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EARTHQUAKE

An earthquake is a vibration or shock that occurs in the earth's surface due to the release of energy from
the sudden that creates seismic waves . Earthquakes are caused by movement of ordinary Earth 's crust (
plates of Earth ) . Frequency region, referring to the type and size of earthquakes experienced over that
time period . Earthquakes are measured by using a seismometer . Moment magnitude is the most common
scale on which earthquakes occur worldwide . Rickter Scale is a scale that reported by national
seismological observatories in the local magnitude scale measuring at magnitude 5 . The second scale is
the same for their valid ranges . 3 earthquakes of magnitude or more most of the almost invisible and its
large 7 over potentially cause serious damage over large areas , depending on the depth of the earthquake
. The historic biggest Earthquake magnitude has over 9 , although there is no limit magnitude . The last
major earthquake magnitude 9.0 or greater is a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011 (as of March
2011 ) , and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records began . The intensity of the vibration
measured on the modified Mercalli scale .
BASED ON CAUSE
Tectonic earthquakes
The Earthquakes are caused by tectonic activity , ie shifting tectonic plates suddenly has the power of the
very small to very large . This earthquake generated a lot of damage or natural disasters on Earth , the
strong vibrations of earthquakes capable of spreading to all parts of the Earth . Tectonic earthquakes are
caused by the release of energy that occurs due to a shift in plate tectonic plates like a rubber band pulled
and released suddenly .
Earthquakes collision
Earthquake is caused by a meteor or asteroid that crashed to Earth , types of earthquakes are rare
Earthquake rubble
Earthquakes usually occur in limestone areas or in areas of mining , earthquakes are rare and localized .
Artificial earthquake
Artificial earthquake is an earthquake caused by human activity , such as dynamite blasting , nuclear or
hammer struck to the earth's surface .
Volcanic earthquakes ( volcanic )
Earthquake is the result of magma activity , which usually happens before the volcano erupted . If the
higher activeness it will cause an explosion that would also lead to the occurrence of earthquakes . The
earthquake is only felt around the volcano .
BASED DEPTH.
Earthquakes in
The earthquake was an earthquake in the hiposentrumnya are more than 300 miles below the earth's
surface (in the earth's crust). Earthquakes in generally not too dangerous.
Intermediate earthquakes
Medium earthquake is an earthquake that hiposentrumnya be between 60 km to 300 km below the earth's
surface intermediate bumi.gempa generally cause minor damage and vibration is more pronounced.
Shallow earthquakes
Shallow earthquakes are earthquake hiposentrumnya located less than 60 km from the earth's surface.
These earthquakes usually cause great damage.


Based on the Wave / Earthquake Vibration.
Primary wave
Primary wave (wave lungitudinal) are waves or vibrations that propagate in the body of the earth at
speeds between 7-14 km / sec. This vibration coming from hiposentrum.
Secondary waves
Secondary wave (transverse wave) is a propagating wave or vibration, such as the speed of the primary
wave is reduced, which is 4-7 km / sec. Secondary waves can not propagate through the liquid layer.
The cause of earthquakes.
Most earthquakes resulting from the release of energy generated by the pressure caused by moving plates
. The longer the pressure of the growing and eventually reach the state where the pressure can not be
detained again by the outskirts of the slab . That's when earthquakes will occur .
Earthquakes usually occur at the borders of the plates . The most severe Earthquakes usually occur at
plate boundaries compressional and translational . Earthquake focus in most likely occurred because the
material is squeezed into the lithospheric layer undergoes a phase transition at a depth of more than 600
km .
Several other earthquakes can also occur due to movement of magma inside the volcano . Earthquakes
like it could be a symptom of impending volcanic eruption . Several earthquakes ( rarely however ) also
occur due to accumulated huge mass of water behind the dam , such as the Caribbean Dam in Zambia ,
Africa . Some ( rare too ) can also occur due to fluid injection or akstraksi from / to the Earth ( eg in some
geothermal power plants and in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal . Finally, earthquakes can also occur from
blasting explosives . This can make scientists monitor secret nuclear weapons tests conducted by the
government . Earthquakes are caused by humans is also called as induced seismicity .