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High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

u HSDPA Background & Basics


u Principles: Adaptive Modulation, Coding, HARQ
u Channels/ UTRAN Architecture
u Principles: Fast scheduling, Mobility
u Performance Results
UMTS Networks 2 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Motivation (as of 2000)
u As the UMTS networks are rolled out, the demand for high
bandwidth services is expected to grow rapidly.
u By 2010, 66% of the revenues will come from data services
(source: UMTS forum).
u Release 99/4 systems alone will not be capable to meet these
demands. (Realistic outdoor data rates will be limited to
384kbps).
u A more spectral efficient way of using DL resources is required.
u Competition with CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO/DV
GSM/GPRS
UMTS Rel. 99
Voice, low speed packet data
No Multimedia, Limited QOS
Medium rate Packet data
Theoretical 2 Mbps but ~384 kbps
subjected to practical constraints
UMTS Networks 3 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Background
u Initial goals
u Establish a more spectral efficient way of using DL resources providing
data rates beyond 2 Mbit/s, (up to a maximum theoretical limit of 14.4
Mbps)
u Optimize interactive & background packet data traffic, support streaming
service
u Design for low mobility environment, but not restricted
u Techniques compatible with advanced multi-antenna and receivers
u Standardization started in June 2000
u Broad forum of companies
u Major feature of Release 5
u Enhancements in R7 HSPA+
u Advanced transmission to increase data throughput
u Signaling enhancements to save resources
UMTS Networks 4 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Basics
u Evolution from R99/ R4
u 5MHz BW
u Same spreading by OVSF and scrambling codes
u Turbo coding
u New concepts in R5
u Adaptive modulation (QPSK vs. 16QAM), coding and multicodes
(fixed SF = 16)
u Fast scheduling in NodeB (TTI = 2ms)
u Hybrid ARQ
u Enhancements in R7 HSPA+
u Signaling enhancements
u 64QAM
u MIMO techniques, increase of the bandwidth
UMTS Networks 5 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Techniques
u Adaptive modulation and coding
(AMC)
u Modulation can be switched
between QPSK and 16QAM
u Adaptation of FEC coding rate
u Fast feedback from UE about
channel quality (CQI)
u Hybrid ARQ
u Fast retransmission in MAC-
layer (S&W protocol)
u Retransmitted packets
combined with original ones
u Adaptive redundancy
u Fast scheduling
u Allocate resources to users
with good channel quality
Multi-user diversity gain
UMTS Networks 6 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HS-DSCH Principle I
u Channelization codes at a fixed spreading factor of SF = 16
u Up to 15 codes in parallel
u OVSF channelization code tree allocated by CRNC
u HSDPA codes autonomously managed by NodeB MAC-hs scheduler
u Example: 12 consecutive codes reserved for HS-DSCH, starting at C
16,4
u Additionally, HS-SCCH codes with SF = 128 (number equal to simult. UE)
SF=8
SF=16
SF=4
SF=2
Physical channels (codes) to which HS-DSCH is mapped CPICH, etc.
C
16,0
C
16,15
UMTS Networks 7 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HS-DSCH Principle II
u Resource sharing in code as well as time domain:
u Multi-code transmission, UE is assigned to multiple codes in the same TTI
u Multiple UEs may be assigned channelization codes in the same TTI
u Example: 5 codes are reserved for HSDPA, 1 or 2 UEs are active within one
TTI
Data to UE #1 Data to UE #2 Data to UE #3
Time (per TTI)
Code
not used
UMTS Networks 8 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
UMTS Channels with HSDPA
Cell 1
UE
Cell 2
R99 DCH (in SHO)
u UL/DL signalling (DCCH)
u UL PS service
u UL/DL CS voice/ data
Rel-5 HS-DSCH
DL PS service
(Rel-6: DL DCCH)
=Serving
HS-DSCH cell
UMTS Networks 9 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Channels
u HS-PDSCH
u Carries the data traffic
u Fixed SF = 16; up to 15 parallel channels
u QPSK: 480 kbps/code, 16QAM: 960 kbps/code
u HS-SCCH
u Signals the configuration to be used next: HS-PDSCH codes, modulation
format, TB information
u Fixed SF = 128
u Sent two slots (~1.3msec) in advance of HS-PDSCH
u HS-DPCCH
u Feedbacks ACK/NACK and channel quality information (CQI)
u Fixed SF = 256, code multiplexed to UL DPCCH
u Feedback sent ~5msec after received data
UMTS Networks 10 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Timing Relations (DL)
u NodeB Tx view
u Fixed time offset between the HS-SCCH information and the start of the
corresponding HS-DSCH TTI: t
HS-DSCH-control
(2 T
slot
= 1.33msec)
u HS-DSCH and associated DL DPCH not time-aligned
TB size & HARQ Info
Downlink DPCH
HS-SCCH
DATA HS-PDSCH
3 T
slot
(2 msec)
HS-DSCH TTI =3 T
slot
(2 msec)
t
HS-DSCH-control
=2 T
slot
T
slot
(2560 chips)
ch. code & mod
UMTS Networks 11 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Timing Relations (UL)
u UE Rx view
u Alignment to m 256 to preserve orthogonality to UL DPCCH
u HS-PDSCH and associated UL DPCH not time-aligned
(but quasi synch)
DATA
Uplink DPCCH
HS-PDSCH
HS-DPCCH
3 T
slot
(2ms)
m 256 chips
t
UEP
=7.5 T
slot
(5ms)
0-255 chips
T
slot
(0.67 ms)
CQI A/N CQI A/N CQI A/N CQI A/N
UMTS Networks 12 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Architecture
MAC-c/sh
MAC-d
RLC
RRC PDCP
Logical Channels
Transport Channel s
MAC-b
BCH
BCCH
DCCH
DTCH
SRNC
CRNC
NodeB
DCH
Upper phy
DSCH
FACH
Evolution from R99/R4
HSDPA functionality is
intended for transport of
dedicated logical channels
Takes into account the
impact on R.99 networks
MAC-hs
HS-DSCH
HSDPA in R5
Additions in RRC to handle
HSDPA
RLC nearly unchanged
(UM & AM)
Modified MAC-d with link to
MAC-hs entity
New MAC-hs entity located
in the Node B
w
/
o
M
A
C
-
c
/
s
h
UMTS Networks 13 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
MAC-hs in NodeB
MAC-hs
MAC Control
HS-DSCH
Priority Queue
distribution
MAC-d flows
Scheduling
Priority
Queue
Priority
Queue
Priority
Queue
UE #1
UE #2
UE #N
MAC-hs Functions
u Priority handling
u Flow Control
u To RNC
u To UE
u Scheduling
u Select which user/queue
to transmit
u Assign TFRC & Tx
power
u HARQ handling
u Service measurements
u e.g. HSDPA provided
bitrate
TFRC: Transport Format and Resource Combination
UMTS Networks 14 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
MAC-hs in UE
MAC-hs
MAC Control
Associated Uplink Signalling
HS-DPCCH
To MAC-d
Associated Downlink Signalling
HS-SCCH
HS-DSCH
HARQ
Reordering Reordering
Re-ordering queue distribution
Disassembly
Disassembly
MAC-hs Functions
u HARQ handling
u ACK/ NACK generation
u Reordering buffer handling
u Associated to priority
queues
u Flow control per
reordering buffer
u Memory can be shared
with AM RLC
u Disassembly unit
UMTS Networks 15 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Data Flow through Layer 2
Higher Layer
L1
Higher Layer PDU
RLC SDU
MAC-d SDU
MAC-d PDU

RLC
header
RLC
header

MAC-d SDU
MAC-d PDU
CRC

MAC-d
header
MAC-d
header
L2 MAC-d
(non-transparent)
L2 RLC
(non-transparent)
Segmentation
&
Concatenation
Reassembly
Higher Layer PDU
RLC SDU
MAC-hs SDU MAC-hs SDU

MAC-hs
header
L2 MAC-hs
(non-transparent)
Transport Block (MAC-hs PDU)

UMTS Networks 16 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012


Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
u HARQ is a stop-and-wait ARQ
u Up to 8 HARQ processes per UE
u Retransmissions are done at MAC-hs layer, i.e. in the Node B
u Triggered by NACKs sent on the HS-DPCCH
u The mother code is a R = 1/3 Turbo code
u Code rate adaptation done via rate matching, i.e. by puncturing and
repeating bits of the encoded data
u Two types of retransmission
u Incremental Redundancy
u Additional parity bits are sent when decoding errors occured
u Gain due to reducing the code rate
u Chase Combining
u The same bits are retransmitted when decoding errors occured
u Gain due to maximum ratio combining
u HSDPA uses a mixture of both types
UMTS Networks 17 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HARQ Processes
u HARQ is a simple stop-and-wait ARQ
u Example
u RTT
min
= 5 TTI
u Synchronous retransmissions (MAC-hs decides on transmission)
u UE support up to 8 HARQ processes (configured by NodeB)
u Min. number: to support continuous reception
u Max. number: limit of HARQ soft buffer
u Number of HARQ processes configured specifically for each UE category
1
1
2 2
2
3 4 5 3
3 4 5
1
RTT
HARQ
Data
HS-PDSCH
ACK/NACK
HS-DPCCH
UMTS Networks 18 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA UE Categories
u The specification allows some freedom to the UE vendors
u 12 different UE categories for HSDPA with different capabilities
(Rel.5)
u The UE capabilities differ in
u Max. transport block size (data rate)
u Max. number of codes per HS-DSCH
u Modulation alphabet (QPSK only)
u Inter TTI distance (no decoding of HS-DSCH in each TTI)
u Soft buffer size
u The MAC-hs scheduler needs to take these restrictions into account
UMTS Networks 19 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA UE Physical Layer Capabilities
HS-DSCH
Category
Maximum
number of
HS-DSCH
multi-codes
Minimum inter-
TTI interval
Maximum
MAC-hs TB size
Total number of
soft channel
bits
Theoretical
maximum data
rate (Mbit/s)
Category 1 5 3 7298 19200 1.2
Category 2 5 3 7298 28800 1.2
Category 3 5 2 7298 28800 1.8
Category 4 5 2 7298 38400 1.8
Category 5 5 1 7298 57600 3.6
Category 6 5 1 7298 67200 3.6
Category 7 10 1 14411 115200 7.2
Category 8 10 1 14411 134400 7.2
Category 9 15 1 20251 172800 10.1
Category 10 15 1 27952 172800 14.0
Category 11* 5 2 3630 14400 0.9
Category 12* 5 1 3630 28800 1.8
cf. TS 25.306
Note: UEs of Categories 11 and 12 support QPSK only
UMTS Networks 20 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Channel Quality Information (CQI)
u Signalled to the Node B in UL each 2ms on HS-DPCCH
u Integer number from 0 to 30 corresponds to a Transport Format Resource
Combination (TFRC) given by
u Modulation
u Number of channelisation codes
u Transport block size
u For the given conditions the BLER for this TFRC shall not exceed 10%
u Mapping defined in TS 25.214 for each UE category
UMTS Networks 21 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
CQI Mapping Table
CQI value
Transport
Bl ock Size
Number of
HS-PDSCH
Modulation
Reference power
adjustment D
NIR XRV
0 N/A Out of range
1 137 1 QPSK
0

6 461 1 QPSK
0
7 650 2 QPSK
0

15 3319 5 QPSK
0
16 3565 5 16-QAM
0

23 9719 7 16-QAM
0
24 11418 8 16-QAM
0
25 14411 10 16-QAM
0
26 17237 12 16-QAM
0
27 21754 15 16-QAM
0
28 23370 15 16-QAM
0
29 24222 15 16-QAM
0
30 25558 15 16-QAM
0
28800 0
u Tables specified in TS
25.214
u For each UE category
u Condition:
BLER 10%
u Example for
UE category 10
UMTS Networks 22 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
3G (Rel.99)
with dedicated channels
C/I
C/I
C/I
CQI
CQI
CQI
2 TTI
@1.2M
2 TTI
@76k
7 TTI
@614k
1 TTI
@1.2M
64k
64k
64k
Note: No fast channel quality feedback
3G with high speed feedback/scheduling
on shared channels
HSDPA Fast Scheduling
UMTS Networks 23 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Resource Allocation
Scheduler
QoS & Subscriber Profile
QoS: guar. bitrate, max. delay
GoS: gold/ silver/ bronze
Feedback from UL
CQI, ACK/NACK
UE capabilities
max. TFRC
Radio resources
Power, OVSF codes
UE service metrics
Throughput, Buffer Status
Scheduler Output
Scheduled Users
TFRC: Mod., TB size, # codes, etc.
HS-PDSCH power
Scheduling targets
- Maximize network throughput
- Satisfy QoS/ GoS constraints
- Maintain fairness across UEs and traffic streams
UMTS Networks 24 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Scheduling Disciplines
u Task
u Select UEs (and associated priority queues) to transmit within next TTI
u Usually this is done by means of ranking lists
u Depending on the ranking criterion it can be distinguished between three
major categories
u Round Robin: allocate each user equal amount of time
u Proportional Fair: equalise the channel rate / throughput ratio
u Max C/I: prefer the users with good channel conditions
u To provide GoS/ QoS additional inputs are to be used
u Additional scheduling weights and rate constraints based on the
requested GoS/ QoS
u This can be traded-off with channel conditions
u Special scheduling schemes are needed for providing delay critical
services, e.g. VoIP
UMTS Networks 25 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Comparison of Schedulers
u Simple Round Robin doesnt care about actual channel rate
u Proportional Fair offers higher cell throughput
u QoS aware algorithm offers significantly higher user perceived throughput than
PF with similar cell throughput
aggr egated cell throughput
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Round Robin Proportional Fair QoS aware
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0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
aver age thr oughput [kbps ]
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Round Robin
Proportional Fair
QoS aware
UMTS Networks 26 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Mobility Procedures I
u HS-DSCH for a given UE belongs to only one of the radio links assigned to
the UE (serving HS-DSCH cell)
u The UE uses soft handover for the uplink, the downlink DCCH and any
simultaneous CS voice or data
u Using existing triggers and procedures for the active set update
(events 1A, 1B, 1C)
u Hard handover for the HS-DSCH, i.e.
Change of Serving HS-DSCH Cell within active set
u Using RRC procedures, which are triggered by event 1D
UMTS Networks 27 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Mobility Procedures II
u Inter-Node B serving HS-DSCH cell change
u Note: MAC-hs needs to be transferred to new NodeB !
NodeB NodeB
MAC-hs
NodeB NodeB
MAC-hs
Source HS-
DSCH Node B
Target HS-
DSCH Node B
Serving
HS-DSCH
radio link
Serving
HS-DSCH
radio link
s t
CRNC CRNC
UMTS Networks 28 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HS-DSCH Serving Cell Change
u Event 1D: change of best cell within the active set
u Hysteresis and time to trigger to avoid ping-pong
(HS-DSCH: 12 dB, 0.5 sec)
Reporting
event 1D
Measurement
quantity
Time
CPICH 2
CPI CH 1
CPI CH3
Hysteresis
Time to
trigger
UMTS Networks 29 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Handover Procedure
u Example: HS-DSCH hard handover (synchronized serving cell change)
SRNC
=
DRNC
Target
HS-DSCH cell
UE
RL Reconfiguration Prepare
RL Reconfiguration Ready
Radio Bearer Reconfiguration
Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete
Source
HS-DSCH cell
ALCAP Iub HS-DSCH Data Transport Bearer Setup If new NodeB
Synchronous
Reconfiguration
with Tactivation
RL Reconfiguration Commit
ALCAP Iub HS-DSCH Data
Transport Bearer Release
DATA
Reset MAC-
hs entity
Serving HS-DSCH
cell changedecision
i.e. event 1D
RL Reconfiguration Prepare
RL Reconfiguration Ready
RL Reconfiguration Commit
UMTS Networks 30 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Managed Resources
a) OVSF Code Tree
b) Transmit Power
SF=8
SF=16
SF=4
SF=2
Codes reserved for HS-PDSCH/ HS-SCCH
C
16,0
C
16,15
Codes available for DCH/
common channels
Border adjusted by CRNC
Tx power available for HS-PDSCH/ HS-SCCH
Tx power available for DCH/
common channels
Border adjusted by CRNC
u Note: CRNC assigns resources to Node B on a cell basis
UMTS Networks 31 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Cell and User Throughput vs. Load
u 36 cells network
u UMTS composite channel model
u FTP traffic model (2 Mbyte
download, 30 sec thinking time)
u The user throughput is decreased
when increasing load due to the
reduced service time
u The cell throughput increases
with the load because overall
more bytes are transferred in the
same time
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
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Number of Users/ Cell
Load Impact
Mean User Throughput
Aggregated Cell Throughput
UMTS Networks 32 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA Performance per Category
u 36 cells network
u UMTS composite channel model
u FTP traffic model (2 Mbyte
download, 30 sec thinking time)
u Higher category offers higher
max. throughput limit
u Cat.6: 3.6 MBit/sec
u Cat.8: 7.2 MBit/sec
u Max. user perceived performance
increased at low loading
u Cell performance slightly better
Cat 6 - Cat 8 Comparison
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Cat 6/ 10 users Cat 8/ 10 users Cat 6/ 20 users Cat 8/ 20 users
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Mean User Throughput
Peak User Throughput
Aggregated Cell Throughput
UMTS Networks 33 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Impact from Higher Layers
u Maximum MAC-hs throughput is
determined by the MAC-d PDU
size and the max. number of
MAC-d PDUs, which fit into the
max. MAC-hs PDU
u Maximum RLC throughput is
further limited by
uThe RLC window size, which
is limited to 2047 PDUs
uRound-trip time RTT
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
Cat.6 336bit Cat.8 336bit Cat.8 656bit Cat.10 336bit Cat.10 656bit
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Higher Layer Impact
Max. RLC Throughput, RTT = 120msec
Max. RLC Throughput, RTT = 80msec
Max. MAC-hs Throughput
UMTS Networks 34 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Coverage Prediction with HSDPA
uExample Scenario
u 15 users/cell
u Pedestrian A channel
model
u Plot generated with field
prediction tool
HSDPA Throughput
depends on location
UMTS Networks 35 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
HSDPA References
u Papers:
u Arnab Das et al: Evolution of UMTS Toward High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access, Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 47 68, June
2003
u A. Toskala et al: High-speed Downlink Packet Access, Chapter 12 in
Holma/ Toskala: WCDMA for UMTS, Wiley 2010
u T. Kolding et al: High Speed Downlink Packet Access: WCDMA
Evolution, IEEE Veh. Techn. Society News, pp. 4 10, February 2003
u H. Holma/ A. Toskala (Ed.): HSDPA/ HSUPA for UMTS, Wiley 2006
u Standards
u TS 25.xxx series: RAN Aspects
u TR 25.858 HSDPA PHY Aspects
u TR 25.308 HSDPA: UTRAN Overall Description (Stage 2)
u TR 25.877 Iub/Iur protocol aspects
UMTS Networks 36 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim Nov. 2012
Abbreviations
ACK (positive) Acknowledgement
ALCAP Access Link Control Application
Protocol
AM Acknowledged (RLC) Mode
AMC Adaptive Modulation & Coding
CAC Call Admission Control
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CQI Channel Quality Information
DBC Dynamic Bearer Control
DCH Dedicated Channel
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
FEC Forward Error Correction
FIFO First In First Out
GoS Grade of Service
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
H-RNTI HSDPA Radio Network Temporary
Identifier
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HS-DPCCH High Speed Dedicated Physical Control
Channel
HS-DSCH High Speed Downlink Shared Channel
HS-PDSCH High Speed Physical Downlink Shared
Channel
HS-SCCH High Speed Signaling Control Channel
IE Information Element
MAC-d dedicated Medium Access Control
MAC-hs high-speed Medium Access Control
Mux Multiplexing
NACK Negative Acknowledgement
NBAP NodeB Application Part
OVSF Orthogonal Variable SF (code)
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PHY Physical Layer
QoS Quality of Service
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RB Radio Bearer
RL Radio Link
RLC Radio Link Control
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRM Radio Resource Management
SDU Service Data Unit
SF Spreading Factor
TB Transport Block
TFRC Transport Format & Resource
Combination
TFRI TFRC Indicator
TTI Transmission Time Interval
UM Unacknowledged (RLC) Mode
16QAM 16 (state) Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation