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Applications of First Order D.E.

Geometric Applications (yahoogroup: ricky_earnhart)


I. Families of Curves
The equation of a family of curves may be found by means of its slope.
For the function y = f(x),
=
dx
dy
slope of the tangent line

=
dy
dx
slope of the normal line
slope =
1 2
1 2
x x
y y
x
y

Examples !olve the follo"ing


1. Find the equation of a family of curves and the equation of the
particular curve passing through (#$,%) if the slope of the tangent at
any point is &x
$
' (x. )*!.
y=x
3
+2 x
2
+C
, +=%
2. Find the equation of a family of curves if its normal line at any point
passes through the origin.
3. ,hat is the equation of the family of curves if the tangent line, from
the point of tangency to the point "here it crosses the x#axis, is
bisected by the y -axis.
II. Orthogonal Trajectories
efinition: Orthogonal Trajectories
.f a curve intersects each member of a family of curves at a constant angle of
/01, then the curve is called an orthogonal tra2ectory of the family of curves.
.f
dx
dy
is the slope of the family of curves, then #
dy
dx
is the slope of the
orthogonal tra2ectory.
!teps .n Finding the 3rthogonal Tra2ectories
1. Find the differential equation of the given family. (Eliminate the arbitrary
constants)
2. 4eplace
dx
dy
"ith #
dy
dx
. This is the differential equation of the orthogonal
tra2ectories.
&. !olve the resulting differential equation.
!"ample: Find the orthogonal tra2ectories of each of the follo"ing
1. x - &y = +. 5ra" the figure.
2. +ircles through the origin "ith centers on the x - axis. 5ra" the figure. 6,
3. y ( x
$
' 7 ) ' $ = 0 )ns.
y
3
=C3lnx
4. x = + exp (#y
$
) )ns.
y=C e
x
2
.
5. Ellipses "ith centers at (0,0) and t"o vertices at (%,0) and (#%,0).
6. y = 7 ( csc x ' cot x)
#hysical Applications
III. $a%s of Gro%th an& ecay
The rate at "hich the amount of a substance changes is proportional to the
quantity of substance present at any time.
8et x = quantity (amount) of substance present at any time t
t = time
7 = proportionality constant

dt
dx
= rate of change
4ate Equation
dt
dx

x
dt
dx
= 7x
9eneral !olution x = +e
7t
!"ample : !olve the follo"ing
1. The population of a city doubles in :0 years. .n ho" many years "ill it
be four times as much; )ssume that the rate of change is proportional
to the number of inhabitants. )*! %00 yrs.
$. ) certain substance decomposes at a rate proportional to the amount
present. .f one#third of it disappears after %000 days, "hat is the
percentage lost in %00 days;
&. Thirty percent of a radioactive substance disappears in %: years.
Find the half#life of the substance. )*!. $/.%: yrs
*ote 'alf(life
, t
1/2
is the time at "hich the amount of substance is
one half of the original amount, equivalently,
x=0.5x
o
.
4. !ugar decomposes in "ater at a rate proportional to the amount still
unchanged. .f there "ere :0 lb of sugar present initially and at the end
of : hours this is reduced to $0 lb, ho" long "ill it ta7e until /0< of the
sugar is decomposed; 6,
5. ,ater lea7s from a cylinder at a rate proportional to the square root of
the volume remaining at any time. .f initially there are =( gallons
present and %: gallons lea7 out on the first day, ho" much "ill be left
after ( days; ,hen "ill there be $: gallons left; !,
)*! a) %= gals left, b) & days
!eat"or7
1. Find the orthogonal tra2ectories of circles through the origin "ith centers on
the x#axis.
2. !ugar decomposes in "ater at a rate proportional to the amount still
unchanged. .f there "ere :0 lb of sugar present initially and at the end of :
hours this is reduced to $0 lb, ho" long "ill it ta7e until /0< of the sugar is
decomposed;
IV. Temperature Change ()e%ton*s $a% of Cooling+'eating)
*e"ton>s la" of cooling or heating states that the rate at "hich the
temperature of a body decreases or increases is proportional to the
difference bet"een the temperature of the body and that of the medium.
8et T = temperature of the body at any time t
Tm = Temperature of the medium
t = time
7 = proportionality constant
k=+( heating) , k=(cooling)

dt
dT
= rate of change
4ate Equation
dt
dT
? (T - Tm) or
dt
dT
= 7 (T - Tm)
9eneral !olution T = Tm ' +e
7t

!"ample: !olve the follo"ing
1. .f a thermometer "hose temperature is @:
0
is
exposed to a room "here the temperature is &:1, and the
thermometer reading is =:1 after &0 sec, a) ho" long after the
exposure "ill the reading be :01; b) ,hat "ill be the thermometer
reading & minutes after the exposure; )*! %.@ min, ($
0
.
2. )t %00 pm, a thermometer reading @01 F is ta7en
outside "here
the air temperature is # %01 F. )t %0$ pm, the reading is $=1 F. at %0:
pm, the thermometer is ta7en bac7 indoors "here the air is at @01 F.
,hat is the thermometer reading at %0/ pm; 6,
3. ) body at a temperature of :01 F is placed in an
oven "hose temperature is 7ept at %:01 F. .f after %0 minutes the
temperature of the body is @:1 F, find an expression for the temperature
at any time and find the time required for the body to attain a
temperature that is "ithin a half degree of the oven temperature.
,eat%ork:
%. .nitially, there is :0 mg of a certain radioactive material present and after $
hours, it is observed that the material has lost %0 < of its original mass. Find a) the
mass of the material after ( hours b) the time at "hich the mass has decayed to one-
half of its initial mass (half-life of the material)
ans a) x = (0.(: mg
b) t = %&.%0 hrs.
$. ) body at a temperature of :01 F is placed in an oven "hose temperature is 7ept at
%:01 F. .f after %0 minutes the temperature of the body is @:1 F, find the time required for
the body to attain a temperature that is "ithin a half degree of the oven temperature.
ans. %A(.%= min