single Forum Driving SP WiFi
2003: WiFi Alliance Best Current Practices for Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) Roaming 2003: GSMA IR.61 WLAN Roaming Guidelines 2004: IEEE 802.11i
AAA and Transferred accounting procedures 802.1X/EAP based authentication and secure WiFi access network 802.1X based access network and IPSec for accessing home services First Internet draft of CAPWAP protocol Web based (UAM) and 802.1X based access

2010: Wireless Broadband Alliance: WiSPR 2.0 2010: 3GPP Release 10: IP Flow Mobility and seamless WLAN offload
Simultaneously connection to cellular and WiFi with policy based access via WLAN AAA support for HTTPS and EAP EAP support over non 802.1X

2010: Cablelabs WiFi Roaming Architecture 2010: Cablelabs WiFi Management Object

2004: 3GPP Release 6 I-WLAN

2006: IETF CAPWAP Working Group

2011: WFA Next Gen Hotspot

TR-069/SNMP SP WiFi Configuration, Performance and Fault management Standardized delivery of newly created credentials to Connection Manager (HS2.0) Stations can be aware of network conditions, including interference and to load balance clients between APs

2008: 3GPP Release 8 Trusted non-3GPP


Common core network and peer trust agreement for integrating non-3GPP access networks

2011: IEEE 802.11v

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

20

Small Cell Wholesale Integration


Able to leverage Conventional MNO client capability for heterogeneous mobility when available
E-UTRAN UTRAN GERAN
S2a
SP WIFI Access Network

S6a

MME
S1

Integrated EPC Based HSS Subscriber Control


Swx

Serving Gateway

S5

PDN Gateway
Gx

IP Services

Integrated Mobility
3GPP AAA

PCRF
S2b Gxb

Client MIP Enabled Device

SP WiFi Access Network Trusted non-3GPP IP Access

Swm

ePDG

Multi-Vendor Standards

STa

SP WiFi as Trusted Non-3GPP Access

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

21

Target Architecture
Build a converged approach that allows SP WiFi to be treated as trusted non-3GPP access 3GPP has defined an architecture based on PMIPv6 for trusted non3GPP support SP WiFi with 802.1X/EAP meets all requirements to be considered trusted non-3GPP IETF based, S2a profile already specified by 3GPP
Delivers multi-vendor interoperability

SP WiFI Standardization effort limited:


Need to define an Implementation Agreement on how to populate defined attributes Simple enhancements defined to be able to support web based authentication (out of scope of 3GPP)

Hotspot 2.0 specifying L2 authentication procedures, Network-Discovery/Selection procedures and credential management
Cisco Public 22

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

SP WiFi : Trusted Non-3GPP Access Network


Strong Link Layer Security Roaming Selective Offload EPC Integration
802.11i (EAP/802.1x) Hotspot 2.0: Standardize on EAP-SIM/AKA, EAPTLS/FAST, Secure Online Signup Hotspot 2.0: Standardize N/W Discovery & Selection Procedures Standardized GSMA Settlement and Fraud procedures

Multiple Offload Points: Client, Premise, Aggregation

3GPP S2a interface: PMIPv6, PMIPv6/IPsec Multi-Vendor WiFi Roaming/Mobility

Common WiFi/3G User Policy

3GPP Policy Framework: PCC/Gx PCEF services: Gy and LI

4G like experience over WiFi


BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23

Dense Deployments Driving Fast Mobility Requirements


RNC xGSN

NodeB AP control & distributed QoS AP

Centralized Radio Resource Management (RRM) Caching keying material Composed User Plane Anchor

Centralized AAA IP Point of Attachment

WLC HREAP MME

Centrally Coordinated RRM Centralized AAA, Caching keying material

Fast Mobility across metro deployments


PGW

WLC Local Mode SGW


User Plane Anchor
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

s2a
IP Point of Attachment
Cisco Public 24

Controller-based vs Controller-less
Residential
(single AP)

Hotspot
(single AP)

Hotzone
(multi AP)

Metrozone
(High Density)

Management Plane Control Plane User/Data Plane RF Control

Non-real time/ Remote management Autonomous Control Plane

Real time/Proactive Remote management, Management GUI Centralized Policy, Seamless (Fast) Mobility, Rich User Analytics

Centralized Policy Enforcement

Scalable Tunneled Data Plane Centralized Policy Enforcement Decoupling of Data and Control Plane Real time/ proactive RF management Co-ordinated RF Optimization, Coverage Hole Detection/ Mitigation, Real time air quality visibility

Autonomous RF parameter setting

Controller-less
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

Controller-based
25

SP WiFi - Addressing the Challenges


Architecture Issue
Unlicensed spectrum and interference No single entity responsible for SP WiFi architecture definition

SP WiFi Functionality
RF is always a probabilistic environment. Clean air provides unique insight into RF domain 3GPP has defined an architecture for trusted non-3GPP baseline for target architecture PMIPv6 based architecture for seamless mobility across WiFi. IP Persistence can be delivered across inter-technology access Ability to integrate Consumer CPE into architecture Able to leverage client functionality whenever available

Challenging to deliver seamless experience Current Bring Your Own (BYO) WiFi approach devalues SP to bit-pipe provider Diverse range of client requirements

BRKSPM-1200

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Cisco Public

26

Client Requirements
The fundamental difference between SP WiFi and licensed small cell solutions is the ability to enhance user experience through support of additional client functionality Diverse set of requirements/functions
Discovery, Connection Management Security, 802.11i and overlay IPSec Quality of Service Flow Policy, Static and Dynamic Automated Log-on, Credential Management

BRKSPM-1200

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27

Client Functionality
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous?
OS Connection Manager

Enhanced CM/ WISPr 1.0

EAP/ 802.1X Supplicant

I-WLAN IPSec/IKEv2

WMM QoS API

HS 2.0 Management

ANDSF

802.11r Fast Roaming

CMIP/DSMIPv6/ Virtual Adaptor

IP Flow Mobility Optimized offload/load balancing

Homogeneous: One size fits all

VoIMS

GAN + IPSec + EAP

Heterogeneous, Supports Various Approaches to Client Evolution


BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28

Leveraging Client Functionality Whenever Available


On-net Access
802.11i delivers trusted non-3GPP access with EAP-based trust indication PMIPv6 delivering IP persistence to simple IP clients HS2.0: auto login, service advertisement, and online sign-up

Off-net Access
WISPR 1.0/802.11i/HS2.0 support for AAA based roaming HS2.0 management object for discovery and selection of access networks I-WLAN tunnel over 3rd party untrusted network to access home operator services

Inter Technology Handover


Simple virtual adaptor for basic inter-technology offload DSMIPv6 and DSMIPv6/IPSec for handover between trusted/un-trusted networks IP Flow mobility for static policy based offload Enhanced ANDSF for dynamic policy offload

BRKSPM-1200

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An SP WiFi Architecture Supporting a Phased Evolution of Functionality User-Plane Automate Client Authentication Integration Integration
MAC-TAL Username/ Password AAA Roaming EAP-SIM/AKA No Integration PMIPv6/GTP Integration Static Offload Rules Dynamic Offload No Client HS2.0 I-WLAN Mobile IP

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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30

Converged Subscriber Policy Enforcement


All Client-less and Client-based configurations supported
Multiple Applications Simultaneously Running on SessionCentric Operating System
Devices Clientless IPSG IP
Clientless MAG PMIPv6 Clientless
eWAG GTPv1 Per User PMIPv6 Tunnel
GGSN

Converged Policy, Charging and Billing Systems

Trusted Wi-Fi
VPN MAG

IP Core
Un Tunneled User Data (IP)
IPSG

Per User PMIPv6 Tunnel Per User GTP Tunnel

eWAG

P-GW

Clientless 3GPP2 Clientless 3GPP Secure Client based iWLAN

HSGW

Per User GTP Tunnel


SGSN

3G Cellular
Per User IPSec Tunnel
TTG

GTP (Gn)

Untrusted Wi-Fi
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

Mobile Packet Core


31

Evolving Security Requirements for SP WiFi


Transitioning to Trusted Non-3GPP
Today Web Authentication, no over the air security, open to simple MAC-spoofing attacks MPC/EPC integration requires I-WLAN IPSec overlay Charging records can be repudiated WiFi Security is largely an enterprise concern Tomorrow 802.1X/EAP based authentication and over the air encryption Clientless MPC/EPC integration with seamless access to operators service LAN environment Non-repudiation requirements WiFi Security moving centre stage for Service Providers

Now, it may be considered by operators that the security strength and ease of use of WiF is as acceptable as 3G/LTE security. For example, the operator controlled hotspot with 802.11i could be treated as the trusted Non-3GPP Access.

3GPP S1 U/MME:
Integrated IPSec Security
BRKSPM-1200

IETF PMIP:
Integrated IPSec Security

IETF CAPWAP:
Integrated DTLS Security
Cisco Public 32

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Hotspot 2.0 Vision


Cellular Mobility Experience on Wi-Fi

GSM
Turn on phone and get secure cellular connectivity

Hotspot 2.0
Turn on device and get secure Wi-Fi connectivity

Automatic
BRKSPM-1200

Secure

SIM/AKA Based
Cisco Public 33

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Next Generation Hotspot / Hotpsot 2.0


Discover, Roam, Authenticate, Monetize
1
Next Generation Hotspot

Mobile concierge service

Auto SIM credentials Encrypted Wi-Fi Link

Pre-Association Pre-Authentication

Seamless authentication & Wi-Fi roaming

RELIABLE
Carrier class solution

SEAMLESS
Simplified network discovery and selection optimizes offload

SECURE
SIM-based authentication techniques over encrypted Wi-Fi

MONETIZE
Location-based and value-added services

ROAMING
Seamless WiFi Roaming via standardized authentication and settlement

BRKSPM-1200

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34

Next Generation Hotspot Technology Enablers


Authentication and Roaming Network Discovery and Selection L2 Authentication Layer 2 Air Encryption L3 Authentication Hotspot Network IPR Interoperable Hotspot (Today) SSID None None WebAuth WISPr Untrusted No No
NGH (HS2.0 Spec)

802.11u 802.11x 802.11i EAP-SIM, AKA, TLS, TTLS Trusted Yes Yes

BRKSPM-1200

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35

HS 2.0 Information for Network Selection


Roaming related (ANQP) Feature
Venue Info HESSID Roaming Consortium list Realm name list 3GPP Cellular network information Domain name list Operating Class Indication Operator Friendly name
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Domestic network connection feature


HS 2.0 Network Indicator WPA2-Enterprise BSS Load (Channel Util.%) Multicast Indicator WAN Metrics ( backhaul link info, including load ) Network Port Availability Proxy ARP at AP P2P Disable at AP
Cisco Public 36

Agenda
1. Mobile DataDrivers for Change 2. Addressing the Economics 3. Access Offload Requirements 4. SP WiFi Architectures 5. Summary

Key SP Wi-Fi Requirements


Seamless end-user experience
Intra-network and inter-network roaming/mobility Wireless performance Reliable coverage

Carrier-grade operation
Interference mitigation

End-to-end scalability
Designed to support millions of users and exponential traffic growth
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

Standards-based

Control of security, management, mobility, authentication, billing, policy

Robust capacity and throughput

BRKSPM-1200

38

Service Provider Wi-Fi Solution


Four Pillars

Key SP Wi-Fi Requirements


Mobility, Carrier-Grade, Scalability, Security

Intelligent Radio

Unified Architecture

Seamless Experience

Converged Core

Cisco Solution Pillars


BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39

Service Provider Wi-Fi Solution


Four Pillars

Intelligent Radio
Complete portfolio of

Unified Architecture
Fast and real time

Seamless Experience
Effortless

Converged Core
Standardized

indoor and outdoor 802.11n APs


CleanAir delivers

scalability and handoff management


Single security and

authentication and roaming


Open or secure

centralized subscriber access control


Per subscriber policy

integrated spectrum intelligence


ClientLink with RRM

inter-operability point
System-wide

access with expanded hotspot eco-system


Ready for migration to

control (e.g. tiered services and parental controls) charging environment

and beamforming
Real time analytics

management and monitoring for indoor and outdoor networks


Residential, Hotspot,

Next Generation Hotspot with simple software upgrade

Standardized policy and

available to venue owners

Hotzone, Metrozone

BRKSPM-1200

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Intelligent Radio
Not All Access Points Are the Same
Best in class Radio Resource Management coupled with beamforming to deliver focused power to clients Improves Network Throughput and Coverage Sophisticated spectrum Intelligence to monitor the airwaves; detect, locate and classify interference and reconfigure the network to avoid Improves Network Reliability Optimized RF utilization by moving 5 GHz capable client out of the congested 2.4 GHz channels Improves Network Throughput Extends reliable multicast into the wireless network by converting multicast to unicast at the AP Quality Video over WLAN
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41

ClientLink CleanAir Band Select Video Stream


BRKSPM-1200

Service Provider WiFi: CleanAir


Bringing Rich Spectrum Intelligence to 802.11 Networks

Cisco CleanAir

A system-wide feature that uses silicon-level intelligence to automatically mitigate the impact of wireless interference, optimize network performance, and reduce troubleshooting costs

BRKSPM-1200

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42

Service Provider WiFi: CleanAir


Bringing Rich Spectrum Intelligence to 802.11 Networks

Detect and Classify Locate Mitigate Interference


Customer results from live deployment. 2.4 GHz outdoor deployment with >100 interfering public and private access points.
Delivering >8 times performance of 3G.

Cisco CleanAir

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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43

SP WiFi Architecture: Addressing the Deployment and Offload Issues


MNO
3G/4G Mobile Packet Core

Converged Operator

M F

FNO MSO

Fixed BB Infra.
Cisco Public 44

BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

E2E SP WiFi User Plane Architecture

On-Net

Internet Off-Net
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45

Three Phase 1 Deployment Models


Name Access Points Indoor/ Outdoor APs Controller Access Aggregation L3 Subscriber Control 1K ISG Policy Control Broadhop

ServiceMesh Centrally Switched ServiceMesh locally Switched IPSG Integration

5508/ WISM2

Indoor APs

5508/ 7500/ WISM2 5508/ WISM2

AZR & 1K

1K ISG

Broadhop

Indoor/ Outdoor APs

L3

5K IPSG

Legacy Gx, Gy

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IPSG Integration into Legacy PCC


Call Flow Overview
CiscoAR AAA Clientless
Radius.Req Radius.Accept Radius.Req Radius.Accept
User Record Cached

STP
ITP

HLR
MAP MAP

AP

WLC ASR5K IPSG Policy & Charging

802.1X

802.1X EAP Negotiation EAP Authentication / Authorization DHCP Discover DHCP Request / Ack Rad.Acc. Req. Rad.Acc. Resp.

L3 IP PoA

DHCP Relay

Gx/Gy: CCR Gx/Gy: CCA


Build State for User

DHCP Offer (IP Address, Mask, GW, DNS) Radius.Acc. Req. Radius.Acc. Resp

Proxy adds User Info

IP Traffic

Internet

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Two Phase 1.5 Deployment Models


Name Access Points Indoor/ Outdoor APs Controller Access Aggregation L3 Subscriber Control 5K GGSN Policy Control Legacy Gx, Gy

GTP Integration

5508/ WISM2

PMIPv6 Integration

Indoor/ Outdoor APs

5508/ WISM2

1K MAG

5K P-GW

Legacy Gx, Gy

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GTP Integration into Legacy GGSN


Call Flow Overview
Radius.Req Radius.Accept

STP HLR
MAP MAP

CiscoAR AAA
Radius.Req Radius.Accept
User Record Cached

ITP

Clientless

AP

WLC ASR5K EWAG

802.1X

802.1X EAP Negotiation EAP Authentication / Authorization DHCP Discover DHCP Request / Ack IP1 Rad.Acc. Req. Rad.Acc. Resp.

L3 IP PoA

GGSN

DHCP Relay

GTP: CPC GTP: CPC IP2


Build NAT for User IP1:IP2

DHCP Offer (IP Address IP1, Mask, GW, DNS) Radius.Acc Req Radius.Acc Res

Proxy adds User Info

IP Traffic GTP

Internet

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Call Flow Overview


Clientless

PMIPv6 Integration into Standardized P-GW STP


CiscoAR AAA
Radius.Req Radius.Accep Radius.Req Radius.Accep
User Record Cached

ITP

HLR
MAP MAP

AP

WLC
802.1X EAP Negotiation

802.1X

ASR1K MAG

ASR5K PGW / LMA

Policy & Charging

EAP Authentication / Authorization DHCP Discover DHCP Relay Radius.Req Radius.Accep


PMIPv6 Trigger User Authorized LMA/NAI Downloaded

Gx/Gy: CCR Gx/Gy: CCA


Binding on LMA for Client

PBU PBA: IP1 DHCP Offer (IP Address IP1, Mask, GW, DNS) DHCP Request / Ack IP1 IP Traffic PMIPv6
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Internet

50

Standardized Web Based Authentication?


Native 3GPP PCEF (e.g., LMA) assumes user has been L2 authenticated prior to access If PCEF is responsible for IP address allocation, this poses a problem
PCEF is responsible for generating CDRs which will be opened before users authenticity has been confirmed For web auth, user requires IP address allocation prior to authentication

Need to realize a two stage approach if standardized PCEF components are to be used
Stage 1: If MAC address is unknown, need to use captive portal to allow user to enter credentials and then associate MAC address with authenticated identity Stage 2: After user has authenticated, trigger re-establishment of session when MAC address can be associated with a valid user identity and correct CDRs generated
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

51

Cisco SP WiFi: Future Directions


PMIPv6 Standard EPC Integration, Macro Mobility, GW initiated Termination

Packet Core
Core Network Tunneling: GTP/LMA Roaming

SP WiFi Wholesale/Roaming Platform Wireless LAN Controller

CAPWAP Integrated Image Management, Radio Resource Management, Fast Metro Mobility, Security,

Metro WiFi AP

Metro WiFi AP

Residential WiFi AP
Residential WiFi
Cisco Public

PMIPv6 Standard EPC Integration, Macro Mobility, Load balancing, GW initiated Termination, Migrant User support, walk away detection, security, ...

Metro WiFi
BRKSPM-1200 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

52

Agenda
1. Mobile DataDrivers for Change 2. Addressing the Economics 3. Access Offload Requirements 4. SP WiFi Architectures 5. Summary

Summary - 1
Its only a matter of time before all operators will need to embrace small cells offloading both bandwidth and signalling load from the macro network WiFi already used to support nearly 40% of Smartphone traffic in the US Compared to femto where an E2E architecture has been defined by 3GPP, no standard defined approach to architecting SP WiFi Over the last 2 years, Cisco has been developing an architecture based on 3GPP standards to enable in integration of SP WiFi users into scalable converged policy and charging infrastructure
Options available: licensed, unlicensed or both

BRKSPM-1200

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Summary - 2
Now delivering on the promise of E2E SP WiFi architectures Driving client ecosystems to deliver HS 2.0 capabilities to automate authentication and deliver a seamless experience Small cell installations further allow differentiation enabling direct access to distributed content and services Unlikely that similar techniques will be applied in the macro network driven from a purely economic perspective versus enhanced user experience Small Cells are driving convergence discussions around how to integrate transport orientated QoS with RF QoS and IP level policy and charging enforcement

BRKSPM-1200

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Questions?

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BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Final Thoughts
Get hands-on experience with the Walk-in Labs located in World of Solutions, booth 1042 Come see demos of many key solutions and products in the main Cisco booth 2924 Visit www.ciscoLive365.com after the event for updated PDFs, ondemand session videos, networking, and more! Follow Cisco Live! using social media:
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ciscoliveus Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/CiscoLive

LinkedIn Group: http://linkd.in/CiscoLI


BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

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BRKSPM-1200

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public