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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009

Chapter - 1
ORGANISATION CHART OF THE
FOOD AND BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT
Chapter outline
1.1.1 Introduction
1.1.2 Functions of an organization chart
1.1.3 Organization chart of a hotel
1.1.4 Organisation chart of a food and beverage department
1.1.5 Organisation chart of a itchen
1.1.! Organisation chart of a beverage department
1.1." Organisation chart of a restaurant
1.1.# $esponsibilities of various positions in a restaurant
Objectives of this chapter
%t the end of this chapter& the reader 'ill be able to(
)escribe the functions of an organization chart
*ist the divisions and departments 'ithin the organization chart of a large
hotel
*ist the positions 'ithin the organization chart of a food and beverage
department
*ist the positions 'ithin the organization chart of a itchen
*ist the position 'ithin the organization chart of a beverage department
*ist the position 'ithin the organization chart of a restaurant
)escribe the responsibilities of various positions in a restaurant
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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
1.1 I+$O),C-IO+
An organization chart is a visual representation of the departments and hierarchy of staff
positions within an organization.
1.2 F,+C-IO+. OF %+ O$/%+I.%-IO+ C0%$-
An organization chart shows the:
Division of work within an organization
The organization chart visually illustrates the relationship of the various
departments within a hotel, division or department. It also classifies departments
by the type of work they do and their respective areas of responsibilities, e.g.
inance, ood and !everage, "uman #esource, #ooms $ivision, and %ales and
&arketing.
Chain of command and communication
An organization chart does not only show the various departments within a hotel
but also the relative staff positions within each department. This chain of
command facilitates the flow of informing up and down the hierarchy and helps
eliminate incidences of 'double bossing(. It also allows all employees to see:
their span of control, if any
the correct line of communication
where they belong within the organization
who their superiors, peers and subordinates are
the hierarchy of positions within other departments
Possible career path for employees
An organization chart allows employees to plan a career path in their chosen
professions. Thus, a waiter knows that in order to become an Assistant
#estaurant &anager) he must first work towards the position of *aptain before
he may aspire to the position of an Assistant #estaurant &anager.
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Figure 11 Organization Chart of !arge "otel
12ecutive %ssistant 3anager4s Office
$ooms
)ivision
.ales 5
3areting
)ivision
0uman $esources
)ivision
!an,uet
-peration
!everage
$epartment
#eservations
ront
$esk
#oom
%ales
*atering
%ervice
%ecurity
$epartment
Training
$epartment
.mployee
/elfare
0ersonnel
$epartment
1
Finance and
%ccounting )ivision
/eneral 3anager4s
Office
Food 5 6everage
)ivision
#estaurants
2itchen
#oom %ervice
$epartment
%tewarding
$epartment
Telephone
&ail #oom
*oncierge
!usiness
*enter
.ngineering
$epartment
"ousekeeping
$epartment
0ublic
#elations
!ars
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Figure 1# Organization Chart of Food $ %everage Division in a
!arge "otel
.ales 5 3areting
)ivision
0uman $esources
)ivision
6everage 3anager
Chief .te'ard 12ecutive Chef
4
Food 5 6everage
)irector
$oom .ervice 3anager $estaurant 3anagers 6ar 3anagers
Food 5 6everage
Controller
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Figure 1& Organization Chart of an Outlet 'itchen %rigade
Chef de 7artie Chef de 7artie
Commis 8I Commis 8I
Commis 9 II
Commis 9 III
Commis 9 II
Commis 9 III
6
12ecutive Chef
.ous Chef
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Figure 1( Organization Chart of a %everage Outlet
.enior 6artender
3anager
6ar Captain
.erver 6ar -ender
6arbo: Commis .erver
7
6everage 3anager
6ar 3anager
%ssistant 6ar 3anager
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Figure 1) Organization Chart of a *estaurant
0ostess .ommelier Captain
.erver
Commis .erver
8
%ssistant )irector 8 Food 5 6everage
$estaurant 3anager
%ssistant $estaurant 3anager
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The following positions are usually found in a restaurant:
#estaurant
&anager
Assistant
#estaurant
&anager
"ostess
*aptain
/ine !utler
/aiter
!usboy
1.#.1 $estaurant 3anager

The #estaurant &anager9s position is referred to as the
$irector de #estaurant in the traditional rench restaurant
service brigade.
A #estaurant &anager is in charge of the overall operation
of a food and beverage outlet. "e or she is responsible for
the following:
%upervising staff in the dining room
%elling and promoting restaurant
&aintaining good staff and customer relations
&aintaining set standard for food, beverage and
service ,uality
0erforming table side preparation :especially in fine
dining restaurants;
$eveloping the annual operation budget for the
restaurant.
*ontrolling the e<penses of the restaurant :payroll,
=! cost, etc.;
Approving duty rosters for service staff
*onducting and co>coordinating training for the
restaurant
/orking with the "uman #esource $epartment
:"#$; in the recruitment and development of staff
according to the policies of the hotel
-verseeing daily roll>call ? pre>service briefing
Attending ood and !everage operations meetings
and conducting departmental meetings to
disseminate information to staff in the restaurant.
*ist the responsibilit: of Maitre dhotel or Restaurant
Manager;
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1.#.2 %ssistant $estaurant 3anager
The Assistant #estaurant &anager is also known as,
0remier &aitre d9 hotel, in the traditional rench restaurant
brigade. The Assistant #estaurant &anager provides
support
and assists the #estaurant &anager and takes over the
#estaurant &anagerBs duties in his or her absence. The
Assistant #estaurant &anager is also directly responsible
for the following:
supervising %taff
selling and 0romoting #estaurant
maintaining good staff and *ustomer #elations
checking on food, beverage and service ,uality
performing table side preparation :in fine dining
restaurant;
drawing up the duty rosters for the restaurant staff
conducting onCtheCDob training for the restaurant
staff
overseeing daily roll>call ? pre>service briefing
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1.#.3 0ostess

The position of "ostess is usually filled by females but
having a male "ost is not unheard of. The main role of the
"ost or "ostess in a restaurant is to greet and seat
customers. 2ey responsibilities include:
keeping menu stock and maintains menu
cleanliness
ensuring that floral arrangements are changed
regularly by the flower department
taking and maintaining customers records for
restaurant reservations
assisting customer seating to each station
greeting , welcoming and seating customers
maintaining customerBs history record
assisting in presenting menu, and where necessary
taking orders for food and beverage items.

List the information that might be included in a
customer history record in a restaurant.
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1.#.4 Captain
The *aptain9s position in the traditional rench restaurant
service brigade is called Chef de rang. A *aptain is
normally in>charge of smaller sections within a restaurant
and is responsible for 4 to 7 tables covering appro<imately
about +@ to 15 seats.
2ey responsibilities of a *aptain include:
supervising, directing, assisting and co>
coordinating service staff:waiters ? stewards;
within the station
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recommending or suggesting food and beverage
items to customers and taking the orders for
food and beverage
checking customers satisfaction with ,uality of
food, beverage and service provided
attending to customer complaints and re,uests
checking and presenting bills
*aptains may also assist the "ostess, Assistant
#estaurant &anager or #estaurant &anager in the
following:
welcoming and seating customers
performing table side preparation
overseeing the restaurant in the absence of the
&anager or Assistant #estaurant &anager
1.#.5 <ine 6utler

The /ine !utler is also known as /ine /aiter, and is
referred to as Sommelier in the traditional rench service
brigade. This position specializes in the recommendation
and service of wine and other beverages. This is a
specialized position usually found only in a fine dining
restaurant.
The /ine !utler9s duties include:
#ecommending selecting wine and formulating or
revising the wine list.
0reparing the mise>en>place for wine service :wine
glasses, wine buckets and stand, decanters, wine
baskets;
#ecommending appropriate wines to match
customer9s food order.
0resenting, uncorking and serving wines.
&aintaining the inventory of wines in the restaurant
through re,uisitions and daily physical inventories
Training staff in wine knowledge and wine service
techni,ues
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1.#.! <aiter
This position is known as Commis de rang in the
traditional rench service brigade and are also sometimes
referred to as '%ervers(.
A /aiter is re,uired to perform the following tasks:
0reparing the mise>en>place for the restaurant9s
operation, for e<ample:
> drawing, stocking and laying table
linen
> folding napkins for use in service
> setting tables with tableware,
glassware and chinaware
> stocking side stations with linen,
glassware, and chinaware
> cleaning and refilling salt and pepper
shakers or mills, oil and vinegar
bottles and other condiments, if
applicable
%erving food and beverage to customers patronizing
the restaurant
*learing soiled tableware from restaurant to the
back>of>house
#e>setting table for Enew9 customers when tables
are re>sold during the course of the same meal
period :i.e. when a turnover occurs;
1.#." 6usbo:
This is an entry level position in most restaurants and is
usually held by an ine<perienced, freshly hired individual.
E!usboy9 is an American term which in %ingapore is also
referred to as a *ommis server or Funior /aiter .In the
traditional rench service brigade the position is known as
Commis debarrasseur.
The main duties of this position are:
*ollecting food and beverages from the kitchen into
the restaurant
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*ollecting beverages from the bar
!ussing :collecting and clearing; soiled dishes from
the dining room to the back> of>the>house to the
stewarding wash>up point
Assisting a waiter to serve the customers if need
arises.
CHAPTER 2
SUPPORT SERVICES
Chapter outline
2.1 .upport service
2.2 Internal support services
2.3 12ternal support services
Objectives of this chapter
%t the end of this chapter& the reader 'ill be able to(
*ist the t'o t:pes of support services
12plain 'hat are internal support services
*ist the various internal support services
provided b: departments 'ithin a hotel
12plain 'hat are e2ternal support services
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*ist the various e2ternal support services co9
ordinated b: departments 'ithin a hotel
2.1 .,77O$- .1$=IC1.

%upport services are any services which are re,uired by a
department within a hotel such as restaurant in order to
operate efficiently. %uch services may be re,uired on a
regular or ad>hoc basis.
There are two forms of support services:
1. Internal support services
+. .<ternal support services
2.2 I+-1$+%* .,77O$- .1$=IC1.
Internal support services include those which are provided
by a department or area of operation within the
organization or hotel to a food and beverage department.
The departments within the organization or hotel that
provide such services are known as internal support
departments. The following are internal support
departments within a hotel:
"ousekeeping $epartment
.ngineering $epartment
ront -ffice $epartment
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%ecurity $epartment
inance ? Accounts $epartment
"uman #esource $epartment
%ales and &arketing $epartment
-ther departments within the ood and !everage
$ivision
2.2.1 0ouseeeping )epartment
The "ousekeeping department provides the following
internal support services to food and beverage outlets:
*leans public areas including food and beverages
outlets)
&aintains public area facilities by replenishing
customer support such as soap and toilet paper in
areas such as rest rooms used by customers of food
and beverage outlets)
&aintains the hotel9s Gost and ound $epartments)
-perates the laundry department, linen and uniform
room and thus provides linen and uniform to food
and beverage outlets) and
0rovides flower arrangements and fresh flowers as
table centerpieces to food and beverage outlets.
2.2.2 1ngineering )epartment
-ften referred to as the Emaintenance9 department, the
.ngineering $epartment is responsible for more than
general maintenance of e,uipment in restaurants. The
following are some of the services and facilities in food and
beverage outlets that are the responsibility of the
.ngineering $epartment:
&aintains water, steam, electrical and air>
conditioning facilities and e,uipments
abricates, maintains and repairs furniture, fi<tures
and e,uipments.
2.2.3 Front Office )epartment
The ront -ffice $epartment provides the following
support services to food and beverage outlets by:
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directing customers to food and beverage outlets
providing information about the hotel9s food and
beverage facilities
issuing meal vouchers to tour groups to facilitate
meal arrangements
handling the distribution of mail and messages to
food and beverage outlets
maintaining customer room folio accounts and
ensuring the settlement of bills incurred in food and
beverage outlets
operating the telephone department and re>routing
telephone calls and messages for in>house
customers who are dining in the hotel9s food and
beverage outlets
2.2.4 .ecurit: )epartment
*ustomers who use any hotel9s food and beverage facilities
e<pect and must be provided with a safe, friendly and
comfortable environment. ood and beverage outlets must
therefore depend on the hotel9s %ecurity $epartment to:

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.nsure the safety of staff, customers and the
security of their belongings
&aintain security within the hotel premises
"andle emergencies such as fires and if necessary,
evacuation of customer and staff.
2.2.5 Finance> %ccounts )epartment
The financial status of the hotel9s various food and
beverage outlets are recorded and analyzed by the
inance ?Accounts $epartment. Thus, the inance or
Accounts $epartment provides the following support
services to food and beverage outlets by:
"andling of staff payroll
&aintaining the food and beverage outlets financial
records
Henerating timely reports and analysis of financial
performance
0roviding cashiering services at food and beverage
outlets point>of sales
0roviding purchasing services :which includes
receiving, storing and issuing items;.
2.2.! 0uman $esource )epartment
The "uman #esource $epartments in hotels serve three
basic functions: personnel>related matters, staff welfare and
development of its employees. ood and beverage outlets
therefore depend on the "uman #esource $epartment for
the following:
#ecruiting, orienting, training, evaluating,
motivating ,disciplining ,promoting and
communicating with food and beverage staff) and
-verseeing the welfare and employee benefits of
staff.
2.2." .ales and 3areting )epartment
The %ales and &arketing $epartment generates business
for the hotel by marketing the hotel) its services and
facilities. It is usually made up the following department:
&arketing
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0ublic relations
*atering sales
#oom sales
The %ales and &arketing $epartment thus provides support
services to food and beverage outlets by:
Henerating catering :ban,uet; sales)
Henerating convention sales with food and beverage
arrangements)
Increasing room sales and thus maintaining a high
occupancy of in Chouse customers who are likely to
use the food and beverage outlets) and
0romoting hotels food and beverage outlets through
advertisements, by soliciting publicity and
generating good public relations.
Other departments 'ithin the Food and 6everage
)ivision
The other departments within the food and beverage
departments or division are also a source of internal
support services to a food and beverage outlet. ood
and beverage outlets receive support from the ood and
!everage &anager9s office or administration,
%tewarding $epartment, !everage $epartment, 2itchen
and other food and beverage outlets.
These support services usually include:
%ecretarial support)
&aintenance of e,uipment inventory)
0rovision of manpower from other restaurants)
*ross>selling of outlet by other food and
beverage outlet) and
0rovision of cleaning services to the food and
beverage outlets
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2.3 1?-1$+%* .,77O$- .1$=IC1.
.<ternal support services are those which are not available
within the hotel but are re,uired for the smooth operation
of good and beverage outlets. %uch services may be
re,uired on a regular or ad>hoc basic and include the
following:
Gaundry
*ontract cleaning of back>of>the>house areas such
as kitchens
Heneral maintenance of customer areas
abrication, maintenance or repair of furniture and
e,uipment
Gandscaping services
%upply of floral arrangements
*ontracted security services
0rinting and graphic design work
*atering of staff meals
*atering for specialized meals :&uslim "alal
meals, vegetarian, etc.;
0rovision of props and decorations for ban,uet
function rooms
0hotography and video>taping services
#ental of audio>visual e,uipment e.g. karaoke
e,uipment
.ntertainment services such as musicians,
magicians, disc or karaoke Dockeys, dancers
:cultural, modern, ethnic or non>ethnic;, master of
ceremonies, etc.
2.3.1 Co9coordinating e2ternal support services
$ue to the wide range of e<ternal support services
re,uired by the food and beverage department, some form
of co>ordination is re,uired when dealing with e<ternal
support service.
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The following lists the likely departments within the hotels
and food and beverage department which are responsible
for the co> ordination of these e<ternal support services:
0ouseeeping )epartment
The "ousekeeping $epartment may co>ordinate the
following e<ternal support services:
laundry services)
florist, landscaping and gardening services)
and
Heneral maintenance of public areas.
Food and 6everage 3anager4s Office >
%dministration

This area within the departments serves to co>
ordinate the following:
printing of menus and promotional
materials)
graphic design for menus and promotional
materials like brochures )and
0rovision of BliveB entertainment, e.g. a
string ,uartet for the Iew Jear9s .ve dinner
in a restaurant.
6an@uet Operations
*ustomers using the hotel9s !an,uet services may re,uire
items, services or e,uipment which are not readily
available within the hotel. As such, the !an,uet
$epartment may be re,uired to co>ordinate the following
e<ternal support services:

> hiring of entertainment services)
> rental of audio>visual e,uipment)
> arrangement for photography or vide>taping
services) and
> 0rovision of large scale props, signs,
banners and decorations.
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Aitchen
The following e<ternal support services are co>
ordinated by the kitchen:
> staff meals e.g. on the hotel9s family day)
and
> catering for food and beverage items which
cannot be prepared in house.
It may not be feasible for a hotel to prepare all the items
re,uired on a menu.
%uch menu items may re,uire specialized skills, e,uipment
or conditions. oe e<ample, "alal or 2osher meals must be
prepared under very specific and strict religious
re,uirements. Thus it may be feasible to have such food
items prepared outside of the hotel by registered caterers
who specialize in in such meals.
&enus items may re,uire specialized skills which are not
found in the hotel.
or e<ample, Kegetarian food, roast sucking piglets, satay,
Ionya kueh,etc. may not be possible to produce in the hotel
due to lack of manpower, e,uipment, space, knowledge or
skills. %uch items may instead be purchased for either a
particular function or as a regular :daily; purchase.
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.te'arding )epartment
!esides the regular daily cleaning of the kitchen
areas, e,uipment such as cooker hoods, ovens, gas
ranges, grills and griddle tops must also be cleaned
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on a regular basis if hygiene and sanitation
standards are to be maintained.
"owever, the specialized tools, chemicals,
knowledge and skills re,uired are usually not
available in the hotel. The %tewarding $epartment
may therefore co> ordinate contract cleaning
services for the back> of>the>house areas and
e,uipment.
Front Office )epartment
The ront -ffice usually co>ordinates contracted
security services for the hotel. "otel may choose to
hire the service of forms providing security for
several reasons:
> higher operating costs)
> lack of available and trained manpower) and
> In>house security staff becomes too familiar
with other staff to prove effective.
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1ngineering
The .ngineering $epartment may not be e,uipped,
knowledge or skilled enough to fabricate, maintain
or repair all e<isting e,uipment. Thus, the
department may instead co>ordinate the provision of
e<ternal support services e,uipment, furniture and
fi<tures.
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CHAPTER -
3
TYPES OF FOOD AND
BEVERAGE OPERATIONS
Chapter Outline
3.1 Introduction
3.2 $estaurant
3.3 -heme $estaurant
3.4 -:pes of bar set9ups
3.5 -:pes of beverage outlets
3.! Other food service operations
Objectives of this chapter

%t the end of this chapter& the reader 'ill be
able to(
Outlets the criteria used to classif: restaurants
*ist the different t:pes of restaurants as
classified b: the level of service provided
Outline the characteristics of restaurants
classified b: the level of service provided
12plain 'hat are theme restaurants
Outline the t'o different t:pes of bar counter
set9 ups
*ist the different t:pes of beverage outlets
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)escribe the characteristics of the different t:pes
of beverage outlets
)escribe the characteristics of other food service
operations
&1 /.0*OD3C0/O.

ood service operations range form food and beverage
outlets that are operate in and out of hotels to those found
in locations which are not primarily designed for the
service of food and beverage.
&# *,-023*2.0-
There are several criteria that may be used to classify
restaurants, including:
Iature of the operation :chain or independent;)
Type of management concepts :owner>operated,
franchise agreement or management contract;)
Lse or absence of a theme) and
Gevel of service provided :fine dining, coffee
house, etc.;.
The most common basis for classifying restaurants is the
level of service they provide. #estaurants classified using
this criterion includes:
B Fine dining restaurants
B 6rasseries
B Coffee houses
B Cuic service restaurants
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3.2.1 FI+1 )I+I+/ $1.-%,$%+-.
ine dining establishments are full> service restaurants
traditionally associated with five> star lu<ury hotels though
such restaurants may also be operated independently.
.<cellence in all aspects of the operations of such outlets is
a pre>re,uisite because the prices charged are usually very
high. In hotels, these restaurants act as Eshowcases of
e<cellence9> where the service, food and beverages offered
are the very best that the hotel can offer.
Gisted below are the characteristics found in most fine
dining restaurants:
.eating capacit:
They are limited in capacity by the high level of service
they provide. They usually seat no more than 1@@ guests.
%tmosphere
These restaurants provide a comfortable and elegant
atmosphere and are often describe as being romantic, classy
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and e<clusive. The dMcor in these restaurants is usually
elaborate with top>,uality furniture, furnishing and may
include e<pensive works of art and anti,ues.
%eating is kept relatively sparse and effort is made to
provide customers with a greater sense of privacy than in
most restaurants. In some fine>dining restaurants private
dining rooms may also be made available.
These private dining rooms are used to cater to larger
groups of diners and help isolate the noise that these large
groups of diners are likely to create as well as providing
these groups with a greater sense of privacy.
In traditional fine dining restaurants, a dress code might
also be enforced. %uch dress codes usually re,uire male
diners to wear a tie and Dacket. %uch dress codes may apply
to one or both meal periods but is more likely to be
enforced more strictly for dinner rather than lunch
Operational hours
ine dining restaurants usually operate only two meal
periods: lunch and dinner. "owever, some fine dining
rooms might also operate for breakfast, specifically to cater
to selected customers such as those staying on the hotel9s
.<ecutive *lub loor and suite rooms.
$ange of food and beverage offered
ine dining restaurants cater to a very specific group of
dinersCfood connoisseurs and gourmets. Thus, food items
and delicacies such as foie gras, truffles, fresh oysters,
caviar, veal sweetbreads, etc. are likely to be found on the
menus of fine dining restaurants.
The menus in these restaurants feature a relatively small
selection but are changed ,uite often when compared to
other types of restaurants. Hreat care and effort is made to
ensure that the menu items are presented and served in a
visually stunning and pleasing manner.
.<pensive, fine, rare wines and spirits from the top notch
producers, shippers and vintages are offered in these
restaurants.
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-arget maret
The clientele in fine dining restaurants are mostly made up
of business men and women who work or entertain over
lunch, while dinner is more likely to draw food
connoisseurs and gourmets.
.taff and service
%ervice staffs working in fine dining restaurants are highly
skilled in restaurant craft. They are knowledgeable,
e<perienced individuals who pay a great deal of attention to
details in every aspect of their work.
*ustomers can e<pect efficient, attentive, personalized and
yet unobtrusive service. %ervice staffs in such restarurants
have learnt the art of anticipating the needs of customers,
e.g. water and bread is offered and replenished without
customers having to ask for it.
In addition, specialized positions may e<ist in these
restaurants. %ommeliers are usually only found in fine>
dining restaurants and are on>hand to advise diners on their
choice of wines and beverages.
The chefs who work in these restaurants are highly skilled,
creative and innovative as they must provide diners with an
ever>changing fare on the restaurant9s menus.
%taffs in these restaurants work on split>shift rosters.
Though they may be financially compensated for the
inconvenience and long hours associated with such shifts, it
is usually a strong sense of commitment that sees them
through.
.ervice e@uipment
%ervice e,uipment used in such restaurants is usually high
,uality and e<pensive. *utlery is often silver or silver>
plated, glassware may be crystal and chinaware may be fine
bone china. The linen used in these restaurants are usually
pure linen or a linen>cotton mi<ture rather than the cheaper
cotton>polyester variety.
1ntertainment concept
11
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
The music in such restaurants tends to be classical or semi>
classical in nature and is played over a sound system or
presented as live entertainment in the form of a pianist,
harpist, flautist, a strolling violinist, etc.
7ricing
The average food and beverage check in these restaurants
are comparatively high.

Casual upscale dining
Fine-dining restaurants are in a general decline in recent times. Customers now favour
casual, upscale restaurants which offer popular foods in a setting that is mere appealing
than most mid- scale restaurants while offering better value than fine-dining restaurants.
Examples of casual upscale dining establishment include Compass Rose Restaurant,
Mortons of Chicago and Lawrys The Prime Rib.
13
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
&## %*2--,*/,-
!rasserie is a rench term and originally referred to
restaurants which served beer, as opposed to fine>dining
restaurants which did not. The term has, however become
one used to refer to any restaurant providing a level of
service that is higher than a coffee
14
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
L"bsinthe !rassiere# Restaurant
house but below that provided by a fine dining restaurant.
Gisted below are the characteristics found in most
brasseries:
.eating capacit:
The restaurants range widely in seating capacity, from
smaller versions seating less than a hundred to larger to
restaurants seating as many as 34@.
%tmosphere
!rasseries are designed to be more functional than a fine
dining restaurant. They are geared for ,uick turnovers and
are noisy with relatively dense seating and are generally
less formal than a fine dining establishment.
Operational hours
In %ingapore, most brasseries operate only during lunch
and dinner only. They may also be opened for customers
staying in the suite rooms or .<ecutive loors in hotels. In
0aris, some brasseries open for breakfast and close late,
often after 11.@@ p.m.
$ange of food and beverage offered
The menus in brasseries usually have a larger selection than
fine dining restaurants but are also revised less fre,uently.
Traditional rench brasseries are likely to serve regional
15
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
specialties like $rench %nion Soup, !ouillabaisse,
&uiche Lorraine, Co' au (in or !oeuf !ourguignon.
"owever, modern brasseries may serve Asian, American or
other .uropean cuisines.
A comprehensive range of wines may also be offered in
brasseries though the range is likely to be less e<tensive
than fine dining restaurants.
-arget maret
The clientele in brasseries are mostly made up of business
people who may work or entertain over while dinner is
more likely to draw diners who are out for an evening of
entertainment and fun rather than a culinary e<perience.
.taff and service
%ervice staffs in brasseries are fairly skilled and
knowledgeable, though the selection criteria for staff may
be less stringent than fine>dining restaurants. The staff in
these restaurants is likely to work on a split shift or a +>shift
roster. ast and efficient services are provided despite a
lower staff to customer ratio when compared to fine dining
restaurants. The combination of this and a higher table
turnover results in a level of service that is lower when
compared with a fine>dining restaurant.
.ervice e@uipment
The functional atmosphere of traditional brasseries is
reflected in the e,uipment used in the restaurant. %tainless>
steel cutlery and glassware are used rather than silverware
and crystal. The chinaware in these restaurants may be
ceramic or stoneware but seldom fine china. Ginen is
usually a polyester>cotton mi< rather than the more
e<pensive linen>cotton or pure linen.
1ntertainment concept
The entertainment format usually reflective of the adopted
theme of the restaurant. Traditional rench>0arisian
brasseries might present rench accordion music while
modern brasseries may play pop music over the sound
system.
16
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
7ricing
The average food and beverage check in brasseries ranges
widely but is generally lower than fine dining restaurants.
!rasserie or not)
Some restaurants might include the term brasserie in their names but most do not fit
the characteristics stated here as the le(el of the ser(ice pro(ided is more typical of
coffee houses.
17
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
&#& COFF,, "O3-,-
Coffee houses are also known by many other names:
Caf*s
!istros
"ll day dining rooms
$amily restaurants
Popularly#priced restaurants
The level of service is less attentive than that e<pected in a
brasserie or fine>dining establishments. %ome of the
characteristics of such restaurants are:
18
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
.eating capacit:
These restaurants range widely in capacity, with smaller
restaurants seating slightly less than a hundred customers
while larger restaurants can seat as many as 4@@.
%tmosphere
The original cafMs were basically small informal places
which served coffee and originated in 0aris, rance.
*offee houses are functional but comfortable and are
designed to feeding large numbers of people ,uickly.
*offee houses become very crowded and noisy but that is
it9s very nature.
*offee houses are geared for ,uick turnovers and seating is
often very dense with tables close to each other, offering
little in terms of privacy.
Operational hours
These restaurants are likely to operate +3>hours, though
some restaurants are closed during specified, off>peak
periods :e.g. +.@@ a.m. to 5.@@ am;>when the volume of
business makes it uneconomical or unnecessary to stay
open.
$ange of food and beverages offered
*offee houses offer a range of food that is often described
as being Einternational9 in nature. Thus, the menus feature
anything from a +rilled T# bone stea, to Me-ican $a.itas,
/talian pasta, Thai Tom 0um, /ndonesian 1asi +oreng
and local hawker fare like 2o,,ien 0rawns Ioodles or
Satay.
&enus and beverages lists in coffee houses offer a large
selection but these are changed less fre,uently :a once a
year change is not unusual;. $ifferent menus may also be
used for each meal period the restaurant operates.
3@
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
*offee houses in hotels are often the only restaurants open
for breakfast and usually offer breakfast buffets in addition
to an a la carte menu. !uffets might also be offered for
other meal periods such as lunch, high>tea, dinner and
supper.
Alcoholic beverages are offered in coffee houses, but the
only alcoholic beverage that is significant in terms of sales
is beer. The sales of wines and spirits are usually negligible
and the range offered is seldom e<tensive.
-arget maret
The clientele in coffee houses are mainly made up of in>
house customers at breakfast while lunch attracts office
workers. $inner is more likely to draw larger groups such
as families while supper attracts lateCnight diners who
come in after going to night spots and clubs. These outlets
are also likely to attract family groups, especially if they
offer buffet brunch or tea on weekends.
.taff and service
%ervice staffs in coffee houses need to work fast and their
skills lie in ma<imizing efficiency as they often work with
a very low staff to customer ratio. Though generally less>
skilled than service staff in fine dining restaurants and
brasseries. %ervice staffs in coffee houses are able to work
fast and handle large volumes of customers at one seating.
Their fast and efficient style of service may often be
viewed as being impersonal in nature. /orking on a 1>
shifts roster, staffing in coffee houses is also very likely to
be supplemented with part time staff.
.ervice e@uipment
The functional nature of coffee houses is reflected in the
choice of e,uipment used in the restaurant. %tainless steel is
often used for cutlery while chinaware is often hard
wearing, rolled>edged chinaware. Hlassware is functional
and durable in design while linen is seldom used. Instead
paper napkins are offered while table mat are made of
paper or laminated in plastic. If linen tablecloth and napkin
are used, they are often made of a polyester>cotton te<tile.
31
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
1ntertainment concept
0iped>in instrumental music or a Duke bo< is the usual form
of entertainment in a coffee house though some rare
e<ceptions feature live music.
7ricing
*offee houses have relatively low average food and
beverage checks when compared to brasseries.
3+
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
&#(1 43/C' -,*1/C, *,-023*2.0-
0re> teens, teenagers, students and families with young
children are the main target of these restaurants which
provide food in a casual atmosphere and are relatively
ine<pensive. These food and beverage operations offer a
limited menu selection as speed is an important
consideration.
0re>teens, teenagers, students and families with young
children are the main target of these restaurants which
provide food in a casual atmosphere and are relatively
ine<pensive. These food and beverage operations offer a
limited menu selection as speed is an important
consideration.
&ost of these operations offer over>the>counter service and
customers must bring food from individual9s counters to
the dining tables. Nuick service restaurants include:
o Cafeterias
o )elicatessens
31
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
o Fast9 food outlets
o .nac bars
Cafeterias

33
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
Also known locally as food courts, these food service
operations offer a variety of food and beverage served
over>the counter at a series of counters operated either by
different business entities or a single operator in a common
location. $iners may take>away the food and beverage
items but may also dine on site. %eating is provided at
common tables :those which may be used by anyone
patronizing the food court;.
34
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
)elicatessens

$elicatessens originated form the Fewish community of
America and are basically take>away counters where cold
cuts, sausages, salads cheeses, pastries and freshly baked
35
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
breads were sold. Gater, these Edelis9 started to cater to their
customers different tastes by making these sandwiches and
salads to order. They may also offer limited seating for
diners who prefer to consume the food and drinks on
premise.
36
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
Fast9food outlets
*ustomers at fast>food outlets place their food and drink
orders with the server>cum>cashier at the counter. The food
is wrapped in disposable grease proof paper or %tyrofoam
bo<es. -nce the order is assembled by the counter staff,
customers either carry the food on trays to the table to eat
or away>away the order.
%eating is provided and is usually dense with tables and
fi<ed swivel chairs allowing the seating capacity to be fully
ma<imized. As most of these outlets cater to families,
children9s play area or room and facilities such as baby
chairs are usually made available. /aste bins are also
37
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
located throughout the outlet to allow customers to dispose
of leftover food and disposable packaging.
38
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
.nac bars

%nack bars are small eateries that operate in hotels,
shopping centres or as free>standing kiosks. These outlets
cater to busy office workers on to short lunch break and to
hungry shoppers looking for a ,uick, ine<pensive meal.
%ervice is fast and often impersonal>due to the low staff to
customer ratio and a relatively high turnover. %ervice is
usually over> the>counter or plated service and take> away
counters are common. %taff must be well>trained to handle
properly and food sanitation and hygiene is very important
as the food is pre> cooked.
4@
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
&#(# 0",5, *,-023*2.0-
#estaurants may also be classified by the use or absence of
a theme. Themes are varied and can be based on almost
anything. Theme restaurants are often elaborately decorated
in a motif that is easily identifiable. These restaurants are
also likely to carry the theme through to the menu, service
style, uniforms and the ambience.
41
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
*ommonly used themes are:
*omic characters e.g. Harfield, %noopy, &arvel
&ania
.nvironment e.g. #ainforest *afM
.thnic restaurants e.g. *ha *ha cha, !ice, Gei
Harden,%anur
ood themes e.g. Imperial "erbal #estaurant,
Gingzhi
Gifestyle e.g. 0lanet "ollywood
&ovie genres e.g. Fekyll and "yde *lub
&usic e.g. !lues cafM, "ard #ock *afM
0eriod themes e.g. !illy !ombers
0ersonalities e.g. 2enny #oger9s #osters,
%teven %pielberg9s $ive O, "ouse of &ao I and
II, !ruce Gee *afM
%ports e.g. Theatre of $reams :%occer C
&anchester Lnited;, -fficial All %tar %ports
*afM and %portopia
4+
.on6theme restaurants
These are restaurants without an identifiable theme. Restaurants li,e
3ac,s Place, 4ennys Restaurants as well as most hotel#based coffee
houses tend to be non#theme restaurants.
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
41
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
&( 07P,- OF %2* -,06 3P-
There are two basic types of bar set>ups:
o )ispla: bars
o .ervice bars
A display bar is one that is located in a beverage outlet.
These bars are likely to serve customers directly and
provided seating at the bar counter.
A service bar is also known as a dispense bar. These bars
do not serve customers directly and dispense drinks to
service staff who in turn serve the drinks to customers.
They are therefore basic and functional in design and
provide no seats at the bar counter. These bars are likely to
be located in the back> of Cthe Chouse but are also found in
ban,uet function rooms, *hinese restaurants and coffee
houses

43
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009

0ypes of bar counters8
There are two basic types of bar counters:
/sland %ar Counter
44
6%$ CO,+-1$
6%$ CO,+-1$
.ntry
=
.<it
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
0raditional %ar Counter
!,9,.D
4oor flaps that allow bartenders to mo(e in and
out from behind the bar counter
Storage areas with loc,s
45
/AGG
.ntry
=
.<it
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
/sland bar counters are those that are located in the middle
of the beverage outlet. As such, they are able to serve
drinks from all sides of the counter and are commonly the
main feature in the outlet.
Traditional bar counters are those located against a wall in
the beverage outlet. These bar counters occupy less space
but are also less visually prominent than Island bar
counters.
46
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
&) 07P,- OF %,1,*29, O30!,0-
There are several types of beverage outlets:
Coctail bars
7ubs
*ounges
)iscothe@ues
+ight9 clubs
7ool9 side bars
3icro9 bre'eries
<ine bars
/ourmet coffee bars and tea houses
Traditionally, these beverage outlets had specific
characteristics which could be used to identify them.
"owever, in recent times, beverage outlets have undergone
great changes, often becoming Emulti>concept9 outlets, thus
making a clear classification of these outlets increasingly
difficult.
3.5.1 Coctail bars
The passage of the Kolstead Act, the .ighteen Amendment
to the *onstitution of the Lnited %tates of America, had
47
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
prohibited the manufacture, sales and distribution of
alcoholic beverages. It began that era in American history
known commonly as the 0rohibition :18+@>1811;. $uring
these times, a new type of bar was spawned> the
Espeakeasy9 These places were often operated by criminals
who sold Ebootleg9 li,uor> spirits illegally produced or
smuggled into the country.
The spirits sold then were often of very poor ,uality. !y
sweetening and flavouring the spirits with strongly
flavoured li,ueurs and fruit Duices, the operators of these
illegal establishments sought to disguise the poor ,uality of
their products. %uch drinks eventually became popularly
known as cocktails. &any of the classic cocktails of today
like the &anhattan, #ob #oy and $ry &artini cocktail were
invented in those times.
Coctail bars(
%erve a wide range of sprits and feature a
wide variety of cocktails.
Also serve a limited range of beers and
wines.
0rovide tray or counter service.
"ave relatively large bar counters designed
for volume and often use the bar counter as
their main decorative feature.
0rovide entertainment which varies from
background music to live performances.
"ave comparatively little seating at the bar
counter and may provide small side counters
near the walls for patrons to place their
drinks

3.5.2 7ubs
The word Epub9 originates from the term Epublic house9 and
is a bar concept from the Lnited 2ingdom. Also known as
taverns, pubs were originally small bars located in villages
and small towns where the locals gathered at the end of the
day to socialize over drinks.
48
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009

5@
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
Pubs(
"ave limited seating away at the bar
counter.
0rovide seating with furniture that is often
rustic and basic :wooden tables, benches or
chairs;
Are usually small in size are thus provide a
cozy, intimate atmosphere, often with wood
paneling on the walls.
51
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
Also often serve food, termed Epub grub9,
such as sausages with mash potato known
by the .nglish as bangers and mash.
eatures tray and counter service.
#e,uires a relatively small number of staff
to carry out service.
-ffer a wide range of beers, ales and stouts
while Irish whiskey, %cotch whisky and gins
were the main spirits on sale.
Traditionally did not provide entertainment
aside from indoor games like darts, chess
sets and draughts.
Modern pubs are larger, noisier and best described as Efun
pubs9. These are likely to feature entertainment as such live
bands, small dance floors and have more in common with
cocktail bars than the original pub concept.

/rish pubs are a variation of the pub which have become
popular in Asia. These pubs feature a more traditional pub
atmosphere and are likely to offer a wide variety of beers
and stouts on tap.
5+
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
3.5.3 *ounges(
51
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
Are larger, more elaborately decorated than pubs.
0ractice tray and counter service.
#e,uires a relatively higher staff to customer ratio
than pubs.
eature cocktails as well as sprits, wines and beers.
These days, the term lounge brings to mind beverage
outlets found in hotel lobbies and many %ingaporeans
prefer these outlets as they are a ,uiet venue where one
is able to hold a conversation.
Modern lounges in Singapore:
Are larger in capacity than the traditional lounge.
"ave fairly comfortable seating> sofas seats with
low coffee tables.
Include karaoke lounges which feature facilities that
play recorded music on laser discs that allow
patrons to sing along with displayed lyrics.
*ommonly have private rooms for groups> with
their own private karaoke facilities.
&ay also feature live performances and small dance
floor.
53
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
3.5.4. )iscothe@ues and Clubs
4iscothe'ue is a rench word that refers to a place that
plays recorded music from a record or disc. Also known as
discos, these beverage outlets were widely popular in the
186@9s and early 187@9s. In recent times, the term Eclub9
has been used to refer to similar beverage outlets.
4iscothe'ues and Clubs5
eature music from pre> recorded sources
0rovide dance music from e<pensive high>
tech sound systems with elaborate effects
such as lasers, strobe lights and smoke
machines.
"ave large dance floors which are the main
feature of the outlet.
"ave functional dispense bars with against
the wall bar counters with little or no seating
provided at the bar counter.
&ay be designed with more than one bar
counter, especially in larger establishments.
54
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
%erve beverages using tray, counter service
and bottle sales service.
*over charges may be levied and
membership concepts may apply.
&ay also provide Kelvet service to
customers who are entitled to be seated in
Emember9s section of the outlet.
#e,uires a relatively large number of staff to
take and serve drink orders.
Give entertainment such as bands may be
provided in between period where recorded
music is not being played.
!ottle sales are more likely to take place as
it often results in easier entry to the outlet
:especially if the disco is a popular one and
long ,ueues e<ist at the entrance
3.5.5 +ight9Clubs
55
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
1ight#clubs originate from the Gondon of the 18+@9s and
1@9s. Hambling in public is illegal in the Lnited 2ingdom
but is allowed in private. %ince entry to a club is restricted
to members only, criminals who were keen to get into the
gambling scene legally began to open such clubs. "owever,
since their clientele were only likely to patronize these
clubs at night, they became known as Enight> clubs9.
In the Asian conte<t, night>clubs are also known in the
trade as EGatin bars9 and are regarded as being fairly sleazy.
These outlets often provide these bars usually also feature
booth seating to provide greater privacy.
56
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
$eatures of 1ight#Clubs5
"ave functional dispense bars with against the wall bar
counters.
Are likely to have bottle sales as their customers tend to
come in larger groups.
&ay apply a higher age limit than other beverage
outlets as entertainment provided maybe of an adult
nature, e.g. topless performances.
"ave a higher staff to customer ratio than most other
beverage outlets.
%erve drinks using Kelvet service and bottle sales
service.
"ave dMcor that is often elaborating such velvet
upholstery, chandeliers, etc.
0rovide private rooms with karaoke facilities.
&ay feature female companionship in the form of
BhostessB for an hourly fee.
Also engage Bmama>sansB who oversee the activities of
the hostesses.
A small dance floor with a stage featuring live music or
other cabaret performance.
57
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
3.5.! 7ool9side bars
These bars are located in Eopen> air9 areas, near or in
swimming pools. or e<ample, those with Esunken bars9
may be located in the swimming pool to allow bartenders to
work at waist level to the water in the pool outside of the
bar. A bridge or gangway over the water in the pool allows
the access to the bar in the pool. %ee illustration below.
Pool# side bars5
*ater to customers seated around or having a swim in
the pool.
%erve drinks using tray and counter service.
Lse plastic Eglassware9 for safety reasons.
-ffer a wide range of e<otic tropical cocktails and long
drinks.
&ay also serve snacks if the bar counter is not part of a
sunken bar.
&ay feature entertainment in the form of pre> recorded
music or live entertainment.
/ith sunken bars usually have seats at the bar which
are made up of fi<ed mosaic>covered concrete stools in
the water along the bar counter.
.<I33I+/ 7OO*
.,+A1+
7OO*
6%$
!ridge to and from !ar
58
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
3.5." 3icro9bre'eries
&icro> breweries produce beers on site in the outlet. Thus,
these outlets often occupy a substantial area, often
re,uiring high ceiling or occupying two or more floors.
!eer is brewed and matured in tanks and when matured?
ready, the beer is fed through a pipe using gravity to a
lower tank where it is held and drained for sale and
consumption as illustrated below.
6@
!rewing and
maturing tanks
Tanks for holding beer
meant for sale
Lpper floor
Gower floor
Tanks for holding beer
meant for sale
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
Micro-breweries:
-ffer a small but e<clusive range of
specialty beers which are brewed, matured
and sold on site in the outlet itself.
#e,uire large floor areas to accommodate
the brewing e,uipment.
These outlets may also offer dining
facilities.
61
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
3.5.# <ine bars
/ine bars originate from 0aris where these beverage
outlets are referred to as Evinothe,ues9.
6ine bars5
-ffer little or no entertainment other than background
music.
eatures a wide range of wines, many of which are
available by the glass.
&ay use specialized wine dispensing systems to
prevent spoilage of open bottles.
6+
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
Lsually offer finger foods such as cold cuts, hot snacks
but may also have more elaborate dining facilities.
&ay feature wine buffets where an unlimited amount of
wines and snacks are served for a fi<ed price.
3.5.D /ourmet Coffee 6ars and -ea 0ouses
These outlets do not serve alcoholic beverages and thus
may not strictly be considered a beverage outlet and could
be classified as cafes. "owever, these outlets generally do
61
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
not feature food as the main attraction and thus are perhaps
more appropriately classified as a beverage outlet.
Hourmet coffee bars and tea house are a recent and
increasingly popular world wide trend in the food and
beverage scene. They specialize in gourmet coffees and
teas rather than alcoholic beverages.
/ourmet Coffee 6ars(
eature a wide range of blends of gourmet coffee beans
:e.g. !lue &ountain 2ona, Fava Arabica;, infusions and
teas served as hot or cold drinks.
Lsually also offer ready made sandwiches, cakes,
pastries, tarts and cookies.
%erve drinks and food using counter service only.
Henerally tend to use modern dMcor with both air>
conditioned and open>air :alfresco; seating.
-ffer little or no entertainment other than background
music and a range of newspaper and magazines as
reading material.
Are outlets where take> away orders form a large part of
the business volume.
63
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
-ea 0ouses(
-ften offer seating at low tables where customers seat
on clean, polished wooden floors :Iote: shoes may
have to be taken off near the entrance;:
eatures a wide range of *hinese black and green teas
:e.g. -olong , Gong Fing; which are brewed at the table.
%erve tea by providing the tea pot, cups, hot water and
tea leaves but allow customers to brew and serve the tea
themselves.
&ay offer snacks in the form of bite> sized traditional
*hinese pastries like lotus seed buns.
0rovide little in terms of entertainment e<cept *hinese
instrumental background music and light reading
material or board games such as *hinese checkers.
-ften try to Eeducate9 its customers on how tea is best
brewed and appreciated.
In addition to traditional tea houses, there e<ist tea houses
that serve Bbubble teaB or Btea shakesB which are known as
Bpao-pao cha in &andarin. This concept originates from
Taiwan and offers sweet, dessert>like drinks which use tea
as a base for preparing a variety of mock tails :non>
alcoholic cocktails;.
64
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
3.! O-01$ FOO) .1$=IC1 O71$%-IO+.
ood service operations outside of the hotel and restaurant
conte<t include the following:
%irlines
Cruise .hips
*u2ur: -rains
Institutions
0ome )eliver:
Off9premise Catering
3.!.1 %irlines
65
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
%erving food and beverage on board an aircraft is very
different from other forms of catering. *atering aboard a
commercial flight is dependant on a centralized kitchen at
each destination. In this centralized kitchen, menu items are
prepared in a mass production assembly line to the
specifications of each airline.
The food items are partially cooked, packaged, cooled,
transported to and loaded onto the aircraft prior to a flight.
The food is then re>heated on board the aircraft before
being served to passengers.
*atering on board a commercial aircraft thus has rather
uni,ue characteristics:
Io cooking takes place on board yet there is a need
to serve hot food hot.
%pace constraints in the cabin restrict the storage,
re>heating and serving of food and beverages.
&eals are served in surroundings that are designed
for purpose of air travel rather than dining.
&eals are served as part of an all>inclusive package
when the ticket is purchased.
A relatively limited choice of items on the menu.
..g. economy class passengers are only allowed to
chooses between two different BBmain courseBB
items in an otherwise set meal.
66
GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
As a distinction between each of its seating
classifications, different menus are offered for first,
!usiness? .<ecutive and .conomy class. !usiness
class and irst class passengers get to choose from a
small and limited aB la carte menu that ranges
between 1 to 3 items for starters as well as main
course items. These main course items may include
caviar, roast beef or other more elaborate offerings.
/hile chinaware and crystal>ware is used in the first
and business class, passengers in the economy class are
served their refreshments in plastic cups and trays.
%ervice staff has little to do in terms of suggestive
selling and taking food or beverage orders but are
generally very productive in the number of customers
they actually serve.
-n international flights, menu items served must take
into considerations the wide range of ethnics, religious
and cultural attitudes amongst passengers.
Advanced notifications needed for special diets for
diabetics :who must watch their sugar intake;,
vegetarians and those with medical conditions :low salt,
low cholesterol;.
3.!.2 Cruise .hips
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The purpose of the vessel dictates the type of food and
beverages items and service offered. If the purpose of the
ship is to transport cargo, the items served would hardly be
elaborate or of a very high ,uality.
%hort pleasure cruises are available in the local the waters
around the southern islands of %ingapore. These boats
range from modern catamarans to old restored *hinese
Dunks. These boats cater to small groups of passengers who
choose to hold private functions off shore. %ome of these
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services also offer a daily Ecruise to no where9 during
lunch, afternoon tea and dinner respectively.
"owever, on board lu<ury passenger liners, elaborate
menus and beverage selections may be e<pected. In
addition, a *aptain9s table would be a feature for any
important passengers on board.
Turnover in restaurants is needed as lu<ury liners can only
accommodate half of the passengers at each seating. The
type of food and is beverages that may be served on board a
cruise ship would therefore have the following features:
The menu needs to change constantly as Dourney could take
up to + weeks otherwise passengers would get very bored
eating the same food prolonged periods.
0rice of passage would include complimentary food and
beverages while on board.
!oth a limited a la carte menu and daily buffet menus may
be changed daily.
Iutritionally balanced meals need to be served for long
Dourneys to prevent illnesses and to keep passengers
healthy.
3.!.3 *u2ur: -rains
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Gike ships, the types and ,uality of food and beverages for
to passengers are dictated by the type of train service in
,uestion. 0assenger trains that travel over long distances
are more likely to make provisions for serving food and
beverage for its passengers than fright trains. Gu<ury
passenger trains are those which provide travellers with
lu<urious, well appointed accommodation on board a train
where upscale dining facilities e<ist. Amongst some of the
best known lu<ury train services are:
%pain9s Andalusia .<press
India9s &aharaDa on /heels
#ussia9s Trans>%iberian .<press
%outh Africa9s !lue Train :between Fohannesburg and
*ape Town; and
The .astern and -riental .<press :between from
%ingapore to !angkok;
The most famous of these lu<ury train services is the
Kenice>%implon -rient .<press which travels between
Gondon to Kenice, passing through some of the maDor cities
in .urope.
Gu<ury train services usually have fairly elaborate food and
beverage selections as their passengers are likely to be
demanding and would have paid high prices for passage on
board these train services. A trip on board the .astern and
-riental from %ingapore to !angkok would cost %P +,1@@
per passenger for a one way trip.
Train carriages are rather narrow, limiting the size of food
storage areas as well as the kitchen on board. This results in
a rather limited menu selection and thus only a certain
number of people can be served each meal period. &eal
period on board these trains may thus be staggered to
accommodation all passengers.
Gu<ury trains services would have the following features:
Gimited a la carte menu available.
%et menus made up of items from the a la carte
menu.
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%mall but high ,uality wines and beverage usually
offered complimentary to passengers.
Gess restricted in terms of cooking facilities than an
aircraft as danger of fire is less crucial and thus
allows the use of stoves, microwave, electrical
ovens and deep> fryers to cook and heat food.
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3.!.4 Institutions
The following institutions may have facilities
for the preparation and service of food and
beverages to their staff, students, patients or
inmates.

actories and offices
%chools, colleges and universities
0risons
&ilitary
"ospitals, Iursing homes and other
health care institutions
Factories and offices
&eals may or may not be part of the employeesB
benefits package. In some cases, the price of the meal
may be subsided and thus employees pay only a
nominal amount.
%uch food and beverage facilities may range from a
cafeteria for rank and file staff to e<clusive dining
rooms for e<ecutives. %uch dining facilities are offered
because:
Traveling to and from the factory or
office for a meal might be inconvenient
and time consuming as the factory or
office may be located away from urban
centers.
It may be part of the employees9
benefits.
The following are some aspects of catering in factories and
offices:
The meal periods are fairly short as the
employees usually have only an hour or
less for their meals.
The nutritional aspect is important as
employees may be Ecaptive consumers9>
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those who have no choice but to eat in
the same location on a daily basis.
&enu planning can help eliminate
boredom as well as to for allow
nutritionally balanced meals to be
prepared for the employees.
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.chools& colleges and universities
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%tudents studying in boarding schools, colleges and
universities may live in hostels or dormitories located
on the grounds of these institutions while other may
commute to the institution. Thus, a wide range of food
and beverage facilities may e<ist in schools, colleges
and universities and can range from cafeterias or snack
bars to dining rooms or halls.
The following are some aspects of catering in factories
and offices:
The cost of meals served in boarding
schools may be included in the tuition
fees in some cases.
&enu planning is important to ensure
that menu is varied enough to avoid
boredom.
Iutrition plays an important role as the
students are 'captive consumers(.
7risons
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0risons are institutions where the diners are truly Ecaptive
consumer9. Though the ,uality of food may be a prime
issue, nutrition and boredom must still be considered.
The following are some aspects of catering in factories and
offices:
&enu planning is important to ensure
that menu is varied enough to avoid
boredom.
Iutrition plays an important role.
3ilitar:
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%oldiers and other armed forces personnel living on
military bases and camps must be fed. The large numbers
involved often means mass catering and as a result the
,uality of food produced often something to be desired.
The following are some aspects of catering in the military:
&enu planning is important to ensure
that menu is varied enough to avoid
boredom.
Iutrition plays an important role.
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0ospitals& nursing homes and other health care
institutions
$ietetics, as a hospital service, had it beginning at the time
of the *rimean war :1743>1745;. It was during those those
times that lorence Iightingale, pioneer of nursing care
and dietetics, established a diet kitchen to provide clean,
nourishing food for the ill and wounded. Lntil then, foods
or ,uestionable ,uality were poorly cooked in unsanitary
conditions and served at irregular intervals.
The need for nutritionally balanced meals and special diets
is a crucial to the care and recovery of patients as the
young, the aged and the sick cannot plan their own meals.
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The following become important considerations:
In the case of hospitals and nursing
homes, a dietician is usually on hard to
plan meals for patients and in>mates.
$ietary concerns would include special
diets for medical conditions, ease of
digestion, nutrition and providing a
balanced meal.
0atients due for surgery must be starved
prior to the operation because of possible
complications if food is vomited during
surgery as a result of a reaction to being
under anesthesia.
0ost>operation patients and orthopedic
patients :those who must be
immobilized; are likely to be Eplaced on
drip9, that is fed by the use of an
intravenous solution of glucose and
saline.
In Asia, mothers in post>delivery
convalescence are given specified food
items that are traditionally recommended
for convalescing mothers. %uch social
needs must thus also be catered for when
catering for such patients.
-lder patients in the geriatric wards may
re,uire special meals> those which are
easily digested and soft as many may not
be able to chew well.
*hildren in pediatric wards must be
provided food that is likely to be eaten
and thus ice cream, cream soups and
other Echild> friendly9 dishes must be
offered.
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$ay care centers provide care for
children and elderly persons who would
otherwise be unsupervised, isolated and
lonely. Iutrition is thus a prime concern
in catering at these centers.
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3.!.5 0ome deliver:

"ome delivery has become an increasingly important
aspect of catering as less households prepare their own
meals. Though the option of eating out is a popular and
convenient one, many would prefer to spend time with their
family members over a meal at home. "ome delivery thus
combines the best of both world9s convenience and the
option of having a meal at home.
In home delivery the selection of menu items is crucial
since not all food items are suitable as the time frame
between production and consumption is ,uite different
from a restaurant setting.
The home delivery business includes those services offered
by restaurants as well as specialized home delivery
services.
#estaurants may choose to provide a home delivery service
as it allows them to reach wider market. /ith little
additional costs, the restaurant is able to increase its sales.
.<amples of restaurants that provide home delivery include
!urger 2ing, 0izza "ut, 2entucky ried *hicken and
&c$onald9s.
In these restaurants delivery is only provided if the location
for delivery is within a certain radius of one of their
restaurants. This is necessary as there is no way to keep the
food hot for long periods despite the use of insulated bags
and containers to hold the food.
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%pecialized home delivery services are those which only
provide home delivery services. .<amples include:
$omino9s 0izza and ood #unners.
$omino9s 0izza does not actually have restaurants. Instead
they only provide pizza as a home delivery service and are
able to provide pizza at a lower price as there is obvious
saving made on labor as well as rentals.
ood #unners is a food delivery firm that does not even
have a kitchen. Instead, it locates itself in the "olland
Killage area and taps on the area9s e<isting restaurants. It
makes a profit by charging a mark>up on the prices of menu
items from these restaurants. Thus, such businesses actually
serve two markets> the restaurants are able to increase their
sales while the customers are able to avail themselves to the
menu of their favorite restaurants.
3.!.! Off9premise catering
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-ff premise catering allows a restaurant or hotel9s ban,uet
department to cater food and beverage to its customers
away from its production and dining facilities.
The following are characteristics of off> premise catering:
"igher operating costs due to need for manpower to
transport and set up furniture and e,uipment.
&ore than sufficient food, beverage and e,uipment
must be supplied for the function as there is no more
margins for error. &ost caterers would tend to have
these additional items on stand> by.
*harges may be levied in addition to the meal or event
if the customer re,uires manpower for service e.g.
bartenders.
The menu selection is limited as cooking facilities are
not likely to be available and the meal is most often a
buffet arrangement.
-nly a limited bar serving beers wines and a small
selection of spirits and mi<ers is normally made
available
In off> premise catering situations, disposable items
instead of crockery and cutlery might be used.
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CHAPTER - 4
OPERATION EUIPMENT
Chapter outline
4.1 Introduction
4.2 -:pes of operating e@uipment
4.3 Cutler:
4.4 Ceramics
4.5 /lass'are
4.! *inen
4." 7urchasing operating e@uipment
4.# .etting operating e@uipment par stocs
Objectives of this chapter
%t the end of this chapter& the reader 'ill be able to(
*ist the advantages and disadvantages of
using large operating e@uipment
Identif: commonl: used food and beverage
e@uipment
)ifferentiate bet'een the polishing and
burnishing processes
Outline the characteristics of the seven t:pes
of ceramics.
Outline the characteristics of @ualit:
ceramics.
Outline the step in carr:ing out the -hermal
.hoc -est for ceramics.
Outline the steps in carr:ing out the
E<etabilit:F test for ceramics
Outline the eight factors that determine the
strength of ceramics
Outline the characteristics of the four t:pes
of glass'are
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Outline the five methods used in
strengthening glass'are
Outline the characteristics of poor @ualit:
glass'are
*ist the t:pes of table linen commonl: used
in food and beverage outlets
Outline the characteristics of the four t:pes
of fabrics used for table linen
*ist the criteria used 'hen selecting fabrics
for table linen
Outline the seven factors used in the selection
of operating e@uipment
Outline the si2 factors used to determine the
par stocs for operating e@uipment
4.1 I+-$O),C-IO+
#estaurant operating e,uipment re,uires large amounts of
capital and thus a great deal of thought must be given to
their selection. -perating e,uipment may be divided into
two broad categories:

Garge operating e,uipment
%mall operating e,uipment
4.2 *%$/1 O71$%-I+/ 1C,I731+-
Garge operating e,uipment includes those items which are
large, bulky but portable pieces of e,uipment used in
dining rooms and include the following:
HuMridon
#oom service Trolley
*old appetizer Trolley
*arving wagon
lambM trolley
$essert trolley
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*hafing dishes
*offee urns
3.+.1 %dvantages and disadvantages of using large
operating e@uipment
Lsing large operating e,uipment may be advantageous to a
restaurant because they:
.nhance the restaurant9s ambience
Increase sales of food and beverage items
Increase profit margins
Allow the display of showmanship skills
%peed up service
1nhance the restaurants ambience
A well maintained piece of e,uipment like a carving wagon
can add to the overall ambience of a fine dining restaurant.
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Increase sales of food and beverage items
/hen placed at strategic locations in a restaurant, such as
that near the entrance a well decorated trolley can increase
the sales of food and beverage items. *ustomers often end
up ordering items which hey originally did not intend to
order but were tempted after viewing the items. This can
increase the average check and revenue.
Increasing profit margins
#estaurants can charge higher prices for menu items sold
from a dessert trolley or carving wagon and can increase
the profit margin of the restaurant.
%llo' the displa: of sho'manship sills
*arving a side of beef on a wagon or preparing a flambM
item shows a definite level of skill attained by the
restaurants service staff.
.peed up service
*ertain pieces of large operating e,uipment can increase
the speed of service. *old appetizers served directly from
on antipasto trolley takes only a few minutes to plate and
serve instead of having to wait for the item to be plated in
the kitchen an then picking it up to serve. -ther pieces of
large operating e,uipment the also help to speed up service
include the following:
*arving wagon
*heese trolley
$essert trolley
$igestif trolley
Lsing large operating e,uipment may be disadvantageous
because they are:
Kery e<pensive
!ulky and take up valuable seating space in the dining
room.
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4.3 .3%** O71$%-I+/ 1C,I731+-
These are smaller pieces of e,uipment which may be
directly used by the diner. %mall operating e,uipment
includes the following:
Tableware
*eramics
Hlassware
Ginen
4.3.1 -able'are
Tableware is a term that refers to all items that are used by
the diner at the table and is a collective term that includes
cutlery and hollow>ware.
*utlery is a general term used to refer to knives, spoons and
forks. "ollow>ware is a term that refers to e,uipment which
have a depression or hollow. .<amples of hollow>ware
include sauce boats, flambM pans, wine buckets, stands and
baskets, food covers, food platters, finger bowls, coffee and
tea pots.
&aterial used for cutlery and hollow> ware may include
silver, stainless steel, or copper>lined with tin.
Cutler:
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&ost cutlery is either made of stainless steel or are silver
plated. %tainless steel resists staining and corrosion to a far
greater degree than ordinary steel. These resistant
properties come from the presence of chromium and
chromium nickel in the alloy.
The o<ides of these elements form an e<tremely thin
protective film on the steel surface. This very thin o<ide
film is invisible and adheres tightly to the surface. This
o<ide film is inert, impermeable to and insoluble in water.
As long as this film remains intact and tightly adherent to
the stainless steel surface, the steel is protected from
corrosion.
The o<ide film is also self>repairing> any break or rupture
in the film ,uickly reforms if the clean, dry surface is
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e<posed to o<ygen of the atmosphere for a sufficient period
of time. If the ruptured film is prevented from repairing
itself, the steel then begins to corrode.
Lnder normal usage, them o<ide layer is complete and
protects the stainless steel cutlery. -ver time this protective
film becomes susceptible to removal by a number of
chemicals, many of which are naturally present in foods.
.ilver'are

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%ilverware refers to items made from or plated in silver. It
is sometimes used wrongly used to collectively refer to all
cutlery, including stainless steel items. %ilverware items
found in restaurants include> knives, forks, spoons,
goosenecks, platters, wine buckets, wine baskets, etc.
.<cept for sterling silverware :pure silver;, most silverware
is normally plated silver. %terling silver is actually an alloy
of silver, copper and other metals, but must have a
minimum fineness of 8+4) i.e.it has a silver content of
8+.4Q.
In plated silver, the base metal :or Eblank9; is a non>ferrous
alloy containing 5@>54Q copper, 1@>17Q nickel and 16>
+3Q zinc. The silver is then electroplated onto the base
metal in a uniform layer.
The production of silver>plated items follows the same
procedure for stainless steel e<cept for the inclusion of
electroplating with silver. In both processes, buffing
:polishing; to the desired sheen or finish constitutes the
final manufacturing process.
Caring for silver'are
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%ilver and silver>plated items re,uire some maintenance
to preserve its lustrous appearance. !urnishing and
polishing are two very different processes which are used
to keep the silverware shining.
A burnishing machine is basically a revolving drum
with a safety shield. It may either be connected to a source
of running water or portable with water being poured in be
manual means or a hose.
The burnishing machine drum is half full of numerous
small ball>bearings. /ater is introduced into the drum until
it covers the ball>bearings. %pecialized soap power is added
and the item to be burnished is placed into the drum and is
Eimmersed9 in the mass of ball>bearings. The lid is then
clamped down.
/hen the machine is switched on, the drum revolves
the mi<ture of water and soap powder acts as a lubricant
between the silver and the ball bearings. This has two
effects:
It breaks down the o<ide layer on the silver,
cleaning off the tarnish, and
*ompresses the silver plating, causing it to
shine.
*are should be taken to ensure that all burnished
items are allowed to cool before and that the machine is
always left with the soap solution covering all the polishing
balls, to prevent rusting.
"owever, due to the size of the burnishing machine
:often about the size of a large clothes washing machine;,
larger pieces of silver or silver>plated e,uipment cannot be
burnished and hand polishing with an appropriate
commercial brand of an abrasive>type polish like E%ilvo9
may be necessary.
0olishing which involves the use of abrasive
substance to remove the tarnish by an abrasive action on
the metal while burnishing accomplishes similar results but
without abrasive action.
Gong term polishing of this nature actually wears
down the layer of silver plating and shortens the life>span
of the e,uipment unless it is electroplated again.
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4.4 C1$%3IC.

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*eramic is a general term for all items made of backed
clay. If the clay is heated until it has fused or melted into a
solid, uniform mass, the ceramic is then said to have been
vitrified. This process makes the end product stronger and
less permeable to moisture and food stains.
There are seven types of ceramics:
.arthenware
0ottery
%toneware
ine china
0orcelain
!one china
#estaurant chinaware
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1arthen'are


Also known as 'terra cotta(, this is made from the same
porous materials is used to make bricks and flower pots.
The clay is baked at a relatively low temperature into an
unverified, soft, porous, opa,ue and coarsely>finished
product. It may be glazed or left unglazed. The product is
not as strong as stoneware or chinaware and lacks the
resonance of those products when stuck) giving a dull
should as it is unvitrified.
7otter:

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This term refers to clay products made of unrefined clays
and includes all fired clay>ware and is generally thus often
brick>coloured. *eramics ac,uire strength through the
application of heat. 0rimitive pottery often baked in the sun
and composed of one or mere unrefined clays has little
strength and is ,uite porous. The end product looks similar
to Eplaster>of C0aris9. The clay used for pottery is more
refined than that used for earthenware and the the product
is baked at higher temperatures :at about 7@@ degrees
*elsius;.
.tone'are

This is a non>porous ceramic made of unprocessed clay or
clay with additives and then baked at high temperatures
which vitrifies the material, giving it added strength.
"ighly vitrified stoneware can be made into fine ceramics.
%toneware is relatively durable but lacks the translucence
and whiteness of chinaware. %toneware is resistant to
chipping and has a clear ring when struck. It differs from
porcelain chiefly in that it produces colors other than white
which result from the natural contents or impurities
inherent in the clay.
Fine china
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This term is applied to a thin, translucent, vitrified product
made from very fine white clay called Ekaolin9, originally
form *hina. !aked at relatively high temperatures twice)
first, to mature the materials) second, to develop the high
gloss of the beautiful glaze. This is the highest ,uality
chinaware possible. 0roduced mainly for domestic>use, fine
china may sometimes be used in fine dining rooms though
their fragile nature and price makes this an e<pensive
choice.
7orcelain
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This term is used fre,uently in .urope for fine ,uality
chinaware. 0orcelain has a hard, non>absorbent, strong
body and is white and translucent. 0orcelain is most
commonly used for producing domestic>use items and
seldom used in food and beverage outlets.
6one china
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A specific type of fine china manufactured primarily in
.ngland. The base material of this ceramic contains a high
proportion of bone ash which produces greater
translucency, whiteness and strength in the finished
product. Gike fine china, it is made primarily for domestic
use but have in some instances been used in fine dining
restaurants.
$estaurant china'are
This is a uni,ue blend of fine china and porcelain and is
designed specifically for use in commercial operations. The
body is developed to give it great impact strength and
durability, as well as e<tremely low absorption which is
re,uired of ceramics used in dining rooms. $ecorations are
applied between the body and the glaze, thereby protecting
the decorations.
.igns of @ualit: ceramics
"igh ,uality ceramics have the following characteristics:
%bilit: to 'ithstand thermal shocs
/hen a ceramic is heated and cooled very ,uickly, it may
crack as a result of the sudden change in temperature. Hod
,uality ceramics are able to diffuse the heat without crazing
or cracking.
*razing in ceramics takes place when fine hair line cracks
appear under the glaze. The ceramic is still intact despite
the hair line fractures as the glaze holds the ceramic
together.
The following steps detail test used to check the ability of
the ceramic to thermal shocks:
1. "eat the ceramic to 164R* in a dry oven.
+. #emove the ceramic and plunge it into +@R* water
bath. Iote that the water bath should have a volume
eight times that displaced by the ceramic.
1. $ry the ceramic and plunge it into a concentrated
dark>coloured dye.
3. #emove, wipe off the dye and dry.
4. .<amine the ceramic. It should show no sings of
cracking or crazing.
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5. The same piece of ceramic should survive the test at
least five times.
/ood E'et abilit:F
A well made piece of ceramic wets evenly and
thoroughly. To test the ,uality of a piece of ceramic,
the following steps are carried out:
1. /ipe the entire surface of the ceramic with a cotton
wool soaked in alcohol to remove any grease or
stains that will interfere in the test.
+. Allow the ceramic to dry completely.
1. Immerse the ceramic in clean +@ degree *elsius
/ater.
3. #emove the ceramic and note how the water
adheres to the and falls away from the surface. A
ceramic that wets well will have an thin, even film
of water covering the entire glaze.
<ell glazed
A well glazed ceramics has a clear, even, unpitted glaze
that completely seals the entire ceramic. A high ,uality
ceramic in constant use will last for 3 to 4 years before
losing its glaze.
.trength
The strength of ceramics is determined by the
following(
Cualit: of the cla:
ine, smooth clay results in an air>free clay paste which
when processed, shape and vitrified will produce high
,uality ceramics.
$esilience
#esilience describes the ability of the ceramics to
withstand physical shocks. The use of strengthening
compounds such as aluminum o<ide and the degree of
vitrification add to the resilience of the ceramic.
-hicness
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$oubling the weight of the clay in a ceramic increases
the strength of the ceramics by 64Q
Fashioning
*eramics that have a rolled, scalloped rim or edge helps
protect it against chipping when the edges collide
against other ceramics or hard surfaces.
<ell strength
The amount of clay that is put into the centre or well of
each piece of ceramics determines its strength.
*eramics with more clay in the well are thus less likely
to shatter or crack.
)esign
A compact shape is less likely to break that one that
flares outwards.
%luminum o2ide
Aluminum o<ide :a malleable metal; when added to
clay gives the ceramics strength. 0roducts made with
aluminum o<ide can thus be made thinner and finer. In
addition, the aluminums o<ide also helps the glaze
adhere to the finished ceramic.
/lazing
The glaze, which gives shine to ceramics, is made from
a substance known as boro>silicate, a compound of
aluminum and sand. This seals in the chinaware,
preventing it from coming into contact with food
placed on it, adds luster, waterproofs it and protects
the chinaware from scratches. A well glazed ceramic
is also made stronger as a result.
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/*%..<%$1

Hlassware is a collective term to all items made from
glass or crystal. These re four types of glassware:

Common glass
The cheapest and most common type of glass is known
as lime glass. It is made from a combination of sand,
soda lime and cullet :recycled broken glass;. The lime
and soda is added to clarify the glass and to give it
sparkle. /hen combined with a metal known as boron,
common glass becomes more resistant to breaking and
chipping.
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Cr:stal
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This is made from sand with potassium silicate and lead
o<ide. The potassium silicate gives clarity to the crystal
while lead o<ide makes the product stronger strength.
Corning 'are


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This glass contains boric o<ide which allows the glass to
withstand high temperatures as well as sudden and drastic
changes in temperature.
7:roceran
-riginally developed for the nose cone of space going
rockers, this type of glass has the ability to withstand
sudden and drastic change in temperature and is made from
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clay, silica and rare metals. This is the most e<pensive type
of glass and is most commonly found as oven>proof
cookware.
4.5.1 .trengthening glass
There are five methods to strengthen glass:
-hicening
This process adds more glass at strategic points of stress to
strengthen the glass. The rolled edge on a glass rim, e<tra
thick stem to bowl Doints and bases are two ways of
strengthening glassware.
.haping
Hlasses with curved sides are much stronger than those
straight sided. Hlasses with rims that flare out and tall
glasses with thin stems are all weaker as a result of their
designs.
%nnealing
In annealing, hot molten glass is cooled very gradually. The
slow cooling process gives e<tra strength to the glass as any
stress on the surface is eliminated.
0eating
In this process, hot molten glass is first annealed and then
reheated to melting point. It is then treated with a blast of
cold air which shrinks the surface of the glass forming a
Eskin9 while the glass inside is still molten. As the molten
glass cools, it shrinks and pulls in the outer surface layer
strengthening the glass. The end product is e<tremely
strong. "owever, as the process creates a great deal of
stress on the glass, production costs increases as the
reDection and damage rate is high.
Compounds
Hlass may be strengthened by the addition of compounds.
0yroceran is an e<ample of glass that is stronger through
the addition of a compound.
4.5.2 7oorl: made glass
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The following are characteristics of poorly made glassware:
Hlass that is dull with no luster
$irt specks trapped within the glass
Hlass with irregular or bumpy edges
%mall air bubbles trapped within the glass
0oorly designed glassware which are top heavy and
which tips over easily
4!" !/.,.
Ginen is both a type of fabric as well as a general collective
term referring to all items made of synthetic or natural
thread.
Article of table linen found in restaurants include:
Table mats
Hlass cloths
/aiters cloth
#ags
Iapkins
Table skirting

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Table mats

!lass cloths

6aiters cloth
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"ap#ins
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Table s,irting
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Tablecloths 7including silence cloths, o(erlays and
runners8
iber is a long, thin strand or thread of material. abric is a
cloth material made by weaving or knitting threads
together. abrics used to produce restaurant linen include:
Ginen
*otton
%ynthetic fibers
*ombination fabrics
*inen
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7$la- fiber are contained within the stal, surrounded
by a fine layer of bast8
These are nature fibers obtained from the fla< plant. It
produces an absorbent fabric with a smooth appearance.
It has a fairly stiff te<ture and creases easily and is
generally difficult to iron out unless heavily starched.
abrics made from pure linen are relatively very
e<pensive.
Cotton
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Gess e<pensive then linen, cotton has good absorption,
weight and when starched and ironed, has a good
appearance. "owever, pure cotton fabric creases easily
and has a shorter life>span when compared to
combination fabrics.
.:nthetic fibers
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%ynthetic fibers like viscose, rayon are made from
regenerated cellulose. The smoothness of the fabric
results in the fabric slipping or being blown>off tables
unless weighted down. %uch fabric is also not absorbent
and very sensitive to heat. Their main use as restaurant
linen is as material for table skirting as they are often
brightly colored, shiny and relatively ine<pensive.
0olyester fabrics like Terylene have a rougher, more
solid te<ture than viscose rayon. "owever, this
synthetic fabric is rather elastic and stretches, resulting
in warping after some time. In addition, the inability of
Terylene to absorb moisture and their sensitivity to heat
make it necessary to combine it with natural fibers for
use in the catering industry. The most widely used
kinds of synthetic fibers are nylon :polyamide;,
polyester, acrylic, and olefin.
Combination fabrics
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Polyester#cotton fabric
*ombination of synthetic and natural materials like
polyester>cotton produce a relatively ine<pensive
restaurant linen that has elasticity, good moisture
absorption, weight, and which when starched, irons and
hangs well. These materials are the most widely used
fabric for linen tin the catering industry.
Lnfortunately, linen items are very commonly misused
and easily damaged. The following are some guidelines
for linen care:
$o not use napkins to clean or polish cutlery as the
cutting edge shreds the fabric.
$o not tie napkins or tablecloth in a bunch as this
irreparably stretches and warps the linen.
4.!.1 .electing fabrics for table linen
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/hen selecting fabrics for table linen, it is crucial to
ensure that the material is:
"eat and fire retarding.
.asy to repair :mending;
#esistant to soling and staining
*olor fast and resistant to fading.
%uitable for starching, if re,uired.
0re> shrunk :as there is often a 4 to 1@Q shrinkage
factor in cotton>based linen;.
4." .1*1C-IO+ OF 1C,I731+-
/hen selecting operating e,uipment, consider the
following:
0rice, ,uality and usage
Gong term saving versus short term costs
*ontinuity of stock
Gag time for reordering
*hoice of patterns?designs
!udget constraints
#e,uired operating e,uipment par stock
7rice& @ualit: and usage
/hen buying e,uipment, the price paid should be related to
the ,uality and the eventual use of the e,uipment. Thus, a
fine dining room is more likely to purchase an e<pensive
show>plate as it wants to proDect an image of ,uality and
elegance. %how>plates are unlikely to be broken or
damaged as they are usually removed after the serving of
the amuse bouche.
*ong term saving versus short term costs
$ecisions should also consider the long term saving that
may be associated with the purchase of the e,uipment, e.g.
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a coffee house is likely to purchase chinaware that are hard
wear in with rolled edges if they are relatively e<pensive.
%uch chinaware would last relatively longer that a cheaper
alternative. Thus, savings are made in the long run by
purchasing more e<pensive but durable chinaware.
Continuit: of stoc
2nowledge of how recent the pattern or design of the
e,uipment must be considered when buying e,uipment.
-lder designs might become obsolete, making
replacements impossible in the long term.
Assurances or information about how long a design is
likely to be continued in production may sometimes be
available from the suppliers. Thus, it might be more
advantageous to purchase e,uipment from well established,
larger suppliers r producers than from smaller or less
established one.
*ag time for recording
.,uipment stocks from suppliers are available on an Ee<>
stock9 or indent basis. E.<>stock9 is a term that means the
re,uired stock is held in stock :and thus, e<isting stock; and
therefore readily available. Items available on an indent
basis are those that are not readily available or in stock and
must be ordered and takes time to be delivered from the
producers>sometimes from overseas. Thus, the recorder
often indents item may take some time to process.
Choice of patterns >designs
"otels with more than one restaurant may need to decide if
they want to provide individual restaurants with specific
patterns or designs for e,uipment. The alternative is for all
or some of the restaurants to use e,uipment with similar
patterns?designs.
"otels may decide to use different patterns?designs for
e,uipment for each of their restaurant because:
items such as tableware can give individual
restaurants their own uni,ue identity, thus
adding to its ambience
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It is relatively cheaper to switch patterns or
designs if needed as such changes may then
only affect one restaurant rather than
several.
It is easier to take an accurate inventory
since the e,uipment are restaurant specific.
"otels that decide to use a single pattern or design for
e,uipment do so because of the following:
It allows greater fle<ibility to share
e,uipment amongst different restaurants as
and when the need arises and thus allows for
an overall lower amount to be put in use in
each restaurant.
*reates little or no problems in the sorting
out of e,uipment in areas such as a common
%tewarding wash> up point.
*ost savings from economies of scale as
items are purchased in bulk.
There is overall saving in space for storage.
&ay be able to convince producers to make
the chosen design? pattern one that is
specific to the hotel or chain since the orders
are likely to be substantial.
4.# .1--I+/ O71$%-I+/ 1C,I731+- 7%$
.-OCA.
The operating e,uipment par stock is a predetermined
amount of e,uipment to allow the efficient operation of the
restaurant. In the industry, many tend to use a rule>of>
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thumb techni,ue when establishing par stocks for food and
beverage operations.
In this techni,ue, the number of each type of e,uipment is
decided upon by multiplying the number of seats in the
restaurant by an arbitrary number:
Hlassware + times the number of seats
*hinaware 1.4 times the number of seats
*utlery + times the number of seats
"owever, such estimates often prove unreliable, resulting
in either insufficient or an e<cess of e,uipment. Instead, the
following should be considered when establishing the par
stock for operating e,uipment:
Type of operation, nature and e<pected
volume of business.
Lsage of the e,uipment.
le<ibility of stock transfers.
%tructure of the menu, wine and beverage
list.
%tewarding Eturn>around time9.
Gife>span of the e,uipment and budgeted
operating costs for replacement.
4.#.1 -:pe of operation& service ad e2pected volume of
business
A coffee house : type of operation; serving a buffet :type of
service; will re,uire higher par stocks for items like dinner
plates if it e<pects to be busy :volume of business; whereas
a similar same piece of e,uipment in a fine dining
restaurant might need a much lower par stock.
4.#.2 ,sage of the e@uipment
Items that have a wider range of uses, like a side plate,
re,uire a higher operating par stock because of their
Eusefulness9. -ther items like sugar bowls or tea pots are
used relatively less and thus re,uire a much lower
operating par stock.
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4.#.3 Fle2ibilit: of stoc transfers
As previously mentioned, having a similar pattern or design
for a particular item of operating e,uipment allows the
movement of these items to different areas of operating
according to their needs and results in a overall lower
e,uipment par stock.
4.#.4 .tructure of the menu& 'ine and beverage list
A wine bar with a list featuring a large selection of
champagnes re,uires a higher operating par stock for
champagne flutes while a beverage list for a bar that boasts
of a wide selection of vodkas might have a higher stock of
shot glasses.
4.#.5 .te'arding Gturn9around time4
The efficiency of staff at the stewarding wash>up point may
be used to help determine the operating e,uipment for the
restaurant. The shorter the turn>around time for the
e,uipment :that is, the time re,uired wash, clean, sort and
dry the e,uipment;, the lower the overall e,uipment par
stock.
4.#.! )urabilit: of the e@uipment and budgeted costs
for replacement
The life>span and thus, durability of the e,uipment also
determines the amount of stocks kept aside for
replacement. In addition, the budget allocated for the
replacement of lost or damaged e,uipment also affects the
operating par stock for the restaurant.
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CHAPTER - #
STY$ES OF FOOD AND
BEVERAGE SERVICE
Chapter outline8
5." -:pes of beverage service
5.1 Introduction
5.2 -:pes of food service st:les
5.3 -able service
5.4 %ssisted service
5.5 .elf9service
5.! .ingle point service
ObHectives of this chapter
%t the end of this chapter& the reader shall be able to(
*ist the five broad t:pes of food service
Outline the seven t:pes of table service
Outline the service of food using assisted service
Outline the t'o t:pes of self9service for food
Outline the service of food using single point service
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Outline the service of food using specialized or in
situ service
Outline the four t:pes of beverage service
5.1 I+-$O),C-IO+
ood and beverages may be served in many ways. The
selection of the service method to be employed is
dependent on several factors:
Type of establishment
.<pectation of customers
.<pected turnover
Type of menu featured
5.2 -I71. OF FOO) .1$=IC1
In practice, there are five broad categories of food service:
Table service
Assisted service
%elf>service
%ingle point service
%pecialized or in situ service
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5.3 -%6*1 .1$=IC1


In table service, food and beverage is brought and served to
customers who are seated at a dining table. There are seven
variations of table service in food and beverage operations:
.nglish platter service
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rench platter service
%implified gueridon service
#ussian gueridon service
rench gueridon service
0lated service
amily service

5.3.1 1nglish platter service
Also known as %ilver %ervice or service a9 l9anglaise in
rench, .nglish platter service is carried our in the
following se,uence:
1. A heated dinner plate is placed on the table in front
of each customer, from the right of each customer.
+. The platter of food is presented to the host from the
right for hi or her approval.
1. %erver stands on the left side of each customer9s
and serves the food items from the platter onto each
pate with service gears.
5.3.2 French platter service
Also known as !utter or rench %ervice, rench platter
service is carried out in the following se,uence:
1. A heated dinner plate is placed on the table, from
the right of each customer.
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+. The platter of food is presented to the host from the
right for his or her approval.
1. %erver stands on the left side of each customer and
positions the platters so that the customers can help
themselves to the food on the platter using the
service gears placed on the platter.
5.3.3 .implified gueridon service
This form of gueridon service is carried out in the
following se,uence:
1. A gueridon is wheeled to and parked ne<t to the
customers table.
+. The food is plated in the kitchen and brought to the
gueridon on a tray.
1. The plates may or may not be transferred onto the
gueridon.
3. .ach plate is then served to each customer from the
right.
4. If the plates are covered with a food cover?cloche,
these are removed simultaneously only after the
entire table has been served.
5.3.4 $ussian gueridon service
Also known as #ussian gueridon service or service a la
russe in rench, #ussian guerison service is carried out in
the following se,uence:
1. A gueridon is pushed to and parked ne<t to the
customers table.
+. A tray is used to carry th pre>heated dinner plates
and the platter of food to the gueridon.
1. The platter of food and plates are then transferred
from the tray onto the gueridon.
3. The platter of food is presented to the host from the
right for his or her approval.
4. %erver returns to the gueridon, portions and plates
the food onto hot dinner plates.
5. The plated food is then served to each customer
from their right.
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6. Any remaining food on the platter is kept hot on a
rechaud for second helpings.
5.3.5 French gueridon service

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rench gueridon service is carried out in the following
manner:
1. A gueridon or a flambM trolley is placed ne<t to the
customers table.
+. A tray with the complete mise> en>place :all
re,uired e,uipment and ingredients; is brought to
the gueridon, carving wagon or flambM trolley.
1. ood may be de>boned, carved, flamed or finished
:such as mi<ing a salad;.
3. The service staff then portions and plates the food
onto hot dinner plates.
4. The plated food is then served to each customer
from their right.
5.3.! 7lated service
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A known as American %ervice, plated service is carried out
in the following se,uence:
1. The food is portioned and plated in the kitchen.
+. ood may be served to customers from the right or
left of the customer depending on house policy.
ood served using plated service is usually carried out from
the left of the guest in America and .urope. "owever in
Asia the food is usually served from the right. /hyS
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
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>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
5.3." Famil: .ervice
amily service is carried out in the following se,uence:
1. A pre>heated dinner plate is placed on the table
from the right side of the customer.
+. The service staff places dishes of food in the middle
of the table, each with a pair of service gears.
1. *ustomers help themselves directly to the food and
the dishes of food may be passed around the table
by the host.
5.4 %..I.-1) .1$=IC1
This is a combination of table service and self>service.
This form of service is commonly found in restaurants
offering 'part>buffets( where part of the meal
:usually the main course; is served to seated customers
while others parts of the meal :such as appetizers,
salads, soups, and desserts; are collected by the
customers.
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5.5 .1*F9 .1$=IC1
%elf>service may take two basic forms:
!uffet service
*afeteria service
5.5.1 6uffet service
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A buffet is also known as a Esmorgasbord9, a term that
originates in %candinavia. In general, there are three types
of buffet service:
.elf9service buffet
*ustomers help themselves to food placed on a buffet
table without the assistance of any service staff. %ervice
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staff only carries out beverage service and the clearing
of soiled chinaware and cutlery.
%ssisted9buffet service
%ervice staff position themselves behind the buffet table
and dish the food onto the customers9 plates. This form
of service allows a large number of people to e served
in a shorter time span and allows some measure of
portion control. It also serves to keep the buffet table
more presentable throughout the service.
7lated buffet service
0opular in *hinese restaurants, this form of service is
also known as 'a9 la carte buffets9 :which is a
misnomer;. These buffets feature a selection of items
on an a9 la carte>style menu, e<cept that the entire meal
is for a fi<ed price.
*ustomers may order unlimited portions of plated food,
which is then served to then at the table. In addition, a
buffet table may also be used to serve dessert items. In
some restaurants, more e<pensive items such as shark9s
fins soup may also be included in the meal though
customers will find that these items are served only one
to a person.
5.5.2 Cafeteria service
In cafeteria service, the customer is offered a choice of
food and beverage by a single operator who offers a
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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
range of refreshments. The customer uses a tray to
collect portions of food and carries the tray to a table
for consumption. There are two basic forms of cafeteria
is service:
*ounter
ree>flow
Counter
In cafeteria counter service, customers form a ,ueue
past a service counter and choose their food and
beverage in stages and load them onto a tray. 0ayment
is then made at the end of the ,ueue.
Free9flo'
In cafeteria free>flow service, customers move at
will to random service points and may only form a
,ueue at those points. *ustomers e<it the service
area via the cashiering point:s; to reach the dining
area.
5.! .I+/*1 7OI+- .1$=IC1
*ustomers are served at a single point and food and
beverages may be either consumed on premises or taken
away for consumption elsewhere. There are four basic
forms of single>point service:
ast food and take>away counters
Kending machines
2iosks
ood courts
5.!.1 Fast food and tae9a'a: counters
This form of service serves a limited range of food and
beverage from single point and includes snack bar and
delicatessen counters, drive>through counters, and fast food
operations.
The principle is straightforward: the customer approaches
the service counter where a menu is is played showing
prices and places the order with the counter staff, who then
assembles the order from pre>cooked items, totals the
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amount, takes the cash, and hands the order to the
customer. The customer then has the option of eating inside
the establishment or may be take away the food and eat it
off the premises.
5.!.2 =ending machines

ood and beverages is served via automated retailing. 0re>
packaged snacks, hot and cold beverages and hot soups are
commonly served through vending machines. /here in
use, vending machines are commonly located in office
buildings, airports, and train stations.
5.!.3 Aioss
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These free>standing food and beverage stations are usually
located in high>pedestrian traffic locations. They
commonly dispense a limited range of beverages and pre>
cooked and ?or packaged snacks such as sandwiches, hot
dogs and ice cream. %ome may also offer limited seating
for consumption of the refreshments on site.
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5.!.4 Food courts

In food courts, food and beverage is served over the
counter at a series of autonomous counters operated by
different business entities but house in a common location.
It is fairly similar to the free>flow cafeteria service
previously mentioned. "owever, in food courts, the
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difference is that the individual counters are operated
independently and collect payment directly from the
customers rather tan have the customers pay a common
cashiering point.
The autonomous counters pay the main operator of the food
court a rental fee as well as maintenance fees for shared
cleaning and stewarding services provided to all counters
operating within the food court.
.,uipment such a plates, bowls, trays, and cutlery are
provided by the main operator and are shared by all food
stalls. &arketing and promotional activities are undertaken
by the operator and the cost of these services may be either
borne entirely by the main operator of collected from the
operations of the individual counters.
5." .71CI%*I.1) O$ I+ .I-, .1$=IC1
This form is service allows food and beverage to be served
in areas that are not primarily designed for food service.
%pecialized service is also known as in situ service :in situ
is Gatin for Ein position9; and refers to the delivery of food
and beverage to the customer in areas which are not
specifically designed for the purpose of dining. %pecialized
or in situ service includes the following:
Tray service
Trolley service
"ome delivery
$rive in and?or drive through
5.".1 -ra: service
Tray service refers to the service of whole or part of a meal
to customers in situ such as patient9s wards in hospitals,
meeting rooms, hotel guest rooms and e<ecutive lounges in
hotels and on board aircraft. Tray service is also commonly
used at cocktail receptions where canapMs and other finger
foods are offered to customers at a standing cocktail
reception.

5.".2 -rolle: service
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In trolley service a trolley is used to transport whole meals
or snacks on specially designed trolley to customers who
consume the refreshments away from a dining area. This
service is used o board trains, in customer rooms meeting
and e<ecutive lounges in hotels and on board aircraft.
5.".3 0ome deliver:
In home delivery, food and beverages are order through the
telephone, facsimile machine or the internet. ood is then
delivered to customer9s homes or place of work. The menus
offered in this form of service may be restaurant specific
such as that offered by a pizza or fast>food restaurant.
"owever, more elaborate menu selections may be offered
by specialized food delivery services who do not operate
food and beverage facilities but work in conDunction with
several restaurants. In this business arrangement, the
delivery service makes a profit by marking up the price of
the food items offered by the restaurants whose menus are
featured. They may also receive commissions from the
featured restaurants through discounted pricing.
)rive9 in and> or drive9through outlets
In drive>in outlet, customers park their motor vehicles and
servers approach the customers in their vehicles and serve
the food and beverages which are then consumed by
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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009

the customers in the vehicles. This form of service was a
fairly popular feature at fast food restaurants in America in
the 184@9s and 185@9s.
$rive> through outlets allows customers to pick>up and take
away food while remaining in their cars. They first place
their order through an intercom system at the entrance of
the car park?driveways and then drive to a special counter
window where the packed order is handed over and
payment is made.
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5.# -I71. OF 61=1$%/1 .1$=IC1
There are four types of beverage service)
*ounter service
Tray service
Kelvet service
!ottle sale service
Counter service
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The drink is prepared by a bartender who takes the order,
prepares the drink and places it in front of the customer
who may be seated or standing at the bar counter.
-ra: service
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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009
A prepared drink is placed on a tray and carried by the
server from the bar counter to the customer table or directly
to the customer :as in the case of a stand>up cocktail
reception where there are no tables;.
5.#.3 =elvet service
This form of beverage service is also referred to as E*lub
service9 and is considered the highest possible form of
beverage service. It is usually performed in fine dining
restaurants, hotel lounges and clubs.
A gin and tonic served using Kelvet service would be
carried out in the following se,uence:
1. A measured portion of gin is poured into a glass
along with a slice of lime and ice cubes and placed
on a beverage tray.
+. A bottle or can of tonic is opened or a portion of
tonic is dispensed into a decanter from a bar gun
and placed on the tray.
1. A drink coaster, a cocktail napkin and a stirrer is
also placed on the tray.
3. The service staff then carries the tray to the table
and performs the service.
4. The drink coaster is placed on the table and the
glass is placed on the coaster.
5. The service staff picks up the tonic and asks the
customer how much tonic he would like with the
gin.
6. The re,uired amount of tonic is poured in and the
mi<ture stirred with the stirrer.
7. The cocktail napkin is left ne<t to the drink.
8. The stirrer may or may not be removed from the
table. If left on the table, it is usually left in the
glass.
1@. Any mi<er left over may or may not be left at that
able. If it is left on the table, the decanter, can or
bottle of mi<er is placed on an additional coaster.
5.#.4 6ottle sales service
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This form of service is usually performed in discothe,ues,
clubs, lounges or pubs. It is fairly similar to Kelvet service
e<cept that the spirits in ,uestion are sold by the bottle.
A bottle of %cotch whisky served using Kelvet service
would be carried out in the following manner:
1. %ufficient glasses for all customers is prepared and
brought to the table along with sufficient coasters,
cocktail napkins, garnishes and stirrers.
+. A pre>determined number of bottles or volume of
mi<ers is included in the price for the bottle sale.
!ottles or cans of mi<ers are opened or a portion of
the mi<er is dispensed into a large decanter from a
bar gun brought to the table along with a bucket of
ice cubes. %ubse,uent orders of mi<tures or soft
drinks are charged accordingly.
1. The selected bottle of %cotch is brought to the
customer9s table and opened upon approval by the
host.
3. $rink coasters, cocktail napkins and stirrers are
placed on the table for each customer.
4. A free>poured measure of the %cotch is poured into
each glass along with the garnishes and ice cubes by
the server.
5. The service staff then asks each customer how
much mi<er he would like with the %cotch and the
re,uired amount of tonic is poured in and the
mi<ture stirred with the stirrer.
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6. The cocktail napkins are left ne<t to the drink and
the stirrers are usually left on the table.
7. The ice may also be replenished and left in a bucket
with ice tongs for the customers to help themselves.
8. %ervice staff may serve subse,uent round of drinks
or customers may also choose to help themselves to
the drinks.
1@. A tag or numbered sticker will be used to identify
each bottle. These tags or stickers record the name
and signature of the customer who purchased the
bottle. These tags or stickers are also used to record
volume of sprit remaining bottle. These tags or
stickers are also used to record volume of sprit
remaining after each time it is Eused9 to prevent any
misunderstanding.
11. A counterfoil or card is issued to the person who
purchased the bottle as proof of ownership.
&ost discos or clubs that carry out bottle sales usually
impose a specified time span in which the bottle of sprit
must be consumed :normally a period for to 1 months;.
%hould the customer not be able to consume the sprit in the
specified time frame, the sprit is confiscated and may be
sold of f by the club.
The counterfoil or card issued to the person who purchased
the bottle as proof of ownership may be used to gain entry
on the ne<t visit and may allow the purchaser to avoid
having to ,ueue at the entrance. As most clubs e<tend this
form of Etemporary membership9 to these customers, bottle
sales are popular at well patronized clubs and discos.
"owever, such privileges are only valid if there is some
sprit remaining in the bottle from a previous visit.
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CHAPTER - "
MENUS
Chapter outline8
Introduction
.e@uence of courses in a classical French menu
-:pes of menus
3enu planning considerations
Objectives of this chapter
%t the end of this chapter& the reader shall be able
to(
*ist the se@uence of courses in a classical French
menu
Outline the t'o main t:pes of menus
Outline the characteristics of a la carte menus
Outline the characteristics of the five t:pes of
table d4hote menus
Outline the characteristics of children4s menus
Outline the characteristics of festive and
promotional menus
Outline the considerations used in planning a
menu
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5.1 IIT#-$L*TI-I
The word Emenu9 is derived from the Gatin words Eminor9
or Eminutes9: meaning a document that previews a
performance, similar to the minutes of a meeting, e<cept
that it provided such details before the actual event.
&enus were thus initially provided by hosts when holding
large, elaborate feasts in ancient Hreece and #ome. They
enabled invited customers to plan how much of each course
they should eat so as to make room for the rest of the meal.
/ritten menus on clay tablets were already being used but
it was more common at such feasts, to have someone>
either the host or a specially instructed slave> to point our
and provide information on each dish or wine served.
/ritten menus were in use in ancient times in restaurants as
a form of advertising or 'bill of fare(> a list of what
available. Today, menus are still commonly described as
'silent salesmen( helping restaurants sell their food and
beverage items.
5.+ %.NL.I*. - *-L#%.% II A &.IL
A typical menu in the time of legendary chef Heorges
Auguste .scoffier was about 14 to 15 courses> already a
reduced version of the hundred odd> course meals that were
served by *rTme. This 'classical( rench menu appears
below:
*lassical rench menu course &odern day
e,uivalent
1. 0ors d4 oeuvre "ot or cold
appetizers
+. 7otage %oups
1. Oeufs .ggs :served
hot;
3. Farineau2 arinaceous
:pasta or rice dishes;
4. 7oisson ish course
5. 1ntrJe .ntrMe
:includes anything e<pect a roast;
6. Intermezzo :sorbet; Intermission
7. $eleve :piece de resistance; !utcher9s Doint
e.g. roast meat Doints
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8. $oti #oasted game
or poultry
1@. *egumes "ot or cold
vegetables
11. .alade %alads
1+. 6uffet froid *old meats,
poultry, ham or seafood items
11.1ntremets "ot or cold
sweets
13 .avoureau2 %avoury items
such as mushrooms on toast
14. Fromages %election of
cheeses
15. )essert *hoice of
fresh or candied fruits and nuts
16. CafJ *offee
17. 7etit four or mignandises %mall servings
of sweets e.g. pralines
Tea was not widely available or consumed as a
beverage in those times.
:& 07P,- OF 5,.3-
There are two basic categories of menus:
A la carte
Table d9hote
!.3.1 % la carte
EA la carte9 is a rench term that means Eby the list9 and is
used to describe ordering food and beverage items
individually listed in a menu. .very restaurant is likely to
have an a la carte menu unless they e<clusively serve
buffers or set meals only.
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An a la carte menu has the following features:
Items are listed and priced individually to allow
customers to choose items they prefer and combine
these in a meal to suit their personal budget, tastes
and appetite.
Items are prepared to order :described as being
cooked Ea9 la minute9; and thus generally take
longer to prepare than items in a set menu.
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!.3.2 -able d4hote
ETable d,hote9 means Etable of the host9 in rench. This is a
set meal sold at a fi<ed price which it is sometimes also
referred to a Epri< fi<e9 menu. The following are features of
table d9hote menus:
They offer a fi<ed number of courses as a complete
meal at a fi<ed price.
If choices are offered in the meal, the price of the
meal may vary according to the items chosen.
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-ffered by restaurants when there is a need to speed up the
service of a meal :e.g. during lunch; or when there is a need
to limit the range of food being prepared in the kitchen
:during very busy mal periods such as Iew Jear9s .ve
dinner;.
There are several variations of the table d9hote menu:
0lat du Dour
*arte du Dour
&enu degustation
!uffet
!an,uet
7lat du Hour
The rench phrase means Eplate of the day9 and indicates a
single>course menu item, usually a main course item
featured as a Edaily special9. There are three variations to a
plat du Dour:
A menu item that is ,uick to prepare and
offered to customers in a hurry.
A specially created menu item using the
freshest available ingredients available for
that day and thus charged at a higher price.
An item selected from the usual a9 la carte
menu and priced lower than normal Dust for
that day or meal period.
Carte du Hour
Table d9hote menus may also be known as Ecarte du Dour9, a
rench term which translates to mean Emenu of the day9.
/here this term is used, the set menu is likely to be
changed on a daily basis. This differentiates it from the
table d9hote menu which may remain unchanged for a few
days.
3enu dMgustation
In rench, menu dMgustation refers to a tasting menu. This
elaborate set menu offers small tasting portions and allows
customers to sample a wide variety a of menu items
without overeating. %uch menus are normally offered in
fine dining restaurants and feature the following:
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-nly offered in fine dining restaurants
&enu dMgustation is usually only offered at
dinner.
The menu usually consists of 5 to 7 courses
of small tasting portions.
*hoices are seldom offered for each of the
courses e<cept the main course.
1. Cold %ppetizer
2. .oup
3. K 0ot appetizer L or entrJeM
4. .orbet
5. 3ain course
!. Cheese
". )essert
#. Coffee or -ea 'ith petits fours
U+ote: &enu items 1 = 5 are not featured if the menu
dMgustation features a 5 course menu.
A menu dMgustation may be created by offering:
%maller portions of selected items from the a
la carte menu) or
Items specially created for the menu
dMgustation and thus not found on the a la
carte menu.
6uffet menus
A pre>selected menu where a variety of dishes are offered
ad a complete meal and where customers may choose to eat
whatever menu items they prefer. %uch menus offer
customers9 unlimited serving for customers to help
themselves.
A part>buffet is one where salads, cold
appetizers and desserts are offered together
with a small a la carte selection of main
courses. The price of such a meal depends
on the main course selected.
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#estaurants which serve food family style
may offer Ea9 la carte buffets9. %uch buffets
offer diners an unlimited serving of food
from a small Ea9 la carte9 menu for a fi<ed
price. "owever these restaurants usually
specify that such menus are applicable for
those who dine in groups of twin or more.
6an@uet menus
A ban,uet menu is a menu that is pre>selected by the
organizers of the meal. !an,uet menus may offer anything
from cocktail snacks, coffee and tea breaks to set meals
which range from simple two> course set meals to elaborate
events offering many courses or a buffet.
!.3.3 Children4s menu
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These menus are specially created to cater to families with
young toddlers. Thus, these menus usually have the
following characteristics:
Lsually an a la carte menu that lists smaller
portions of food with a corresponding lower
price.
-ffers child>friendly food, that is, food that is
likely to be popular with children, e.g. rench
fries, ice cream, spaghetti, fried chicken, etc.
A colourful format with cartoon characters and
may include colouring activities or puzzles to
occupy the children9s attention.

!.3.4 Festive and 7romotional menus
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Festive menus
These menus are specially created for festive
occasions such as %t.Kalentine9s $ay,
Thanksgiving, *hristmas, *hinese Iew Jear,
etc.
%uch menus are used for short periods only>
from a single evening to a fortnight
These menus may take the from of an a la carte,
a set or buffet menu.
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7romotional menus
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These menus are specially created for ad>
hoc occasions that may feature famous chefs
:e.g. *hef Alain $ucasse; or the seasonal
availability of a food item :e.g. asparagus
season, %hanghai "airy *rab;.
%uch menus are used for specified periods
only> anywhere from one evening to a
month
These menus may take the from of an a9 la
carte, a set or buffet menu
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The Verbal Menu
Menus ma$ also be verball$ presented. %n fine-dining restaurants service
staff ma$ verball$ inform customers of dail$ specials. & prime example of a verbal
menu is that used in Morton's of Chicago- an upscale specialt$ stea#house concept
from &merica.
%n this restaurant, servers use a gueridon and verball$ present selection of
different raw meat cuts as well as fish, live Maine lobsters and vegetables to
diners. &fter the presentation, the servers leave the customer with a cop$ of the a la
carte- (ust in case the$ forget what was said)
163