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1. Introduction to Combined 1. Introduction to Combined Cycle Cycle


Power Plants Power Plants
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 1 / 109
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Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants 2 1
Electricity Demand and Supply 22 2
Cost of Electricity 44 3
Electricity Demand and Supply 22 2
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 53 4
Wide Use of Gas Turbine 102 5
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 53 4
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Gas Turbine
+ In a gas turbine, the working fluid for transforming thermal energy into rotating mechanical energy is the hot
combustion gas, hence the term gas turbine.
+ The first power generationgas turbine was introducedbyABB in 1937 it was a standbyunit with a thermal + The first power generation gas turbine was introduced by ABB in 1937. it was a standby unit with a thermal
efficiency of 17%.
+ The gas turbine technology has many applications. The original jet engine technology was first made into a
h d t li ti f h i l d i heavy duty application for mechanical drive purposes.
+ Pipeline pumping stations, gas compressor plants, and various modes of transportation have successfully
used gas turbines.
+ While the mechanical drive applications continue to have widespread use, the technology has advanced into
larger gas turbine designs that are coupled to electric generators for power generation applications.
+ Gas turbine generators are self-contained packaged power plants.
+ Air compression, fuel delivery, combustion, expansion of combustion gas through a turbine, and electricity
generationare all accomplishedin a compact combinationof equipment usuallyprovidedby a single generation are all accomplished in a compact combination of equipment usually provided by a single
supplier under a single contract.
+ The advantages of the heavy-duty gas turbines are their long life, high availability, and slightly higher overall
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 3 / 109
efficiencies. The noise level from the heavy-duty gas turbines is considerably less than gas turbines for
aviation.
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Power Generation Requirement
Coal
Gas
Variety of Fuels Competitive Machine
Gas
Oil
Water
Nuclear
Wind c
i
e
n
c
y
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

x
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
E
m
i
s
s
i
o
C
o
s
t
s
Wind
Solar
Geothermal
Biomass
E
f
f
i
c
A
v
a
O
p
e
F
l
e
x
n
s
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Type of Plant
Base Load Intermediate Load Peak Load
Operating Operating
Hours [hr/a]
5000 2000 to 5000 2000
Nuclear plant
Gas turbine
Generating
Units
High-performance steam
turbine plant
High efficient combined cycle
Simple steam turbine plant
Old base-load plant
Combinedgas andsteam
Diesel engine
Pumping-up power plant
g y
plant
Hydropower plant
Combined gas and steam
plant
Old simple steam turbine
plant
Characteri-
Operated at full load as long as
possible during the year
High efficiencyandlowest cost
Operated on weekdays and
shutdown at night and on the
weekend
Low capital investment, but
highest operating costs
Characteri-
stics
High efficiency and lowest cost
Poor load change capability
(take more time to respond load
demand)
The efficiency is higher than
that of peak-load plants, but
lower than that of base-load
plants
Ease in startup
Used as standby or
emergency also
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 5 / 109
)
plants
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Combined Cycle Power Plants
Insimple cycle mode, the gas turbine is operated alone, without the benefit
of recovering any of energy in the hot exhaust gases. The exhaust gases
are sent directly to the atmosphere.
Fuel
Incombined cycle mode, the gas turbine exhaust gases are
sent into HRSG. The HRSG generates steam that is
normally used to power a steam turbine.
Combustor
Turbine G
Compressor
Inlet
Air
Steam
G
HP LP
Exhaust
Gas
Air
Turbine
G
Condenser
HP
Drum
LP
Drum
HRSG
Condenser
Deaerator
HP Superheater
HP Evaporator
HP Economizer
LP Superheater
Condensate
LP Boiler
Feed Pump
p
LP Evaporator
LP Economizer
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 6 / 109
Pump
HP Boiler
Feed Pump
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Simple Cycle
+ Simple cycle gas turbines for electricity generation are typically used for standby or peaking capacity and
are generally operated for a limited number of hours per year. Peaking operation is often defined as fewer
than 2,000 hours of operation per year. , p p y
+ In mechanical drive applications, and for some industrial power generation, simple cycle gas turbines are
base loadand operate more than5 000hours of operationper year base-load and operate more than 5,000 hours of operation per year.
+ Some plants are initially installed as simple cycle plants with provisions for future conversion to combined
cycle.
+ Gas turbines typically have their own cooling, lubricating, and other service systems needed for simple yp y g g y p
cycle operation. This can eliminate the need to tie service systems into the combined cycle addition and will
allow continued operation of the gas turbine during the conversion process and, with proper provisions,
during periods when the combined cycle equipment is out of service.
+ If future simple cycle is desired, a bypass stack may be included with the connection of the HRSG. A typical
method for providing this connection is to procure a divert damper box at the outlet of the gas turbine.
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Schematic of a CCPP
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3 P R h C l (F Cl G T bi )
Cycle Diagram
3 Pressure Reheat Cycle (F-Class Gas Turbine)
Fuel
G
Heat Recovery
Steam Generator
Air
Gas Turbine
IP Steam
LP
Steam
ColdReheat Hot Reheat Main
G
Steam
Cold Reheat
Steam
Hot Reheat
Steam
Main
Steam
St
Condenser
G
Steam Turbine
Condensate Pump
Steam
Water
Fuel
Air
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 9 / 109
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T-s Diagram for a Typical CCPP
T
Topping Cycle pp g y
(Brayton Cycle)
Bottoming Cycle
(Rankine Cycle)
s
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CHP; Combined Heat and Power
+ In the simplest arrangements, the
gas turbine waste heat is used
directly in an industrial process,
suchas for dryingin a paper mill, such as for drying in a paper mill,
or cement works.
+ Adding an HRSG converting
t h t i t t i waste heat into steam, gives
greater flexibilities in the process
for chemical industries, or district
heating
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Thermodynamic Consideration
T
HH
W
Q
H
Gas
T
H
W
Turbine
W
Q
H

HRSG
Q
W

Q
W
Steam
Turbine
T
L
Q
L
T
L
Q
L
[ F il / N l ] [ C bi dC l ]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 12 / 109
[ Fossil / Nuclear ] [ Combined Cycle]
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Gas Turbine Combined Cycle
Topping Cycle Bottoming Cycle
Main Components GT ST/HRSG
Working Fluid Air Water/Steam
Temperature High Medium/Low
Thermodynamic Cycle Brayton Rankine
Coupling Two Cycles Heat Exchanger
Topping Cycle Bottoming Cycle
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Combined Cycle Power Plants
+ Combined cycle means the combination of two thermal cycles in one plant.
+ When two cycles are combined, the efficiency increases higher than that of one cycle alone. y y g y
+ Thermal cycles with the same or with different working fluid can be combined.
+ Ingeneral a combinationof cycles with different workingfluidhas goodcharacteristics because their + In general, a combination of cycles with different working fluid has good characteristics because their
advantages can complement one another.
+ Normally, when two cycles are combined, the cycle operating at the higher temperature level is called as
t i l Th t h t i df d th t i t d t th l t t l l topping cycle. The waste heat is used for second process that is operated at the lower temperature level,
and is called as bottoming cycle.
+ The combination used today for commercial power generation is that of a gas topping cycle with a
water/steam bottoming cycle. In this case heat can be introduced at higher temperature and exhausted at
very low temperature.
+ Temperature of the air usedas a workingfluid of gas turbines canbe increasedveryhighunder lower + Temperature of the air used as a working fluid of gas turbines can be increased very high under lower
pressure. Water/steam used as a working fluid can contain very high level of energy at lower temperature
because it has very high specific heat.
+ N ll th t i db tt i l l di h t h
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 14 / 109
+ Normally the topping and bottoming cycles are coupled in a heat exchanger.
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Combined Cycle Power Plants
+ Air is used as a working fluid in gas turbines having high turbine inlet temperatures because it is easy to get
and has good properties for topping cycle.
+ Steam/water is an ideal material for bottoming cycle because it is inexpensive, easy to get, non-hazardous,
and suitable for medium and low temperature ranges.
+ The initial breakthrough of gas-steam cycle onto the commercial power plant market was possible due to
the development of the gas turbine.
+ In the late 1970s, EGT reached sufficiently high level that can be used for high efficiency combined cycles.
+ The breakthrough was made easier because gas turbines have been used for power generation as a simple
cycle and steam turbines have been used widely.
+ For this reason, the combined cycle, which has high efficiency, low installation cost, fast delivery time, had
been developed easily.
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CCPP System Options
Items Options Remarks
Single pressure / Two pressure /Three pressure *
Steam Cycle Reheat
Non-reheat
Dependent on EGT
Natural gas */ Distillate oil / Ash bearing oil
Fuel Low BTU coal and oil-derived gas
Multiple fuel systems
Water injection/ Steam injection
NOx Control SCR (NOx and/or CO)
Dry Low NOx combustion *
Condenser
Water cooled (once-through system) *
Condenser
Water cooled (cooling tower) /Air-cooled condenser
Deaeration
Deaeratingcondenser *
Deaerator/evaporator integral with HRSG g
HRSG Design
Natural circulation evaporators *
Forced circulation evaporators
Unfired *
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Supplementary fired
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Base Configurations for CCPP
+ Unfired, 3-pressure steam cycle
Non-reheat for rated EGT less than 1000F/538C
Reheat for rated EGT higher than 1050F/566C and fuel heating
Heat recovery feedwater heating
Feedwater dearationon condenser Feedwater dearationon condenser
Natural circulation HRSG evaporators
+ GT with DLN combustors
+ Once-through condenser cooling water system
+ Multi-shaft systems
+ Single-shaft systems
Integrated equipment and control system
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 17 / 109
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GT vs. ST
Gas Turbine Steam Turbine
Combustion Internal External
Thermodynamic cycle Brayton Rankine
Cycle type Open Closed
Working fluid Air Water/Steam
Max. pressure, bar 23 (40 for Aviation) 350 (5050 psig)
Max. temperature, C(F) 1350(2462) 630 (1166) a te pe atu e, C( ) 350( 6 ) 630( 66)
Blade cooling Yes No
Shaft cooling No Yes (USC only)
Max. cycle efficiency, % 40 49 (USC only)
Max. number of reheat 1 2
Power density High Low y g
Steam conditions of the steam turbines for combined cycle applications are lower than those for
USC steam turbines.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 18 / 109
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CCPP
+ Major equipment of combined cycle power plant
Gas turbine, steam turbine, generator, HRSG
+ Main advantages of the combined cycle power plant
Higher thermal efficiency than the others (up to 60%)
- SC steam plants: 35~40%, USC steam plants: 49% p , p
Shorter construction period
Lower initial construction cost
- Capital costs of gas fired combined cycle are about 40% of coal fired steam plants
Lower emission (low NOx burners, SCR, CO catalysts are available)
+ Current situation
C t ti f CCPP h i dd ti ll i 1970 Construction of CCPP has increased dramatically since 1970s
Market is governed by GE and SIEMENS
It is hard to develop a new competitive model because it requires both advanced technologies and
highcost high cost
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 19 / 109
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CCPP Concept
Electricity Demand
Process-energy
(steam/water) demand
Operating Philosophy Financing
Customer Requirements
(steam/water) demand
Site Related Factors
Site conditions / Ambient conditions 50or 60Hz Site conditions / Ambient conditions
Legislation / Emission requirements
Resources
50 or 60Hz
Fuel Water Space
Plant Concept Solution p
Capital cost
US$/kW
Type / Number of GTs
Single shaft Multiple shaft
Cycle selection with parameter optimization
Final optimization
Plant /Cycle
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 20 / 109
Plant /Cycle
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A Typical HRSG
Stack
HP
Section
IP
Section
LP
Section
Transition
Duct
starting
Duct
Burner
Air Inlet
Duct
Addtional
Air supply
starting
Moter
Generator
Gas
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Flow
Correction
Device
HRSG
Inlet duct
A-A section
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 21 / 109
Exhaust duct
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Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants 1
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Cost of Electricity 3
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Wide Use of Gas Turbine 5
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 22 / 109
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Demand and Supply
+ Electricity must be produced when the consumers need it because it cannot be stored in a practical manner
on a large scale.
+ Electricity can be stored indirectly through water, but it is not economical.
+ Actually only storage of water pumped into lakes during off-peak time to be used during peak hours has
been used practically.
+ Large fluctuation in demand during the day requires quick response from power plants to meet the balance
between demand and supply.
+ Gas turbine combined cycle power plants have good characteristics in terms of fast start-up and shut-down.
+ In addition, they have low investment costs, short construction times compared to large coal-fired power
stations and nuclear plants.
+ The other advantages of combined cycles are high efficiency and low emission.
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Power Demand during a Day
Excellent start-up and
shut down capabilities
are essential for this are essential for this
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 24 / 109
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: , (2012)
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: , (2012)
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: , (2012)
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: , (2012)
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: , (2012)
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: , (2012)
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: , (2012)
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: , (2012)
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-
GT GT ST
GS EPS Siemens
V84.3
SGT6-8000H
4
1
710.0
274 0
378.0
136 0 2013/8 SGT6 8000H 1 274.0 136.0 2013/8
GS
WH 501D5 3 315.6 100.0 CHP
ABB GT11N 4 317.6 100.0 CHP
SK E&S
GE 7FA+e 4 686.8 340.0 K-Power
3 515 1 285 0 833 3 on 1Conf 3 515.1 285.0 833 3-on-1 Conf.
POSCO
GE 7FA+ 2 337.6 165.0
GE 7FA+ 2 337.6 165.0
POSCO WH
W501D5 12 1,200.0 600.0
POSCO WH
V84.3A 4 812.0 440.0
MPC

Siemens W501F 2 340.0 160.0


MHI M501J 2 640.0 280.0 920 2-on-1 Conf.
WH W501D5 4 408.0 100.0
2 340.0
7EA
GE 6F 2 154.0
NCC GE 6B 5 190 0 NCC GE 6B 5 190.0
2 1560
S-Power Siemens SGT6-8000H 2 548.0 272.0 2014/10
() 556 2013/12
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 33 / 109

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-
Site GT () GT GT ST
GE 7FA+e (171.7) 8 1373.6 680.0
GE 7FA (170) 8 1360.0 680.0
GE 6B (38) 2 76.0 38.0
MHI M501F 3 550.0 310.5
Siemens SGT6-8000H 1 274.0 136.0 2014
ABB GT24 (150) 6 900 0 450 0

ABB GT24 (150) 6 900.0 450.0

Siemens V84.3A
?
2
2
320.0
360.0
160
180.0
515.0 2013/11

GE 7FA+e (171.7) 8 1373.6 680.0

GE 7EA (87.9) 4 351.6 160.0


MHI M501J 2 640.0 280.0
MHI M501G 2 508.0 210.0 MHI M501G 2 508.0 210.0
MHI M501J 4 1280.0 560.0
ABB GT11N (79.4) 8 635.2 300.0
WH 501D5 (105.2) 6 631.2 300.0

WH 501D5 (105.2) 2 210.4 100.0
WH 501F (150) 4 600.0 300.0
MHI M501J 2 640.0 280.0
500MW 340 0 160 0 2014()
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 34 / 109
500MW 340.0 160.0 2014 ()

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/
4,300 MW (7FA
+e
x 16 Units)
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(2,000 MW) (960 MW)
(900 MW)
(1,800 MW) POSCO (500 MW)
POSCO (500 MW)
POSCO(3 000 MW) GS EPS (1 000 MW) (500 MW) (500 MW) K P (1 074 MW) POSCO(3,000 MW) GS EPS (1,000 MW) (500 MW) (500 MW) K-Power(1,074 MW)
(1,200 MW)

GS (1,000 MW)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 36 / 109

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(550 MW) (700 MW) (900 MW) ( ) ( ) ( )
(507 MW) (960 MW) GS EPS (1020 MW)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 37 / 109
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Gas Turbine Production by Sector
S D i F F I i l
18
Source: Davis Franus, Forecast International
7
)
15
Commercial Aviation
l
a
r
s

(
2
0
0
7
12
Electrical Generation
o
n
s
o
f

D
o
l
6
9
Electrical Generation
B
i
l
l
i
o
3
6
Military Aviation
Mechanical Drive
2004 2006 2008 2010
Marine Propulsion
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 38 / 109
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(: QBtu, %)

162.1 99.1 100.4 26.5 32.7 420.8
38.5 23.6 23.9 6.2 7.8 100
: 2003
( )
(7.8%)
) , International Energy
Outlook, 2006
1 QBtu = 25.2Mtoe
1 QBtu 1 Qu d illi Btu {Qu d illi 10
15
(38.5%)

(23.9%)
(6.2%)
1 QBtu = 1 Quadrillion Btu {Quadrillion = 10
15
() or 10
24
()}
toe = Tonnage of Oil Equivalent (1 =
1 )
(23.6%)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 39 / 109
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World Primary Energy
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 40 / 109
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S IEO (2008)
World Power Generation by Fuel Type
Billion MW-h
40
Source: IEO (2008)
40
30
Renewables
Nuclear
20
Renewables
Nat. Gas
10
Coal
0
2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Hydro
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 41 / 109
2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
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B d C li d G i
World Power Generation by Fuel Type
Based on Centralized Generation
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 42 / 109
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Market Share and Product
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 43 / 109
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Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants 1
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Cost of Electricity 3
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Wide Use of Gas Turbine 5
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 44 / 109
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2007
: /kWh 677 4 : /kWh 677.4
117.0
128.3
107.3
39.4 40.9

27.2


LNG

Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 45 / 109

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S P Pl E i i (Bl k &V h)

Source: Power Plant Engineering (Black & Veatch)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 46 / 109
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400
300
W
-
y
e
a
r
Coal-Steam
Gas Turbine
200
l

C
o
s
t
,

$
/
k
W
100
A
n
n
u
a
Combined Cycle
0 1,500 5,000 8,760
Operation Hours/year
0
Comparisons will depend on fuel costs, capital costs, and maintenance costs.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 47 / 109
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+ In contrast to steam turbine-generators, the manufacturers of gas turbines have a defined product line,
allowing for substantial standardization and assembly line manufacturing.
+ The modular concept of the package power plants made gas turbines relatively quick and easy to install.
+ Standardization and modularization combine to provide the product benefits of relatively low capital cost
and fast installation.
+ The benefits of low capital cost and fast installation were initially offset by higher operating costs when
compared to other installed capacity. Therefore, early utility applications of gas turbine generator were
strictly for peak load operation for a few hundred hours per year.
+ Improvements in efficiency and reliability and the application of combined cycles have added to the
economic benefits of the technology and now give gas turbine based power plants a wider range of
application on electric systems.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 48 / 109
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Cost of Electricity
< Inputs for the evaluation of the cost of electricity >
Type of Plant
Output,
MW
Descripti
on
Investment
cost, US$/kW
Average
efficiency
(LHV), %
Fuel price,
US$/MBTu
(LHV)

Combined Cycle
Power Plant
800
2 x GT
1 x ST
750 56.5 8.0 25
Gas Turbine
Plant (gas)
250 1 x GT 413 37.5 8.0 25
Plant (gas)
Steam Power
Plant (coal)
800 1 x ST 1716 44.0 3.5 25
Nuclear Power
1250 1 x ST 3500 34 5 0 5 40
Plant
1250 1 x ST 3500 34.5 0.5 40
No cost for CO
2
emissions were included.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 49 / 109
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Cost of Electricity
100
Capital
I t di t L d B L d
M
W
h
)
80
O&M
Fuel
Intermediate Load Base Load
r
i
c
i
t
y

(
U
S
$
/
M
60
o
s
t

o
f

E
l
e
c
t
r
20
40
C
o
20
800 MW
CCPP
(gas)
800 MW
Steam
(coal)
250 MW
GT PP
(gas)
1250 MW
Nuclear PP
800 MW
CCPP
(gas)
800 MW
Steam
(coal)
250 MW
GT PP
(gas)
1250 MW
Nuclear PP
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 50 / 109
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GE S109H
: Dry Low NOxCombustors(H System)
: Combined cycle
: 14 Can-annular lean pre-mix DLN-2.5combustors
: Output 480 MW (Gas turbine power 300 MW)
: Heat rate 6000 kJ /kWh
: $153,500,000 ($320/kW)
F15-K : $1
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 51 / 109
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Turbine Blade Prices (1998 )
NOZZLE BUCKET
MODEL

(MW)
TIT (C)
($)/Set MATERIAL ($)/Set MATERIAL
1 48 1,180,000 FSX410 92 2,200,000 GTD111
2 48 1,180,000 GTD222 92 1,500,000 GTD111 7FA 175 1,260
3 60 1 190 000 GTD222 92 1 450 000 GTD111 3 60 1,190,000 GTD222 92 1,450,000 GTD111
1 32 680,000 FSX414 92 670,000 GTD111
2 48 690,000 FSX414 92 680,000 IN738 7EA 88 1,104
3 48 740,000 FSX414 92 600,000 U500
1 36 390,000 FSX414 92 430,000 GTD111
GE
2 48 450,000 GTD222 92 330,000 IN738 6B 39 1,104
3 64 420,000 GTD222 92 310,000 U500
1 42 240,000 IN738 115 400,000 IN738LC
2 66 210,000 IN939 115 400,000 IN738LC
3 84 280 000 IN730 97 210 000 IN738LC GT11N 80 1 027 3 84 280,000 IN730 97 210,000 IN738LC
4 90 210,000 X45 105 390,000 IN738LC
GT11N 80 1,027
5 40 390,000 20/25/2 59 500,000 ST 16/25MD
1 100 1,170,000 MAR M247LC 197 800,000 DS CM247LC
2 44 656,000 MAR M247LC 88 950,000 DS CM247LC
ABB
3 80 948,000 MAR M247LC 86 1,170,000 DS CM247LC
4 78 1,170,000 IN738LC 84 950,000 MAR M247LC
GT24 150 1,255
5 76 800,000 IN738LC 82 1,240,000 MAR M247LC
1 48 810,000 ECY-768 81 340,000 U520
2 48 700 000 X45 73 300 000 U520 2 48 700,000 X45 73 300,000 U520
3 56 720,000 ECY-768 55 340,000 U520
501D2 105 1,198
4 56 770,000 X45 51 340,000 IN GC-750
1 32 560,000 ECY-768 72 1,400,000 IN738
2 24 410,000 X45 66 1,000,000 IN738
WH
501F 150 1 293
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 52 / 109
3 16 380,000 ECY-768 112 1,400,000 IN738
501F 150 1,293
4 14 430,000 X45 100 1,100,000 U520
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Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants 1
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Cost of Electricity 3
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Wide Use of Gas Turbine 5
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 53 / 109
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System Features of CCPP
Advantages Disadvantages
ff 1. High thermal efficiency
2. Low initial investment
3. Short construction time
4. Fuel flexibility
Wide range of gas and liquid fuels
5. High reliability and availability
1. Higher fuel costs
g y y
6. Low operation and maintenance cost
7. High efficiency in small capacity increments
Various gas turbine models
2. Uncertain long-term fuel supply
3. Output more dependent on ambient
temperatures
Various gas turbine models
8. Operating flexibility
Base, intermediate, peak load
9 E i t l f i dli 9. Environmental friendliness
10. Reduced plant space
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 54 / 109
HIPT
1. High Thermal Efficiency [1/6]
+ The value of efficiency is very high because fuel spend may be about 70 percent of the total cost.
+ All major OEMs have developed air-cooled gas turbines for combined cycles with efficiencies around 61
percent. percent.
+ Siemens proved performance of 60.75% at the Irschingsite outside Berlin.
+ The old paradigmthat highperformance meant advancedsteamcooledgas turbines and slowstarted + The old paradigm that high performance meant advanced steam cooled gas turbines and slow started
bottoming cycles has definitely proven false.
+ Both GE and Siemens are able to do a hot-start within 30 minutes to full load.
+ Steam cooling will most likely only be used for 1,600C firing level since there will be an air shortage for
both dry low emission and turbine cooling.
+ The key for 61%efficiencyis highperformance gas turbines havinghigher pressure ratio andfiring + The key for 61% efficiency is high performance gas turbines having higher pressure ratio and firing
temperature.
+ In addition, the exhaust gas temperature has to be at a level for maximum bottoming cycle performance.
+ Currently, most OEMs have capability of steam turbine throttle temperature of 600C(1112F) and the
optimum exhaust gas temperature should therefore be on the order of 25-30C higher.
+ B th GE dSi h t d d dth ttl diti f th i b tt i l 165
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 55 / 109
+ Both GE and Siemens have presented advanced throttle conditions for their bottoming cycles, 165
bar/600C and 170 bar/600C, respectively.
HIPT
1. High Thermal Efficiency [2/6]
Fuel Energy
Three Pressure
Combined cycle power plants have a higher thermal efficiency because of the application of two
complementary thermodynamic cycles
Fuel Energy
100%
GT 37 6%
L i HRSG
Three Pressure
Reheat Cycle
T
Topping Cycle
GT 37.6%
Loss in HRSG
0.3%
Loss
0 5%
pp g y
(Brayton Cycle)
ST 21.7%
e
n
s
e
r
0.5%
Loss
C
o
n
d
e
Stack 8.6%
Loss
0.3%
Bottoming Cycle
(Rankine Cycle)
31.0%
s
[ Heat balance in a typical combined cycle plant ]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 56 / 109
HIPT
C i f Th l Effi i
1. High Thermal Efficiency [3/6]

Comparison of Thermal Efficiency


60
50
49
48
60

,

%
50
40
35
38
40

30
35
10
20
IGCC
(SIMPLE)

(SC)

(USC)

()
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 57 / 109
(SIMPLE) (SC) (USC) ()
HIPT
E l i f H D G T bi D i F
1. High Thermal Efficiency [4/6]
1967 1972 1979 1990 2000 2008 2012
Evolution of Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Design Features
TIT, C (F) 900 (1650) 1010 (1850) 1120 (2050) 1260 (2300)
1426
(2600)
1426
(2600)
1500
Press. Ratio 10.5 11 14 14.5 19-23 20-23 20-23
EGT, C (F) 427 (800) 482 (900) 530 (986) 582 (1080) 593 (1100) 623
Cooling 1 vane
1&2 vane
1 blade
1&2 vane
1&2 blade
1,2,3 vane
1,2,3 blade
1,2,3 vane
1,2,3
blade blade
SC Power, MW 50-60 60-80 70-105 165-240 165-280
400-480
(CC)
SC Heat Rate SC Heat Rate,
Btu/kWh
11,600 11,180 10,250 9,500 8,850
CC Heat Rate,
Btu/kWh
8,000 7,350 7,000 6,400 5,880 5,690
SC Effi., % 29.4 30.5 33.3 35.9 38.6 40
CC Effi., % 42.7 46.4 48.7 53.3 58.0 60 61
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 58 / 109
HIPT
P L d Effi i
1. High Thermal Efficiency [5/6]
100
+ The gas turbine equippedwith
Part Load Efficiency
95
90
+ The gas turbine equipped with
VIGV or several rows of variable
stator vanes keeps the efficiency
of the combined cycle plant
almost constant down to
85
80
almost constant down to
approximately 80 to 85% load.
+ This is because a high exhaust
75
70
g
gas temperature can be
maintained as the air mass flow is
reduced.
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
65
60
+ Below that level, the turbine inlet
temperature must be reduced,
leading to an increasingly fast
d i f ffi i i
Load, %
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
reduction of efficiencies.
+ The steam turbine is operated with sliding pressure mode down to 50% load. Below that point, the live-
steampressure is heldconstant resultingin throttlinglosses
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 59 / 109
steam pressure is held constant, resulting in throttling losses.
HIPT
P L d Effi i
1. High Thermal Efficiency [6/6]
110
Part Load Efficiency
95
100
4GTs 3GTs 2GTs 1GT
85
90
75
80
Down to 75% parallel reductionin loadon all 4 GTs
65
70
Down to 75%, parallel reduction in load on all 4 GTs.
At 75%, one GT is shut down.
Down to 50%, parallel reduction in load on 3 remaining GTs.
At 50%, a second GT is shut down.
Combined Cycle Load, %
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
60
20
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 60 / 109
4 GTs +1 ST Arrangement
HIPT
C i f I i i l C i C
2. Low Initial Construction Cost [1/4]
Capital costs of gas-fired combined cycle are about 45% of coal-fired steam plants
Comparison of Initial Construction Cost
Type of Plant Output (MW)
Specific Price
(US$/kW)
CombinedCycle Power Plant 800 550 650 Combined Cycle Power Plant 800 550 - 650
Combined Cycle Power Plant 60 700 - 800
Gas Turbine Plant 250 300 - 400
Gas Turbine Plant 60 500 - 600
Steam Power Plant (coal) 800 1,200 1,400
Steam Power Plant (coal) 60 1,000 1,200
Nuclear Power Plant 1,250 2,000 3,000
Bi P Pl t 30 2 000 2 500 Biomass Power Plant 30 2,000 2,500
These prices are valid for 2007.
Interest during construction is not included.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 61 / 109
g
HIPT
C i f G T bi P i
2. Low Initial Construction Cost [2/4]
550
Source: Gas Turbine World (1999 J an/Feb)
Comparison of Gas Turbine Price
500
550
1xV84.2
1xGT13D
1x401
1x501D5A
1x701D
G.E.
SIEMENS
ABB
s
e
)
450
500
W
1x7FA
1xV94.2
1xV84.3A
1xGT11N2 1xGT24
1x701D
W.H.
u
r
n
k
e
y

B
a
s
400
450
U
S
D
p
e
r
k
W
1x7EA
1 9FA
1xGT11N2 1xGT24
r

C
C
P
P

(
T
u
350
400 U
1x9FA
1xV94.2A
1x501F
e

L
e
v
e
l

f
o
r
100 200 300 400
300
350
1xV94.3A
1xGT26
1x701F
P
r
i
c
e
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 62 / 109
100 200 300 400
ISONet CombinedCyclePlant Output (MW)
300
HIPT
C B kd f CCPP
2. Low Initial Construction Cost [3/4]
Items Portion % CCPP
Cost Breakdown for CCPP
Integrated
Services
15%
4 Project management / Subcontracting
2 Plant and project engineering / Software
8 Plant erection/ Commissions / Training
Services
8 Plant erection / Commissions / Training
1 Transport / Insurance
15 Civil works
Lots 85%
32 Gas turbine / Steam turbine / Generator set
16 Balance of plants
7 Electrical systems 7 Electrical systems
4 Instrumental and control
11 HRSG island
Basis: 350~700MW CC plant with a V94.3A Gas Turbine
As a rule of thumb, a 1% increase in the efficiency could mean that 3.3% more capital can be invested.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 63 / 109
, y p
HIPT
C B kd f 400 MW CCPP
2. Low Initial Construction Cost [4/4]
Site
Cost Breakdown for a 400 MW CCPP
Steam Turbine Set
Power Island
Mechanical System
9%
Civil, Arrangement,
Building Facilities
18%
Site
Infrastructure
3%
8%
Heat Recovery
Steam Generator
10%
Mechanical
Systems Outside
18%
Control 3%
y
Power Island
8%
Electrical (without high
Control 3%
Gas Turbine Set
32%
Electrical (without high
voltage switchyard)
9%
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 64 / 109
32%
HIPT
C i f C i Ti
3. Short Construction Time [1/2]
T pe of Plant Time [Months]
+ Combined cycle plants are relatively quick
to designanderect because all major
Comparison of Construction Time
Type of Plant Time [Months]
Combined Cycle Power Plant 20 - 30
Gas Turbine Plant 12 - 24
to design and erect because all major
equipment is shipped to the field as
assembled and tested components.
+ The gas turbine is assembledat the
Steam Power Plant (coal) 40 - 50
Nuclear Power Plant 60 - 80
+ The gas turbine is assembled at the
factory and mounted on a structural base
plate or skid, minimizing the need for field
assembly of the turbine.
Biomass Power Plant 22 - 26
+ Other components and support systems
such as cooling water and lubricating oil
are modules that are easily erected and
connectedto the gas turbine skid
+ The gas turbine usually can be operated in simple cycle mode while the steam portion of the combined
cycle is erected.
connected to the gas turbine skid.
+ The gas turbine from the 1960s to the late 1980s was used only as peaking power in the countries where
the large steam turbines were used as base load power plants.
+ However gas turbine was usedas base loadmainlyin the developingcountries where the needof power
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 65 / 109
+ However, gas turbine was used as base load mainly in the developing countries where the need of power
was increasing rapidly because the waiting period of three to six years for a steam plant was unacceptable.
HIPT
3. Short Construction Time [2/2]
Design Philosophy for Combined Cycle Plants
/ /
Customization
start from outside to inside
Standardization
start from inside to outside
/ /
1980s 2000s
+ Pre-engineered solution has the following benefits:
Time (shorter delivery time)
Quality (robust design)
Risk (exchangeable components in case of troubles)
Cost
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 66 / 109
HIPT
4. Fuel Flexibility
+ Most gas turbine applications rely on natural gas or No. 2 distillate
oil.
+ Because of the availability and economics of natural gas, the
[Table] GE heavy-duty GT
shippedfor fuels (by1983)
y g ,
majority of new power plants prefer natural gas as a fuel.
+ Fuel affects CC performance in a variety of ways.
Fuel Units
Natural Gas 1408
shipped for fuels (by 1983)
+ Natural gas containing high hydrogen content has a higher heat
content and therefore output and efficiency increase when the
natural gas is used as a fuel.
Process Gas
Dual Gas
Distillate
Naphtha
13
60
783
14
+ Plant output and efficiency can be reduced when the ash bearing
fuels (crude oil, residual oil, blends, or heavy distillate) are used
because of fouling occurred in gas turbine and HRSG.
Kerosene
Distillate or Gas
Distillate and Gas
Crude
Crude and Distillate
30
964
82
59
32
+ Plant output and efficiency can be reduced when the fuels
containing higher sulfur content are used. This is because higher
stack gas temperature is required to prevent condensation of
corrosive sulfuric acid
Crude and Distillate
Residual
Residual or Gas
Residual/Distillate/Gas
32
120
4
1
corrosive sulfuric acid.
+ Heavy fuels normally cannot be ignited for gas turbine startup;
therefore a startup and shutdown fuel, usually light distillate, is
neededwith its own storage forwardingsystem andfuel
Total 3570
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 67 / 109
needed with its own storage, forwarding system, and fuel
changeover equipment.
HIPT
D fi i i f R li bili d A il bili
5. High Reliability and Availability [1/4]
Reliability= Availability=
P F P S F
Definition of Reliability and Availability
P =period hours (normally one year, 8,760h)
F =total forced outage hours for unplanned outages and repairs
Reliability = Availability =
P P
No of Successful Starts
S =scheduled maintenance hours
The probability that a unit, which is classified as available, and in ready service, can be started, and
be brought to synchronizationwithin a specific periodtime is definedas above An inabilityto start
Starting Reliability =
No. of Successful Starts
No. of Attempted Starts
be brought to synchronization within a specific period time is defined as above. An inability to start
within the specified period and synchronize is considered a failure to start. However, repeated
attempts to start without attempting corrective action are not considered additional failures to start.
MTBF =
Fired Hours
Trips from a state of operation
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 68 / 109
HIPT
C i f R li bili d A il bili
5. High Reliability and Availability [2/4]
Source A Source B
Comparison of Reliability and Availability
Type of Plant
Availability
(%)
Reliability
(%)
Availability
(%)
Reliability
(%)
Combined Cycle Power Plant 90 - 94 95 - 98 86 - 93 95 - 98 y
Advanced GT CCPP 84 - 90 94 - 96
Gas Turbine Plant (gas fired) 90 - 95 97 - 99 88 - 95 97 - 99
Steam Power Plant (coal fired) 88 - 92 94 - 98 82 - 89 94 - 97
Nuclear Power Plant 88 - 92 94 - 98 80 - 89 92 - 98
SGT6-5000F (W501F): Reliability: 99%, Availability: 95%, Starting reliability: 93% (2010)
+ Manyanalyses showthat a 1%dropin the availabilityneeds about 2~3%increase in the efficiencyto + Many analyses show that a 1% drop in the availability needs about 2 3% increase in the efficiency to
offset that loss.
+ The larger gas turbines, just due to their size, take more time to undergo any of the regular
inspections, such as combustor, hot gas path, and major overall inspections, thus reducing the
availabilityof these turbines
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 69 / 109
availability of these turbines.
HIPT
A il bili R d i i C l Fi d P Pl
5. High Reliability and Availability [3/4]
Source: EPRI CS-3344 pp.1-3
Stack
S.H. R.H.
Availability Reduction in Coal-Fired Power Plant
Stack

C
C
C
HP Turbine IP Turbine
Econ
Gas
C
C
C
Water
LP Turbines
I.D. fan
Generator
Gas
clean up

Condenser
Ash
Ash
Air
heater
Coal
HP
heater
LP
heater
Water
treatment
CFans (0 6%) C Boiler tubes (4 2%) C Fouling/slagging(2 8%) C Pulverizers (0 6%) C Bearings (2 0%)
C
Pulverizer
Coal
prep
Coal
F.D. fan
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 70 / 109
CFans (0.6%) C Boiler tubes (4.2%) C Fouling/slagging(2.8%) C Pulverizers (0.6%) C Bearings (2.0%)
Pumps (1.7%) C Condenser (3.8%) Turbine blades (2.7%) Generator (3.8%)
HIPT
5. High Reliability and Availability [4/4]
+ Reliability is the percentage of the time between planned overhauls where the plant is generating or is
ready to generate electricity, whereas the availability is the percentage of the total time where power could
be produced be produced.
+ Availability and reliability are very important in terms of plant economy because the power stations fixed
costs are constant whether the plant is runningor not. costs are constant whether the plant is running or not.
+ A high availability has a positive impact on the cost of electricity.
+ The major factors affecting plant availability and reliability are:
Design of the major components
Engineering of the plant as whole, especially of the interfaces between the systems
Mode of operation (whether base, intermediate, or peak-load duty)
Type of fuel Type of fuel
Qualifications and skill of the operating and maintenance staff
Adherence to manufacturers operating and maintenance instructions (preventive maintenance)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 71 / 109
HIPT
C i f O i d M i C
6. Low O&M Cost [1/4]
Type of Plant Output (MW)
Fixed (Million
US$/ )
Variable
(US$/MWh)
Comparison of Operating and Maintenance Cost
yp p ( )
US$/year)
(US$/MWh)
Combined Cycle Power Plant 800 6~8 2~3
Combined Cycle Power Plant 60 3~4 3~4 y
Gas Turbine Plant 250 2~2.5 3~4
Gas Turbine Plant 60 1~1.5 4~5
Steam Power Plant (coal) 800 12~15 2.5~3.5
Nuclear Power Plant 1250 40~60 2.0
Biomass Power Plant 30 3~4 5~8
Fixed O&M: personnel and insurance costs.
Variable O&M: cost dependinguponthe operationregime of the plant. Includeditems are: Variable O&M: cost depending upon the operation regime of the plant. Included items are:
Inspection and overhauls, including labor, parts, and rentals
Water treatment expenses
Catalyst replacement
Major overhaul expences
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 72 / 109
Major overhaul expences
Air filter replacements
HIPT
C i f O i d M i C
6. Low O&M Cost [2/4]
Source: GE (1991)
Comparison of Operating and Maintenance Cost
Items
Simple
cycle
Combined
cycle
Steam coal IGCC
Fuel type NG NG Coal Coal
Fuel cost ($/MBtu) 2.65 2.65 1.5 1.5
Fixed O&M cost ($/kW/year) 0.7 3.7 28.1 38.8
Variable O&M cost ($/MWh) 7.3 3.3 2.7 3.7
Normalized plant cost 1.14 1 4.40 6.07
Some estimate that burning residual or crude oil will increase maintenance costs by a factor of 3,
(summing a base of 1 for natural gas, and by a factor of 1.5 for distillate) and that those costs will ( g g , y )
be three times higher for the same number of fired hours if the unit is started every fired hour,
instead of once every 1000 fired hours.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 73 / 109
HIPT
6. Low O&M Cost [3/4]
+ O&M costs include operating labor, materials, and tools for plant maintenance on both a routine and
emergency basis.
+ These expenses are neither a function of plant capital cost nor plant generating capacity. p p p p g g p y
+ They vary from year to year and generally become higher as the plant becomes older.
+ These costs also vary accordingto the size of plant type of fuel used loadingschedule andoperating + These costs also vary according to the size of plant, type of fuel used, loading schedule, and operating
characteristics (peaking or base load).
+ In general, O&M costs are approximately equal to one-fourth of the fuel costs.
+ A good rule of thumb is that the maintenance cost is twice the initial cost during the plant life (normally, 25
years).
+ The runningprofile has a profoundimpact on the O&Mcost + The running profile has a profound impact on the O&M cost.
+ Usually, the first maintenance is scheduled for either 24,000 hours or 1,200 starts (whichever occurs first).
+ Nowadays it is commonto have a maintenance agreement at some level for risk mitigation + Nowadays, it is common to have a maintenance agreement at some level for risk mitigation.
+ There are different levels of contractual services ranging from part agreement to full coverage LTSA
services.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 74 / 109
+ One can choose to use either the OEM or another third party service provider.
HIPT
6. Low O&M Cost [4/4]
+ In many cases, financing organs or insurer requires and LTSA (or better) for risk mitigation to level the
insurance cost at a reasonable level.
+ There are ways of potentially reducing the maintenance cost and one should always lumped methods with
equivalent hours.
+ The word lumped is used in a sense that the two different ageing mechanisms, such as creep, oxidation,
regular wear and tear and stresses related to thermal gradients during start and stop, are evaluated as
equivalent time by e.g. assuming that a start consumes time rather being a low cycle.
+ The total number of gas turbine operated in the world is about 47,000 units and the total value of the gas
turbine after market was 19.3 billion USD in 2009.
+ The after market is valuable greatly to the manufacturers since all 47,000 units requires maintenance on a
regular basis.
+ Certain in-house produced parts may be offered with several hundred percent margin. In contrast, the
margin of a complete new turn-key power plant is about 10 percent.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 75 / 109
+ The reward for the user, by having a LTSA, is discounted parts and prioritized treatment by the supplier.
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [1/11]
Mode Baseload Plant (1990s)
SCC5-4000F cycling plant
(Siemens)
Hot start (8 h) 90 min 45-55 min
Warm start (64 h) 200 min 120 min
C ld t t ( 120h) 250 i 150 i Cold start (>120 h) 250 min 150 min
+ Operational flexibility is essential in combined cycle power plants for frequency control.
+ Most OEMs are capable of 30 min hot-start and steep (35-50 MW/minute) ramp-rates.
+ The steamcooled gas turbine gas a longer start-up time. Thus, is has less flexibility in terms of DSS.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 76 / 109
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [2/11]
+ Gas turbines as well as combined cycle power plants have the unique potential to react quickly and with
flexibility to changes in grid, because they have the following characteristics:
Short startup time
High-loading gradients
Possibilities for frequency support
Operational flexibility becomes a
major topic in modern power
k t
Good part load behavior
Additional system for power augmentation
+ B ilt f b thb l d d k l d ti
markets
+ Built for both base-load and peak-load operation
+ High efficiency to maximize generation opportunities
+ Lower start-up emissions
+ Lower demineralizedwater consumption
Once-through HRSG
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 77 / 109
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [3/11]
[ Start-up procedure ]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 78 / 109
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [4/11]
Hot start (start after an 8-hour shutdown) of a 400 MW CCPP with optimized steam turbine start-up
technology (Siemens)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 79 / 109
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [5/11]
5 additional
30 min. to
baseload
30 MW/min
5 additional
minutes to
150 MW
5 minutes to
accelerate
13.5 minutes
to accelerate
Improved
accelerate
to accelerate
Improvement of SGT6-5000F (W501F) StartingCapability
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 80 / 109
Improvement of SGT6-5000F (W501F) Starting Capability
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [6/11]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 81 / 109
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [7/11]
+ Gas turbines are capable of relatively quick starts.
+ Heavy duty gas turbines can achieve starting times as low as 10 minutes but usually no higher than 30
minutes from cold start to 100% load.
+ Aeroderivative gas turbines can achieve 100% load in 3 minutes or less.
+ If equipped with bypass systems, the startup of the steam cycle portion of the combined cycle can be
t df th t bi separated from the gas turbine.
+ The gas turbine can be operated at full load while the steam turbine is warming up.
+ The HRSG can be warmedup nearlyas quicklyas the gas turbine with excess steamproducedbeing + The HRSG can be warmed up nearly as quickly as the gas turbine, with excess steam produced being
bypassed to the condenser.
+ The startup time of the gas turbine and the combined cycle plant is significantly less than the time required
for a comparablysizedcoal-firedpower plant for a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.
+ Supercritical plants require feedwater purity so that tube side deposition will not cause overheating damage.
+ Condensate polishing with oxygenated water treatment is required to achieve excellent water purity. p g yg q p y
+ Even many natural circulation (drum type) units now use oxygenated water treatment.
+ The deposition has been greatly reduced so that the requirement for frequent chemical cleaning is almost
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 82 / 109
eliminated.
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [8/11]
+ For rapid changes in gas temperature, the edges of the bucket or nozzle respond more quickly than
the thicker bulk section.
+ These gradients, in turn, produce thermal stress that, when cycled, can eventually lead cracking.
Turbine start/stop cycle firing temperature changes
Transient temperature distribution (1st
stage bucket)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 83 / 109
HIPT
B k L C l F i (LCF) T S i Hi
7. Operating Flexibility [9/11]
Key Parameters
Bucket Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) Temperature Strain History
FSNL
Fired
Shutdown
T
e
n
s
i
l
e

(
+
)
Key Parameters
Total strain range
Max metal temperature
T
m
FSNL
r
a
i
n
T
Metal Temperature
m
%

S
t
r

max
Base Load
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

(

)
Light Off &
Warm-up
Acceleration
C
o
m
p
r
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 84 / 109
HIPT
7. Operating Flexibility [10/11]
+ Currently, short start-up and shutdown times are emphasized by customers because of high fuel price.
+ Especially, fast start-up is important for intermediate load application.
+ The important parameters should be considered for fast start-up are as follows:
HRSG ramp capability
Steam turbine ramp capability p p y
Piping warm up times
Steam chemistry
Steam turbine back-pressure limitations
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 85 / 109
HIPT
HRSG
7. Operating Flexibility [11/11]
HRSG
There has also been a debate over the years whether the once-through HRSG technology should be better off
thandrumboilers in terms of cycling than drum boilers in terms of cycling.
Detailedtransient analysis showed that the majority of fatigue life consumption occurs at
the hottest highpressure superheater andreheater duringfast gas turbine loading
GE
the hottest high pressure superheater and reheater during fast gas turbine loading,
regardless of whether the HRSG uses high pressure drum or once through technology.
The HRSG stack is equipped with an automatic damper that closes upon plant shutdown to
reduce HRSG heat loss and the time requiredfor next plant start-up as well as reduce the reduce HRSG heat loss and the time required for next plant start up, as well as reduce the
cyclic stress of the start.
Once throughHRSG eliminates the thick wall HP drumandallows an unrestrictedgas
Siemens
Once-through HRSG eliminates the thick wall HP drum and allows an unrestricted gas
turbine start-up.
a. gas turbine start-up produces rapid boiling in the evaporator
b. if water level in the drum rises to the separators, water carry over into the superheater p , y p
may occur
c. the typical response to this is to either trip or slow gas turbine load ramp
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 86 / 109
It is hard to conclude that which one is better in terms of operating flexibility.
HIPT
8. Lower Emissions [1/6]
Pollutants characteristics
Smoke Smoke is usually formed in small fuel rich regions especially during start-up.
Unburnedhydrocarbons The unburned hydrocarbons and CO are formed incomplete combustion
and CO typically at idling conditions.
CO
2
production is a direct function of the CH
x
fuels burnedit produces 3.14
times the fuel burned
CO
2
times the fuel burned.
The only way to reduce the production of CO
2
is to use less fuel for the power
produced.
NOx have been major pollutant in modern gas turbines.
New units under development have goals which would reduce NOx levels
below9 ppm
NOx
below 9 ppm.
SCRs have also been used in conjunction with DLN combustors.
New research of catalytic combustors will give 2 ppm in the future.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 87 / 109
HIPT
E i i [N 2 Oil]
8. Lower Emissions [2/6]
Emission [No. 2 Oil]
4000
300
High Smoke
Emissions
High CO
Emissions
3000

F
e
,

p
p
m
v
a
n
d
3000
m
e

T
e
m
p
.
,

200
N
O
x

R
a
t
e
c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
O
p
t
i
m
u
m

B
2000
F
l
a
100
c
h
i
o
m
e
t
r
i
c
O
1000
S
t
o
i
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 88 / 109
0.5 1.5 1.0
Equivalence Ratio
Fuel rich Fuel lean
HIPT
W /S I j i
8. Lower Emissions [3/6]
+ Most gas turbines control NOx emission with diluent injection into the combustor until 1990.
+ The injecteddiluent usedas a heat sink that lowers the combustionzone temperature which is the primary
Water/Steam Injection
+ The injected diluent used as a heat sink that lowers the combustion zone temperature, which is the primary
parameter affecting NOx formation.
+ As the combustion zone temperature decreases, NOx production decreases exponentially.
+ In order to increase thermal efficiency, gas turbines having higher firing temperature has being developed
by manufacturers.
+ H hi h fi i t t hi h b ti t t hi h d NO + However, higher firing temperature mean higher combustion temperatures, which produce more NOx,
resulting in more diluent injection to achieve the same emission levels of NOx.
+ The increased diluent injection lowers the thermal efficiency because some of the energy of combustion
i dt h t th t t gases is used to heat the water or steam.
+ Furthermore, as injection increases, dynamic pressure oscillation activity (i.e., noise) in the combustor also
increases, resulting in increased wear of internal parts.
+ Carbon monoxide, representing the measure of the inefficiency of the combustion process, also increases
as the diluent injection increases.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 89 / 109
+ The lowest practical NOx levels achieved with diluent injection are generally 25 ppmand 42 ppmwhen
firing natural gas and distillate oil, respectively.
HIPT
L NO E i i
8. Lower Emissions [4/6]
+ CCPP includes gas turbines with DLN combustors that can operate with stack gas NOx emission
concentration as low as 9 ppmvdat 15% oxygen without steam or water injection, when the natural gas is
f
Lower NOx Emissions
used as a fuel.
+ Water or steam injection may be required to meet NOx emission requirements, when distillate is used as a
fuel.
+ Water or steam injection can be used in the gas turbines with diffusion flame combustors to meet NOx
emission limits.
+ NOx can be reduced to less than 9 ppmvdby the installation of SCR in the HRSG.
Lower CO Emissions
+ Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are low at gas turbine loads above 50%, typically less than 5~25 ppmvd
(9~43 g/GJ ).
+ Low CO emissions are the result of highly-efficient combustion.
+ Catalytic CO emission abatement systems are also available, if required.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 90 / 109
+ The CO catalyst is installed in the exhaust gas path, typically upstream of the HRSG superheater.
HIPT
L CO E i i
8. Lower Emissions [5/6]
+ The role of gas turbine has changed from either a special application or stand-by mode to combined cycle
plants in either intermediate or base load.
Lower CO
2
Emissions
+ The high efficiency combined with natural gas high hydrogen content result in relatively low levels of
specific CO
2
emission.
+ Unfortunately, however, the relative lower CO
2
content in the flue gas makes the separation process more
difficult, and may render in high separation tower heights to provide for sufficient residence time.
+ Another issue is the flue gas flow which is on the order of 1.5 kg/MW, compared to 0.95 kg/MW for than
advanced steam plants.
+ The cross sectionof the separationtower shouldprovide for a velocityaround5 m/s Therefore a combined + The cross section of the separation tower should provide for a velocity around 5 m/s. Therefore, a combined
cycle plant requires a higher and wider tower for CO
2
capture plant compared to a coal fired plant.
+ No commercial full-scale technology for CO
2
capture exists today and the road-maps towards feasible
solution are still not clear.
+ It has been expected that the efficiency of combined cycle power plant with CO
2
capture plant will drop 8
percent for a GE 9FB.03with a 3-pressure HRSG. This is because a lot of LP steamis requiredfor solvent
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 91 / 109
percent for a GE 9FB.03 with a 3 pressure HRSG. This is because a lot of LP steam is required for solvent
regeneration.
HIPT
CO E i i f Diff P Pl
8. Lower Emissions [6/6]
Lignite: 980~1,230
CO
2
Emissions from Different Power Plants
Hard coal: 790~1,080
Oil: 890
NG: 640
NG Comb. cycle
410~430
Unit: g CO
2
/kWh
Solar
80~160
Nuclear: 16~23
Wind: 8~16
Hydro power: 4~13
Electricity generation with CCS
+ The CO
2
emissions of the plant are having a more direct impact on the economics of a plant due to the
effort to globally limitation.
+ The combinedcycle plant emits about 40%of the CO of a coal firedplant This is drivenby the higher
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 92 / 109
+ The combined cycle plant emits about 40% of the CO
2
of a coal-fired plant. This is driven by the higher
efficiency and the higher hydrogen content in natural gas.
HIPT
9. Options for Power Enhancements
O ti f P E h t
Typical Performance Impact
Output = m h

Options for Power Enhancements


Output Heat Rate
Base configuration Base Base
Evaporative cooling GT inlet air (85% effective cooler) +5.2 % -
Chill GT inlet air to 45F +10.7 % +1.6 %
GT k l d i 2% 1 0% GT peak load operation +5.2 % 1.0 %
GT steam injection (5% of GT airflow) +3.4 % +4.2 %
GT water injection(2 9%of GT airflow) +5 9% +4 8% GT water injection (2.9% of GT airflow) +5.9 % +4.8 %
HRSG supplementary firing +28 % +9 %
Note: 1. Site conditions =90F, 30% RH(Relative Humidity)
2. Fuel =NG
3. 3-pressure, reheat steam cycle
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 93 / 109
HIPT
C i i h C l Fi d P Pl
10. Compactness [1/8]
Boiler
Feedwater
Steam
Turbine
Comparison with Coal-Fired Power Plants
Feedwater
Pump
Turbine
10 Meters
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 94 / 109
HIPT
A f Si l Sh f [GE]
10. Compactness [2/8]
Arrangement of Single-Shaft [GE]
[ Single-Shaft CCPP (107FA) ]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 95 / 109
HIPT
A f M l i Sh f [207FA GE]
10. Compactness [3/8]
Arrangement of Multi-Shaft [207FA GE]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 96 / 109
HIPT
10. Compactness [4/8]
Single Shaft (1-on-1 configuration) Multiple Shaft (2-on-1 configuration)
Components
Less generator required One large ST instead of 2 smaller STs
Components
One compact lube oil system Less auxiliaries (pumps etc) required
Civil Smaller plant area Higher flexibility in plant layout
L i l f l b
Costs
Lower capital cost of plant because one
generator and one step-up transformer is
eliminated
St t bi h hi h ffi i b
Performance Same level in larger plants
Steam turbine has higher efficiency because
of larger steam volume flow
Operating
Fl ibilit
Suitable for daily start and stop (DSS)
ti
Suitable for base load operation
Flexibility operation
p
Availability Higher (less complexity)
Operation limit
Operation is limited to concurrent operation of
the gas turbine and steam turbine, unless the
steam turbine can be decoupled from the
generator througha clutch
The gas turbine can be decoupled from the
operation of the steam turbine, allowing for
steam turbine shutdown with continued gas
turbine operation
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 97 / 109
generator through a clutch turbine operation
HIPT
A f Si l Sh f [Si ]
10. Compactness [5/8]
Arrangement of Single-Shaft [Siemens]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 98 / 109
HIPT
Si l Sh f
10. Compactness [6/8]
+ Single-shaft with generator between gas turbine and steam turbine enables installation of a clutch between
steam turbine and generator.
Single-Shaft
+ One problem of a J awclutch, which was used previously, is that it can only be engaged when the gas turbine
is at rest. This means that in the event of a failed gas turbine start, the operator must wait until the gas
turbine is stationary before engaging the jaw clutch to re-start.
+ Currently, SSS(Synchronous Self-Shifting) clutch has been employed popularly. The SSS clutch engages in
that moment when the steam turbine speed tries to overrun the rigidly coupled gas turbine generator and
disengages if the torque transmitted from the steam turbine to the generator becomes zero.
+ The clutch allows startup and operation of gas turbine without driving the steam turbine.
+ This results in a lower starting power and eliminates certain safety measures for the steam turbine, such as g y
cooling steam or sealing steam.
+ The clutch also provides design opportunities for accommodating axial thermal expansion.
+ However, the clutch is an additional component with a potential impact on availability. Additionally, the
generator located at the end of the line of shafting has advantages during generator overhaul.
+ Single-shaft units without a clutchdefinitelyneedauxiliarysteamsupplyto cool the steamturbine during
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 99 / 109
+ Single shaft units without a clutch definitely need auxiliary steam supply to cool the steam turbine during
startup. This is not necessary in units with a clutch.
HIPT
A f Si l Sh f [GE 6FA]
10. Compactness [7/8]
Arrangement of Single-Shaft [GE, 6FA]
A b i i li ti h A gearbox is necessary in applications where
the manufacturer offers the package for both
60 and 50 cycle applications. The gearbox will
use roughly 2 percent of the power produced
b th t bi by the turbine.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 100 / 109
HIPT
T i l Pl A [GE S207EA]
10. Compactness [8/8]
Typical Plant Arrangement [GE, S207EA]
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 101 / 109
HIPT
Introduction to Combined Cycle Power Plants 1
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Cost of Electricity 3
Electricity Demand and Supply 2
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Wide Use of Gas Turbine 5
Characteristics of Combined Cycle Power Plants 4
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 102 / 109
HIPT
C i [1/2]
Wide Use of Gas Turbine
+ Cogeneration means the simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy in the same plants.
Cogeneration [1/2]
+ The thermal energy is usually steam or hot water.
+ The types of cogeneration plants:
Industrial power stations supplying heat to an industrial process
District heating power plants
Power plants coupled to seawater desalination plants
+ The supplementary firing in the HRSG gives greater design and operating flexibility, but the cycle efficiency
is normally lower if supplementary firing is used. y pp y g
+ Thermal energy in the form of steam can be extracted from HRSG, or from an extraction in the steam
turbine.
+ The power coefficient (also called the alpha-value) is defined as the ratio between the electrical and the
thermal output.
+ Fuel utilizationis a measure of howmuchof the fuel suppliedis usefullyusedin the plant It is equal to the
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 103 / 109
+ Fuel utilization is a measure of how much of the fuel supplied is usefully used in the plant. It is equal to the
sum of electrical output and thermal output divided by the fuel input.
HIPT
C i [2/2]
Wide Use of Gas Turbine
Cogeneration [2/2]
Single Pressure
Supplementary Firing
B k T bi
Heat Balance
Backpressure Turbine
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 104 / 109
HIPT
S D li i Pl
Wide Use of Gas Turbine
Seawater Desalination Plant
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 105 / 109
HIPT
P ll l P i
Wide Use of Gas Turbine
Parallel Powering
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 106 / 109
Parallel powering: Gas turbine exhausts are used in the existing steam cycle.
HIPT
IGCC
Wide Use of Gas Turbine
IGCC
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 107 / 109
HIPT
Load Control & Frequency Response
+ Combined cycle plants are very well suited to rapid load changes because gas turbine react extremely
quickly to frequency variations.
+ As soonas fuel valve opens more addedpower becomes available on the shaft andgas turbine loadjumps + As soon as fuel valve opens, more added power becomes available on the shaft and gas turbine load jumps
of up to 35% are possible, but this is detrimental to the life expectancy of the turbine blades.
+ To perform a plant load jump while the frequency is falling, it is essential that gas turbine is operating below
the maximumoutput level the maximum output level.
+ For frequency support gas turbines are typically operated between 50 and 95% load.
+ The electrical output of the combinedcycle power plants is controlledby means of gas turbine only This is + The electrical output of the combined cycle power plants is controlled by means of gas turbine only. This is
because the gas turbine generates two-thirds of the total power output, a solution without control for the
steam turbine power output is generally preferred.
+ The gas turbine output is controlledby a combinationof VIGV andTIT control + The gas turbine output is controlled by a combination of VIGV and TIT control.
+ The TIT is controlled by a combination of the fuel flow into the combustor and VIGV setting.
+ VIGV ll hi h t bi h t t t d t i t l 40%GT l d B l thi l l + VIGVs allows a high gas turbine exhaust temperature down to approximately 40% GT load. Below this level,
TIT is further reduced because the airflow cannot be further reduced.
+ The steam turbine will always follow the gas turbine by generating power with whatever steam is available.
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 108 / 109
HIPT

: ()
: 2014 03 03 (Ver 3)
Combined Cycle Power Plants 1. Combined Cycle Power Plants 109 / 109
: 2014. 03. 03 (Ver.3)
: ebyeong @naver.com
Mobile: 010-3122-2262
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