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# Review Sheet

## Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

ANOVA Steps and Notation
Given the following hypothetical data from an experiment examining learning performance under three
temperature conditions
Temperature Conditions
! " #
\$% 70 90
0 4 1 &'
"
(!%)
1 3 2 G = 30
3 6 2 N = 15
1 3 0 k = 3
0 4 0
*
!
( \$ *
"
( "% *
#
( \$
SS
!
( ) SS
"
( ) SS
#
( +
n
!
( \$ n
"
( \$ n
#
( \$
,,,
'
!
( !
,,,
'
"
( +
,,,
'
#
( !
*he letter - identifies the num.er of treatment conditions (the num.er of levels of the factor)
*he num.er of scores in each treatment is identified .y a lowercase letter n
*he total num.er of scores in the entire study is specified .y a capital letter N
*he total (&') for each treatment condition is identified .y the capital letter *
*he sum of all the scores in the research study (the grand total) is identified .y G/ 0ou can compute G .y
adding up all of the N scores or .y adding up the treatment totals G ( &*
*he final calculation for ANOVA is the 12ratio which is composed of two variances
1 ( variance .etween treatments
variance within treatments
sample variance ( s
"
( SS
df
Recall that
SS ( &'
"
3 (&')
"
N
Total Sum of Squares, SS
total
SS
total
( &'
"
3 G
"

N
4n our example5 we have
SS
total
( !%) 3 #%
"

!\$
( +)
Within-Treatments Sum of Squares, SS
within
SS
within
( &SS
inside each treatment
SS
within
( ) 6 ) 6 +
( !)
Between-Treatments Sum of Squares, SS
between
SS
.etween
( &(*
"
7n) 3 G
"
7N
SS
.etween
( \$
"
7\$ 6 "%
"
7\$ 6 \$
"
7\$ 2 #%
"
7!\$
( \$ 6 8% 6 \$ 3 )%
( 9% 3 )%
( #%
*o verify our analysis5 chec- to see that the two components add up to the total/
SS
total
( SS
.etween
6 SS
within
+) ( #% 6 !)
Total Derees of !reedom, df
total
df
total
( N 3 !
df
total
( !\$ 3 ! ( !+
Within-Treatments Derees of !reedom, df
within
df
within
( &(n 3 !) ( &df
in each treatment
df
within
( N 3 -
df
within
( !\$ 3 # ( !"
Between-Treatments Derees of !reedom, df
between
df
.etween
( - 3 !
df
.etween
( # 3 ! ( "
*he two parts we o.tained from this analysis of degrees of freedom add up to e:ual the total degrees of freedom
df
total
( df
within
6 df
.etween

!+ ( !" 6 "
;S (variance) ( s
"
( SS
df
;S
.etween
( s
.etween
"
( SS
.etween
( #%7" ( !\$
df
.etween
;S
within
( s
within
"
( SS
within
( !)7!" ( !/##
df
within
1 ( ;S
.etween
;S
within
1 ( !\$7!/## ( !!/"8
*hen it is useful to organi<e the results in a ta.le called ANOVA summary ta.le
Source SS df ;S
=etween treatments #% " !\$ 1 ( !!/"8
>ithin treatments !) !" !/##
*otal +) !+
?ypothesis testing with ANOVA
Given the data
@lace.o Arug A Arug = Arug B
% ! # C N ( "%
" + ) # G ( )%
% ! + \$ &'
"
( ")"
% ! # )
# # + +
* ( \$ * ( !% * ( "% * ( "\$
SS ( 8 SS ( 8 SS ( ) SS ( !%
?
%
D
!
( D
"
( D
#
( D
+

?
a
At least one of the treatment means is different
>e will use E ( /%\$
a/ Analy<e the SS to o.tain SS
.etween
and SS
within
./ Fse the SS values and the df values to calculate the two variances5 ;S
.etween
and ;S
within

c/ 1inally5 use the two ;S values (variances) to compute the 12ratio
*he 12ratio for these data have df ( #5 !)
Note that an 12ratio larger than #/"+ reGects the null (in this pro.lem)