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Political system in Romania

Politics of Romania take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative


democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Romania is the head of government and
the President of Romania exercises the functions of head of state, and of a multi-party system.
The constitution declares Romania to be a parliamentary republic and provides for multiple
political parties, a separation of powers between branches of government, a market economy
and respect for human rights.
The constitution provides for a President, a Parliament, a onstitutional ourt and a separate
system of lower courts that includes The !igh ourt of assation and "ustice. The right to
vote is granted to all citi#ens over $% years of age.
Romania is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible &ational 'tate.
The form of government of the Romanian 'tate is a Republic.
Romania is a democratic and social state, governed by the rule of law, in which human
dignity, the citi#ens( rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, )ustice
and political pluralism represent supreme values, in the spirit of the democratic traditions of
the Romanian people and the ideals of the Revolution of *ecember $+%+, and shall be
guaranteed.
The 'tate shall be organi#ed based on the principle of the separation and balance of powers
-legislative, executive, and )udicial - within the framework of constitutional democracy.
,n Romania, the observance of the onstitution, its supremacy and the laws shall be
mandatory.
The President
The president of Romania is elected by direct, popular vote for a maximum of two four-year
terms. !e or she represents the country in matters of foreign affairs and is the commander of
the armed forces. -ccording to the $++$ constitution, the president may not belong to any
political party.
Executive
The president appoints a prime minister to head the government. the prime minister is
generally the leader of the party with the ma)ority of seats in parliament. The prime minister is
responsible for selecting a cabinet to help carry out the operations of government.
Legislative
Romania has a bicameral /two-chamber0 parliament called the &ational -ssembly. ,ts lower
house, called the hamber of *eputies, maintains 121 seats, of which $3 are reserved for
ethnic minorities. the upper house, or 'enate, has $21 seats. Members of both houses of
parliament are elected for four-year terms, according to a modified system of proportional
representation.
Judiciary
The 'upreme ourt is Romania(s highest )udicial authority. ,ts members are appointed by the
president at the proposal of the 'uperior ouncil of Magistrates. ,n each of Romania(s 24
counties and in the special district of 5ucharest there is a county court and several lower
courts, or courts of first instance. The country also has $3 circuits of appellate courts, in which
appeals against sentences passed by local courts are heard. there is a right of appeal from the
appellate courts to the 'upreme ourt. Romania has a onstitutional ourt, charged with
ensuring a balance of power among the organs of government. The procurator-general is the
highest )udicial official in Romania, and is responsible to the &ational -ssembly, which
appoints him or her for a four-year term. The death penalty was abolished in *ecember $+%+
and is forbidden by the $++$ constitution.
omparison between the 6nited 'tates, 6nited 7ingdom and Romanian Political
'ystem
The 6nited 7ingdom of 8reat 5ritain has no written constitution. The two main branches of
the 9nglish constitution are: /A) the legislative power which is the power of making, altering
or repealing the laws. and /B0 the executive power which belongs to the Parliament.
;hile the 5ritish constitution consists of two branches, as shown above, and the <ueen as the
!ead of 'tate who represents the people, the 6nited 'tates and Romanian constitutions
consists of three fundamental state powers: the 9xecutive Power, the =egislative Power and
the "udicial Power.
The 6nited 'tates has a written constitution which was made up in $>%> which sets out the
main Principals of 8overnment. The onstitution has been amended ?@ times from its
creation, and the first ten amendments are known as Athe 5ill of RightsB.
Romania also has a written constitution, the first dating from $%@@, and modified after that in
$+?1, $+1%, $+2%, the communist constitutions in $+3?, $+@3, $+@>, $+@+, $+>?, and the new
constitution in $++$ which was amended in ?441.
,n the 6nited 'tates the three powers are represented, in order with above, by: the President,
the ongress, the system of ourts.
,n Romania the 9xecutive Power is held by the President and the 8overnment which is lead
by the Prime Minister, the =egislative Power is held by the Parliament and the "udicial Power
is represented thru the ourts.
The 6nited 'tates ongress is made up of two houses: the Senate to which each state elects
two senators for a period of six years. the House of Representatives where each state elects a
certain number of representatives in direct proportion with the population in that state. They
are elected for a term of three years.
,n Romania the Parliament consists also of two houses, named exactly as in the 6nited 'tates:
The 'enate and the !ouse of Representatives.
Romania has a multiparty system, which makes a ma)ority government virtually impossible.
The last eight years saw a settlement of the political scene, with merging of small
parliamentary parties with larger ones.
Principal parties: *emocratic =iberal Party, 'ocial *emocratic Party, &ational =iberal,
onservative Party, *emocratic 6nion of !ungarians in Romania, 8reater Romania Party,
&ew 8eneration Party C hristian *emocratic, hristian-*emocratic &ational Peasants(
Party.

CONCL!"ON#
-lthough Romania has gone through a period when the onstitution was changed several
times after $+%+ when there was a revolution which brought the state under the communist
regime, Romania became a democratic state which operates on the principle of separation of
powers and balancing. Modern constitutional democracies can be classified within the
framework of three typologies, each of which consists of two contrasting categories of
constitutional democratic political regimes: constitutional monarchy and constitutional
republic, parliamentary system and presidential system, and ma)oritarian
democracy and consensus democracy. ,n the case of each typology, the -merican system of
government falls into one category and the 5ritish system falls into the other category and the
Romanian one is somewhere in the middle. 8reat 5ritain is a constitutional monarchy, while
the 6.'.-. and Romania is a constitutional republic. - parliamentary system operates in
5ritain, and a presidential system operates in the 6.'.- and a semipresidential system
operates in Romania. ,n conclusion, the political system of the three countries is different,
Romania with a hybrid political system is not working as intended.