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Let

We are now in a position to derive a formula for the inverse of an invertible matrix. We need to use an important fact that

will be proved in Section 2.3: The square matrix is invertible if and only if is not zero.

THEOREM 2.1.2

(7)

popularize the technique.

Overwork combined with a fall from a carriage led to his death at the age of 48. Cramer was apparently a good-natured

and pleasant person with broad interests. He wrote on philosophy of law and government and the history of mathematics.

He served in public office, participated in artillery and fortifications activities for the government, instructed workers on

techniques of cathedral repair, and undertook excavations of cathedral archives. Cramer received numerous honors for his

activities.

Remark To solve a system of equations in unknowns by Cramer's rule, it is necessary to evaluate determinants of

matrices. For systems with more than three equations, Gaussian elimination is far more efficient. However, Cramer's rule

does give a formula for the solution if the determinant of the coefficient matrix is nonzero.

Let

1.

Let

2.

Find

(a) and

(b) and

(c) and

(d) and

Evaluate the determinant of the matrix in Exercise 1 by a cofactor expansion along

3.

4.

(a)

In Exercises 5–10 evaluate by a cofactor expansion along a row or column of your choice.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

Let

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

Prove that if and all the entries in A are integers, then all the entries in are integers.

25.

Let be a system of linear equations in unknowns with integer coefficients and integer constants. Prove that if

26. , the solution has integer entries.

27.

28.

Prove: The equation of the line through the distinct points and can be written as

29.

30.

31.

(a)

If is an “upper triangular” block matrix, where and are square matrices, then

(b) Verify your answer in part (a) by using a cofactor expansion to evaluate .

Prove that if A is upper triangular and is the matrix that results when the ith row and th column of A are deleted,

32. then is upper triangular if .

What is the maximum number of zeros that a matrix can have without having a zero

33. determinant? Explain your reasoning.

34.

How many different values can you obtain for by substituting numerical values (not

necessarily all the same) for the *'s? Explain your reasoning.

Indicate whether the statement is always true or sometimes false. Justify your answer by giving

35. a logical argument or a counterexample.

(b) In theory, Cramer's rule can be used to solve any system of linear equations, although

the amount of computation may be enormous.

Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

2.2 In this section we shall show that the determinant of a square matrix can be

EVALUATING evaluated by reducing the matrix to row-echelon form. This method is important

since it is the most computationally efficient way to find the determinant of a

DETERMINANTS BY ROW general matrix.

REDUCTION

A Basic Theorem

We begin with a fundamental theorem that will lead us to an efficient procedure for evaluating the determinant of a matrix of any

order .

THEOREM 2.2.1

Proof By Theorem 2.1.1, the determinant of A found by cofactor expansion along the row or column of all zeros is

where , , are the cofactors for that row or column. Hence is zero.

THEOREM 2.2.2

Proof By Theorem 2.1.1, the determinant of A found by cofactor expansion along its first row is the same as the determinant of

found by cofactor expansion along its first column.

Remark Because of Theorem 2.2.2, nearly every theorem about determinants that contains the word row in its statement is also true

when the word column is substituted for row. To prove a column statement, one need only transpose the matrix in question, to convert

the column statement to a row statement, and then apply the corresponding known result for rows.

The next theorem shows how an elementary row operation on a matrix affects the value of its determinant.

THEOREM 2.2.3

Let A be an matrix.

(a) If B is the matrix that results when a single row or single column of A is multiplied by a scalar , then .

(b) If is the matrix that results when two rows or two columns of are interchanged, then .

(c) If B is the matrix that results when a multiple of one row of A is added to another row or when a multiple of one column is

added to another column, then .

We omit the proof but give the following example that illustrates the theorem for determinants.

We will verify the equation in the first row of Table 1 and leave the last two for the reader. By Theorem 2.1.1, the determinant of B

may be found by cofactor expansion along the first row:

since , , and do not depend on the first row of the matrix, and A and B differ only in their first rows.

Table 1

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