+ + =
2
1
( )
( )
( ) ( )  
( )
( ) ( )   L u y u y L u x u x
L n
L
i i
L n
i
i i c
+ + =
=1
2
1
( ) ( ) ( )   ( )   ( )   L u Y E u X E L u Y u X E L C
c
+ + =
Cross covariance
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
= =
+ =
L n
i
i
L n
i
i i c
u x
L n
L u y u x
L n
L c
1 1
1 1
( )
( )
( )
=
+
L n
i
i
L u y
L n
1
.
1
( ) ( ) ( ) L C C L
c c c
= 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
= = =
=
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i i c
u y
n
u x
n
u y u x
n
c
1 1 1
1 1 1
0
Numerical Example 3.7. Table 3.8
TABLE 3.8 PERMEABILITY AND POROSITY DATA FOR
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE 3.7
Depth (ft)  k (md)
2,040 8.25 35
2,041 9.0 50
2,042 6.25 21
2,043 5.0 16
2,044 5.3 20
2,045 4.75 8
2,046 5.0 14
Cross variogram and cross covariance for data in
Numerical Example 3.7
Cokriging (Doyen, 1988)
Kriged porosity
Porosity by regression from
1/(acoustic impedance)
Porosity by
cokriging
Universal Kriging
Conventional Estimation Techniques
Stationarity
The residual should have a constant variance
A variable with
no trend and
a residual with varying dispersion
A variable with
a trend and
a residual with varying dispersion
Stationarity
Example Of Stationary And Nonstationary
Surfaces
Beware: Stationarity Is A Matter Of Scale!!!
Porosity log of well M10x in the Dan Field (Almeida and Frykman, 1994)
The Basic Assumption Of Geostatistics
A geological variable z(x) is composed of a systematic
trend and a random component.
z(x) is the realization of a random function Z(x)
equal to the sum of a trend m(x) and of a random
stationary residual R(x) of mean 0:
Z (x) = R (x) + m (x)
But how can we calculate statistics from just
one outcome?
The Stationarity Assumption
Mean and variance are independent
of location:
Covariance between values at two
locations only depends on distance:
( )   ( )   m h x Z E x Z E = + =
( )   ( )  
2
o = + = h x Z Var x Z Var
( ) ( )   ( ) h C h x Z x Z Cov = + ,
Universal Kriging
( ) ( ) ( ) u R u m u X
+ =
( ) ( )
=
od neighborho
i
u X u m
( ) ( ) ( ) u m u X u R
=
( ) ( )
=
=
L
i
l l
u f a u m
0
( ) u a a u m
1 0
+ =
f
0
(u) =1 so that for a linear trend
( )
2
2 1 0
u a u a a u m
+ + =
And for a quadratic trend
We define drift
Local mean is
Subtract local mean from individual samples, we obtain
Samples value
( ) ( )
=
=
n
i
i i
u X u X
1
0
*
=
=
n
i
l i l i
u f u f
1
0
for l = 0, , L
This imposes L+1 constraints
Applying the minimum variance,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=








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0
0 0
0
0 1
0
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,
0 0
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, ,
u f
u f
u u C
u u C
u f u f
u f u f
u f u f u u C u u C
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n
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n+L+1 Matrix
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0 1
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2
, , u f u u C u u C
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l
l l
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The error variance is estimated by
( ) ( )
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+ =
Another alternative uses the method of external drift. The trend in the data is
Provided by the secondary variable Y.
Location of reservoir top well data
Field Example 4.8 Universal Kriging To Estimate Top of Reservoir
Reservoir top running east/west Reservoir top running north/south.
Crossvalidation estimates for reservoir top using universal,
simple, and ordinary kriging
Map of reservoir top generated with universal kriging