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Plywood

Description
The Material
Composition
Cellulose/Hemicellulose/Lignin/12%H2O/Adhesive
Image
Caption
General properties
Density 43.7 - 49.94 lb/ft^3
Price 0.2565 - 0.4275 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 1.001 - 1.885 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus * 0.07252 - 0.2901 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus * 0.2321 - 0.3626 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.22 - 0.3
Hardness - Vickers 3 - 9 HV
Elastic Limit * 1.305 - 4.351 ksi
Tensile Strength 1.45 - 6.382 ksi
Compressive Strength 1.16 - 3.626 ksi
Elongation 2.4 - 3 %
Endurance Limit * 1.015 - 2.321 ksi
Fracture Toughness * 0.91 - 1.638 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 8.00E-03 - 0.11
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity 0.1733 - 0.2889 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion 3.333 - 4.444 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.3965 - 0.4084 BTU/lb.F
Glass Temperature 248 - 284 F
Maximum Service Temperature * 212 - 266 F
Minimum Service Temperature * -148 - -94 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Poor insulator
Resistivity 6.00E+13 - 2.00E+14 ohm.cm
Dielectric Constant 6 - 8
Power Factor * 0.08 - 0.11
Plywood is laminated wood, the layers glued together such that the grain in successive layers are at right angles, giving stiffness
and strength in both directions. The number of layers varies, but is always odd (3, 5, 7) to give symmetry about the core ply - if
it is unsymmetric it warps when wet or hot. Those with few plies (3,5) are significantly stronger and stiffer in the direction of the
outermost layers; with increasing number of plies the properties become more uniform. High quality plywood is bonded with
synthetic resin. The data listed below describe the in-plane properties of a typical 5-ply.
Plywood dominates the market for both wood and steel stud construction. It is widely used, too, for furniture and fittings, boat
building and packaging.
Breakdown Potential * 10.16 - 15.24 V/mil
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy 2708 - 3142 kcal/lb
CO2 creation -0.9 - -0.7 kg/kg
Recycle FALSE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade TRUE
Incinerate TRUE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? TRUE
Impact on the environment
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Mouldability 3 - 4
Machinability 5
Durability
Flammability Poor
Fresh Water Average
Sea Water Average
Weak Acid Average
Strong Acid Very Poor
Weak Alkalis Good
Strong Alkalis Poor
Organic Solvents Good
UV Good
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Technical notes
Low cost plywoods are bonded with starch or animal glues and are not water resistant -- they are used for boxes and internal construction. Waterproof and marine plywoods are bonded with synthetic resin -- they are used for external paneling and general construction.
Typical uses
Furniture, building and construction, marine and boat building, packaging, transport and vehicles, musical instruments, aircraft, modeling.
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Plywood is laminated wood, the layers glued together such that the grain in successive layers are at right angles, giving stiffness
and strength in both directions. The number of layers varies, but is always odd (3, 5, 7) to give symmetry about the core ply - if
it is unsymmetric it warps when wet or hot. Those with few plies (3,5) are significantly stronger and stiffer in the direction of the
outermost layers; with increasing number of plies the properties become more uniform. High quality plywood is bonded with
synthetic resin. The data listed below describe the in-plane properties of a typical 5-ply.
Plywood dominates the market for both wood and steel stud construction. It is widely used, too, for furniture and fittings, boat
building and packaging.
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Low cost plywoods are bonded with starch or animal glues and are not water resistant -- they are used for boxes and internal construction. Waterproof and marine plywoods are bonded with synthetic resin -- they are used for external paneling and general construction.
Furniture, building and construction, marine and boat building, packaging, transport and vehicles, musical instruments, aircraft, modeling.
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Low cost plywoods are bonded with starch or animal glues and are not water resistant -- they are used for boxes and internal construction. Waterproof and marine plywoods are bonded with synthetic resin -- they are used for external paneling and general construction.
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Plywoods offers high strength at low weight. Those for general construction are made from softwood plys, but the way in which plywood is made allows for great flexibility. For aesthetic purposes, hardwoods can be used for the outermost plys, giving "paneling plywoods" faced with walnut, mahogany or other expensive woods on a core of softwood. Those for ultra-light design have hardwood outer plys on a core of balsa. Metal-faced plywoods can be riveted. Curved moldings for furniture such as chairs are made by laying-up the unbonded plys in a shaped mould and curing the adhesive under pressure using an airbag or matching mould. Singly curved shapes are straightforward; double curvatures should be minimized or avoided.
Softwood: pine, across grain
Description
The Material
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Composition
Cellulose/Hemicellulose/Lignin/12%H2O
Image
Caption
Wood remains one of the world's major structural materials, as well finding application in more delicate objects like furniture and musical instruments.
General properties
Density 27.47 - 37.46 lb/ft^3
Price 0.2565 - 0.6841 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 0.08702 - 0.1305 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus * 0.05076 - 0.05802 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 0.05366 - 0.05947 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio * 0.02 - 0.04
Hardness - Vickers 2.6 - 3.2 HV
Elastic Limit* 0.2466 - 0.3771 ksi
Tensile Strength 0.4641 - 0.5656 ksi
Compressive Strength * 0.4351 - 1.305 ksi
Elongation 1 - 1.5 %
Endurance Limit * 0.1392 - 0.174 ksi
Fracture Toughness * 0.364 - 0.455 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 0.028 - 0.036
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity 0.04622 - 0.08089 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion * 14.44 - 20 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.3965 - 0.4084 BTU/lb.F
Glass Temperature 170.6 - 215.6 F
Maximum Service Temperature 248 - 284 F
Minimum Service Temperature * -148 - -94 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Poor insulator
Resistivity * 2.10E+14 - 7.00E+14 ohm.cm
Dielectric Constant * 5 - 6.2
Power Factor * 0.05 - 0.07
Breakdown Potential * 25.4 - 50.8 V/mil
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy 1560 - 1723 kcal/lb
CO2 creation -1.16 - -1.05 kg/kg
Recycle FALSE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade TRUE
Incinerate TRUE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? TRUE
Impact on the environment
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Mouldability 2 - 3
Machinability 5
Durability
Flammability Poor
Fresh WaterAverage
Sea Water Average
Weak Acid Average
Strong AcidVery Poor
Weak Alkalis Good
Strong Alkalis Poor
Organic Solvents Good
UV Good
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
Technical notes
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Typical uses
Flooring; furniture; containers; cooperage; sleepers (when treated); building construction; boxes; crates and palettes; planing-mill products; sub-flooring; sheathing and as the feedstock for plywood, particleboard and hardboard.
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood remains one of the world's major structural materials, as well finding application in more delicate objects like furniture and musical instruments.
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Flooring; furniture; containers; cooperage; sleepers (when treated); building construction; boxes; crates and palettes; planing-mill products; sub-flooring; sheathing and as the feedstock for plywood, particleboard and hardboard.
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Flooring; furniture; containers; cooperage; sleepers (when treated); building construction; boxes; crates and palettes; planing-mill products; sub-flooring; sheathing and as the feedstock for plywood, particleboard and hardboard.
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwood: pine, along grain
Description
The Material
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Composition
Cellulose/Hemicellulose/Lignin/12%H2O
Image
Caption
Wood remains one of the world's major structural materials, as well finding application in more delicate objects like furniture and musical instruments.
General properties
Density 27.47 - 37.46 lb/ft^3
Price 0.2565 - 0.6841 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 1.218 - 1.494 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus * 0.08992 - 0.1102 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 0.05366 - 0.05947 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio * 0.35 - 0.4
Hardness - Vickers * 3 - 4 HV
Elastic Limit* 5.076 - 6.527 ksi
Tensile Strength * 8.702 - 14.5 ksi
Compressive Strength * 5.076 - 6.237 ksi
Elongation * 1.99 - 2.43 %
Endurance Limit * 2.756 - 3.336 ksi
Fracture Toughness * 3.094 - 3.731 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 7.00E-03 - 0.01
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity * 0.1271 - 0.1733 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion * 1.389 - 5 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.3965 - 0.4084 BTU/lb.F
Glass Temperature 170.6 - 215.6 F
Maximum Service Temperature 248 - 284 F
Minimum Service Temperature * -148 - 338 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Poor insulator
Resistivity * 6.00E+13 - 2.00E+14 ohm.cm
Dielectric Constant * 5 - 6.2
Power Factor * 0.05 - 0.1
Breakdown Potential * 10.16 - 15.24 V/mil
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy 1560 - 1723 kcal/lb
CO2 creation -1.16 - -1.05 kg/kg
Recycle FALSE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade TRUE
Incinerate TRUE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? TRUE
Impact on the environment
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Mouldability 2 - 3
Machinability 5
Durability
Flammability Poor
Fresh WaterAverage
Sea Water Average
Weak Acid Average
Strong AcidVery Poor
Weak Alkalis Good
Strong Alkalis Poor
Organic Solvents Good
UV Good
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
Technical notes
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Typical uses
Flooring; furniture; containers; cooperage; sleepers (when treated); building construction; boxes; crates and palettes; planing-mill products; sub-flooring; sheathing and as the feedstock for plywood, particleboard and hardboard.
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood remains one of the world's major structural materials, as well finding application in more delicate objects like furniture and musical instruments.
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Flooring; furniture; containers; cooperage; sleepers (when treated); building construction; boxes; crates and palettes; planing-mill products; sub-flooring; sheathing and as the feedstock for plywood, particleboard and hardboard.
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood is a renewable resource, absorbing CO2 as it grows. Present day consumption for engineering purposes can readily be met by controlled planting and harvesting, making wood a truly sustainable material.
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Flooring; furniture; containers; cooperage; sleepers (when treated); building construction; boxes; crates and palettes; planing-mill products; sub-flooring; sheathing and as the feedstock for plywood, particleboard and hardboard.
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
Wood offers a remarkable combination of properties. It is light, and, parallel to the grain, it is stiff, strong and tough - as good, per unit weight, as any man-made material except CFRP. It is cheap, it is renewable, and the fossil-fuel energy needed to cultivate and harvest it is outweighed by the energy it captures from the sun during growth. It is easily machined, carved and joined, and - when laminated - it can be molded to complex shapes. And it is aesthetically pleasing, warm both in color and feel, and with associations of craftsmanship and quality.
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Softwoods come from coniferous, mostly evergreen, trees such as spruce, pine, fir and redwood. Wood must be seasoned before it is used. Seasoning is the process of drying the natural moisture out of the raw timber to make it dimensionally stable, allowing its use without shrinking or warping. In air-seasoning the wood is dried naturally in covered but open-sided structure. In kiln-drying the wood is artificially dried in an oven or kiln. Modern kilns are so designed that an accurate control of moisture is achieved. Wood has been used for construction and to make products since the earliest recorded time. The ancient Egyptians used it for furniture, sculpture and coffins before 2500 BC. The Greeks at the peak of their empire (700 BC) and the Romans at the peak of theirs (around 0 AD) made elaborate buildings, bridges, boats, chariots and weapons of wood, and established the craft of furniture making that is still with us today. More diversity of use appeared in Mediaeval times, with the use of wood for large-s
The values for the mechanical properties given for woods require explanation. Wood-science laboratories measure the mean properties of high-quality "clear" wood samples: small specimens with no knots or other defects; the data for woods in the Level 3 CES database is of this type. This is not, however, the data needed for design. All engineering materials have some variability in quality and properties. To allow for this design handbooks list "allowables" - property values that will be met or exceeded by, say, 99% of all samples (meaning the mean value minus 2.33 standard deviations). Natural materials like wood show greater variability than man-made materials like steel, with the result that the allowable values for mechanical properties may be only 50% of the mean. There is a second problem: structures made of wood are much larger than the wood-science test samples. They contain knots, shakes and sloping grain, all of which degrade properties. To deal with this the wood is "stress-graded" by visual inspecti
Flexible Polymer Foam (LD)
Description
The Material
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Flexible foams can be soft and compliant, the material of cushions, mattresses, and padded clothing. Most are made from polyurethane, although latex (natural rubber) and most other elastomers can be foamed.
Composition
Hydrocarbon
Image
Caption
Flexible latex foams are used for cushions, mattresses and packaging.
General properties
Density 2.372 - 4.37 lb/ft^3
Price 0.5985 - 4.874 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 1.45E-04 - 4.35E-04 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus 5.80E-05 - 2.90E-04 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 1.45E-04 - 4.35E-04 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.23 - 0.33
Hardness - Vickers 2.00E-03 - 0.03 HV
Elastic Limit 2.90E-03 - 0.04351 ksi
Tensile Strength 0.03481 - 0.3408 ksi
Compressive Strength 2.90E-03 - 0.04351 ksi
Elongation 10 - 175 %
Endurance Limit * 0.02901 - 0.2901 ksi
Fracture Toughness * 0.01365 - 0.0455 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 0.1 - 0.5
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity 0.02311 - 0.03409 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion 63.89 - 122.2 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.418 - 0.5398 BTU/lb.F
Melting Point 233.3 - 350.3 F
Glass Temperature -171.7 - 8.33 F
Maximum Service Temperature 181.1 - 233.3 F
Minimum Service Temperature -99.67 - -9.67 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Resistivity 1.00E+20 - 1.00E+23 ohm.cm
Dielectric Constant 1.05 - 1.3
Power Factor 1.00E-04 - 6.00E-04
Breakdown Potential 101.6 - 177.8 V/mil
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy * 1.22E+04 - 1.35E+04 kcal/lb
CO2 creation * 4.78 - 5.28 kg/kg
Recycle FALSE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade FALSE
Incinerate TRUE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? FALSE
Impact on the environment
Foaming of insulation with CFCs has a damaging effect on the ozone layer - it is now abandoned. Monomers and foaming agents pose hazards; good practice overcomes these. For cushioning, the requirements are comfort and long life; polyurethane foams have been commonly used, but concerns about flammability and durability limit their use in furniture.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Castability 3 - 5
Mouldability 1 - 4
Machinability 3 - 4
Weldability 1
Durability
Flammability Very Poor
Fresh WaterVery Good
Sea Water Very Good
Weak Acid Very Good
Strong AcidGood
Weak Alkalis Very Good
Strong Alkalis Average
Organic Solvents Good
UV Average
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Flexible foams have characteristics that suit them for cushioning and packaging of delicate objects. They are shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer, catalyst and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin. Closed cell foams float in water; open cell foams absorb liquids and act as sponges.
Technical notes
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Typical uses
Packaging, buoyancy, cushioning, sleeping mats, soft furnishings, artificial skin, sponges, carriers for inks and dyes.
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Flexible foams can be soft and compliant, the material of cushions, mattresses, and padded clothing. Most are made from polyurethane, although latex (natural rubber) and most other elastomers can be foamed.
Foaming of insulation with CFCs has a damaging effect on the ozone layer - it is now abandoned. Monomers and foaming agents pose hazards; good practice overcomes these. For cushioning, the requirements are comfort and long life; polyurethane foams have been commonly used, but concerns about flammability and durability limit their use in furniture.
Flexible foams have characteristics that suit them for cushioning and packaging of delicate objects. They are shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer, catalyst and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin. Closed cell foams float in water; open cell foams absorb liquids and act as sponges.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Packaging, buoyancy, cushioning, sleeping mats, soft furnishings, artificial skin, sponges, carriers for inks and dyes.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Flexible foams can be soft and compliant, the material of cushions, mattresses, and padded clothing. Most are made from polyurethane, although latex (natural rubber) and most other elastomers can be foamed.
Foaming of insulation with CFCs has a damaging effect on the ozone layer - it is now abandoned. Monomers and foaming agents pose hazards; good practice overcomes these. For cushioning, the requirements are comfort and long life; polyurethane foams have been commonly used, but concerns about flammability and durability limit their use in furniture.
Flexible foams have characteristics that suit them for cushioning and packaging of delicate objects. They are shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer, catalyst and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin. Closed cell foams float in water; open cell foams absorb liquids and act as sponges.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Flexible foams can be soft and compliant, the material of cushions, mattresses, and padded clothing. Most are made from polyurethane, although latex (natural rubber) and most other elastomers can be foamed.
Foaming of insulation with CFCs has a damaging effect on the ozone layer - it is now abandoned. Monomers and foaming agents pose hazards; good practice overcomes these. For cushioning, the requirements are comfort and long life; polyurethane foams have been commonly used, but concerns about flammability and durability limit their use in furniture.
Flexible foams have characteristics that suit them for cushioning and packaging of delicate objects. They are shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer, catalyst and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin. Closed cell foams float in water; open cell foams absorb liquids and act as sponges.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Flexible foams can be soft and compliant, the material of cushions, mattresses, and padded clothing. Most are made from polyurethane, although latex (natural rubber) and most other elastomers can be foamed.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Flexible foams can be soft and compliant, the material of cushions, mattresses, and padded clothing. Most are made from polyurethane, although latex (natural rubber) and most other elastomers can be foamed.
Rigid Polymer Foam (LD)
Description
The Material
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Composition
Hydrocarbon
Image
Caption
Rigid polymer foam is used as the core of the GFRP sandwich shell for ultra-light weight designs such as this glider.
General properties
Density 2.247 - 4.37 lb/ft^3
Price 1.026 - 51.3 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 3.34E-03 - 0.0116 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus 1.16E-03 - 5.08E-03 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 3.34E-03 - 0.0116 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.25 - 0.33
Hardness - Vickers 0.037 - 0.17 HV
Elastic Limit 0.04351 - 0.2466 ksi
Tensile Strength 0.06527 - 0.3263 ksi
Compressive Strength 0.05366 - 0.2466 ksi
Elongation 2 - 5 %
Endurance Limit * 0.04293 - 0.1973 ksi
Fracture Toughness 1.91E-03 - 0.0182 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 5.00E-03 - 0.3
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity 0.01329 - 0.02311 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion 11.11 - 44.44 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.2675 - 0.4562 BTU/lb.F
Glass Temperature 152.3 - 339.5 F
Maximum Service Temperature 152.3 - 296.3 F
Minimum Service Temperature -351.7 - -99.67 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Resistivity 1.00E+17 - 1.00E+21 ohm.cm
Dielectric Constant 1.04 - 1.448
Power Factor 8.00E-05 - 5.10E-03
Breakdown Potential 48.26 - 153.4 V/mil
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy * 1.50E+04 - 1.66E+04 kcal/lb
CO2 creation * 6.59 - 7.28 kg/kg
Recycle TRUE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade FALSE
Incinerate TRUE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? FALSE
Impact on the environment
Foaming of insulation with CFCs has a damaging effect on the ozone layer - it is now abandoned. Monomers and foaming agents pose hazards; good practice overcomes these.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Castability 1 - 3
Mouldability 3 - 4
Machinability 3 - 4
Weldability 1 - 2
Durability
Flammability Average
Fresh WaterVery Good
Sea Water Very Good
Weak Acid Very Good
Strong AcidAverage
Weak Alkalis Very Good
Strong Alkalis Good
Organic Solvents Good
UV Good
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
Technical notes
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Typical uses
Thermal insulation, Cores for sandwich structures, Panels, Partitions, Refrigeration, Energy Absorption, Packaging, Buoyancy, Floatation.
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Rigid polymer foam is used as the core of the GFRP sandwich shell for ultra-light weight designs such as this glider.
Foaming of insulation with CFCs has a damaging effect on the ozone layer - it is now abandoned. Monomers and foaming agents pose hazards; good practice overcomes these.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Thermal insulation, Cores for sandwich structures, Panels, Partitions, Refrigeration, Energy Absorption, Packaging, Buoyancy, Floatation.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
The properties of foams depend, most directly, on the material of which they are made and on the relative density (the fraction of the foam that is solid). Most commercial foams have a relative density between 1% and 30%. To a lesser extent, the properties depend on the size and the shape of the cells. Low density, closed cell, foams have exceptional low thermal conductivity. Skinned rigid foams have good bending stiffness and strength of low weight.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
Polymer foams are made by the controlled expansion and solidification of a liquid or melt through a blowing agent; physical, chemical or mechanical blowing agents are possible. The resulting cellular material has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the parent material, by an amount that depends on its relative density - the volume-fraction of solid in the foam. Rigid foams are made from polystyrene, phenolic, polyethylene, polypropylene or derivatives of polymethylmethacrylate. They are light and stiff, and have mechanical properties the make them attractive for energy management and packaging, and for lightweight structural use. Open-cell foams can be used as filters, closed cell foams as flotation. Self-skinning foams, called 'structural' or 'syntactic', have a dense surface skin made by foaming in a cold mould. Rigid polymer foams are widely used as cores of sandwich panels.
Energy management and packaging requires the ability to absorb energy at a constant, controlled crushing stress; here polyurethane, polypropylene and polystyrene foams are used. Acoustic control requires the ability to absorb sound and damp vibration; polyurethane, polystyrene and polyethylene foams are all used. Thermal insulation requires long life; polyurethane foams were common but are now replaced by phenolics and polystyrenes. When fire-protection is needed phenolic foams are used. Foams are usually shaped by injecting or pouring a mix of polymer and foaming agent into a mould where the agent evolves gas, expanding the foam. The mix can be pelletised, and the mould part-filled with solid pellets before foaming (see "Expanded foam molding" in this database). Expanding in a cold mould gives a solid surface skin, creating a sandwich-like structure with attractive mechanical properties.
Aluminium alloys
Description
The Material
Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry.
Composition
Al + alloying elements, e.g. Mg, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn, Zr, Li
Image
Caption
Aluminum can formed both by casting and by deformation.
General properties
Density 156.1 - 181 lb/ft^3
Price 0.6453 - 1.046 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 9.863 - 11.89 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus 3.626 - 4.496 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 9.282 - 10.3 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.32 - 0.36
Hardness - Vickers 12 - 150.5 HV
Elastic Limit 4.351 - 72.52 ksi
Tensile Strength 8.412 - 79.77 ksi
Compressive Strength 4.351 - 72.52 ksi
Elongation 1 - 44 %
Endurance Limit 3.133 - 22.77 ksi
Fracture Toughness 20.02 - 31.85 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient 1.00E-04 - 2.00E-03
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good conductor
Thermal Conductivity 43.91 - 135.8 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion 11.67 - 13.33 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.2047 - 0.2365 BTU/lb.F
Melting Point 886.7 - 1250 F
Maximum Service Temperature 248 - 410 F
Minimum Service Temperature -459.7 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Good conductor
Resistivity 2.5 - 6.5 ohm.cm
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy 1.99E+04 - 2.20E+04 kcal/lb
CO2 creation 11.6 - 12.8 kg/kg
Recycle TRUE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade FALSE
Incinerate FALSE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? FALSE
Impact on the environment
Aluminum ore is abundant. It takes a lot of energy to extract aluminum, but it is easily recycled at low energy cost.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Castability 4 - 5
Formability 3 - 4
Machinability 4 - 5
Weldability 3 - 4
Solder/Brazability 2 - 3
Durability
Flammability Good
Fresh WaterVery Good
Sea Water Good
Weak Acid Very Good
Strong AcidVery Good
Weak Alkalis Good
Strong Alkalis Poor
Organic Solvents Very Good
UV Very Good
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Technical notes
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Typical uses
Aerospace engineering; automotive engineering - pistons, clutch housings, exhaust manifolds; die cast chassis for household and electronic products; siding for buildings; foil for containers and packaging; beverage cans; electrical and thermal conductors.
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry.
Aluminum ore is abundant. It takes a lot of energy to extract aluminum, but it is easily recycled at low energy cost.
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Aerospace engineering; automotive engineering - pistons, clutch housings, exhaust manifolds; die cast chassis for household and electronic products; siding for buildings; foil for containers and packaging; beverage cans; electrical and thermal conductors.
Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry.
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Aerospace engineering; automotive engineering - pistons, clutch housings, exhaust manifolds; die cast chassis for household and electronic products; siding for buildings; foil for containers and packaging; beverage cans; electrical and thermal conductors.
Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry.
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry.
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry.
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry.
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Aluminum alloys are light, can be strong, and are easily worked. Pure aluminum has outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity (copper is the only competition here) and is relatively cheap - though still more than twice the price of steel. It is a reactive metal - in powder form it can explode - but in bulk an oxide film (Al2O3) forms on its surface, protecting it from corrosion in water and acids (but not strong alkalis). Aluminum alloys are not good for sliding surfaces - they scuff - and the fatigue strength of the high-strength alloys is poor. Nearly pure aluminum (1000 series alloys) is used for small appliances and siding; high strength alloys are used in aerospace (2000 and 7000 series), and extrudable, medium strength alloys are used in the automotive and general engineering sectors (6000 series).
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Until 1970, designations of wrought aluminum alloys were a mess; in many countries, they were simply numbered in the order of their development. The International Alloy Designation System (IADS), now widely accepted, gives each wrought alloy a 4-digit number. The first digit indicates the major alloying element or elements. Thus the series 1xxx describe unalloyed aluminum; the 2xxx series contain copper as the major alloying element, and so forth. The third and fourth digits are significant in the 1xxx series but not in the others; in 1xxx series they describe the minimum purity of the aluminum; thus 1145 has a minimum purity of 99.45%; 1200 has a minimum purity of 99.00%. In all other series, the third and fourth digits are simply serial numbers; thus 5082 and 5083 are two distinct aluminum-magnesium alloys. The second digit has a curious function: it indicates a close relationship: thus 5352 is closely related to 5052 and 5252; and 7075 and 7475 differ only slightly in composition. To these serial numbers a
Polyamides (Nylons, PA)
Description
The Material
Back in 1945, the war in Europe just ended, the two most prized luxuries were cigarettes and nylons. Nylon (PA) can be drawn to fibers as fine as silk, and was widely used as a substitute for it. Today, newer fibers have eroded its dominance in garment design, but nylon-fiber ropes, and nylon as reinforcement for rubber (in car tires) and other polymers (PTFE, for roofs) remains important. It is used in product design for tough casings, frames and handles, and - reinforced with glass - as bearings gears and other load-bearing parts. There are many grades (Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 11.) each with slightly different properties.
Composition
(NH(CH2)5C0)n
Image
Caption
Polyamides are tough, and easily colored.
General properties
Density 69.92 - 71.17 lb/ft^3
Price 1.645 - 1.81 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 0.38 - 0.4641 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus * 0.1407 - 0.1719 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 0.5366 - 0.5656 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.34 - 0.36
Hardness - Vickers 25.8 - 28.4 HV
Elastic Limit 7.252 - 13.75 ksi
Tensile Strength 13.05 - 23.93 ksi
Compressive Strength 7.977 - 15.12 ksi
Elongation 30 - 100 %
Endurance Limit * 5.221 - 9.572 ksi
Fracture Toughness * 2.019 - 5.111 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 0.0125 - 0.01527
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity 0.1346 - 0.1462 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion 80 - 83 strain/F
Specific Heat * 0.3823 - 0.3976 BTU/lb.F
Melting Point 409.7 - 427.7 F
Glass Temperature 110.9 - 132.5 F
Maximum Service Temperature 163.1 - 188.3 F
Minimum Service Temperature * -189.7 - -99.67 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Resistivity * 1.50E+19 - 1.40E+20 ohm.cm
Dielectric Constant 3.7 - 3.9
Power Factor * 0.014 - 0.06
Breakdown Potential 383.5 - 416.6 V/mil
Optical properties
Transparency Translucent
Refractive Index 1.52 - 1.53
Eco properties
Production Energy * 1.11E+04 - 1.22E+04 kcal/lb
CO2 creation 3.99 - 4.41 kg/kg
Recycle TRUE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade FALSE
Incinerate TRUE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? FALSE
Recycle mark
Impact on the environment
Nylons have no known toxic effects, although they are not entirely inert biologically. Nylons are oil-derivatives, but this will not disadvantage them in the near future. With refinements in polyolefin catalysis, nylons face stiff competition from less expensive polymers.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Castability 1 - 2
Mouldability 4 - 5
Machinability 3 - 4
Weldability 5
Durability
Flammability Average
Fresh WaterVery Good
Sea Water Very Good
Weak Acid Good
Strong AcidPoor
Weak Alkalis Very Good
Strong Alkalis Good
Organic Solvents Average
UV Average
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
Technical notes
The density, stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of Nylons all lie near the average for unreinforced polymers. Their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion are a little lower than average. Reinforcement with mineral, glass powder or glass fiber increases the modulus, strength and density. Semi-crystalline nylon is distinguished by a numeric code for the material class indicating the number of carbon atoms between two nitrogen atoms in the molecular chain. The amorphous material is transparent; the semi-crystalline material is opal white.
Typical uses
Light duty gears, bushings, sprockets and bearings; electrical equipment housings, lenses, containers, tanks, tubing, furniture casters, plumbing connections, bicycle wheel covers, ketchup bottles, chairs, toothbrush bristles, handles, bearings, food packaging. Nylons are used as hot-melt adhesives for book bindings; as fibers - ropes, fishing line, carpeting, car upholstery and stockings; as aramid fibers - cables, ropes, protective clothing, air filtration bags and electrical insulation.
Tradenames
Adell, Akulon, Albis, Amilan, Ashlene, Capron, Celanese, Chemlon, Durethan, Gapex, Grilon, Grivory, Hylon, Kopa, Latamid, Lubrilon, Magnacomp, Maranyl, Minlon, NSC, Nivionplast, Novamid, Nydur, Nylamid, Nylene, Nypel, Orgamide, Radilon, Schulamid, Selar, Sniamid, Star-C, Star-L, Staramide, Texalon, Ultramid, Vestamid, Wellamid, Zytel
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Back in 1945, the war in Europe just ended, the two most prized luxuries were cigarettes and nylons. Nylon (PA) can be drawn to fibers as fine as silk, and was widely used as a substitute for it. Today, newer fibers have eroded its dominance in garment design, but nylon-fiber ropes, and nylon as reinforcement for rubber (in car tires) and other polymers (PTFE, for roofs) remains important. It is used in product design for tough casings, frames and handles, and - reinforced with glass - as bearings gears and other load-bearing parts. There are many grades (Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 11.) each with slightly different properties.
Nylons have no known toxic effects, although they are not entirely inert biologically. Nylons are oil-derivatives, but this will not disadvantage them in the near future. With refinements in polyolefin catalysis, nylons face stiff competition from less expensive polymers.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
The density, stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of Nylons all lie near the average for unreinforced polymers. Their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion are a little lower than average. Reinforcement with mineral, glass powder or glass fiber increases the modulus, strength and density. Semi-crystalline nylon is distinguished by a numeric code for the material class indicating the number of carbon atoms between two nitrogen atoms in the molecular chain. The amorphous material is transparent; the semi-crystalline material is opal white.
Light duty gears, bushings, sprockets and bearings; electrical equipment housings, lenses, containers, tanks, tubing, furniture casters, plumbing connections, bicycle wheel covers, ketchup bottles, chairs, toothbrush bristles, handles, bearings, food packaging. Nylons are used as hot-melt adhesives for book bindings; as fibers - ropes, fishing line, carpeting, car upholstery and stockings; as aramid fibers - cables, ropes, protective clothing, air filtration bags and electrical insulation.
Adell, Akulon, Albis, Amilan, Ashlene, Capron, Celanese, Chemlon, Durethan, Gapex, Grilon, Grivory, Hylon, Kopa, Latamid, Lubrilon, Magnacomp, Maranyl, Minlon, NSC, Nivionplast, Novamid, Nydur, Nylamid, Nylene, Nypel, Orgamide, Radilon, Schulamid, Selar, Sniamid, Star-C, Star-L, Staramide, Texalon, Ultramid, Vestamid, Wellamid, Zytel
Back in 1945, the war in Europe just ended, the two most prized luxuries were cigarettes and nylons. Nylon (PA) can be drawn to fibers as fine as silk, and was widely used as a substitute for it. Today, newer fibers have eroded its dominance in garment design, but nylon-fiber ropes, and nylon as reinforcement for rubber (in car tires) and other polymers (PTFE, for roofs) remains important. It is used in product design for tough casings, frames and handles, and - reinforced with glass - as bearings gears and other load-bearing parts. There are many grades (Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 11.) each with slightly different properties.
Nylons have no known toxic effects, although they are not entirely inert biologically. Nylons are oil-derivatives, but this will not disadvantage them in the near future. With refinements in polyolefin catalysis, nylons face stiff competition from less expensive polymers.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
The density, stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of Nylons all lie near the average for unreinforced polymers. Their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion are a little lower than average. Reinforcement with mineral, glass powder or glass fiber increases the modulus, strength and density. Semi-crystalline nylon is distinguished by a numeric code for the material class indicating the number of carbon atoms between two nitrogen atoms in the molecular chain. The amorphous material is transparent; the semi-crystalline material is opal white.
Light duty gears, bushings, sprockets and bearings; electrical equipment housings, lenses, containers, tanks, tubing, furniture casters, plumbing connections, bicycle wheel covers, ketchup bottles, chairs, toothbrush bristles, handles, bearings, food packaging. Nylons are used as hot-melt adhesives for book bindings; as fibers - ropes, fishing line, carpeting, car upholstery and stockings; as aramid fibers - cables, ropes, protective clothing, air filtration bags and electrical insulation.
Adell, Akulon, Albis, Amilan, Ashlene, Capron, Celanese, Chemlon, Durethan, Gapex, Grilon, Grivory, Hylon, Kopa, Latamid, Lubrilon, Magnacomp, Maranyl, Minlon, NSC, Nivionplast, Novamid, Nydur, Nylamid, Nylene, Nypel, Orgamide, Radilon, Schulamid, Selar, Sniamid, Star-C, Star-L, Staramide, Texalon, Ultramid, Vestamid, Wellamid, Zytel
Back in 1945, the war in Europe just ended, the two most prized luxuries were cigarettes and nylons. Nylon (PA) can be drawn to fibers as fine as silk, and was widely used as a substitute for it. Today, newer fibers have eroded its dominance in garment design, but nylon-fiber ropes, and nylon as reinforcement for rubber (in car tires) and other polymers (PTFE, for roofs) remains important. It is used in product design for tough casings, frames and handles, and - reinforced with glass - as bearings gears and other load-bearing parts. There are many grades (Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 11.) each with slightly different properties.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
The density, stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of Nylons all lie near the average for unreinforced polymers. Their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion are a little lower than average. Reinforcement with mineral, glass powder or glass fiber increases the modulus, strength and density. Semi-crystalline nylon is distinguished by a numeric code for the material class indicating the number of carbon atoms between two nitrogen atoms in the molecular chain. The amorphous material is transparent; the semi-crystalline material is opal white.
Light duty gears, bushings, sprockets and bearings; electrical equipment housings, lenses, containers, tanks, tubing, furniture casters, plumbing connections, bicycle wheel covers, ketchup bottles, chairs, toothbrush bristles, handles, bearings, food packaging. Nylons are used as hot-melt adhesives for book bindings; as fibers - ropes, fishing line, carpeting, car upholstery and stockings; as aramid fibers - cables, ropes, protective clothing, air filtration bags and electrical insulation.
Adell, Akulon, Albis, Amilan, Ashlene, Capron, Celanese, Chemlon, Durethan, Gapex, Grilon, Grivory, Hylon, Kopa, Latamid, Lubrilon, Magnacomp, Maranyl, Minlon, NSC, Nivionplast, Novamid, Nydur, Nylamid, Nylene, Nypel, Orgamide, Radilon, Schulamid, Selar, Sniamid, Star-C, Star-L, Staramide, Texalon, Ultramid, Vestamid, Wellamid, Zytel
Back in 1945, the war in Europe just ended, the two most prized luxuries were cigarettes and nylons. Nylon (PA) can be drawn to fibers as fine as silk, and was widely used as a substitute for it. Today, newer fibers have eroded its dominance in garment design, but nylon-fiber ropes, and nylon as reinforcement for rubber (in car tires) and other polymers (PTFE, for roofs) remains important. It is used in product design for tough casings, frames and handles, and - reinforced with glass - as bearings gears and other load-bearing parts. There are many grades (Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 11.) each with slightly different properties.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
The density, stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of Nylons all lie near the average for unreinforced polymers. Their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion are a little lower than average. Reinforcement with mineral, glass powder or glass fiber increases the modulus, strength and density. Semi-crystalline nylon is distinguished by a numeric code for the material class indicating the number of carbon atoms between two nitrogen atoms in the molecular chain. The amorphous material is transparent; the semi-crystalline material is opal white.
Light duty gears, bushings, sprockets and bearings; electrical equipment housings, lenses, containers, tanks, tubing, furniture casters, plumbing connections, bicycle wheel covers, ketchup bottles, chairs, toothbrush bristles, handles, bearings, food packaging. Nylons are used as hot-melt adhesives for book bindings; as fibers - ropes, fishing line, carpeting, car upholstery and stockings; as aramid fibers - cables, ropes, protective clothing, air filtration bags and electrical insulation.
Back in 1945, the war in Europe just ended, the two most prized luxuries were cigarettes and nylons. Nylon (PA) can be drawn to fibers as fine as silk, and was widely used as a substitute for it. Today, newer fibers have eroded its dominance in garment design, but nylon-fiber ropes, and nylon as reinforcement for rubber (in car tires) and other polymers (PTFE, for roofs) remains important. It is used in product design for tough casings, frames and handles, and - reinforced with glass - as bearings gears and other load-bearing parts. There are many grades (Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 11.) each with slightly different properties.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
The density, stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of Nylons all lie near the average for unreinforced polymers. Their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion are a little lower than average. Reinforcement with mineral, glass powder or glass fiber increases the modulus, strength and density. Semi-crystalline nylon is distinguished by a numeric code for the material class indicating the number of carbon atoms between two nitrogen atoms in the molecular chain. The amorphous material is transparent; the semi-crystalline material is opal white.
Back in 1945, the war in Europe just ended, the two most prized luxuries were cigarettes and nylons. Nylon (PA) can be drawn to fibers as fine as silk, and was widely used as a substitute for it. Today, newer fibers have eroded its dominance in garment design, but nylon-fiber ropes, and nylon as reinforcement for rubber (in car tires) and other polymers (PTFE, for roofs) remains important. It is used in product design for tough casings, frames and handles, and - reinforced with glass - as bearings gears and other load-bearing parts. There are many grades (Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 11.) each with slightly different properties.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
Nylons are tough, strong and have a low coefficient of friction, with useful properties over a wide range of temperature (-80 to +120 C). They are easy to injection mould, machine and finish, can be thermally or ultrasonically bonded, or joined with epoxy, phenol-formaldehyde or polyester adhesives. Certain grades of nylon can be electroplated allowing metallisation, and most accept print well. A blend of PPO/Nylon is used in fenders, exterior body parts. Nylon fibers are strong, tough, elastic and glossy, easily spun into yarns or blended with other materials. Nylons absorb up to 4% water; to prevent dimensional changes, they must be conditioned before molding, allowing them to establishing equilibrium with normal atmospheric humidity. Nylons have poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agents and solvents, particularly in transparent grades.
Polyoxymethylene (Acetal, POM)
Description
The Material
POM was first marketed by DuPont in 1959 as Delrin. It is similar to nylon but is stiffer, and has better fatigue and water resistance - nylons, however, have better impact and abrasion resistance. It is rarely used without modifications: most often filled with glass fiber, flame retardant additives or blended with PTFE or PU. The last, POM/PU blend, has good toughness. POM is used where requirements for good moldability, fatigue resistance and stiffness justify its high price relative to mass polymers, like polyethylene, which are polymerized from cheaper raw materials using lower energy input.
Composition
(CH2-O)n
Image
General properties
Density 86.77 - 89.27 lb/ft^3
Price 1.599 - 2.394 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 0.3626 - 0.7252 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus 0.1218 - 0.3296 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 0.6382 - 0.6672 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.33 - 0.4066
Hardness - Vickers 14.6 - 24.8 HV
Elastic Limit 7.049 - 10.5 ksi
Tensile Strength 8.702 - 13 ksi
Compressive Strength 10.86 - 17.98 ksi
Elongation 10 - 75 %
Endurance Limit * 3.18 - 4.965 ksi
Fracture Toughness 1.555 - 3.822 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 6.38E-03 - 0.01702
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Thermal Conductivity 0.1277 - 0.2025 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion 42.05 - 112 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.3258 - 0.3422 BTU/lb.F
Melting Point 319.7 - 362.9 F
Glass Temperature -0.6704 - 17.33 F
Maximum Service Temperature 170.3 - 206.3 F
Minimum Service Temperature -189.7 - -99.67 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Good insulator
Resistivity 3.30E+20 - 3.00E+21 ohm.cm
Dielectric Constant 3.6 - 4
Power Factor 9.50E-04 - 5.00E-03
Breakdown Potential 383.5 - 520.7 V/mil
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy * 1.08E+04 - 1.19E+04 kcal/lb
CO2 creation * 3.8 - 4.2 kg/kg
Recycle TRUE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade FALSE
Incinerate TRUE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? FALSE
Recycle mark
Impact on the environment
Acetal, like most thermoplastics, is an oil derivative, but this poses no immediate threat to its use.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Castability 1 - 2
Mouldability 4 - 5
Machinability 3 - 4
Weldability 4 - 5
Durability
Flammability Poor
Fresh WaterVery Good
Sea Water Very Good
Weak Acid Good
Strong AcidPoor
Weak Alkalis Good
Strong Alkalis Good
Organic Solvents Good
UV Average
Oxidation at 500C Very Poor
Supporting information
Design guidelines
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
Technical notes
The repeating unit of POM is - (CH2O)n and the resulting molecule is linear and highly crystalline. Consequently, POM is easily moldable, has good fatigue resistance and stiffness, and is water resistant. In its pure form, POM degrades easily by dePolymerization from the ends of the polymer chain by a process called 'unzipping'. The addition of 'blocking groups' at the ends of the polymer chains or coPolymerization with cyclic ethers such as ethylene oxide prevents unzipping and hence degradation.
Typical uses
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
Tradenames
Acetron, Delrin, Fulton, Latan, Lupital, Plaslube, Tenac, Thermocomp, Ultraform
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
POM was first marketed by DuPont in 1959 as Delrin. It is similar to nylon but is stiffer, and has better fatigue and water resistance - nylons, however, have better impact and abrasion resistance. It is rarely used without modifications: most often filled with glass fiber, flame retardant additives or blended with PTFE or PU. The last, POM/PU blend, has good toughness. POM is used where requirements for good moldability, fatigue resistance and stiffness justify its high price relative to mass polymers, like polyethylene, which are polymerized from cheaper raw materials using lower energy input.
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
The repeating unit of POM is - (CH2O)n and the resulting molecule is linear and highly crystalline. Consequently, POM is easily moldable, has good fatigue resistance and stiffness, and is water resistant. In its pure form, POM degrades easily by dePolymerization from the ends of the polymer chain by a process called 'unzipping'. The addition of 'blocking groups' at the ends of the polymer chains or coPolymerization with cyclic ethers such as ethylene oxide prevents unzipping and hence degradation.
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
POM was first marketed by DuPont in 1959 as Delrin. It is similar to nylon but is stiffer, and has better fatigue and water resistance - nylons, however, have better impact and abrasion resistance. It is rarely used without modifications: most often filled with glass fiber, flame retardant additives or blended with PTFE or PU. The last, POM/PU blend, has good toughness. POM is used where requirements for good moldability, fatigue resistance and stiffness justify its high price relative to mass polymers, like polyethylene, which are polymerized from cheaper raw materials using lower energy input.
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
The repeating unit of POM is - (CH2O)n and the resulting molecule is linear and highly crystalline. Consequently, POM is easily moldable, has good fatigue resistance and stiffness, and is water resistant. In its pure form, POM degrades easily by dePolymerization from the ends of the polymer chain by a process called 'unzipping'. The addition of 'blocking groups' at the ends of the polymer chains or coPolymerization with cyclic ethers such as ethylene oxide prevents unzipping and hence degradation.
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
POM was first marketed by DuPont in 1959 as Delrin. It is similar to nylon but is stiffer, and has better fatigue and water resistance - nylons, however, have better impact and abrasion resistance. It is rarely used without modifications: most often filled with glass fiber, flame retardant additives or blended with PTFE or PU. The last, POM/PU blend, has good toughness. POM is used where requirements for good moldability, fatigue resistance and stiffness justify its high price relative to mass polymers, like polyethylene, which are polymerized from cheaper raw materials using lower energy input.
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
The repeating unit of POM is - (CH2O)n and the resulting molecule is linear and highly crystalline. Consequently, POM is easily moldable, has good fatigue resistance and stiffness, and is water resistant. In its pure form, POM degrades easily by dePolymerization from the ends of the polymer chain by a process called 'unzipping'. The addition of 'blocking groups' at the ends of the polymer chains or coPolymerization with cyclic ethers such as ethylene oxide prevents unzipping and hence degradation.
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
POM was first marketed by DuPont in 1959 as Delrin. It is similar to nylon but is stiffer, and has better fatigue and water resistance - nylons, however, have better impact and abrasion resistance. It is rarely used without modifications: most often filled with glass fiber, flame retardant additives or blended with PTFE or PU. The last, POM/PU blend, has good toughness. POM is used where requirements for good moldability, fatigue resistance and stiffness justify its high price relative to mass polymers, like polyethylene, which are polymerized from cheaper raw materials using lower energy input.
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
The repeating unit of POM is - (CH2O)n and the resulting molecule is linear and highly crystalline. Consequently, POM is easily moldable, has good fatigue resistance and stiffness, and is water resistant. In its pure form, POM degrades easily by dePolymerization from the ends of the polymer chain by a process called 'unzipping'. The addition of 'blocking groups' at the ends of the polymer chains or coPolymerization with cyclic ethers such as ethylene oxide prevents unzipping and hence degradation.
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
POM was first marketed by DuPont in 1959 as Delrin. It is similar to nylon but is stiffer, and has better fatigue and water resistance - nylons, however, have better impact and abrasion resistance. It is rarely used without modifications: most often filled with glass fiber, flame retardant additives or blended with PTFE or PU. The last, POM/PU blend, has good toughness. POM is used where requirements for good moldability, fatigue resistance and stiffness justify its high price relative to mass polymers, like polyethylene, which are polymerized from cheaper raw materials using lower energy input.
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
POM is easy to mould by blow molding, injection molding or sheet molding, but shrinkage on cooling limits the minimum recommended wall thickness for injection molding to 0.1mm. As manufactured, POM is gray but it can be colored. It can be extruded to produce shapes of constant cross section such as fibers and pipes. The high crystallinity leads to increased shrinkage upon cooling. It must be processed in the temperature range 190-230 C and may require drying before forming because it is hygroscopic. Joining can be done using ultrasonic welding, but POM's low coefficient of friction requires welding methods that use high energy and long ultrasonic exposure; adhesive bonding is an alternative. POM is a good electrical insulator. Without coPolymerization or the addition of blocking groups, POM degrades easily.
POM is more expensive than commodity polymers such as PE, so is limited to high performance applications in which its natural lubricity is exploited. It is found in fuel-system; seat-belt components; steering columns; window-support brackets and handles; shower heads, ballcocks, faucet cartridges, and various fittings; quality toys; garden sprayers; stereo cassette parts; butane lighter bodies; zippers; telephone components; couplings; pump impellers; conveyor plates; gears; sprockets; springs; gears; cams; bushings; clips; lugs; door handles; window cranks; housings; seat-belt components; watch gears; conveyor links; aerosols; mechanical pen and pencil parts; milk pumps; coffee spigots; filter housings; food conveyors; cams; gears; TV tuner arms; automotive underhood components.
Stainless steel
Description
The Material
Stainless steels are alloys of iron with chromium, nickel, and - often - four of five other elements. The alloying transmutes plain carbon steel that rusts and is prone to brittleness below room temperature into a material that does neither. Indeed, most stainless steels resist corrosion in most normal environments, and they remain ductile to the lowest of temperatures.
Composition
Fe/<0.25C/16 - 30Cr/3.5 - 37Ni/<10Mn + Si,P,S (+N for 200 series)
Image
Caption
One the left: Siemens toaster in brushed austenitic stainless steel (by Porsche Design). On the right, scissors in ferritic stainless steel; it is magnetic, austenitic stainless is not.
General properties
Density 474.5 - 505.7 lb/ft^3
Price 1.283 - 5.13 USD/lb
Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus 27.41 - 30.46 10^6 psi
Shear Modulus 10.73 - 12.18 10^6 psi
Bulk modulus 19.44 - 21.9 10^6 psi
Poisson's Ratio 0.265 - 0.275
Hardness - Vickers 130 - 570 HV
Elastic Limit 24.66 - 145 ksi
Tensile Strength 69.62 - 324.9 ksi
Compressive Strength 24.66 - 145 ksi
Elongation 5 - 70 %
Endurance Limit * 25.38 - 109.2 ksi
Fracture Toughness 56.42 - 136.5 ksi.in^1/2
Loss Coefficient * 2.90E-04 - 1.48E-03
Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Poor conductor
Thermal Conductivity 6.933 - 13.87 BTU.ft/h.ft^2.F
Thermal Expansion 7.222 - 11.11 strain/F
Specific Heat 0.1075 - 0.1266 BTU/lb.F
Melting Point 2507 - 2642 F
Maximum Service Temperature 1202 - 1652 F
Minimum Service Temperature -457.9 - -456.1 F
Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator? Good conductor
Resistivity 64 - 107 ohm.cm
Optical properties
Transparency Opaque
Eco properties
Production Energy * 8364 - 9241 kcal/lb
CO2 creation * 4.86 - 5.37 kg/kg
Recycle TRUE
Downcycle TRUE
Biodegrade FALSE
Incinerate FALSE
Landfill TRUE
A renewable resource? FALSE
Impact on the environment
Stainless steels are FDA approved -- indeed, they are so inert that they can be implanted in the body, and are widely used in food processing equipment. All can be recycled.
Processability (Scale 1 = impractical to 5 = excellent)
Castability 3 - 4
Formability 2 - 3
Machinability 2 - 3
Weldability 5
Solder/Brazability 5
Durability
Flammability Very Good
Fresh WaterVery Good
Sea Water Very Good
Weak Acid Very Good
Strong AcidGood
Weak Alkalis Very Good
Strong Alkalis Very Good
Organic Solvents Very Good
UV Very Good
Oxidation at 500C Very Good
Supporting information
Design guidelines
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Technical notes
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Typical uses
Railway cars, trucks, trailers, food-processing equipment, sinks, stoves, cooking utensils, cutlery, flatware, architectural metalwork, laundry equipment, chemical-processing equipment, jet-engine parts, surgical tools, furnace and boiler components, oil-burner parts, petroleum-processing equipment, dairy equipment, heat-treating equipment, automotive trim. Structural uses in corrosive environments, e.g. nuclear plants, ships, offshore oil installations, underwater cables and pipes.
Links
Reference
ProcessUniverse
Producers
Stainless steels are alloys of iron with chromium, nickel, and - often - four of five other elements. The alloying transmutes plain carbon steel that rusts and is prone to brittleness below room temperature into a material that does neither. Indeed, most stainless steels resist corrosion in most normal environments, and they remain ductile to the lowest of temperatures.
One the left: Siemens toaster in brushed austenitic stainless steel (by Porsche Design). On the right, scissors in ferritic stainless steel; it is magnetic, austenitic stainless is not.
Stainless steels are FDA approved -- indeed, they are so inert that they can be implanted in the body, and are widely used in food processing equipment. All can be recycled.
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Railway cars, trucks, trailers, food-processing equipment, sinks, stoves, cooking utensils, cutlery, flatware, architectural metalwork, laundry equipment, chemical-processing equipment, jet-engine parts, surgical tools, furnace and boiler components, oil-burner parts, petroleum-processing equipment, dairy equipment, heat-treating equipment, automotive trim. Structural uses in corrosive environments, e.g. nuclear plants, ships, offshore oil installations, underwater cables and pipes.
Stainless steels are alloys of iron with chromium, nickel, and - often - four of five other elements. The alloying transmutes plain carbon steel that rusts and is prone to brittleness below room temperature into a material that does neither. Indeed, most stainless steels resist corrosion in most normal environments, and they remain ductile to the lowest of temperatures.
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Railway cars, trucks, trailers, food-processing equipment, sinks, stoves, cooking utensils, cutlery, flatware, architectural metalwork, laundry equipment, chemical-processing equipment, jet-engine parts, surgical tools, furnace and boiler components, oil-burner parts, petroleum-processing equipment, dairy equipment, heat-treating equipment, automotive trim. Structural uses in corrosive environments, e.g. nuclear plants, ships, offshore oil installations, underwater cables and pipes.
Stainless steels are alloys of iron with chromium, nickel, and - often - four of five other elements. The alloying transmutes plain carbon steel that rusts and is prone to brittleness below room temperature into a material that does neither. Indeed, most stainless steels resist corrosion in most normal environments, and they remain ductile to the lowest of temperatures.
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Railway cars, trucks, trailers, food-processing equipment, sinks, stoves, cooking utensils, cutlery, flatware, architectural metalwork, laundry equipment, chemical-processing equipment, jet-engine parts, surgical tools, furnace and boiler components, oil-burner parts, petroleum-processing equipment, dairy equipment, heat-treating equipment, automotive trim. Structural uses in corrosive environments, e.g. nuclear plants, ships, offshore oil installations, underwater cables and pipes.
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Railway cars, trucks, trailers, food-processing equipment, sinks, stoves, cooking utensils, cutlery, flatware, architectural metalwork, laundry equipment, chemical-processing equipment, jet-engine parts, surgical tools, furnace and boiler components, oil-burner parts, petroleum-processing equipment, dairy equipment, heat-treating equipment, automotive trim. Structural uses in corrosive environments, e.g. nuclear plants, ships, offshore oil installations, underwater cables and pipes.
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro
Stainless steel must be used efficiently to justify its higher costs, exploiting its high strength and corrosion resistance. Economic design uses thin, rolled gauge, simple sections, concealed welds to eliminate refinishing, and grades that are suitable to manufacturing (such as free machining grades when machining is necessary). Surface finish can be controlled by rolling, polishing or blasting. Stainless steels are selected, first, for their corrosion resistance, second, for their strength and third, for their ease of fabrication. Most stainless steels are difficult to bend, draw and cut, requiring slow cutting speeds and special tool geometry. They are available in sheet, strip, plate, bar, wire, tubing and pipe, and can be readily soldered and braised. Welding stainless steel is possible but the filler metal must be selected to ensure an equivalent composition to maintain corrosion resistance. The 300 series are the most weldable; the 400 series are less weldable.
Stainless steels are classified into four categories: the 200and 300 series austenitic (Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn) alloys, the 400 series ferritic (Fe-Cr) alloys, the martensitic (Fe-Cr-C) alloys that also form part of the 400 series, and precipitation hardening or PH (Fe-Cr-Ni-Cu-Nb) alloys with designations starting with S. Typical of the austenitic grades of stainless steel is the grade 304: 74% iron, 18% chromium and 8 % nickel. Here the chromium protects by creating a protective Cr2O3 film on all exposed surfaces, and the nickel stabilizes face-centered cubic austenite, giving ductility and strength both at high and low temperatures; they are non-magnetic (a way of identifying them). The combination of austenitic and ferritic structures (the duplex stainless steels) provide considerably slower growth of stress-induced cracks, they can be hot-rolled or cast and are often heat treated as well. Austenitic stainless steel with high molybdenum content and copper has excellent resistance to pitting and corrosion. High nitro