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ABSTRACT


Today the industries face many problems in mass productions. These issues
give rise to methodological studies and implementations of different production
systems. Assembly line production is one of the widely used basic principles in
production systems. These problems deals with distribution of activities among
different work stations with cost effective minimum balancing losses
Balancing assembly lines becomes one of the most important part for the
industrial manufacturing systems. The success of archiving goal of production is
influenced by balancing assembly. There are many best methods and techniques
are implemented to keep the line balanced
A brief literature on these issues of line balancing has been so far published
but they mainly deal with minimization of idle time. This paper deals with all the
methodologies of line balancing and its implementation. A brief study on all
balancing approach such as largest candidate rule (LCR) method, kill bridge&
wester column (KWC) method, ranked position (RPW) method have been dealt
with. The Proper selection of particular method has been choosed for the line
balancing.
Further study of line balancing is done by genetic algorithm, hybrid
algorithm, ant and bee colony algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm






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CHAPTER 2
INTRODUCTION

2.1 ASSEMBLY LINE
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a
progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as
the semi-finished assembly moves from work station to work station where the
parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. By mechanically
moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the semi-finished assembly
from work station to work station, a finished product can be assembled much faster
and with much less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece
for assembly.
Assembly lines are the common method of assembling complex items such
as automobiles and other transportation equipment, household appliances and
electronic goods. Assembly lines are designed for the sequential organization of
workers, tools or machines, and parts. The motion of workers is minimized to the
extent possible. All parts or assemblies are handled either by conveyors or
motorized vehicles such as forklifts, or gravity, with no manual trucking. Heavy
lifting is done by machines such as overhead cranes or forklifts. Each worker
typically performs one simple operation.
Assembly Line Balancing (ALB) is the term commonly used to refer to the
decision process of assigning tasks to workstations in a serial production system.
The task consists of elemental operations required to convert raw material in to
finished goods. Line Balancing is a classic Operations Research optimization
technique which has significant industrial
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importance in lean system. The concept of mass production essentially involves the
Line Balancing in assembly of identical or interchangeable parts or components
into the final product in various stages at different workstations. With the
improvement in knowledge, the refinement in the application of line balancing
procedure is also a must. Task allocation of each worker was achieved by assembly
line balancing to increase an assembly efficiency and productivity.


2.2 TYPES OF LINE BALANCING

2.2.1 LINE BALANCING

Line Balancing is leveling the workload across all processes in a cell or
value stream to remove Bottlenecks and excess capacity. A constraint slows
theprocess down and results if waiting for downstreamoperations and excess
capacity results in waiting andabsorption of fixed cost.



2.2.1.1 SINGLE-MODEL ASSEMBLY LINE

In early times assembly lines were used in highlevel production of a single
product. But now theproducts will attract customers without any differenceand
allows the profitable utilization of Assembly Lines.An advanced technology of
production which enablesthe automated setup of operations and it is negotiatedtime
and money. Once the product is assembled in thesame line and it wont variant the
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setup or significantsetup and its time that is used, this assembly system iscalled as
Single Model Line.

2.2.1.2MIXED MODEL ASSEMBLY LINE

In this model the setup time between the models would be decreased sufficiently
and enough to
be ignored. So this internal mixed model determines the assembled on the same
line. And the type of assembly line in which workers work in different models of a
product in the same assembly line is called Mixed Assembly Line.

2.2.1.3 MULTI MODEL ASSEMBLY LINE

In this model the uniformity of the assembled products and the production system
is not that much sufficient to accept the enabling of the product and the production
levels. To reduce the time and money this assembly is arranged in batches, and this
allows the short term lot-sizing issues which made in groups of the models to
batches and the result will be on the assembly levels.

2.3 HEURISTIC METHODS OF LINE BALANCING
Moodie -Young Method
Killbridge and Wester Heuristic
Hoffmans or Precedence Matrix
Immediate Update First Fit Method
Ranked Position Weighted Method (RPW)

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2.4 ALGORITHM USED IN LINE BALANCING
2.4.1 GENETIC ALGORITHM

Genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that mimics the process of natural
selection. This heuristic (also sometimes called a meta heuristic) is routinely used
to generate useful solutions to optimization and search problems. Genetic
algorithms belong to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA), which
generate solutions to optimization problems using techniques inspired by natural
evolution, such as inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover.

2.4.2 BEES ALGORITHM

Bees Algorithm is a population-based search algorithm which was developed in
2005. It mimics the food foraging behavior of honey bee colonies. In its basic
version the algorithm performs a kind of neighborhood search combined with
global search, and can be used for both combinatorial optimization and continuous
optimization. The only condition for the application of the Bees Algorithm is that
some measure of topological distance between the solutions is defined. The
effectiveness and specific abilities of the Bees Algorithm have been proven in a
number of studies.

2.4.2 SIMULATED ANNEALING

Simulated annealing (SA) is a generic probabilistic metaheuristic for the global
optimization problem of locating a good approximation to the global optimum of a
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given function in a large search space. It is often used when the search space is
discrete (e.g., all tours that visit a given set of cities). For certain problems,
simulated annealing may be more efficient than exhaustive enumeration
provided that the goal is merely to find an acceptably good solution in a fixed
amount of time, rather than the best possible solution.The name and inspiration
come from annealing in metallurgy, a technique involving heating and controlled
cooling of a material to increase the size of its crystals and reduce their defects.
Both are attributes of the material that depend on its thermodynamic free energy.



















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LITERATUR REVIEW

3.1 Scope of the research
The literature review of this research analysis is based on types of assembly line,
algorithm used to solve line balancing

3.1.1JOURNALS ON BASED ON TYPES OF LINE BALANCING

Nai-Chieh Wei.et al [1].Type E simple assembly line balancing problem (SALBP-
E) that combines models SALBP-1 and SALBP-2. This study develops the
solution for the proposed model.Testproblems were taken from a website
established byScholl, Boysen, Fliedner, and Klein (1995).SALBP-E model by
combining SALBP-1 and SALBP-2 models. The proposed model minimizes the
total idle time to optimize the assembly line balancing efficiency.To achieve a
faster solution, the proposed model adds two variables, Ei and Li, and re-defines
the model of SALBP-2test problems with a task number ranging from 11 to 53; the
proposed method is capable of obtaining the optimal range of workstations

Jaydeep Balakrishna.et al [2].this paper study of U-assembly line is made . in this
paper 13 single-pass heuristics and effectiveness of various heuristics under
different problem conditions are studied. An extensive computational study is
carried out to help identify the best heuristics. Comparing of recent U-line
procedures with a single-pass heuristic using some literature problems were made.
Basedon a single-pass heuristic, we compare the configurations of a straight- and
U-line. The computational stydy is made on c and made to run on sun workstation
platform.The Excellentgroup includes MAXDUR and MAX (DUR/UB); the poor
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group includes MAXIFOL, RANDOM, MINLB, MINTSKNO; and the fair group
includes all remaining heuristics including MAXRPW,
MAXTFOL, MINTSLK, MINUB, MAXAVGRPW, MIN(UB/TFOL) and
MAX(TFOL/SLK).

DanialKhorasanian et al[3].This paper, suggest an index for calculating the value
of the relationship between each two tasks, and it defines the performance
criterion is called assembly line tasks consistency for calculating the average
relationship between the tasks assigned to the stations of each solution. In this
paper simulated annealing algorithm is used for solving the two-sided assembly
line balancing Problems. They Consider the three performance criteria are number
of stations, number of mated-stations, and assembly line tasks consistency. Also,
the simulated annealing algorithm is modified for solving the two-sided assembly
line balancing problem without considering the relationships between tasks. This
modification give a five new best solutions for the number of stations performance
criterion and ten new best solutions for the number of mated-stations performance
criterion for benchmark instances


Yeo Keunet al.[4] In this two-sided assembly line the line is often producinglarge
products such as trucks and buses. This paper presents a mathematical model and a
genetic algorithm (GA) for two-sided assembly line balancing (two-ALB). The
mathematical model can be used as a foundation for further practical development
in the design of two-sided assembly lines. The GA,experimental results show that
the proposed GA outperforms the heuristic method


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3.1.2 JOURNALS BASED ON TYPE OF ALGORITHM USED

SenerAkpnarG.at al [5].Hybrid genetic algorithm is used solve mixed model
assembly line balancingproblem of type I (MMALBP-I). There are three objectives
which are achieved: to minimize the number of workstations, maximize the
workload smoothness between workstations, and maximize the workload
smoothness within workstations. The proposed approach is able to address some
particular features of the problem such as parallel workstations and zoning
constraints. The genetic algorithm may lack the capability of exploring the solution
space effectively.so hybrid genetic algorithm is used.hybridize the traditional GA
with three well known heuristics in order
to improve its performance for large size MMALBP-I with parallel workstations
and zoning constraints and traditional method like WESTER& KILLBRIDGE,
RPW AND MOODIE YOUNG method were studied in paper and
compared.Besides minimization of number of workstations, maximizing workload
smoothnesses between workstations and within workstations were also considered

R.B. Breginski, et al [6].Study was conducted at a large multinational enterprise
of the automotive industry, located in the state of Paran. In this paper due to
information confidentiality, specific characteristics of the enterprise and its
products will not be detailed. In this paper eight method of heuristics were stdied
and compared The assembly Line consists of five stations, where 23 operators
work. Comparison of eight methods were discussed below




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Santosh T. Ghutukade etal[7]The main purpose of this paper is to represent use of
RPW method to develop the assembly line and balancing that line. With this study
it is found that RPW method is useful when the less data is available. In
thisStudy in made onKhedkar Tech India, Kolhapur is manufacturing Cashew Nut
Shelling Machine.machine that de overall 90 percent of cashew nuts which
fed in the machine for de-shelling. authors have found out that assembly line
for machine manufacturing assembly Cashew Nut Shelling Machine single
work station, hence time required for the assembly of Cashew Nut Shelling
Machine more. Company has the prospect of mass production. For that purpose,
Ranked Positional weight method (RPW) is proposed and studied .after
implementing the RPW method, production rate was increased by 38% with
36 machines per month.
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Christian Blum et al [8]. simple assembly line balancing problem (SALBP)
concerns the assignment of tasks with pre-defined processing times to work
stations that are arranged in a line. Hereby, precedence constraints between the
tasks must be respected. The optimization goal of the SALBP-2 variant of the
problem concerns the minimization of the so-called cycle time, that is, the time in
which the tasks of each work station must be completed. In this work we propose
to tackle this problem with an iterative search method based on beam search. The
proposed algorithm is able to generate optimal solutions, respectively the best
upper bounds, for 283 out of 302 test cases. Moreover, for 9 further test cases the
algorithm is able to improve the currently best upper bounds.


NedaManavizadeh,et al [9]. In the study balancing a mixed-model U-line in a Just-
In-Time (JIT) production system. The research intends to reduce the number of
stations via balancing the workload and maximizing the weighted efficiency,
which both are considered as the objectives of this research paper. After balancing
the line and determining the number of stations, the labor assignment paper. To
solve this problem, Simulated Annealing algorithm was applied and followed in
three stages. First, the balancing problem was solved and the number of stations
was determined. Second, workers were assigned to the workstations in which they
are qualified to work. Following that, an alert system based on the kanban system
was designed to balance the work in the process inventory.SA algorithm still have
a better reliability. To show the
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efficiency of the proposed SA algorithm, an axel assembly company was studied.
To satisfy demands and reduce backlogging, a mixed model assembly line was
designed for this case study. The results shows that
mixed model assembly line designed using the SA algorithm had good efficiency


Pavel A. Borisovsky et al [10].roblem of designing a reconfigurable machining
line. Such a line is composed of a sequence of workstations performing specific
sets of operations. Each workstation is comprised of several identical CNC
machines (machining centers).A genetic algorithm is proposed. This algorithm is
based on the permutation representation of solutions.Computational experiments
confirmed the suitability of this approach. The results on relatively small-sized test
instances showed quite competitive performance of the GA comparing to CPLEX
solver.Results are quite comparable, in all cases but two the GA was at least as
good as CPLEX, and in three cases it found better solutions.

Jing Zha et al [11].U-line rebalancing problem is formalized and to have a
minimum moving cost of machines and labor cost. The walking time of
operators is considered to avoid generating awkward walking path. A new
hybrid algorithm of ant colony optimization and filtered beam search is
presented to solve the problem. The hybrid algorithm adopts the framework of
ant colony optimization. In the process of constructing path, each ant
explores several nodes for one step and chooses the best one by global and
local evaluation at a given probability. Computational results show that the
proposed algorithm performs
quite effectively for solving U-line balancing problems in the literature by
comparing to the existing solutions. Finally, the proposed algorithm for
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solving U-line rebalancing problem is demonstrated with an example and
also yields optimal solutions

Pinar Tankan et al [12]. Bees algorithm and artificial bee colony algorithm
have been applied to the fully constrained two-sided assembly line balancing
problem so as to minimize the number of workstations and to obtain a
balanced line. An extensive computational study has also been performed
and the comparative results have been evaluated . Two sided ALB is extended
by
Taking into account additional constraints. Although, the addition
Of positional, zoning and synchronous task constraints constitute
the problem to be much more complex, and these factors are important for
practical applications.further studies, it is aimed to implement different swarm
intelligence based heuristic algorithms, such as ant colony and particle swarm
optimization, with multiple objectives in order to improve the results
presented in this study











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CHAPTER 4
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

4.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION:
From the literature survey, problems in line balancing are given and
problems identified are
Improper line balancing
Zone constraint
Smoothness between workstation
To minimize no of work station

4.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
To increase maximum efficiency of assembly line
To form easy movement of work piece
Reduction of work station











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4.3 METHODOLOGY









literature
survy
problem
identication
problem
definition
mathematical
modeling
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CHAPTER 5
MATHEMATICAL MODELING


5.1 Heuristic method for solving line balancing

To experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery that
give a solution which is not guaranteed to be optimal. Where the exhaustive search
is impractical, heuristic methods are used to speed up the process of finding a
satisfactory solution via mental shortcuts to ease the cognitive load of making a
decisioN

5.2 PRCEDENCE DIAGRAM FOR THE ASSEMBLY LINE



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The method were studied are
Largest candidate rule
Wester&kill bridge
Ranked positional weight method
Demand= 480 units
Cycle time =10
Model A=20 UNITS
MODEL B=28 UNITS
Tasks 21 and 22 cannot be executed on the same workstation



TASK tA tB
1 9.5 9.5
2 13 9.5
3 4.8 4.8
4 3.3 3.3
5 1.5 1.7
6 4.5 4.1
7 3.6 3.6
8 0.0 2.0
9 12.3 12.3
10 0.0 8.0
11 2.5 4.3
12 4.3 4.3
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13 6.5 0.0
14 1.7 1.7
15 7.0 7.0
16 1.4 1.4
17 7.8 7.8
18 2.9 2.9
19 1.6 1.6
20 7.0 7.0
21 8.7 8.7
22 3.9 4.1
23 6.4 6.4
24 2.8 2.7
25 8.5 8.5
26 6.7 6.7
27 1.9 1.9
28 9.9 9.9
29 4.6 0.0
30 4.0 4.2

5.3 TOTAL TASK TIME

TASK ELEMENT A ELEMENT B TOTAL TIME
1 190 266 456
2 26 36.4 62.4
3 96 134.4 230.4
4 66 92.4 158.4
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5 30 47.6 77.6
6 90 114.8 204.8
7 72 100.8 172.8
8 0.0 56 56
9 246 344.4 590.6
10 00 224 224
11 50 70 120
12 86 120.4 206.4
13 130 00 130
14 34 47.6 81.6
15 140 196 336
16 28 39.2 67.2
17 156 218.4 374.4
18 58 81.2 139.2
19 32 44.8 76.8
20 140 196 336
21 174 243.6 417.6
22 78 114.8 192.8
23 128 179.2 307.2
24 56 75.6 131.6
25 170 238 408
26 134 187.6 321.6
27 198 277.2 475.2
28 38 53.2 31.2
29 92 0 92
30 `80 117.6 197.6
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5.4 WESTER &KILLBRIDGE METHOD

FROM ABOVE TABLE NO OF WORKSATATION FOR THIS METHOD IS
ALIGNED

STATION ELEMENT
1 1
2 10,2
3 3,12
4 17,5
5 4,11,16
6 13,18
7 6,7,4
8 19,15
9 20,8
10 9,24
11 21
12 25
13 22
14 26
15 23,27
16 28
17 29,30


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5.5 RANKED POSTIONAL WEIGHT METHOD

RPW solution represents a more efficient way toassign the work elements to
station than any other methods mentioned above. In RPW method, one can
assign cycle time and then calculate the work stations required for production
line or vice versa. This
cannot be done in any other method of line balancing

STATION ELEMENT
1 2,12,11
2 3,16
3 13,14
4 20
5 1
6 5,6,4
7 10
8 7,8,24
9 21
10 9,15
11 25
12 22
13 26
14 23,27
15 17
16 28
22

17 29,18,19
18 30




5.6 LARGEST CANDIDATE RULE METHOD

STATION ELEMENT
1 1
2 10,2
3 3,12
4 17,5
5 4,11,16
6 13,18
7 6,7,14
8 18,15
9 20,8
10 9,24
11 21
12 25
13 22
14 26
15 23,27
16 28
17 29,30
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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND INFERENCE


We can infer from outputs from literature review that line balancing problems were
solved by heuristic methods and algorithm
Fromthis paper, ranked positional weight method is better than largest candidate
rule method and wester &kills bridge method. Further study can be done using the
algorithm for the assembly line balancing problems.the number of workstations
found by the Kilbridge&Wester Heuristic, Phase-I of Moodie&Young Method, and
RPWT Technique are greater.














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CHAPTER 7
REFERENCES

1. Nai-Chieh Wei, I-Ming Chao(2011) A solution procedure for type E simple
assembly line balancing problemComputers & Industrial Engineering 61
Elsevier page no 824830
2. JaydeepBalakrishnan, Chun-Hung Cheng, Kin-Chuen,KumKhiong (2009)
The application of single-pass heuristics for U-lines Elsevierjournal of
Manufacturing Systems 28 page no 2840
3. senerAkpnarG. MiracBayhan (2010) A hybrid genetic algorithm for mixed
model assembly line balancing problemwith parallel workstations and
zoning constraintsEngineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 24
page no 449457
4. Yeo Keun Kim , Won Seop Song, Jun Hyuk Kim (2009) A mathematical
model and a genetic algorithm for two-sidedassembly line balancing
Computers & Operations Research 36 page no 853865
5. R.B. Breginski, M.G. Cleto, J.L. Sass Junior (2011) 22
nd
International
Conference on Production Research page no 15-23
6. Santosh T. Ghutukade Dr. Suresh M. Sawan(2013) use of ranked position
weighted method for Assembly line balancing International Journal of
Advanced Engineering Research and Studies

7. NedaManavizadeh, MasoudRabbani, DavoudMoshtaghi,
FariborzJolai(2012) Mixed-model assembly line balancing in the make-to-
order a environment using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms Elsevier
Expert Systems with Applications 39 pageno 1202612031

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8. Christian Blum (2011)Iterative beam search for simple assembly
linebalancing with a fixed number of work stationsALBCOM Research
Grouppage no 145-164

9. Pavel A. Borisovsky , Xavier Delorme, AlexandreDolgui(2012) Genetic
algorithm for balancing reconfigurable machining lines Elsevier Computers
& Industrial Engineering 66 page no 541547
10. Jing Zha , Jian-jun (2014) A hybrid ant colony algorithm for U-line
balancing and rebalancing in just-in-time production environment
Elsevier Journal of Manufacturing Systems 33 page no 93 102
11. Pinar Tapkan, LaleOzbakira, AdilBaykasoglu (2012) Modeling and
solving constrained two-sided assembly line balancing problem via bee
algorithms Elsevier Applied Soft Computing 12 page no 33433355
12. DanialKhorasanian, Seyyed Reza Hejazi, GhasemMoslehi(2013) Two-
sided assembly line balancing considering the relationships between tasks
Elsevier Computers & Industrial Engineering 66 page no 10961105