You are on page 1of 17

lmathematicstrigonometricfunctions
lmathematicstrigonometricfunctions
lmathematicstrigonometricfunctions
lmathematicstrigonometricfunctions

TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS

Name

........................................................................................

zefry@sas.edu.my 2
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

5.1 Positive Angle and Negative Angle

Positive Angle Negative Angle

Represent each of the following angles in a Cartesian plane and state the quadrant of the angle.

Example
60

1(a) 70 (b) 150
Example
215

2(a) 195 (b) 345
Example
395

3(a) 415 (b) 480
Example
5
4
t

4(a)
3
4
t
(b)
5
3
t

Example
45

5(a) 130
(b)
1
3
t

60
y
x
O
y
x
O
y
x
O
II
I
III
IV
y
x
90
2
t | |
|
\ .

0
360 (2t)
180 (t)
270
3
2
| |
t
|
\ .

215
y
x
O
y
x
O
y
x
O
A positive angle is measured
in an anticlockwise direction
from the positive x-axis.
45
y
x
O
y
x
O
y
x
O
y
x
O
y
x
O
5
4
t
y
x
O
y
x
O
y
x
O
60
y
x
O
Anticlockwise
direction
45
y
x
O
Clockwise
direction
395
y
x
O
35
360
A negative angle is measured
in a clockwise direction
from the positive x-axis.
zefry@sas.edu.my 3
5.2 Six Trigonometric Functions of any Angle (1)

5.2.1 Define sine, cosine and tangent of any angle in a Cartesian plane
1

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
sin
cos
tan
u=
u =
u=

Conclusion :

2
r
2
= 3
2
+ 4
2

r =
2 2
3 4 +

r = 5

Conclusion :

Pythagoras Theorem :

2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
c a b c a b
a c b a c b
b c a b c a
= + = +
= =
= =

3. Find the length of OA and the values of sine, cosine and tangent of u.

OP =

=

sin u =
( )
5

cos u =
( )
12

tan u =
( )
5

OP =

=

sin u =
( )
6

=

cos u =
( )
8

=

tan u =
( )
6

=
u
x
r
y
Opposite
sin
Hypotenuse
cos
Hypotenuse
Opposite
tan
u =
u =
u =

u
3
r
4
b
c
a
P (12, 5)
5
12 O
x
y
u
P (8, 6)
x
y
O
u
8
6
Opposite to u
Hypotenuse
u
zefry@sas.edu.my 4

OP =

=

sin u =
( )
3

cos u =
( )
4

tan u =
( )
3

=

OP =

=

sin u =
( )
12

cos u =
( )
5

tan u =
( )
12

(e) Conclusion:

Sin u is positive for u in quadrant . and .
Cos u is positive for u in quadrant . and .
Tan u is positive for u in quadrant . and .

Sin u is negative for u in quadrant . and .
Cos u is negative for u in quadrant . and .
Tan u is negative for u in quadrant . and .

4. Find the corresponding reference angle of u.

(a)

Reference angle = 55

(b)

Reference angle = 110

= 70

(c)

Reference angle = 215

= 35
(d)

Reference angle = 300

= 60
y
x
90
0
360
180
270
Sin u
Cos u
Tan u

Sin u
Cos u
Tan u

Sin u
Cos u
Tan u

+
Sin u
Cos u
Tan u

P (4, 3)
x
y
4
O
u
3
P (5, 12)
x
y
5
O
u
12
55
y
x
Fill in with or + sign.
110
y
x
180 360
215
y
x
180 360
300
y
x
180 360
zefry@sas.edu.my 5
(e) Conclusion:
Reference angle (RA) is the acute angle formed between the rotating ray of the angle and the

______________________________

sin u = sin (180 u) sin u = sin (u 180) sin u = sin (360 u)
cos u = cos (180 u) cos u = cos (u 180) cos u = cos (360 u)
tan u = tan (180 u) tan u = tan (u 180) tan u = tan (360 u)

5. Given that cos 51 = 0.6293, find the trigonometric ratios of cos 231 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 231 = 231

=

cos 231 =

=

6. Given that sin 70 = 0.9397, find the trigonometric ratios of sin 610 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 610 = 610

=

sin 610 =

=

7. Given that tan 25 = 0.4663, find the trigonometric ratios of tan 335 without using a calculator or
mathematical tables.
Reference angle of 335 = 335

=

tan 335 =

=

R.A = u R.A = u
R.A = u
R.A = u
y
x
y
x
O
u 180
u
y
x
O
180 u
u
y
x
O
360 u
u
y
x
y
x
y
x
zefry@sas.edu.my 6
5.2.2 Define cotangent, secant and cosecant of any angle in a Cartesian plane.

1
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
sin
cos
tan
u =
u =
u =

2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 r
sin y
1 1
cos
1 1
tan
= =
u
= =
u
= =
u

3. Definition of cotangent u, secant u and cosecant u.

1
cosec
sin
1
sec
cos
1
cot
tan
= u
u
= u
u
= u
u

4. Since
sin
tan
cos
u
u =
u
, then

cot u =
5.

( )
( )
( )
sin sin 90
cos cos 90
tan tan 90
y x
r r
x y
r r
y x
x y
u = u =
u = u =
u = u =

6.
Complementary angles:
sin u = cos (90 u)
cos u = sin (90 u)
tan u = cot (90 u)
cosec u = sec (90 u)
sec u = cosec (90 u)
cot u = tan (90 u)

7. Given that sin 48 = 0.7431, cos 48 = 0.6991 and tan 48 = 1.1106, evaluate the value of cos 42.

cos 42 =

= =

8. Given that sin 67 = 0.9205, cos 67 = 0.3907 and tan 67 = 2.3559, evaluate the value of cot 23.

cot 23 =

= =

9. Given that sin 37 = 0.6018, cos 37 = 0.7986 and tan 37 = 0.7536, evaluate the value of sec 53.

sec 53 =

= =

u
x
r
y
u
x
r
y
90 u
u
x
r
y
48
90 48
67
90 67
37
90 37
zefry@sas.edu.my 7
5.2.3 Find values of six trigonometric functions of any angle

1. Complete the table below.

30 45
60
sin u
1
2

cos u

1
2

tan u

1

2. Use the values of trigonometric ratio for the special angles, 30, 45 and 60, to find the value of the
trigonometric functions below

Example: Evaluate sin 210 a. Evaluate tan 300
Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

sin
Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

Find reference angle
Reference angle of 210 = 210 180
= 30
Find reference angle

Solve
sin 210 = sin 30
=
1
2

Solve

b. Evaluate cos 150 c. Evaluate sec 135
Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

Draw diagram to determine positive or negative

Find reference angle

Find reference angle

Solve

Solve

60 60
60
2
2
2
60
30
2
1
2 2
2 1
3

=

1
1
2 2
1 1
2
+
=

45
45
1
1
1
1
y
x
180 360

cos ( u) = cos u
sin ( u) = sin u
tan ( u) = tan u

y
x
O
u
zefry@sas.edu.my 8
5.2.4 Solve trigonometric equations

A. Steps to solve trigonometric equation

1. Determine the range of the angle.
2. Find the reference angle using tables or calculator.
3. Determine the quadrant where the angle of the trigonometric function is placed.
4. Determine the values of angles in the respective quadrants.

1. Solve the following equation for 0 s u s 360.

Example: sin u = 0.6428

a. cos u = 0.3420
Range :
0 s u s 360

0 s u s 360

Reference angle :
u = sin
1
0.6428
u = 40

Actual angles
u = 40 , u = 180 40
u = 40 , 140

b. tan u = 1.192

c. cos u = 0.7660
Range :

Reference angle :

Actual angles

y
x
y
x
y
x
180 360
S A
T C
y
x
180 360
S A
T C
y
x
y
x
y
x
180 360
40
S A
T C
y
x
180 360
40
S A
T C
zefry@sas.edu.my 9
d. sin u = 0.9397 e. tan u = 0.3640
Range :

Reference angle :

Actual angles

f. cot u = 1.4826 g. cosec u = 2.2027
Range :

Reference angle :

Actual angles

2. Solve the following equation for 0 s u s 360.

example : sec 2u = 2 a. 2 sin 2u = 1.6248
Range : 0 s u s 360
0 s 2u s 720

Reference angle :
1
2
2
1
2
2
2 60
cos
cos
=
u
u =
u =

Actual angles
2u = 60, 360 60, 60 + 360, (36060) + 360
u = 60, 300, 420, 660

y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
180 360,720
S A
T C
60
60
zefry@sas.edu.my 10
b. cos 3u = 0.9781
c. tan
2
u
= 2.05
Range

Reference angle :

Actual angles

d. sin (u + 10) = 0.7660

e. cos (u + 40) = 0.7071
f. tan (u + 15) = 1

g. cos (u 20) = 0.5
h. tan (2u 10) = 2.082

i. sin (2u 30) = 0.5
zefry@sas.edu.my 11
j. sin u = cos 20

k. cos u = sin 55
Example : 2 sin x cos x = cos x
2 sin x cos x cos x = 0
cos x ( 2 sin x 1) = 0
cos x = 0 , 2 sin x 1 = 0
sin x =
1
2

x = 30

x = 90 , 270
x = 30, 150
x = 30, 90, 150, 270
m. 2sin x cos x = sin x
n. 2 cos
2
u + 3 cos u = 1

o. 2 sin
2
u + 5 sin u = 3

p. tan
2
u = tan u

q. 3 sin u = 2 + cosec u
y
x
360
y
x
180 360
S A
T C
zefry@sas.edu.my 12

3. Given that p x = sin and 0
0
< x < 90
0
.
Express each of the following trigonometric ratios in terms of p.

(a) sec x =

(b) cosec x =

(c) tan x =

(d) cot x =

(e) sin ( 90
0
- x) =

(f) cos (90
0
- x) =

(g) sec (90
0
- x) =

(h) cosec (90
0
x) =
(i) tan ( 90
o
- x) =

(j) cot ( 90
o
x ) =
(k) sin(-x) =

(l) cos (-x) =

x
zefry@sas.edu.my 13
4. Given that
17
8
sin = x and 270
0
< x < 360
0
.
Without using tables or calculator, find the values
of.

5. Given that
17
8
- cos = x and 180
0
< x < 270
0
.
Without using tables or calculator, find the values
of
(a) cos x =

(a) sin x =
(b) tan x =

(b) tan x =
(c) cosec x =

(c) cosec x =
(d) sec x =

(d) sec x =
(e) cos (90
0
x) =

(e) sec (90
0
x) =
(f) sin ( 90
0
x ) =

(f) cot ( 90
0
x ) =
(g) sin (-x) =

(g) sin (-x) =
(h) tan (-x) =

(h) cos (-x) =

x
x
x
zefry@sas.edu.my 14
5.4 Basic Identities
5.4.1 Prove Trigonometric Identities using Basic Identities

Three basic trigonometric identities :

sin
2
u + cos
2
u = 1
1 + tan
2
u = sec
2
u
1 + cot
2
u = cosec
2
u

Formula of compound angle :

sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos (A B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
tan (A B) =
tan tan
1 tan tan
A B
A B

Formula of double angle :

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A
cos 2A = cos
2
A sin
2
A
= 2 cos
2
A 1
= 1 2sin
2
A
tan 2A =
A
A
2
tan 1
tan 2

Formula of half angle :

sin A = 2 sin
2
A
cos
2
A

cos A = cos
2
2
A
sin
2
2
A

= 2 kos
2
2
A
1
= 1 2sin
2
2
A

tan 2A =
2
2
2
1
2
A
tan
A
tan

1. Prove the following identities

Example: cot u + tan u = cosec u sec u

2 2
1
cos sin
cot tan
sin cos
cos sin
sin cos
sin cos
cos ec sec
u u
u + u= +
u u
u + u
=
u u
=
u u
= u u

a. tan
2
u (1 sin
2
u) = sin
2
u

b.
2
1
1
sin
cos
cos
u
= + u
u

c. sin
2
u + cot
2
u = cosec
2
u cos
2
u

cos
2
u = 1 sin
2
u
sin
2
u = 1 cos
2
u

zefry@sas.edu.my 15
d. ( )
2 1
1
sin
sec tan
sin
+ u
u+ u =
u
e.
1
2
1
sin x cos x
sec x
cos x sin x
+
+ =
+

2. Solve the following equations for 0 s x s 360.

a. 3 sin x + 2 = cosec x

b. 2 cot
2
x 5 cot x + 2 = 0 c. cos
2
x 3 sin
2
x + 3 = 0

d. cot
2
x= 1 + cosec x e. 2 tan
2
x = 4 + sec x

zefry@sas.edu.my 16

5.2.1
5. cos 51= 0.6293
5.2.4
2a. 0 s 2u s 720 , 54.33
u = 27.17, 62.83, 207.17, 242.83
3(a)
2
1
1
p

5.(a)
17
15

6. sin 70= 0.9397 b. 0 s 3u s 1080 , 12.01
u = 56, 64, 176, 184, 296, 304
(b)
p
1
(b)
15
8

7. tan 25= 0.4663
c. 0 s
2
u
s 180 , 64
u = 232
(c)
2
1 p
p

(c)
17
15

5.2.2
7. sin 48 = 0.7431
d. u = 40, 120
(d)
p
p
2
1

(d)
17
8

8. tan 67 = 2.3559 e. u = 5, 275
(e)
2
1 p

(e)
17
15

9. cosec 37 = 1.6617 f. u = 30, 210 (f) p

(f)
8
15

5.2.3
2a. tan 300 = 3
g. u = 80, 320
(g)
p
1

(g)
15
17

b. cos 150 =
3
2

h. u = 62.83, 152.83, 242.83, 332.83
(h)
2
1
1
p
(h)
17
8

c. sec 135 =
1
2

i. u = 30, 90, 210, 270
(i)
p
p
2
1

5.2.4
u = 70, 290
j. u = 70, 110
(j)
2
1 p
p

b. 0 s u s 360 , 50 ,
u = 30, 330
k. u = 145, 215 (k) -p

c. 0 s u s 360 , 40 ,
u = 140, 220
m. u = 60, 180, 300
(l)
2
1 p

d. 0 s u s 360 , 70
u = 250, 290
n. u = 120, 180, 240
4.(a)
17
15

e. 0 s u s 360 , 20.01
u = 159.99, 339.99
o. u = 30, 150
(b)
15
8

f. 0 s u s 360 , 34
u = 146, 326
p. u = 0, 45, 225
(c)
17
8

g. 0 s u s 360 , 27
u = 207, 333
q. u = 90, 199.47, 350.53
(d)
15
17

(e)
17
8

(f)
17
15

(g)
17
8

(h)
8
15

zefry@sas.edu.my 17