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Filename CHAPTER 3 Acute medical complications in the dental practice
SOURCE (OR PART OF THE FOLLOWING SOURCE):
Type Dissertation
Title Acute medical complications and the medical risk-related history in the
general dental practice
Author E.C. Smeets
Faculty Faculty of Dentistry
Year 2001
Pages 213
ISBN 9090145613
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CHAPTERR 3
Acutee medical complications in the dental practice
Reportss of 471 dentists in the Netherlands
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
Abstract t
Objective. Objective.
Drawingg up an inventory of the number and nature of medical complications in the Dutch
generall dental practice in relation to the sort and moment of the treatment, with and without
usee of the Medical Risk Registration History list (MRRH), as well as the frequency and nature
off the professional medical assistance called in to help.
Method. Method.
Usingg a registration form, dentists, both MRRH users (n=51) and a control group (n=420),
registeredd medical complications, followed by an anonymous questionnaire.
Results. Results.
Alll in all, 471 dentists reported 91 complications, whereas a number of 300 complications
wass registered by 380 dentists in an anonymous questionnaire. None of the reported
complicationss involved a life-threatening situation. Syncope and hyperventilation were
frequentlyy reported. Most complications occurred during local anaesthetic or treatment, with
increasingg stress levels of the treatment. Two-thirds of the complications could probably have
beenn prevented using an anamnese. Medical assistance was called for in 6% of the cases.
Conclusion. Conclusion.
Presumably,, life-threatening disorders are rarely found in the general dental practice, also due
too the absence of intravenous anaesthetic and general anaesthetic in the general dental practice
inn the Netherlands.
Reference:Reference: Internal Medicine - Medical Complications - Practice Management.
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
Introduction n
Moree and more patients visiting a dentist are medically compromised. If their number was
aroundd 20 % in thee seventies, nowadays, their number is estimated at 40 % (Abraham-Inpijn
ett al., 1994; Smeets et al., 1998).
Thee risk of medical complications during dental treatment is higher with medically
compromisedd patients than with healthy individuals. Data on the prevalence and nature of
medicall complications in the general dental practice in the Netherlands is lacking. Some
informationn is provided by professional literature, but up to now no systematic research has
beenn conducted.
Usingg the Medical Risk Registration History list (MRRH), a medical risk profile (ASA score)
off a patient in the dental practice can be drawn up (De Jong, 1992). The ASA-score, modified
forr treatment with and without local anaesthetic, provides dentists with a means to prevent
medicall complications.
Inn this article, the results of a one and a half year period of study of dentists are discussed.
Thee research was concerned with 6 questions:
1.. What is the number of complications that occur in the general dental practice?
2.. What kind of complications are they?
3.. At what time do the complications occur?
4.. Does the number of complications increase during more compromising dental treatment?
5.. In how many cases of medical complications is medical intervention required?
6.. How does the use of MRRH effect the number of medical complications?
Materiall and method
Duringg a one and a half year (1993-1994) period, medical complications occurring before,
duringg or after treatment in the general dental practice of dentists were registered. A medical
complicationn was defined as a (temporary) decline of the physical condition of the patient
betweenn the moment of entering the dental practice and the time of departure. After having
obtainedd permission, only the records of patients over 18 were used.
Twoo groups of dentists took part in the study. The first group used the MRRH dating from
1992,, including preventive measures (reference group N=51) (De Jong, 1992). The second
groupp of dentists was a random selection taken from the records of the "Nederlandse
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
Maatschappijj tot bevordering der Tandheelkunde NMT" (Dutch Association for the
Promotionn of Dentistry). Out of a selection of 1000 dentists, a control group of 420 dentists
wass prepared to co-operate. These dentists used several methods to obtain medical data, no
onee using the MRRH, however. Some of these dentists did not take any anamnesis. Both
groupss of participating dentists showed similar demographical data where the size of their
practice,, their age and place of residence (city or countryside) was concerned.
Forr the registration of medical complications, a form with specific questions relating to the
chronologicall order of the symptoms was used, so as to obtain the highest possible level of
standardisation.. The form contained information about: the moment that the complication
occurredd in relation to the sort of dental treatment and the course of the complication. Two
independentlyy operating internists then made a diagnose using the registration form. At the
conclusionn of the study, an anonymous questionnaire was handed out amongst the 470
dentistss participating, and contained, amongst others, the question if one had really recorded
alll the medical complications that had taken place and, if not, why one had refrained from its
registration. .
Results s
Duringg a one and a half year period, 470 dentists recorded 91 acute medical complications, 6
off which were reported by 5 of the 51 dentists of the reference group. The remaining 85 cases
weree reported by 56 of the 420 dentists of the control group. The average age of the patients
sufferingg from a medical complication was 28.7 years (ranging from 19 to 50 years) in the
MRRHH group, and 39.1 in the control group, ranging from 18 to 82 years. The man - woman
relationn was 2:4 in the reference group and 3:4 in the control group. Of a further 10 patients
havingg a medical complication, the sex was unknown.
Besidess the number and type of complications in both groups, Table 1 also shows the division
betweenn complications which could and could not have been prevented using MRRH.
Accordingg to this set-up, 70% of the complications could have been prevented, 50% of which
concernedd the reference group, and 72% concerned the control group.
Thee most frequent diagnosis were hyperventilation syndrome, vasovagal collapse,
orthostaticall collapse, intravenous injection of local anaesthetic and a syncope of unknown
origin. .
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
Tablee 1:
Numberr and sort of complications, divided in thee categories 'could be prevented' and 'could
nott have been prevented' among dentists using the MRRH (reference group) and a control
group. .
Referencee group Control group
(n=51)) (n=420)
ComplicationsComplications which could have been
prevented prevented
Hyperventilation n
Vasovagall collapse
Orthostaticall hypotension
Intraveneuzee injection
VCII during pregnancy
Hypoglycaemicc coma
23 3
14 4
13 3
8 8
2 2
1 1
ComplicationsComplications which could not have been
prevented prevented
Syncopee of unknown origin
Problemss with local anaesthetic
Insult t
Allergyy type 1
Other// No diagnosis
Total l
1 1
1 1
--
1 1
0 0
6 6
7 7
3 3
2 2
12 2
85 5
VCI:: Vena Cava Inferior Syndrome
Other:: Bell's Palsy, facial pain, lung embolism, TIA, complication with Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma Bronchiale,
Reactionn to pain.
A:: Check-up, B: Conservative treatment using local anaesthetic, C:Conservative treatment without local
anaesthetic,, D: Extraction and minor surgery
Tablee 2 shows the relation between the sort of medical complication and the sort of dental
treatment,, subdivided in four categories with hypothetically increasing physical and/or
psychologicall stress. Apparently, vasovagal collapse, orthostatical hypotension and syncope
off unknown origin occur more frequently with increasing stress levels. The hyperventilation
syndromee is mainly registered during dental check-ups.
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
Tablee 2:
Relationn between medical diagnosis and dental treatment
B B D D
Hyperventilation n
Vasovagall collapse
Orthostaticall collapse
Collapsee ECI
Intraveneuzee injection
VCII bij zwangerschap
Hypoglycemia a
Other// No diagnosis
Total l
15 5
1 1
--
--
--
--
--
16 6
2 2
1 1
4 4
1 1
6 6
2 2
i i
10 0
27 7
7 7
13 3
1 1
1 1
--
--
3 3
25 5
--
--
9 9
6 6
2 2
--
6 6
23 3
Other:: Allergy, Problems with local anaesthetics, insult. Bell's Palsy, facial pain, lung embolism. TIA,
complicationn with Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma Bronchiale, Reaction to pain.
A:: Check-up, B: Conservative treatment using local anaesthetic, C: Conservative treatment without local
anaesthetic,, D: Extraction and minor surgery
Tablee 3 indicates the moment the complication happens in relation to the treatment. Only 6
outt of 91 complications occurred before dental treatment had commenced.
Tablee 3:
Relationn between medical diagnosis and the moment of the complication.
B B D D E E
Hyperventilationn syndrome
Vasovagall collapse
Orthostaticall collapse
Syncopee of unknown origin
Intraveneuzee injection
VCII during pregnancy
Hypoglycaemia a
Problemss with local
anaesthetic c
Insult t
Other// No diagnosis
Total l
10 0
2 2
1 1
2 2 20 0
5 5
6 6
13 3
4 4
36 6
Other:: Allergy, Bell's Palsy, facial pain, lung embolism, TIA, complication with Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma
Bronchiale,, Reaction to pain. A: Waiting room, B: Before treatment, C:During local anaesthetic, D:
Immediatelyy after local anaesthetic, E: During subsequent treatment, F:After treatment
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
Thee occurrence of hyperventilation is mostly seen immediately after local anaesthetic has
beenn administered. The orthostatical hypotension and syncope is related to the patient getting
upp out of the chair.
Inn the reference group, 4 out of the 6 times a medical complication occurred, medical
assistancee was called for. In the control group, this request was made in 11 out of 85
complicationss registered. The reasons for this can be summed up as follows: insults, syncope
off unknown origin, vasovagal collapse, orthostatical collapse, hyperventilation syndrome,
lungg embolism, Trans Ischaemic Attack (TIA), hypoglycaemia and peripheral paralysis of the
faciall nerve e.c.i.
Att the conclusion of the study, 380 dentists (80%) returned the anonymous questionnaire. Of
thiss group, 253 dentists (66,6 %), indicated they had not witnessed a medical complication
duringg the registration period. Of the other dentists, 127 (33,4 %) recorded yet a total of 300
complications.. A minority of the complications, i.e. 91, were recorded spontaneously during
thee registration period. The new, non-registered medical complications, brought to light
seriouss problems which had not been reported at first: allergy (4 x), continued bleeding (1 x),
insultss (3 x), hypoglycaemia (3 x) and an aspirated crown. Furthermore, in an additional 38
complications,, medical assistance was called for. In 23 of the cases, a general practitioner
providedd help, in 14 cases the patient was treated by a specialist in the first-aid post of a
hospitall and in one case the patient was admitted. The most important reasons for not
reportingg an complication were: 'lack of time', 'not of a serious enough nature', and
'forgotten'.. Some dentists refrained from registration because of the detailed list of symptoms
thatt had to be filled out.
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
Discussion n
Researchh dealing with medical complications in the dental practice is mostly retrospective in
naturee (Coplans and Curson, 1982; Kleemann et al., 1982; Fast et al., 1986; Matsuura 1989a;
Matsuuraa 1989b; Malamed, 1993a). Fast et al. (1986) reported 16,773 complications in 1,605
dentall practices over a period of 10 years. Of these 16,773 complications, a total of 2,284
weree of cardiovascular origin. Malamed (1993a) reported that, over a period of 10 years,
13,7766 complications occurred in 2,704 dental practices, of which 1093 were of
cardiovascularr origin. Coplans and Curson (1982) describe 120 fatal medical complications in
dentall practices in England over a period of 10 years. Of these, 100 out of the 120
complicationss occurred during general anaesthesia. Matsuura (1989a, b) reports the death of 4
patientss in 1984 and 5 patients in 1985 in dental practices in Japan. Kleemann et al. (1982)
determinedd a mortality rate of 4 patients per million dental treatments.
Inn the present study, acute cardiovascular disorders like angina pectoris, coronary and
decompensatioo cordis were not reported. The use of intravenous anaesthesia and general
anaesthesiaa is not allowed in the general dental practice in the Netherlands, whereas it does
falll within the possible range of treatments in foreign dental practices. It is possible that the
differencess in the frequency of cardiovascular complications is due to different practice
managementt and/or unsatisfactory reports of Dutch dentists. A further important factor is the
averagee age of the patients in this study being under 40 years. The chance of patients
sufferingg from cardiovascular diseases gets higher with progressing age. In professional
literaturee the issue of age was not addressed.
Ass shown in the available literature, of the total number of medical complications during
dentall treatment, 40 to 70 % of the diagnoses concern vasovagal collapse and orthostatical
collapse.. Another 0 to 25 % of the cases deals with the hyperventilation syndrome. In is
remarkablee that Fast et al. (1986) do not report the occurrence of the hyperventilation
syndromee and problems with local anaesthesia. Also, the hyperventilation syndrome is
unknownn in Iceland (Workshop European Medical Risk Related History, 1996). Both in the
Netherlandss and in other European countries, this syndrome receives much attention, which
mightt have its influence on the frequency. The diagnose of 'hyperventilation syndrome', its
symptomologyy and, as a consequence, its frequency are under discussion (Hornsveld, 1996).
Inn the present study, there appears to be an increase in the number of complications with
increasingg stress levels (pain, fear). This is to be expected, since during increasing stress, the
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
burdenn on the cardiovascular parameters is strongly augmented. (Abraham-Inpijn et al. 1988;
Abraham-Inpijn,, 1998 in press; Palmer-Bouva et al, 1998 accepted). As the dental treatment
progresses,, the syncope will increase (vasovagal, orthostatic and syncope e causa ignota).
Thiss is related to the stress of the treatment (vasovagal) and the sudden movement of getting
outt of the chair after treatment (orthostatical). As anamnesis records were lacking with the
majorityy of the patients, it is impossible to say whether medication was of any influence. The
userss of MRRH more frequently resort to medical help.
Thee question is whether medical complications could have been prevented. The VCI-
syndromee which occurs during pregnancy is marked as 'could have been prevented' because a
slightlyy sideways position of the body is enough to prevent it. The treatment of a diabetic
leadingg to hypoglycaemia is part of the pathology registered using the MRRH, and does not
havee to lead to a comatose state if recognised at an early stage.
Determiningg the pulse frequency, measuring the blood pressure, determining the frequency
andd aspects of the patient's respiration and even the level of consciousness are a frequent
sourcee of problems, as has become clear from the filled out forms. The average Dutch dentist
iss probably not as skilled in the registration of vital signs as is his American colleague. In the
Unitedd States, such medical training is an integral part of the programme (Greenberg, 1991;
Malamed,, 1993b).
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
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Chapterr 3: Acute Medical Complications; orientation
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