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'.'tl. Tech-(Parr-Time) DEGREEE)(AMINATI0N,
APRIL/IVIAY2004.
....
. Fifth-sennester

Civil Engineeriryr .
f

PTCE 340 - FOUNDATIONENGINDERING


Time: Three hours
.i l rr^_,:__-_-:
Maxinum 100 marks
Ariswei-AlL ciuestions.
-J
j
ji

Useof BIS6408is permitted.


pARl a -.(iti X 2 = Zlnarks)
/
t
/./
/r'"trh
'
'
t.t, rs meant by a non_representative
.tNttdt sample?
,' '/,
?,/
','/ i" inside clea'ance given to the sample?
lft{ Give the upper and lorver lirnits
for the same. :

3.,,
*i'#*::l:*1,*"::*^.-:r:"^:-ro_11,:f 1j.0^syga1{il feuncrecr
ona crayey
i\
::H:,"*:"fff
;, #;:ff;.'i'Tffi;T:3;:J
1,,::T::ii:",""*t*sli-"tffi
ralsr.e
"s"tn1t !f n r# ;;iti#;".
";, "fjfrr-ri,,6!9,9"--fii|ii;;
'For a fogting,
the net urtimate,bS.d,ing.cap3litris 800^kpaand
pressuredoriespondingtd the net bearing
.q oi 50 mm is izo kpa. If the settlement
,s,gtqlspgrit
is not to dxiEbd50 mriana r"ldif,isafety
than 3, find the allowableU"uringiupacit.y."g"i"r, "rr*r failure is not be tess

,v'/'5'/ say t'rue or.false and justifyyour answer.


The permissiblesettlem6nt depe'rls
only on the importanc-'eof tf,e stru.tu;
, L"tl-t on the type of.soil on which it is
t founded.

'" 6' / state the situations rrnder rvhichrirat


foundation is adopted.
7/ I{or'v do the location crf site and
:. L, - - type
-J r- of soil encountered
v"vvs''! influence the selectio'
of the type of pile?
,/
' g'J can you design a driven pile using
" dynamic 1brmulae? Justify your anslver.

I 'rr-.
^ ;{-,
i'
I)ART B - (S x 16 = 80 marks)
,/
,./
11:' Find the pl'an dimensions of a-trapezoidal
shaped combined,footing for t*,.
columns300 mm x 300 mm and 50b mm x boo mm
' f"#'0, uoo ,.1r,
and 750 kN respectively. Both the columns are on""r*""
the bJundary line and
spaced at 4 rr dc. Tlie allowable bearing capacity of
i;he soil is 1bg kpa. Locate
the point of maximum bending moment urrd frr,.l
the magnitrau-oi*uximum
bending moment. F

drilling is done. ( 11 )

,\ ..{ii) are the advantages and disadvantages of static Cone


Ih.t
penetration Test over boring and sarnpling?
(5)
Or
(b)./t;l
-In a clay deposit, the water table is at a depth of B n below ground
level. It is proposedto adopt a raft foundaiion ofdia"nete, do, ro.
an oil tank at a {9pth of 1.8 m below th_e ground level. If the
fgundation is subjected to a loailing intensity:oT 60
kpa," find the
depth of boreholeto be made. Take unit weittrts of]the soil above
and below water table as lB ldv/ms and 20 tovrn" reqectively. (10)
Explain tl're corrections tliat are to be carriecl out to the observecl
N-value. i (6)
13. (a) (i The soil profile at a site'consists of clay or.rrr"oinl"d compressive
I
strength of 110 kPa and Lnit weight rg kN/ms exten8ing to g.u"i
"
depfh-:A raft foundation of plql limensions o_f.fQ.m7<.16n isio be
irytafle{ at a depthof B m,U,"ti;rgroundtevSi,HFditic""rie"a loacl
;1.Y.#l'".T9:tHf:di:'[ff
i']i.Hi$S*is";m:rS;
(ii) Distinguish betwcen general, local and punching shearf,ailures. (g)
Or
I
(b) (i) A plate loe'.dteJi was conducted on a r:nifoi'nr deposlt of sand ancl
the follorving results were obtainecl:
' :. ' ' , ' i*r* 3r 'i'l "
"i:-t
Pressure(kPa) : 0 50 100 200 300 400 500 600
:
Settlement(rnm): 0 1 2 4 7.5 12.5 .20 40 i 1!
. i ji .1.,,.-r .

A square footing 2 m x 2 m i9 to be founded.-at ttre same depth


where the plate load teist:riv6s:ebnducted.Detdidfiiri"blttre irllowable
load on the footing so that the factor of safety against *ear failure
is not less thsn 3 and,th'e eetflbinent i5 not norl ttian'lO irm. The
'size
of the plate was ?50 *T, , (10)
(ii) . ; of plate load,test.
Discuss the limitatiirru (6)

s 9226
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i

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IJ.E,'B.1'ec'. (I)r:.rt-1\me) DEGREE


EXAMINATION, ApltII.^iA y 200.J

Fifr.h'$emester.

Engine6r.ing
.Civil
PTCE 340 - FOIINDATION
ENGIWNENiNC
j
limc ; Three hotrrs
Ma-rimurn :.100 rrrar.l;.,s

AnsrverAJ,L questions.

Use of BIS G.tr08


is l)ernrittecl.

PARTA-(tOx2=2}marks)

I
$i hat is nreant bv significant
depth of investigation?

W,irai.are thc di.sadvantages


of static cone penetrati,Jn tes;t over
boring trud
cri:::p!!ng?

3. "iVhr';.:doe.s itll.orr.uble
bearing capacity beccm.e equal
to net safe b e a : ' i n g
capacity?: ,. .r: .,' ''::

,.'
lja.)'true ol false : f i:e permiiliule
"'l' settlenrent of a footing foundecl
on cl a ver.
soil is rno'e than thar founded
on soi.dy boil. Justify your answer.

5' Distingrrish betrvee' inruediate


and consolidagionsettrement.

6. \\Ihar are the er.ssuniptions


that are madein thc structural design
of footings?

whaL a1; the advantages


gf py.ecast
driven piles over bored c?st
in.s!-tu+'es?

.t

I
w'14' (a) A g;roupof g piles arrapged..in a square pattern
is used as a founclation
for a column in sand of angle of infernal;;;;""
oiticr.. piles 800 m:n in
diametet 10 m in tength ar:eplace,ilit u-"pu"it6-of ?50
direction. T{
carculate the lold .o,=i;9;;;ity;or
mm i' eac},,
the-pile group aciopiing
a factor of safety of 2'5. Assutue.it lu"ight of the soil
- -.
as -1g kl{ims.
The Nq and N, values are respectively "-""ii
zA aniVZ.+ .\
The results of pile load test conductedon one
of the above
*.--'- mentioned
^-'
piles are given below : t

Load(kN): 0 1b0 2oo 250 300 400 500 600


Settlement (mm) : 0 i.4b 2..25 Z.TS 8.6 5.75 10.75 30

Make an estimate of settlernent of pile group, if the calcurated


safe load
were appliedon it.
Or
r'
(b)
. (i)" Determine the group clgacrty of a pile supported footipg
in rt
uniforrn clay of cohe.sion80 kPa. The piles are placed in B rorvs g,ith
4 piles in each ror'.'.The piles are spacedat 900 mm cy'cin
both the
directions. The length and diameter of the piles are iz *
or.a
, 300 mm respectively.Tale adhesionfactor as O.g. (10)
/
(ii/ What is-meant by negative skin friction? Where does it occur?\Vhat
is its influence on the factor of safety of a pile? (6)
:
15' (a) (i) There are two retaining rvalls of same height, one with a snrooth
back and the other with a rough back. Both the walls are retailipg
the same backfill. Which of the walls will experience a highei
lateral pressur.e?
Justify your answer. r - (5)
(ii)
A smoothvertical rvall of height 4 m, retains a cohesioniessbackfrll
rvith an angle of fnternal fi'iction of 30o, void r.atio of 0.62 ancl
speci{ic gravity of solids of 2,?,,1Drawthe aqtive eafth pressure --
distribution diagram if th'esoil'is ti) fully dry (2) fully
""U--uieu,l.
(1 1 )
jr::'' 'r'
Or' ' :
,/ I
M,/A
' retaining wall 8 m high with a toe angle of 80o u,ith the.horizontal
retains a cohesionlesssoil of anglb of intgrial fiction ;nifiteight of
30o and 19 klrr/ms.T?reangle of ivall iriction is 20". The""aUu.mfi surface is
sloping at an angle of l0' to the horizontal. By. culmann,s graphical
method, find the total aetive thrust,'whon there is a line load of 101k-N/m
at a horizontal distance of 2.5 mfr.om thg crest of the rvall.

N, [o" t\ e q -J.; ),, 11luf^e

' ' i t.
. i
::
-. r: - - , ;--+l-.1
-- 't
: ' C
'fh,:
B Sa1'Lrue .rr lalsc : :;cttlclncnt of a pile gloup is nrany l,imr.rsthat of a singlc
justil-v yo'r
pilc, thro'.rgh tJrc itrari per pilc is llitr sirrl.:eitr i:'c'ii: tire casc::,:.

answer.

9. Horv is the allowable load detcrmined from the rcsults of a pile load test?

10 state the directionn and magrritude nrovement required' for the


masrdroau of rvall nrovemer:

mobilisation of active and passive earth Pressurercspectively.

pARlt B - (5 x'16 = 80 marks)

'{00 kN tlrrotrgh
11. A strap iooting is to be clesignedto carry lor.clsof 750 kN ancl
Th+-
colurnns of sizes 400 mm x 400 mm and.250 mm xzie-rnmrespe.eti+e11'.
boundary line'
columns are spaced at 5 m c/c and the second colurnn ir: on the
allorvable beerring
The r,,idth of the footing coukl be assumed a's 2'2 m''fhc
of the foot'ing and
capacitl, of thc soil is 250 l<Pa. Find the plan dir:rens.ons
bcanr'
drd..v tl:c shcar force and bending moment diagrams iirl the sl;rnp

of boreholcs'
l.2. (a) (i) Ilxplain thc facLorsinfluencing ttrc number )r spacing
(6)

(ii) .I.he results of standard penetratiotr te.sLc'rrrductcdin a dcep sandl'


of 2 m frotir rhc
layer are given belor,.'.Thclvator.tnblc is ,tt n dcrpL},
beiow *'ater t'ablc
ground le'el. The unit weighis of sancl alrovc and
t$ dcsign
are 16.5 kN/m3 and 18 *1*1 respectir ely. Deternrine

N.valueforafootingofsizeSmx3rnforndcdatadepilrofl'5m.
't.c 9.0
1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0
Deplh (r'n)

12 25 30 34.
N-r,alue
'+l'*- (10)
'a r /r€-,^ rl
l
Or

z I .'.'.
,' Q 3e5
:"
t*'

"\- .t ^, " " , / '


r.slit -L
\' -.Y ./'
o-./
r'i-'l (i) \ \ / h i r t . r ' . r ' ct . i : c i \ ( l v a r t i . ; r g c si l n ( l ( l r s l ( l \ ' : ' , l l L i l g c so I a U g e r b o r i r r g ' / (6t

(ii) Distinguish bctrvcen non-l'r.;.-.sentilt.irrp Iul)rcsentatr\/c aricl

undisturlrcd sar:rplcs. Statc the laborai;oly L e s t s r ' , ' l : . i c i l c a n b l

conductecl on elch oi rl:e sampics. l{orv do ):ou Lllld \,,.'hethel rr

baml>)esgives disturbcd'or undistlrbecl sample baseci on afea ratioi)

(1 0 )

),t ( ll,l (i) Exiriain r,ire influenc.e of position of ground rvatei table on the

bearing capacity offootings resting on sand. G)


,/1
\;IL,/ A Sclua'c fooling is to be foundcd at a depth of 1 m belorv the ground
v:\,
i ' 'sttrftrce ancl is to csrry a load of 1000 kN. The gr:oundrvatcr table is

'
ai the base of the footing. The rrnit rveight of the soil belou' dird
tl

above the basc of the footing irre 18 kN/m3 anci kN/:--,,


.v'
resPcctivul)'. 'lhe cohesion and angle of internal friction of the soil
are 10 kN/rn? and 38o respectively. Determine the size of the fooring
adcrl:lingit fuctor cf safety of 3. LTseBIS 6409 r.ecornmerrdritions.
(ll)

Or
,/
(Lt-/ (i) Propor'licrn a square footing to cerrry a load of 1500 I:N from a
column. 'I'hc foundation depth is 2 m. Maxinrum pernrissible
i
scttlenrent is 40 nm. Tlee factor of safety against shear failtire
shotrld not L,eless than .fhc
!. The avcrage con.ectedN-value is 1S.
grotrnd u,ater table is for below.' i L1 l

(ii) .{ plate load test rvas performed rvith a 0.8 m diameter plate at ti

rlepth ,rf 0.t; nr bolorvthc glound lcvcl.'l'ho tclp2 nr of soil .rt tlrc sitr,

consists cf' dense sand underlair: by lc.osesand. It is r.equired to


cxtrapolate the resuits of the test for the desigrr of 3 m rvide footing
'rvorrid
yor-rg5eta safe or unsafe desigrr?Justify.your answei-. (5)

Q 395
'ii.1.) ( s ) ( i )
A p'eca.stpilc, 250 mm x 250 rum in crossscction
is drivcn uptr.ri
d.pth of I0 nr i' n -soilprofircconsisti'gof 2layers. ,.
Thc tol;1..1,c,.
6 m thicl<a.d has an unconfincd.comprcssive
strengh of 25 r..i.,/::.:
*'hich is ullclerrain rry a *rii[dtroy of
.rrr.orrfir,Ja--.orrrore:ss:...i,
sLrengtlrof rB0 rd.I/n2.Dete''ine the safe
load the pile ca, ci-r:.:....
rvi'h a' factor of safetyof 3.'I'arieadrresionfactors
ro. tr,o,",, ir,.'..
and tlre botto:r layer as 1.0and 0.Srespectively.
(Ll,i
(ii) vrhertis ncgativeskin friction?\rrrat are the
situationsuncrerrvl,icir
it is de'eioped?what is its injluenceon the factor ,6)
of safety?
Or
(b) (i) Explain how piles are elassifiedba.sedon their function.
i (sl

@ A 16-pile trroup has to be ar-rangedin the forrn


of a square in a
clayeysoil rvith uniform spacingin both the directior..
wogtu"tj,,g
lhe end bearing resistance,determinethe optimum
var,ueof spirci'g
in tcrms of pile diameteryassumingan ailhesionfactor
oio,r. (Ei
15. (a) (i) sta.t3 the assumptionsmade in Rankine's earth pressure
theorr-
and hencederive the expressionfor active earth pressure
nt a point.
"'t (6r
6tf A cantilcvc:rretaining walr of height ? m with smooth
''retains'sand. vertical bacrc
Ttre void.ratio, nngle of internal friction il;;;;,:
gr;rvity of solids of sand are 0.5, B0oand 2.2 respectively.
Determine
the acti're pressure at the. base when the baclcfill
is, (l) <trl-
(2) saturated (3) submerged
(.i:
Or
(b) A retaining rvnll 0 m,1.tris| with a toe anglc
of z5o rvith trre.horiz''tr.rt
.rctains a cnhcsior:,te"s,ioiLralele of t,rtl"lrr ;ild;'; uni{ rveig5r of
J- 36oand 20 kN/ru'l. The anfle of wail frictisn
is.24o.,rhebacknil,sur;;; ;;
slclring at an angle qf 15. to the horizontali
Br;;;;;$;;;i
nrcthod,
findthe totnlhctivethiust,whcntircrois n rinsrp^a
t, ,rso'r.rvr,r,,
trtu horizor

4
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CIi 340 ITOUNDA.|.|ON
tiNGtNfr[RtNG
PTI}E- V SEMESl'tJR
r\.S.St(,.NtHltN.t..._
I
V.,
.'(\ l)r.{c
llrc'{r'cilrir(i(),r'trreslrrr'fcr
rrrirrs
rravilrg
tl't.sidc,iarrrrrlcr.arrd
I 14rnrn , in'cr diarrrutcr
.t.
a n d | I I llltll rcspeclivcly.
What c.ln you irrte.rah9111
1;1,,
sarnplecollcr:tertb),

berive.u, ,rprjr-.nrarive trrc.! t jl


a'd 4on_tepresentative
sampte.
3.:*"nriare ,.,. ,
7Y Wtratis a boretog?p
i lV
In a boreh're'a riger
o|fi'e sarrctwase.ncountgre{,
sttrface.A densesarrd at a depthofgm fror:rtt,egrouua
la5,eroverliesthc fine
sandtaye.. flre t, uutr"
field was 2J. l)etcnnirro r".orded in tlie
flrc corrcctcdN value
for the layer at g m dcpth.
lirblc was lbu'<J ,Thqwater . r,
ro bc 'r ' dirprrr,r'
: iri ri;or' sruthcc (;;;",
saturateddcnbesdnd u'ir wcigrrr.r, i
as2l kN/nrl
X j:ffi;lrr:;tc1';rr rherv;rsrr
rlrri,gr'crrr,cr.r'bor.ins
rrorss.
Discuss
irsr'ur.irs
: 6':5
,)'('' l)c.scribc
('<,rrs't'cffitiorr
lt-,sl.lhrrr lhir,tc.si
7. Suggesr tiitll.rsliorrrSt;rrrrllr,l
a choiceo/.lirunrJa(ion lrctrclr.irli,,l.1.t,..l
ibr theroll.onOiriols
shownbelow. ? .r. i,.

+
-

Mcdiumdense
sanC
e lt.

/&---\-_
| //X\,
, lc,,,rusuntJ
s:rtendind
J
rogrcarer
depth l'.,l,) lr

Statewhether
the staternenric r^,^ ^_ ^ ,
a' w'ast,
r,o,.i,,i';:ilffi;;:iltt reasohirqg
inoneo'rwosenrcnce;s
ngincohesiontess
scits.._
l,;i4(
cE 34o.Jot,NDATroN
PTOE 4Ncrr\TEERINc
VSDMESdR
'
A$StctYlflqN"r,r : J/ 1 ' '
ESTltt .,:-
Mar. marks:J0 'gzz':t'-

la' A trapczoicJal 'lirnc:


nrasonrv rerri-i-^
rclaininp--. ,. . c5 nrirr
wall Inr wi<lcu*op
rcrriniog,"t (0 ;;;:
',:
and3m viidcar irs

iffilT:#ffi;::li:t,',', g;':|#;:di]Jffi 3*' isamhi'gh'


rhcvc.
ica
t'|ir
ccis
safcqagains,,,,;; ,;
TTilii#*:#,"lil
I tmffilJ#y#rr.-r;;"trtJi:lil
ofsatbvadahs;ffiffi:llas 0'45.
deltnrrirc
rfrcfircrra
,,f
lb. Deternrine
I the llankineaclivc
nati,,^
^_t pas.rive
and
I tablb is o, t.u.ll canh prcssurespcr
ul""'ne uni. rengilrof
i thc uart shown
bcrow. Tfte watcr

0 =30o ,
,^k_(L_ , q
7= l6 kN/nrr

{'24o
csJ0.kAUd
Isr* f9 kN/mr 4
,r.
ha"s,;'rliirr*era
!^,,0.;o,t,r.sroup indreforn
'';;ff ;ff:fffi:Til:;,:T,'*T*f
,lilf;,[llT,:;::ff
tg#, of thcirT,"h&NLr*,,e*a-,
pilortiamacr,nssrrming
shear
2b. rl..s1;rrxrs
grgup.f 9 OR
wrr,.: i,r sofl cfr
, Pifcswcrcg.:," ila-q"]^ {9ltr sofl
llriver cfay ct
rpr.inrffi
t,,,r
;1;ryffitt#h#r_g$g!Lil,ffiffi,m
to a &rrgc.lqllrt.
lirqtur(,l'0.7S.
ffi3d['*]i
:pcc{,vcly. tf rhc ,,,.^-cj3''tt*

:r-]----
-- tt'vqP. rlSSUma r f^ $itre{m',
-Tt
andthc/'
; -_<- -..- qu6q

3b' Pro?onron
and clcsinna ^,.-._..
witritrrc;,,;;;-"Si,TitilJ#*f"fi t'
i
ui Tfff#iromrprcss,rouoderrhc i

I ^ .
----r-- ueuqtosd plus ) - ^ t . . .

uorunrnLoa& livc toad


; ColumjrA
f---.
IDL
Column B ' .o'&'t:
540tq\
-, I 690klr .#..r\t'
LLI "400&N fStl , i
Disunc:gb -_t
orf"otffi srf t,.a'G ,
).4 tn, prj",riouorffiilDoLrEf,,r,,{0.!n
3b. Proportion oR :-?
ud drawthe^.^o..._^,. _ -- ',.i

;1,;:.,;il; ;11';[:'J:',H:]:,::1.-T, ror


0..1n"..
a tapaoidar
co-h;.^,.

",-' .-.---.--:. .
CU 340 IiOLINI)A'I'IONUNUINUUI(II\L
PTBE - V SEMESTER
i/\ V/t\.
,\sst(;NM0N'l"r0s'l'I
'l'inrc lrr
Nl:rr. uturlis:20 I
PARTA(2*5=10)

l.r Determine of l14 mnr


rhearearatic of the samplefhqvingoutsidediameterandinnr:rdiameter
undI I I rnrnrcspectivcly.
Whrt can youinlc.(, c
abottthesarnple b1
lllectcd this ,
sampler.
- :..:..i;
..- -- :
l/ ln a borclrolc.
a laycrof linc sandwascncountcrcd at a depthof 8nrfromtltegroundt?S18S,+,^,1
dcnscsundlaycrovcrticsttre linc sandlayer. .The N vatuerecordedin the fieldjlhii)3.
Dcrermine thccorrccted N valuefor thelayerat 8:mdepth..Thewatertablewasfouudtb beat a
depthof 2 nrfronrsurlbcg. (Assume densesandaszl kN/m:').
unitweigtrtof.saturated
betweengeneralsliearfailureand localshearfailure. How the ultintatebcaring
3. I)ifferenriate
in localshearis cfJicrnrirrcd?
capacity
,'
{1 Suggest a choiceof foundation shownbelow.
for thesoilconditions

5 Statervlrerlrcrhe s(aterrrcnt in one or two sentences


is tlue ol falservithreasoning
(
o An un<isturbeclsartrplcis absolutcly undisturbbd.
2 f
b./ In situ vanesheartest !s extrenrelyusefirlfor obtainingtrle shearstrengthofvery cohesive
-4enr
soirs
c.( Dilatancycirrectiorrof .Spfnum.ber
is donefor clayeysoils f
d.' The ultinratebearingcapacityof claysdepends ou the depthof the footingratherthan
cohesion
PARTB(5*2=t0)
e
6. ' Dcscribe
rvitha sketclrtheWashBoringInethod
of boringholes.Discuss
its rneritsand.denrerits.
7.a/' \\'hatarr:lhcassurnptionsnraclc
in thedcrivation
of Terza.ghi's gapacity
bcaring thecry? Writc
thc'ccluation
fbr thcultiruatc
bcaring capagiay,
V. A footilg Znrsquareis laiclat a dgpthof l.j m !,elowthe groundsurface. Deternrinethe net
ultinratlbqgllg-lapieiry-_gling
lS 'rrerhod.
I TakcI: 20 kN/r,i,;[ = 30o,N" = 30 Nu= 18.-1,
=
N, ?2.4J lVharis rhecharrgein bearingcapacitywhen
l. The watertabterisesto tho levelof the baseof the footing
2. 1'hewatertablerjsesto the groundsurface
3. The watertableis I nr belowthe basc
I
/ v
t,. Anrrrrdi.srur.b,-.cl
sarrrpre
,r.brr,,,k,*?f,r,,rt.0. --- .loh"
c. In situ vancsheartesr.is e*trernery
usefurfor oltainingtheshearsrrength
of vcrycotre.sivc
soils
d. Dilatancycorredionofl'lnunrber
'l'hc is done for clayey,61,6fa.&e (r!j
e. ultinrarc bearirrgcapacity
considerably of a_-rronsaqgggg.*g[t in increases.
withdcprh' at"

;ff.:Tiff:""i::iJlt "yy1t ot ctavs


depends
onthedepth
orthe
roorins

What are tlie assurnptions


)f{ nradein tlre derivationof
- Ter'ughi's bearingcapacity'
,|j' n,",ilrt'
theon.?lVrirethe
theory.?.lV.ite
rf,o.^,.-ri.-..
c- .r
ecluationlor the
2,.',ii .)"'I T:' f oj +Io'lz capacitv. P_j]+
ulti
ry-r0 f ,oflA'
f H
Bti,t
i,,,(,tJ^j.,ll_Y.r"o,.
,^olll'ereh'tiatc.bclwceni-i.i,iir.'",,,., *,,,ET,
'*I$"o
t he ultinratc
bearittg
capacity in locatshear is derernrined? ;;';: r'l'. t.:.' I
' "n;"
foorini{'2lt}'sclirareis laiclat a deFtlrof | .J nr beiorv
')o : the grounctsurface.Deternrirre
tltc ttc trl(irriate
trtraring,
cnpacityusil:glS rncthod.
[,lhkc..l _-2r kN/nrr,0= 30o,1q**
.lO,N.r-=18.,1. N, = ?3.4] *. .+,
, .'' 1.,
Whatis rhc charrgc,in b(laringcatrr.rc:it;.
rvben
'f'hc
| rr;rr''r'litrirrr'i:rs
[. tlrcrcr.cr
,['lrrc trrurir.ring / -.-i cr. (
"lic,f ,,
3, 1'l:cr.vatcrtableriscsto thegrrrrrrrd sur.face _ o. ,,.
3 . ? ' h cr v i l t c rt a h f ci s I rrr ct ,/t
bclorvihc basc 71s.sr6fijt'i-. 1

,'/Square cohurrrrlirtirrclatiorri s to hc dcsiqncdfor


a glos.sattow..lbtc
lgtal load of
ol
,-?'zsoxN' If thc lt>acl
i.sincfi'edar an anlJeoF156
,o ,,,.'r]ni"at. determine
'l'r:k-c-!e,q=J, thewidthof
| r ,;f.exNrh{,
0 --S:_r
c ,rt|, I r :l"l::lu'"'r'
Nr '=48J l Nrnr,N"=46Nu=3.r'
F--->

l . i . r \ r c c t a r r g u l afrq p r l 1 ; , $ t
t 1 . 5 r n ) : s 1ocilted at
(?ni , L . .. I /
a depth cf.l nr. The-foftirig
-subic.cr.'i(r
16 nrt ,,..^^..,..:^:... is .i-{-
';nar.rrrg,r,"
ro,,g.r,idi;,"i"'...u*;ffi; ,i
'.t:I
T,:::';::.':,::::--"-1':ric;t)'c'r'0i
along tltc slrortcr:iicrc,.
f),rr.errrri^t
tt
lrrri [rr.::..
benringfsilure.:1'Taki:'i *
tskN/rn].
tskN/,-. .r..-/r.
,1,= 0".p= tcOkN/rn: "1"*-r-;^::'*-w"rrturtyorv'j'rll
,^:";tgaiQst
,o"',e
I . rra{.frrr+;*."
J7:r{* , ., . :'=:::'':
N "1r
n,iti,iii.'eth',ir"u soi!t iul,tq,t," j
| 7(' ;rrrrl w. = | (t r.\, rr- .l
rf 'oocf
causcs ",ih.*L.,,i.ss
rhervarei.,;;,",";';;;;;'::.
1,1,,:::r.l:
:: :"1,".
'irrr'firr:(r.
r\,lrrrllrcr.(:c,tl:tF1c .l.lkc
ot.rl,,r,is rcrhrr.cd..l
N., 4 t6
7

F.,@Ard,
CIi 340 F'OUNDATIONENGINEERING ..,
),F
PTBE - V SEMESTER
MID SEMESTERDGIvfiNATIoN
M n x .m n r k s : 2 0
PARTA(3 .3 = 9) time I hr

l . a , Whatis sample
disturbance?Howcanitbeminimized?
write downthe generar,B,errhs
Equationfor rltaneurar footrng
lanaciv 4m x 2nrresring
il;*lffrH[Hl|]'l"Tl'""* Lii' at0.5m
l
u,ro*
di'g,ound
rever.
whyare
rhe
2. a- Sketchthsconlrct
prcssure for
Ftexiblefootingon cohesiontur,
.:. *il

l
;l tj#fl,i!"::t::#,ffi4*--
rv. Rigid footing on cohesives-oji
J .
b' Howdo youdetermine
settremen:
ofthe fo'ndationftomprate
roadfst resurts?
3. Cop516.,
arectangularcotumn
foundatbn ccJ..rhh ^ ir'r l.
F" t.iCili^tr :XQ([Lg'rntt\'t'.
. i .
"r1,,,r

Sarrd
P = I00 kN/m2 E= 16,300&il1,,m2
tr= 0,4
l,5mx 2m 'lo=
1.2

PARTB(5 +e = 11;

4. what rvilrbc thegross


andnetsafebqarirypressure
rveighrof l? of sandrnving$ = 36 and.
kl.l/m3under effeqtive ur.,ir"
a. I m wide strip lbotlne t

b. I nr squarcfooting
. ,
Asstrrne thc footingsare placed
at a depthof rm'berow
at grcatdcprh.Assunrc groundsurfaceand
f o,s.= 3. For = that the waterrabreis
=
0 36,N. 47, N, = 43,
Calculare rlrcbearingcapaciry
if
i. rhe rvatertable
rjscs to the baseofthe footinq
ii. wareruble i.s
at ground level.
I
( Ap=60kN/m2
Sir.

y*r = 19 kN/m3, sand

ys,r= 20 kN/m3 , cla.r,


e= l.l
LL=55

A s.il prolilrris us srr.rvrr. il' . unib.'ty distriburedload


Ap is appriedat the groundsurface
(exending over a wide area) what is the settrement
of trr6.cray layer causcdby prirnary
consolidatio.r.

i. Thesoilis nonrrally
consolidated.
ii. The preconsolidation pressure
is lg5 kN/m1
'l'he
iii. precoruotidationpressucis 160kN/m.2
=
Usc..C, l,/5Cu ',...-,

oIt
;b' r A claydeposit4 m thick andrestiug
on a rosk hasundergone corsolidrtionundera depositof
sandl8mthick.'Thervarc/tablewasonthetgpofthesand.
D.uetoerrsioq lOmofsandhave
bcenerbded'computetheprecorsotidation pressure at thecenEeoiure ctaylayer.
lf tltc loadis placedso t.lrattheverticalstresson
rlrculaylayeris increaserl
by;o
'rt 1N/m1compute
rhe seulemenr
of the claylayer.

Clay Sand
t&
Bulkdensiry 20 kl{/m3 2.2kl.l/#
Moisture
contenI 33%
Specificgravity Z,g
C. (normallt'coruolidatecl) O.S
.
C' (overconsolidarcd) O.Oe
'8 E EH$g g Bg$ F
o fi F$ E
g;
u .r:_s ;
e€sfi iEt tr a
l..

E ri 6 F;g .s E 3t - F
o
t(It . F x ."gF; F
::$Es s ;cffEU ;Ee, E*H Ir Ar
Ert E : €'* E

.$
3 ' E

eige :; g
gge
'*'i*
C'

a ile
iFs f E Ei
,i

.'i
.=
i1'
c'

.Fsr
$"isg€
sEE 6 lglt €
E EsE ;EE Ee
@e E
E
s8 €F ,fiEi
EF F.E ,
r-N I
SISE FFes€
EFEEsgSJee=.QsiEg
g'H.'5E:i ;n'.H8.{ HgF;
+EE :EE
:;
tse
g;
.g'
#'s .qE€fi F'€=.[" xF gE
:P$fis o5l
EG' :€Eids Egr FsE;g efie €e
sF f,t
E5 gEutpfl
o5
UI CD €gEg F=aiE -€HE::
gEEf Eq..E9E €seF
: $Frs,€ E F F - i"Ei, f,;
EE g€
s$ st .ig'
-tES

*$$ 6 d g'Bq ;;
,nEE c-i,$,Tg.gEi;rsffEs.s$l q> F g i

g$ *n
698
i3
rQ.
g

*:r FEEefrf,csEfiiE
.n *He*g,FE ssfiit
H'EE
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=s
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E
di E
5E E qigHfi u,
E ;fr$€E
F
rc
;o
e
:3
E5 E$EE
E 8eF;E 5€ 5B€g ;F#ss "
#a. 6 H H
g
gEC
o F(\I \t (oF aa

'
.i,
'ri ;,. . .i

ll

i .A
'5FH.E*EE ,r-s
-r
E -:J
Ed
tu . F:
sYEEpfrE
-.6'r v I

Ea Eg; .',

grg
;,'ii: r:

*E€ €? : ,. . . r :
!rj.

6te
eg
F.r-i PEcEEii< ' t;l
oPE 6:E5'' esi
tla Io
otl. EJE ESF!S*E
6gHtrg;3
HR;
E$g ; [.8 €E;E;'E€ E s Et $ s .q .t.- b
5( Dru E E
Ei'F €,qgilE#'.E € BF A
EE:FF;EE.E

EF-gfE
TgA fY
lgg
EEq :FE 6 gEigEEEE
s;* EEEbeISfi
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>.9e9-gtcr'a
ge€fr:a
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.d"FE El-IE'F.=5P
E€€
E;E
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.s68. Es*e H:eEg€,_--q
6q)q)
d: E.E.
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s66
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<G€
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6EEFsqijq
g€E;.=F.;*
<EBF5efl?H g#gFE"F
6a .rg 6'.3 A
Sa.
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.9 o'll
Eg,; - s6z Egg €reeo stss*'EE
tss f 8s.F
i

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fgrg€:F$
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.'

€$gFfigJgE€$g
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sggg$sEj
sHgg$F =.'trCLA b l

EEE$dgfi;f, I$fF$$
f5$g fff$'*ffgg€F
HE*€ € ;rSFF
- '
E€E€ gf
s .6tt
€E;e
,' :€$E$$E
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n$$€ F*fffg
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I a--"- C{ :
6."
Y'
Department of Civil Engineering
of Engineering
Cottege GuindY
-
AnnaUiiversitnChennai 600025'
+"
Assignment- 11
PTCtt 340 FotrndatiortB n g i n e e ring
^V
Cottrselnstructor: R' Ayothiram ./

t . A s t r i p f o o t i n g , l m w i c l e , r e s t s o n t l r e sbearing
u ' & c ecapacity?
o f . u d l : :'what
l r e s i oisnthe
l e svalue' a v i r ris
s s o i l sifl rthere g0=25o,J
3go and ,f=lgkNlmr. what is the ultirnate
clav
ol^u,ll?*o-senous
1
Uffitmfjl:.:**g or1 i.!nrwidestripfooti'grestihg
capacity ='0oand
L.
level'Thesoilparamet!"t"."'= 40kNIm2'{r
ata'depth.ii:ilf,eiow iround
cleposit
or.satr'rrated
ontrresur{ace
3. ffi:,-il'l*:il:'1,:n1?tlii,l;'o "{':q:?-1d,,i",:,,J^*^.:sting
of safetvis 3'
gbkNn"2?Factor
clayof ''confined;;;;;ilt""i strlngthof whena
X 3'5m
t.7.5,11
compuretrreurtinrat-e'iiariirg gia i;"i*g"rar- footingof.sides in I m
4. "upu"i,y fooringis bnrbedded
angie
roadi'crinedat.an <if r0o tb ye,*i;;r ioil is saturated
""1-*ir.,"?"",ing.-rhe
deepberorithefooting'-Thg
berowgroundlevelaid.t'e groundwdlilt aud dl'ainedconditions
iooaingis veryslow
arrd lras a cldnsityof 1=i8 lcI'llmr;fftti"t"
"f
prevail fromtle,,
orB by t0cmardis inclinedawav
nl=i',ggil'i;l;3i;ic in rrredirection | ' :
centiein the clirectionof B frorn tbe
of L by l5cnr and is inclinedaway
b. The.loadis cccentrici,t th"direction
c'entreiu the directionof B' by l5cnr
of B by 10cm' in thq direction of L
c. The loaclis eccentricin tiie directio'
colnef of t[refooting'
and is inclinecttowardstrr" ""."tt of 900 kN in sand
uith" gior,n.t1"";l ;;1-;;"ki1a load
5. Determinethe, size of a squarer"oti"g rcsisrancc of 36o.Factorof safetyis 3' what
weig'ing I g kN/mr and havingun o,rgt?lisLiri"e r'below
ptaceaat a depth of I 'rake
i'ttre resii;if ,t" tbot'ingrt.y-U"
will be the n-rodification
**", uuie mai rise to the groun'Jisirrface' 1=
', ground surface?Assunre,
in this
"t "*i,',ir"
9 kNlntJ. o^o^irw nf a rectar I X3.0m, placecl
at
6 . D e t e f mi l re th e n .e tu l ti n ra te bear ingcapacityofar ectat.r gular
a upit"weight.of footing.l.
botcNim. 3'I
us'e ske*rptou's
r.g'r herowrhe groundin saturatea-lav'*ith
tt is to be ptaccfl9n clar rvith cohesionol'
7. T'il,""ill;.," with base6rrr)K 3in weighs9000tN. to sr'rpport
footingfoundation
l20kN/nr2. at a clepthof l1r. ! =10 iNtnt. Designa rectalrgular
thisrlrachine with factorof safety3' of 1'5'r
g. wrratis thcurtimate beari.gcapacity 1.75X 3.50nr at a clepth
of a rbctang-ular_foo-tirg,
= = tL9 yerticalload,isl500kN a*d the
irr a soil which i?"t"i iilirr, + r's" a*d y l8 kN/nr'. thefabtorof safety'comparethe
horizontalloaclis l5olit.I'atthebaseof the'footing.netermine
resultsobtaitrecl from H'ansen's FactorandlS factcrs'
of tt:: to bc placedat I '5rtt
9. Designtheultimatebearing"uporityoia column.fogtl]g Thel'lfl':: SPTN valuesfor tlic gigutrc1
ZSif<N'
dcpthin a depositof firreJanclto clrry a t "t ioaclof
at verydeepbelowthe lbundation'
sire,overuorioula"pritt",= givenbelow.Wateris Assuming
r0.rtrcr)e1,trr
0") ;,;"1;'"-i-i'ri"es;;i;N,;tY;:o::::1.:-:::i,::
c
tffi':'iltlT,l,1l'-'
,l':"'fflil :i;ii$;' dl g,{,j'=' ""{*
:;t=-#"1'l
* v,
:' l.,?* rsshN l!
v.l
t r' rrtc tollowit'tg
colunlnloadsareto becarricdon individyil*!"ltl9g b.q,,fo-criii;r:ar
lnr in :r sarrct
ot unit weiglrt= l8 kN/ml.j0.0,,?9.g,lltZ6O, !g ir cleprh
ol.
gsd, gg0;irA zOOtn.
Pertetration testswerecondtrctecl Sta'ijarct
in I'ouruoreholes'i6rilo" ihe site,and'theobtained
Bivcrt bclorv:
re.sutts
are , i
Depth(m) 0.75 t.50 2:zs 3.00 3.75 4.50
BI.II l5 t7 2l 22 25 29,,
BH2 r8 2l t9 22 24 2V
BI-I3 r6 t5 t8 20 22 2l
BI-14 t4 r8 20 2I 26 26
tlreallorvabre
,,,.,,1,"'Jr]"ull'ifili,lTJ:,1'"i:1,'.x'Ptl'.D"t'''.rine bearing
capacitl,
fQrrrrecresign
<,f
l3' A scltrare
lbotingis reqtrirtcl
to can'ya nct loaclol'1200.kN.Detenuine
thc tlePthol'founctation thesizeofthe tbotingil.
is 2 nt on,l =-3.'ffr.,oifu'ir;ily
tablci.^r'er1'clecp, f.,pl:f rnf.ty
usc'feng'seqtratiortlll'the
with N=12.Warc'
rvaibrtablerlsesto o.srn,bllow the,base o[t'c
. ftroting,utltillrvill trc thure;lucti(irr
in thc rretnllorvablc
' loacl.nrivire.-ri.i6r,yof t6c foori'g?
what will be tl'resizeof.thesquarcfootingin thiscaser.if,the
net lJia r"*.ins unclranged at
I200liN?
l'i' A Plalcloadte.st tva.scarriecl
outon a glouncl
havinga unifbrmsancl
-tlc1ith.'l'he .stratunl
Lrptp suftjcicnr
size.r'rr:eprateusccr
rvas31c'rX 3Ocnrl .'

Loacl(kN) 4 .5 l8 z7 6 {5 54
Seltlenrent
(nrnr) ).7s t . 2 s )-.0 1 , 5 t.38 .75 10.75
I)lot tlre load- settlententcurve.Also detemrinethe bearingcapacitvapd loed
b-va colttt:trt't'ootirrg that can be takerr
ol''sizel.2m X l.2rn in tlri.ssoil,for an ailowablesettle'ront
l4' Two platc load tcsr.s of 2c'r.
wereperl'orrnect ar a site on. *ttii; ;;;;;;",#;;;:;;;irl"'o,rr.,.
75cnt stlttitreplatc. Ir0r a settlenrentol'l-5nrnr,the wirir a
loads *.r" r""n.ciedas 50kN a.cl 90kN,
tespcctivclyirl the two tests.Determirre theallowablebearingpr.rrr,:"
rvhich a scitrarre-footing sanda'd t5e toad,
of l.5it size..;;;';y ;iil;;; "iil.,. 25rnm.
settlemenrnot exceqding
1' l5' A recta'gular'footi'g of 5m x 2.5msize,carries a unifor.m l";J;iil;;,r feo r.r.ii ml andi,
iocatecl at a depthoi 1.5'r.inr ,"t:r."i;;;-;i#thickness, and having E, valuepquatto
40,000kN/nr2'Thisclay.layer.is uiiclcrlai^
rryu secong'crayrayer;rg;;
Ei' = 70,000kN/ nr2.n irarclstraturnlies below.ttre ihi.kn"rg,andhavi'g
seconct l;t.;."i^lculate
'qrv' - v the iaveragc
imnrediate settlenrent
uncler thefooting,
l6' A 4tnx4tnsizcclfuotirtgca'ies aJoaiof netintensi(y equafto 200kN/'r2,g'iJ is located ara
depthol'lnr in a cleposit of stiff sarurareclclay lritr titirr.,-"*;i;g'u R'o straturq.Fronl
collsolidonleter testreiults'thev.alue ol'rn"wasfoundto t . i .z - r ti'T a'.dfronrtriaxialtests,
tltc vitltteol'polepressure coellcientA rvaslbundto be0.4.Theundrain.d "rl youngrnodulus
clal';t estintated lbr
to be 55000kN/ ur?;.Determin. tillrn*ediare seftlement;.(.ii)
-"-' -"
settlenrenr; consolidation
and(iii) lbtal seulement unclerthecenreiof tf,. f;;ilg.
l7'A footing2tn squarerestson a soft.u.la;i soil, *i1rtir1 t;;;; deptl .f lr5m fi.omground
surlhce.'l'heclay stratunlis 3.5 m thick andis unaenain
by a firnuunJ ,tr"tum. The blaysoil
hasLI- :30yo"c ='2.,7, uatercontentat saturation=406/o,""rr"ri"" =;il;;r'(o
knowntltattlte claystratunris normallyconsolidatcd =;,)1il;
c;p;;;;ilr",rr.n.rn, rhatwould,resulr
if the loaclirtte^sitvequalto thesafebearingcapacityoir_"ii
;;i;i'ffifi;'#; ;J fbdffi:
Nattttralv/atcrtableis quitecloseto the'grJu",irura*,,pot gu"n;;;l;;;9,
titctor(N.) is obtainedas6,9.Takefactoiorsaretyii-!.hrs,"r-*" bearing capacity
(froriz.<lntal).
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Departmerrt,
g C"j:9I
Cittug.:!fPnginoerin
Chdnnai- 600025'
aunoUiinbrJitv-;
Assignment- [l
PrcE340Fountr^qlql ::illlll ;11;'*,:r,i,.
rscInstrnctor: R.'"Ayothirayffi
Cott ,";';-

't: '
': lraving(t = 25o'35o'
rese on dry-c
tile'.i{q{bece'of.a nhesionless:soils
l. A strip footing,.l m-wide, Wha! is t5e yalue' if thereis
,f=lg.*NJry], Wtrat is the.uttiiraig*bearing capacity?
38o and

?U*tl'f i;g#i,ig*p+''r;f
cleposit
tiffl*"1i1j
?. Conrptitethe sdf0Ugbnl\g
o'i.pgh of l.zni
,ffi1:i:tl"ill
.""1':13.:::gf
capaorty
beiow
or tl r"'tr4""--
ground'lovot' The ;'l,;;m"tl.*
soil are'c:
pararneters
"," "-
'40
+u tctYt \' ='0''
//r ' (r
lii/y'lmz, - v and
q

!l
",
of a.s;xii-.,,.3?"#,:",':|.";[f]e or'saturatcd
surrace
, k;iLoil1f,*:ii:Tfi1f'6*i.,
;;lgth:t*rygl?
qomprqssro"
is 3'
of safety
Factor
I
clayoiunconfined r""*rlgul*ffi*:t l'?5rr'rX 3'5nrwhena
4. Compute theultimate p"u.1nq:ipaciiV,ef.a :d*- in I n'r "r
iiL{{bggiedf r0" ,i on ,rr"l"",i"g.itr6 footingis bmbedctect
y.*_i^*kacts
. road incli'ed

::r;.:':{* f*ff'Lt;Hff**ilI':H:{dT
;
. . , . , , r : - - ^ . : ^ -^--{ - = r " , t . c r r a r C i s i n c l i n e da w a yf r o r nt ' l i e ' , ' , .
l r r e v a i lC. = l 0 N l n ( , l r = 2 5 o ' .
ls '3ocStltftr' rr! r&iv s3'vvi'-'
a' Tng-rloac '
centrbin'theclirectionof B inclinbclnway front tlre '
b.fi;;;;-i'""""nt'i"illrt"directionofLbvl5curandisr:
t"iuol" thedirectionof B'
.;"':
c,T[p:logdiseccentric';iO.']$:o"git:gligrofBbVl!cq'inthqdirectior:ol'Ltrvl
'
;,S'ifikililit-nrytstififfisi$ubinero"t"the'footittg, kN in sancl"'
grounct"lev;;;'t;;Tita loadpf''9'00
s. Detcr'riiie ."rqr"r"il.ffi uq,l!;
the;.lize'of is3' whnt
of 36o.Facror
.."rit,on." of saferv
n tn;tand having
weigrrirrg ffi,B,"6gfiii"+it1_q t
will betrremodification q9"-'u_r";rt! rir;1a "t-u a"ptt'':f :l't,bclovr
i,, ,rr.'i$uTilir ,r..." =
in this JJe,'tr* *"4; tabiemnyriseto thc groundlsurface' t
, groundsurface?
.Assunre, ]ake ,
'
, lg ltNlm'. ! :- ---^-:+., nF o, ,,2 m X3.0nr, placeclat
6 ' D e t e r m i n e t h e n e t u l t i m a t e b e a r i n g c a P } c i t y o f a r e c t a n g*"isht.of
rgif u l a r f o o t i nbotcNim-
gJ uie skempton's'
r.gnrbelowthegrouncrin ,otui-"iJ'cray-witrr
"
on crayrvithcohesiou ol'
9,00_0
witSbase6nr)y 3inweigrrs
7. x'i"""1",11;r" .rr.is robepracefl
rqr.t
to 'stlpport
a rectangular footing foundation
=20 iNtrrt. Design
lZ*kl,.l/nr2,at aclept'of lrn. !
this machine with factor of safety 3' , q.1r '! dept' of ['5'r
g. wrrat is trr"-uitii.r* i*ri"g-"#ulity oru rbctangurar 1.7sx3.50 m at a
foo-ring, "
comparethe ; '
horizonralloaclis I50kl.t1jtthe'base of the'footing.'i].irrrine ttrefabtorof safety'
;i* Ji,"in.a fromH.ansen,s Factorrand:ls'factcrs.
. placedat l '5m
.. 9. Desigrrthe qltimatebearing, ;iu,*fw"",footing of size'15]l'5m to bc
"d;tj,f ii6kN. The spT N vdluesfor thc grouncl''
crcprhi' a depositof frne,u,ra"to'"irrya-'ct ior,r "i
is at verydeepbclowthc foundation'
sire,ovcr variousdepthsur" giu.i;;i;;. Water A'ssun1!4s -
anaeitrfc'sp-o'"fi;f;P+N;"eG"r'""G.::^:i:iJ:
r0,rrrcDeliili-(mf srsJlv-itlr"
tif':tilt};ll::'"'
H6J"',':iii!iiii!j'='{r-*=t:"ru'*
,i,:"'ffllil ""tl"lv
}:l?lt';
' t' ttr(1rollowirlEcolurnnloaclsareto hecarriecl
on,indiViclualrfootin^gp
lnt itt it sattcl = t8 l<Nirnt; clepth
lollttgilo.cffiHtrit ol.
of'unitweigttt eid,
were
corrd'ctecl
i'rl'our
uore .s-o-0ffii.!iizi.g ssd1ihit,ro,ol,R.
sta'ttar.cl
note'J;.i6ffi;i1-to;;;,
;r"r,11jgtuil1i:T
#Iffi:
i;::lffl,tests
Depth(m) 0.75 1 . 5 0 ''t25"'iJ:OU3,75 4.50
BI.II l5 t7 "'t[n, 2.2 25 22',,,,
BII2 IB 2l {9' 22' 24 2V'
llt-t3 t6 l5 t8 20 22 2:l
I]I.I4 l4 r8 20 2l 26 26,i

tlreallowiatrle
,,,.,,'l,"'i;lull[l3li,li:'j:,lr'J,'.xi,11',i;.''"t"''nrine beari'g
capaeitv
fp1r'rre
cresign
<,r'
'= ',1',:fjl:.::^f::'ifi
,: ":1y"11::,:,11,.,1jff;kN
Derer.nrine
ule,size,o-f
,t-':llili; rherboting
ir
lj,T,j':i'|":,lf:::'l1:'.f,.1,:'..T1,*'pl,ii:{*-y:-1ril:'.rr;'!l*'
l*i:.:: ::ll:.,1:T ,Usc
'reng's
oquatiorritrrlis, "I,T."iJ,f,Jj
rvn[g.ta{c
'r*r r. 0.s;;$iiffiilhojbase ol trrc
rvilttrcrhcrectucrion
in rtrcner'nllowhiiii:ilbnrl,carryi
ng:utlFtfwlolitlic foo(ing?
{1]:ljrt,llrrtrr
Whartwill be the sizeof.thesquarcfbotin!.;6 'load.iiffiiltih$rturicha
l200hN? nged at
l'i' A plateloacJ
-?fqith.'l'he tc.strva.s
carriect
outon a grounclhavirlg,a
unifbrmsnnclstratunitrptp 'sttnlctent
sizcof'rlreplateuscrrrvas.
3-0cnr
x 36.ffi-,'ij,l,
ntl, , 'ri. t

Loacl(kN) 1.5 ) 18, Iilj*t.i. l 6 {5 i4


(nrm)
Sct-tlenrenr ).7,s_._*25.. 2.0-* i;l s t.75 t0.7s
I)lot lhe loadl- settlentenrcttrve. Also cleternrineirc-seariuc.capaci.t-v
aoerre* trre{rar: b,: r::!:,::.r
i).vefctllttllttltooLillgol'.siz-e
i.2rriX I ?rriir, tf,i_.
soi!,for an allOwabie
scil,ielnoni
oi2cnr.
li' Tvroplatcloacltcst.s
wereperl'ornrect
at a sireone,*itii,u-iliilil,."-i;;;;r;il
75cutst;ttit|ePlatc.Irora settlenrent ogrerwitha
of: l5mm, the loads**r, ir"nrriectas 50kN a'cl 90kN,
res;rcclivelfitr thetwo tests.Determine ttreallowabi".il;"g;;.sr*"rrrt
whicla sclriare fooring orr.Sitsjz: rt'sru'r(
sanrla'd the loact,
'.15.A
..:. rectangrrlar.footing of 5m x 2.5m"1ll:;';tl,t;h1ri,p.frg*.,.re"reiil*
size,carriesaiunifu;,m,f""J;of ""i"uli1'lrdd;
irifenrjty.rt60
kN / ririandis
locarecr
ara deprh oi rJnr;,in:alaver ;r"v."fl;qj11].[i$q;;,;;'TffifiErffi:,ili*'ior"i
"i oy a socond.claylayerof gnr thickn'bis,
40,000l<N/m2.This clayld;; i; ,,,',o"r,u,,', J.,
El,= 70,000liN/ nt'. n harclstraturrtiesbelow.'ihe iinclhavi',,
.. inrrnediate secona luyrr.
's,vr' cojiilLi:t',ftT"ffi;:
v
setilenrent unclerthefooting
1." a 4rnx 4ttt siz'ecf'bcjtingcariesa loai of i111intensityeqy! to 200kN/ nr1, init is locarednr a
depthol'lm in a clepoiitof stiff saturatecl'clay.t.lm,qth.r,,
consolidorircter skaturi, Fronr
testreiutrs,thev.alueot muwasfjunA,io fp r.i *"".rrii;g';.fi*n
ro.7;if,;..atr;,i]ffilf
' Iltevrtltre
ol'l)ot'c
pressurc iJr"",
coefficient
A wasrouno
touro.+..irtl,ilar"r"ra.ynungnodul,b l..or
claf is esri'rarecr
ro bc55000.kN/.nrz;Determinelall$ggiu,.
,"rr]"rn;;liiqilAo,|ffiilj
:, set'tlenle't; 'r'otar -r,.f{ff*.",
' t?:.A fboting and(iii) settrementunclerthecerrteiof tiie 6oting.
2msquare ... , i .
restsonu r1l,1rri or,,16*frp.q grcuncl
surlhce'1'heclaystratunl'is 3.5.mttriokana{1i"W+Ufu.J'**daeplrr
iJi*fiffir,n,.by,afirm sand,straturn;r.rhe
lrasLI-= 30Yo, clavsoii
G=.2,l,\ ,arsr
content arsatur?tiop*@girrrr.*f;-fiAffir,r(6 =q,)1 r","i
'l'jiLl'Ttltll t1,.elavstr"tumisnormally .n"roiiailfiil'6-impute the seulement-rhar
irtr,eroacr i'te^sitv equar,"ir'.
'^i. woulct:resulr
#lii,i'lil,fiiif#T.ri'lilffiffftTjffi';X}tflffiTl:
..:iNalurallvatcrtableis.quiteolose[p+1hq.g'*'d]Ftiffiffiil;#ff#iii'
(N'l.itoblai'ed
.- ''"L,:t!t?' & -c'q,i.G"mitor'*ror#"ffi$ffi***,oucr*ondffir*Dffir(rvcftioafir.to,rr
'
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"tjJl,J:',',11TJ,,ff jfffi :'i
ficrdw's 2r' D*r:r'i'. T":,;:::
rrrccorr.*cd *
rovcrar8 m dcpih..
litblc.w0s,Uu,,,l1.:, ::,::F,,re the wsrer ",ri
trc ir( u dirp.lrriotr,gfi,fliiiD
sauratcdderilesand surthcc. sume unit wciglrtol'
as2l kN/nri I
\/
/'5. l)cscrilru
witha skctr;hthc W:rsh
' ' r"'r' r'i'r .r:. .i,i
ltor,tttgtttelltotl
anddemcrits.? 'f b,ringlr,lcs.Discuss
.: irs ,rurirs
i I '
\z-
1t '
, : " 6 . l ) c s c r i r r c( i , t c r r ' - 4
7 sugscs,
1;;]:;;;;:lffiT3,r'cr,.:rrari,1y,,.,,,,
. .,,",..:;:;ffi;,ol[

6nt sofr clay \


:)
p,G/- ' ,:,.,.,
' *srr i!giiii$:1?FF'l:

't lr.

-$.--->T;==
.. -zzXx,
I
t,
, r-or,sc
snndor(endi||!
togrcarcr 't",,
J <leprh /i) t'I

Statewhether
the state
a' r,orinj';:ilffiT::iltt reasohiqs
wasr inone
o.two srnre,rces
ngincohesiontess
scils. _ -fi L(

' ' % _ - -
7
cti 340._F,oI'NDATToN
p.rBE ENcrNnERrNc
--..,"
u,oMosrER
;)/\'!'"
ESSTCMWBNT,IEST
III
14ax. marks: j(l "tii/Zxtg':t:;
't

la' A tropczoiclal ,?imc: 4.snrirr


nrosonrv
r.r.inr-- -_-.rr .

i,inffiIf::::ayhid,,*"u*,o,,,
i
I
I
I *qn:.il#i]'i1#lfrr;:llffi'1;1,:"ffi
m;l*,;,:,#il,jt.1,-;m#,i:i,f$ifl;[Hffi1;fr
I

I
I
I
I ot'satlry as0,45,
detornrile
I
I agntast;;ffi;."1 ltrcfrruri,r,,r
t'
I
I lb. Dcrernrine oR
I tlrc llankine
re active
ecrivaand
.-.r pas.sirrc
, .
I
I tabti.is u, f.u.l carth prcssurcspcr
I Ul rinit tcngttrof tbc
walt shepl [s;6ru.
; The walcr
I

0 =3oo r'
,H_(L ,q
y* I6,klrlft1r

'^. ' ;
hali''''.rx"'.,
! .ru-ij,.*group
beo,jng,ic;#;."::anangedintIreformofasguarohsoftc|o-
mobirizrrion
ii.,o,orr.?"*"ril;;;;ffil'ilil:;,:i""HTiIl": Nld.ctine
'-"ts of thopilo :r,.r,s. .n.,-,
tgW"' diamdcr,,.. ns.rr,'ingsherrr
tI.
c0, /{-$(fuurc
grrxrt, r,f O n
OR
r , Pilcswcrc0,3rn
' pifc ;t1ffivg|tJ,r ffi#**' crav'l,lro*,",o
soll clnycxtg
o
tit. up."ing:86ffi;
spacingffi."-Hvcly'
--
rf thc unco.nfiriod
lircbr ol'g.i,. "' 'vtrtt'nlo cqltrq
Mut is thc'olprcity

.O
3b. l'ro?onion l0:
and clc:inna
r rmr.-.^..r-
witl rfict","J,o tcclanSular
conrbinqf I
dfl,
Prsruro
,s"Tifo'n rrndcr I

rrcgcro toEdplus fivc load


)-^r. !
sflff
| 6,
I Lo,unrn
----r.

Loo(t c<llunilrA
-_
ColumnE-
-FJ --
--_
S40te\
oeq.S
'400
Dishnccdc srqkNl tl; kN s{i;-rrt
d..rtffi = 5.4 prujq:fion
nr, or@I-J
Yoooce,TH'g
o*

:. ' i
. l

":1":'-.- -
--.----.---.--i.
cu 340l,'0LiN DA'I'I(}N UNG I N lrUt(rN u
il> V,\.
PTBE - V SEMESTER
I
Ari$t(;NMttN'l.,t'us'l'
'l'inrc I ltr
Itllrr. ntlrlu: 20
PARTA(2*5=10)

J.

capacity
in loculslrear
is drdicrnrincd?
{1 Suggcst shownbelow-
firr tlresoiluonditions
a choiceof foundation

'.:;ri-
,.,!'-il'.-, ;\.: \'i?ierrr,.,rt it 1,,,- ,r, f'rle- lvill-, raecfrttitlr ir: ,trr- r',r r*'a, aentOndgs

al, An unristurted santplcis absoluteiyundrsturUoO. -7 ;


, .
D. In situ vanesheartest is extrenrelyusefirlfor obtainingtrre shearstrenglhofvery cohesive
soils-fi&hF -'''-' :
g.{ Di|ararrcy'c6rregriorror.sprnuqr.berisdqqe'..for.g|ayeyooilsF
d.t Thc ultinutebearingcapacityof claysdepends.ou
the depthof the footing.rather:
than

P.ARTB (5 * 2= l0\

,'t
6. ' fiescribervitha sketchtheWashBoringrnethod
olboringholes.Discuss
its meritsand.denrerits.
I
:
7.a/ \\'hatarothcassunrptions nradcin thettcrivation bearingqapacity
of Tcrzirghi's theory? Writc
tfrc.ccluation
fbr thcultinralc
bcaringcapacity. /
b1 A footirlg2nrsquareis laiclatl depthof l.j m l,etowthegroundsurface.Determine thenet
ulrinr y = zorctrdTE]r6TN" ;0TFTBT-
I Takc
l{.,=?3.4J!l,hatistheufiangeinbearingcapacitywhen-
l. Thewatertablerisesto thelevelof thebaseof thefooting
2. Thewatertabler.'ses to.thegroundsurface
3. Tlrewatertableis I nrbelowthebasc
!

t,. Antrrrclisrurbccr
s'irrptc
lr\
lq$
ir.tJ;ky.{;/t,urt.o, ,.--
4^h" .'
situulnt;:'19u1
tosl,rye\trcmdy
urefulforoftaining
I rhesharrsrrengrh.
of vcrycohesi've
soils
d.

:*iffi T*il
d I n
if.l*...
T:,l---ifi.,#
"
c.
considerablydfl
with dcptli :fr:'
:'-:rvt*e{urt:€=a[$!l tnl

" rr*;iiryi'a.po,a,onthedepth
Iifni,,tnT,;,j"i:ruf a
ofthefooring

what are the assumptions


ffi madetn ttre itsii*.dlonof Terzaghi,s
-'
theory.?-W"ite
ii j. r r. i /Dt";,i;'1",1:f[!ffin""trr.
thc,etluatiorr
er tlreulti
bonringcapaciry.
i,"u
Dif'l'erei'tiatc
bctwcett ru;3 ;
ry-I0 genei'nl luu,Iroihiii.,,a-ro",lr'rrr.ar
fairuFc,Ftowrheutrinrarc
bearitrg capacity in locarshearis derermined? u-ii--' '!.;....
i'" o, , :.,U o 7,1ri.'" ,1 ,i.\
,)" :fooring-2rn"sqirarc is raicrar a de'trrof ,., n.,o"ilr-*-unct
surface.Determirrc
l.ltcttc ul(irrirlet)carinB cryaciryusim$,
'J0,N{*18.4,N'*23.4] lngltiaiA:ifflriiftc,?;20 kN/nr.r,{ = 30o,N; _ ;.,
:
,..,,,.'i:''
tVhati.srhr:r:hrrn.g,:iil:
burririg i(iii.r(;iii when
l 'l'^crr':rr''r'rirhrrr '
ri;r:.,i
r, tfrcrr..r.r:r
'r'rrrc'rr.licrrf rhut.troting .
_ , rt, (
-l'hc ,1
2. rvatcrtabler.iscs to rhegrcltfndsurfnce - o,{ ..
3. ?'herviltertahlcis I nr bclouv
rhcbas,c 111osr,fiV.,C''?1"
sqrarcc.rrrrrrrrburrcrati,'is
lo rrc crclignc,ror ir gros.safrownbrc
'lf ,",, ;; ,;
y/250kN' thclouclis iDclined
aranan6Je .vcrtical.
of.lf^ to rhe rtetermine
.r.r:k-cr!e.1
| ..J.q:-rf^N4, =$!lL ,n. ;;; ;;
:l"i::ldari'n 0 !.*r",,;:.;;;;:';;:

': ., ltl
\t:: :

::.iii:.t' i:

.-iji'
. i,,

::
U

CI' 340 F'OUNDATIONENGINEERTNG Yryk@


PTBE - v, SEI\4ESTER
,.
ul Dsrrrtpsrpn Dilr\GNATIoN
Max. mnrks:20
. PARTA(3 *3=9) tirne t hr
't
l . a , What is samplertisturbance?
How can lt be ninimized?
b. writedown
thegcneror,egt'g.ro*trt
a*tiiiqr
'*t" o' l ytTqru,.foo'ng4mx 2nrrcsring
''sm
liJ;T,fffi*trSl|;111f"ii' bctow*r';il;";i:' *;;";,"
a. Sketchthocontirctprcssure
? for
i. Flexibte
footingon cohesionluo rbU4
-
ii. RigidfootingoncohesionlsdroU
V
iii. Flcxibtcfootingon*fprir,u*n-.
t
iv. Rilidfooring
* *r,*i".pC"
J ,
b' Howdo yourrctermin.
settremen:
ofthe fo'ndationfromprateroad
test.resurts?
I '-.r:srceiL rerLansuiai
c,-ri,"rnn
rsur:d8tiorl r.cri c.riqh
t icnirgoira,rc
"
Sarrd
p= I00kN/mz E= 16,300|d.t,m,
tt = 0,4
I.Snrx 2m 'Io= 1.2

P A R T B( S + 6 = U )

4' WhatrviUh
0regrossand net safe
haring pressureof san4having
tveightof l7 klrl/m3 0 36 and,effectiveunit'
unclcr
a, I m rvidestrip{boting t

.a
o. I nr squarcfooring

Assumethc footings
are placedat a depth
oJ,lm,betowground
ar grcatdcprlr. surfrcennd that
tharthe
the waterrable
Assunrc fl,o.s.= 3. For = 36, = I i.s
0 Nq 47, N, = 43.
Calcularcrlrcbearing
capaciryif
i. the rvatertablc
rjscsto the baseofthe
footirrg
ii. watertablc !.s
at ground level.
", i . j
|;
'I

.t ;

51.
t Ap=60kN/m? 0
y*r = t9 kN/m3. sancl

y.r = 20 klrl/m3, cla.r,


c= l.l
l-l-= 55

A srtil prolih: is irs .slr'rv.. rf'' unirbrnrrydistributed


load:Ap;issppriedat the groundsu&ce
(exending oyer a wide uea). whar is rhe '. '1"

settrementof ,trid'rcuf taye, causedby prirnary


,

consolidario.r.
i. The soil is nonnallyconsolidated.
n. l hc:pre:onsolicjarion is i g5 i:l.l/n3
Dressure
iii. 'I'he
precoruotidation prcssurcis 160kN/m.z
=
Uss..G, l,/5 C, -,..,1.-.,.

:. oll
;b' r A claydeposir4 m rNck
andresingon a rook hasuodergone.corsolidrtion
un<lera depositof
sandl8m thick' ''lhe rvate/rabtewas
on the tgp of tlresand.D-ueto errslo4 lOmof' mndhave
bcenerbdcci.computerheprecoruoirdation pr.essureat the;!n;s illi, .r, :
I I thc fondis placcdso thatthcvenicol "r*'--
stresson rlreulaylayer lncraewlbyjo khl/m?,
Ls cornpute
thesculcmenr of the cl,ay
-- --J layer.
.-J '.. ,..
c ,r.l ..-

ClsY . Sand ::r,,;rrifi":i*"',


le
' tu'k cleruiry 20 !N/m3 j
,, 2i kt,l/m3 ;r-,i*l*,rrdr$+.
';
t' Mgisturecontenl .] .ii:iJ.-:.''r '..",r,
B % |
:rri "
SPecific
graviry
.

:.:,:#ffiff-,
z,g .t,_ :

: '
,* - i /i! J rif,. ',
11i1;';.-*''
's
. r--\3i;

,, ,i
:-r+i.
..,s
,'i' ,,-s
c- ) - ; +
t. (!-, .
',r
'..:1ii
:
:- : ..j
4F-
/ 'a
z,*= ., t .:i
,ri ,:t bi .!p l- ,..il
.lQ 'z F
:i
=, q,

" / a a\
;-; /\ '-:: .: =
'zaa .-'ii
H c 'f, ^. ui ,::i
cr* lpz A i 3 E Gr

ga 2 E ,.,.€
3 ;; =
; R '6 '"t
.3. a .':+
74>' - c r o re
?. Jzll 1-: e t;a) i$
...$r1
-44
!:.rFl F ' c&€' a - e c\
EE}
*r ^ ,t",
7 7. (d{.
rA 1 _1 x rr'{'
_.,J ,Jr
.- 4; : ;7 . '1 J c c7,.U o liil*
97
EA
!
d =A
.
*=
4
r .- .9ntj': v a\r
'o
X
:$
Ctr ,t- .t'j cj 'I
(UX'n
'-.-k
o:('
,J,.
r;f:
a!
."-
.jca ci= A
t 7- )c, *' ,..$
E6 "S -! 3 JF i;
AJ
,t, -
C)
'n
50
.) .O j+
^: !-rt - l
| =
4 ;i=n
U,
cs ::.
vL] & ,=€ I

:a\
o
?59 .*i:
cv
(,
:\l
ar?
^
di'o .n :i$
'/<) =ui
'r- 2 r,1 d
ti
rT
i

Ficil'F - ! ?(i
,-\l i-
dt

A. :i5 a
.-l
r,? ;
ai !
A2

(9 {{i.'/d , t\

:J,^(U€^
,.-6EEe ,12 5s TzTlEStS . . . 6 36
"I-.3 f' h
-'. v
EJ ct
c\
n ,g?Ey
r v . 6
.L
1 3.; e ho €o
I
ath 2 -:CIY e ct
:: :: -:.,: ,,, I :itt

; -.e
,' = ft -. -

eF € niiii;a;
5 o .i: oiv
a'.. I .o
; t

_E 7 :ilehE
e'-38
/ =1.'..-q
P E r"Q-c
F = CL4
F: V iEl:r;
tr'u
;.)
trP

Y!
.-
-r
. c&-:.H
S
U " :o --:; j:: g a9
-
cli.D
O
<D co .cEr*o S'2,- ol <_.\

;c u ' d : Ey . 15 oo:,EEi CJ

E
.. q
9g'6
g
rH ;: lii:Ea
e=
E o
h.c
vqrT
.;

^€
^l
abv
{r
' f '

; E! '4-

"' i ..-g E'; *i ;fi js;f


!F'i6gE ' tr o(\l
ni
l-t c- ut F \\.
' .lI o 5 --' h .9i'
G €bO

Ej #j
r' .- *A9 E2o' = '-
rc.
if e
o l;c
.)v'.2
:
\
:.i
FDcr€g
L Fk.r
-;
G€ 3hbjF+ati '=;t;lig
Fa
^. aok
{
(!

;f
- - d k H *
/1
^:t:= r. o
o
€, kFr ( E
u Sr' avt )
.,t 6 Fl UI F
\P
./. if or
/
,/ qJ.c.; E;
t- Er:.3 3 sE SifjgE 5
d

':/',.
(r{J}

ir
--- - --l-.

g
p
a.-. @
E
u, hO

t
ct)
U) *t
Ypn
P 9.. o !1 .<tl
6l
h! '.'! .1
4,.Y " >r +l
(rt .N ho d
".Gt-U)
!
bc -q)
I x o C 'E .ct
(\. :) 'f' g- rtr
k OH o) q C
a)
F €6 7,
(, :55'\ >r

i* E{ ()
1:l
c\ o = o ;
o
EI
(u (!, .
N 6:
(9
c)
I
t<
o tu1
ol
v, .6 al (J
(J
U2
tro k u\ 'f

.c) u, crtr C) .zcJd6


,o 90. (u -qt. br(
3 d"
F

'rd,
(, to
Utt:" *-.:'8r.,
4l+,
P)(D

.:,fr,+t#;i
c' t<
(J
6
i,^
>: }[.9
no
El;
at
a/
E{ "!a
ta
uti :. ot.: at
8 : .< ro crt
;F' haJ
€,1.. H ;r€ s.
:# :(uj
r.
E "c"5 ;i9
,al.\
-E q\
a
'o
o
k

; H'...u ocl
qt
6
C.a
(J C)
()-
- t - 'A*T=>
$ u,
qt
(dl
E( ci
DO..
.o
x9 U' 6 ,o E-
|, A c,'
u,
o
.fcL;." r l r : r 5 '
E.XrU
G' ;\ ?) t:
o =t c)
5r
c
c, ir
rO
c\
't.t'
or,
-42 , -cEU'3 d,
rit
o ':c
H
;! .9 €.4 !
.ir o
H '.,1
<t 9; flu
(!

e"":,''
r< c'! 't7
i9;rl
!= \:ir d CJ-
.ri c)
i F.aa A. 9rlr)
1: E o,9
acDtl tjr q,
UC\

k.i
;.t
.t, ct
i
L :

!-=
i. .:-,

:ct

:
>n
cq
r'i G

i;
XP

k q(g
I
g.:
J
rn

rrd

e,

c.e
;?

.-. -:
i,j ij'5J5
'a

B -Ll.iB.'l'cuh- (Pi: rr-l.'im e) DEGREDEXAMINATION,


Apltll./triA y 20b3

Fiirh'Semestel

Engine6ring
.Civil
P1ICE 340 _ FOUNDATION ETVGINEERING
j
f in:c : ?hree horrrs
Mer.-ximum:.1 00 rrrar.ll.s

Ansrver AJ.L questions.

Use of BIS 6403 is 1:ernritLecl.

PARTA-(10 x2-z}marks)

i. \ri hat is nreant bv

lVirai are tirc di.sad\rarltag


ctf*tatic cone penetratiiin tcs;t over l:or-infT
arrrrj

, 13r .Jl,:ii:n\.r1":1:: .'

:,VJ-:r'-..: .r;tr,..:,-
does :tllow,itble bgari,4r.
c,4pacity beccne equal to net safe bea:.irrgl
capacrih,'/, ':-' ,';"iq6, ]{$lffrr.ut
'"4:F

!',,:..,..' .:i1;:-
alse T'i't'e* .err:.entof a footing fourrdecl o n cltrygl'
soil is rnot.et-han th a t f ounde$,olllgaiity
"boll. Jus tify your answ er.
':'i*qr-<it'
""

5. Dis ti dBtiish betrvee'r i-ma&i;.


*nd giorrsettlemenr.
"orrsnlida
6. \\t]:acare the erssutiplions
that are madein thc structuraldesigrr
of footingsir
.i

ven pile.s over bogit{ c?s.![n_gjlrr_piles./


'
. _+!"ri '

i-t .
iilSi.'r:":r:
.riii .;:-

-.-;/'
( i
'llh'::;ctLlemcnt of a pilc
Sl-r, Lrur,crrfalsc : $'oup is trran-1'l,imcrs
that of a sinqlr:
jtrstili'Votrr'
in i,'r'ii: l"i:.-rcas(:.'::.
lrilc-..thr.o'.lgli t.hc itrnrl rter pilc is l;i':trsiir':.':e
answer.

Horv is the aliowable load detcrmined from the result.s of a pilc load tcst?
i

1 0 . State the direction ald magrritude of rvall novement required for the

mobilisation of active and passive earth pre.ssurerespectivelS''

PAIiT B _ (S x,16 = B0 marics)

11 A strap iooting is to be clesigneclto carrl'loacls of 750 i;-v ancl "100lcN li:rotri;h


columi-rsof sizes .400 mm x 400 mm and.250 mu: >: 25( mm. respectiveli" Tlrc

columns are spaced at 5 m c/c and the second column i:: on the boundary line.
'lhe r,,idt-h of the footing could be assumed as 2.2 m. 'Ihc allorvable bearing

capacitl' of thc soil is 250 icPa. Find the plan dirnens.orls of the footing and
drd',v tl:c shenr force and liending moment diagrams ibl tlrr: strap bea:er.

1, (a) (i) ilxplain thc factors influencing ttre number' :r s1:acingof boreholcs.
(Gt

ground level. The unit weights of sand al'ove and beiorv rvater t'ablc
, . .:. ::, r: li$i
are 16.5 IcN/m3 11}ffi.f-:i_":tn el1',I)eterzninet$ dcsign
i'\
"q
N-value for. a footing ofsize 3 m x 3 p fo.rndeclat a depth of 1.5 rn.

Depth (m) 1( 3.0 4.5 6.0 /.c 9.0

N-r'alue 12 30
'ts*- (10)

A'
Or
\
:""
\
Q 395
-..?J<-
\\'hirt r,.r'r'l.i:,.rir<1,'lrrtLlge'-cilrl(l citsllrlr':'.:tr-;rgcs oJ :iqgclt' llol'!r,g'i iLj t

(ii t I)isting.rrsir bets'ccn llon-r'(, . -.lit)nt,ltt.ivr' !'t:plc:ientlill\/t art(i

r,rrrdrstr:rbcd:;tr:rplcs.StaLc thc'lrrbolatoi.y Lest.:;r','i:i,:iican br'

corrrluc[eclon ciich of i]re sampi(.:s.l{otr do you tind '.','hether ar

s.r.mpiesgivcs disturbcd or trndisttrbecl sample baseciolr e:-(iarL+'io'''}


(1 0 )

j.r (r) (i) D:tirlain rlre influence of position of g-rouuclwatei tabie on thc:
. bearing capaciiy of .footingsresting olr sand. (4)

,/1
liD,/A bquare lboLing is to be foundeclat a depth of 1 m belorvtire grounci

i ...
i /q
' 'surfarr:e
and is lo crury a load of 1000 kN. The ground rvater table is
at thc base of the footing. The rrnit rveight of the soil belo\A' anci
- (..t

't
abovc the base of the footing .are 18 kN/m3 anci li.N/r-"
\- ,.
lespcctivl:ly. 'fhe cohesionand angle of internal friction of ttre ioil

arc 10 lJ'I/m2 and 3Borespectively. De.termine the size of fhe foocinlr


irdr.ru"-inr.
;r f:r(:l.olcf safr..:t-v ,itions f t lrt
of 3 {Ts,,RTS6403 )'ecernrnen(l

Or

Prol>ortion a square footing to carry .r load of 1500 I;J{ fronr a


column. ll'he fouudagien.,depth is 2 an. Maximum
'.li,i.,:'....';..;,,,,..;:
permissible
"
settlement is 40 mm. Ttre factor of safet-v against shear failtrre
should not Le less than 'Il'rc.
!. The avcrage con'ected N-value is 18.
gror.rnd rvater table is for below. il.l t

(ii) A plate l.oacitest rvas performed rvith a 0.3 m diameter piate at a

tlcpLlr':f ti.ll nr bolorvthe glound lc".,r:],'l'lro


top 2 m ol'soil .rt.thc sitr.
conslsts ci' dense sand underlain by l,.'osesand. It is r..uquiredtr,

cxtrapolate the results of the test for the desig:r of 3 m rvide footing
'rvo\rici
yr:,-i61eta safe or unsafe clesigrr?jus.uify your anslvei. (6)

Q 3gs
'g (r')( i ) A p'ecrr.st 'ilc, 2s0 mm x 250 ':m in cross section
is dl.iyonur)r_,i
clcp';hof l0 nr i'n soil p'ofilc c,rnsisti'g of 2layers.
Thc ro1;I.\,t...,..
(j rn Lhjck a'd has an uncc.rriincd,conrpressive
strerrgth of 2J k1,.,,::.:,
r..'l:ich is ugldcrlain i:y n slii.#'clay of unconfinecl
courpress:...i.
sLrength of 130 ]cl.{/ur2. Detcrurine the safe load the pilc ca' c*:.:....
rvith a facLor of safety of 3.'I'alie adhesion factors
for the toli iar.....:
and the botto=r,layeras 1.0 and 0.5 respectively.
t1r-,,
(ii) what is negative sldn friction? \\trat are the situations
uncler s,l-,icir
it is de'eloped? what is its in{ruence on the factor
of safety? tit

.: .or
l:,'
(b) (i) rr---r
Dxpla.rn
.! .r
.now prles areplassitied based on their function. , (.Sj
A 16-pile 6'roup:has to be arrunged in the form of a
square in a
soil with,funiform spacing in both the directions. Ncglectrr:g
;:].rer
thc end bearing resistance, determine the optimum value
of spdcir:g
in terms of pile dia'eter, assuming an ad.hesionfactor (E r
of 0,2.
15. (a) (i)''-*"',statetr." in Ra'kine,s earth pressure theor.;
' -lt ltiand hence .1;""ffi!'made
a6riveitr,{;expressionfor active eartJrpressur€at a point

6it A canti'Ierrer reoarning,;1v-q:I];I,oJ


of height
height 7
z m with smooth
smooth vertical
vertical back
1i's'iet'rirro'sdncl. riiut"affi;"tio,
angle of internal fiiction and specili.:
gritvt'ty of solids*sf sand are 0"8, 90" and2.7 respectivell,.
Defermine
the active '*is"t"'Sl.)*elr.,'
\rrl

(b)

nl' u horizo'tal clistanceof B m from the crest of


the wall

Q 3e5
r1 ^

s 9:]26

B.E.,B.Tech.(Part-Time) DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRILII\4AY 2O04.


')'. :.ri:

Fifth;Semester
. - ; : .. "
Civil Engineeriqg

TJ'TCE340 - FOUNDATION ENGINIIERING


Time : T'hree hours Maximum: L00 marks
AnsriieilAll q-ues
'r tions. j
'"1$''
Use of 815-6403is per:nitted.

2 =Z}marks) :
PAIITo,=ntidI
,/ \. !
'i:

I.,/i' W}:rat is meant by a.rron-representative sample? '


,//

; /./
'l.i/ Why
Z.y'' W}:ryis inside
insi<t cleaz'ancegiven to the sanple? Give tfi" onpu" ancl lorverlirnit.s
tJ
for the same.

?,2 A strip footing, I m rvide carries a load of 100 lcN/ur and is founcleil on a cltryey
'rrr..oi t111y*rryci L'ortrrr!^Grdoittr,grylul' a, :ur sirr- Fiud lbe lacr.r:- o: sare:1'
agniastshlgF rfailur.e aq
'Capacity
4 . tI is"S00'kPd.and the net bearing
af 50 mm is L20 lcPa. If the settlement
ishdi so''.ttr.'"o'iiTff,--tffiftdtyagainst"tt".rr"il".u-i"noit"r"uu
thari'3, find the allowable Uearinl b'apacitv.

Satl' true or.false ancl.iustify your answeq.The permissible settlenrt:nt -Jepends


,/'u-/

t,\-i
I
. */ /c l-- ,

'l

.;. J ' . .

. , j.'?: :i!

'.
;€i^ i-.
-:;i,.:irl:i.:
\' '::ii:: :?:'
.;:- r.r.r.:':;:
:.i .
PAITT'B - (5 x 16 = 80 markr)
,/ t
./ t
11:' Fincl the pl-an dimensions of a-trapezoidal shaped !
combined.footing for.t*,.
columns .800 mm x 800 mm and bOb o.- * b00;;
carrying ro.a, b00 rli
and 7s0 kN respecrively. Both the corumns "r]i.e
are it u #";;;;y a.cl
spaced at 4 m dc. The allowable bearing capacity ""
of the soil is -Lbohpa. Locate
the point of maxirnum bending moment and
fincl tire magnitude of maxirnu.r
bending moment. r ,

L2. (a) .,(i) Explain with a neat sketch, how Rotary drilling is done. (1.1)
.(ii) are the advantages and disacivantages of static
. Ihut e cone
Penetration Test over boring and sarnpiing? (5)
.:
Or
(b)'z'(i) In a clay deposit, the water table rs at a crepth of B n below
ground
Ievel. It is proposed to adopt a raft found,aiion of diamete,
6 * rr.
an oil tanri at a depth of 1.8 nr below thg .grouqrd
tevet. ti- trr"
foundarionis.subjecdeato a ioadi;;;;;;tit.-#.6b: I$;; i"a ,n.
depthof'boreholeto be made.TakJunit.*uiihtr ,"ii"-bouu
-
belcwwatertableas 1gkl{/msand20ravlfu*"sfe.trrd
"fifi
,and >i'
trol
/ '
(iit Explain the con'ectionstliat are to be carriecl out to
the observed
r\_varue.
, (6)
'/-
\e'' :'u
|.. :T_:1ry:T
stren'gthof u0 ,1:e
kPe affiryFFE 9f c"r- nl"u'ffiiirad eoepres:!...c
nit-weifrrt 1g r,rvdrmng
.t
'l :'
...
to ,. g"or,l
depth. A raft foundation,of olar dimensions
Ji-orroi.rrro e,f ai;;;"t;x-16*m :^
'll
. ,!i*:.$L..- -.. . is r^
*iil-16 P,is to L^
to be
be
rnstaued at a
"'of ftO 'MN it+ca:gies a loacl
for
basement
n'aor.
nalS'ffi;i;riffiiS 6ffi:' i;;
(ii) Distinguish betwcen general, rocaland punching shearfairures. (B)

I
(b) (i) A plate lo*d test was conductedon a r:nifoi-m aupoilt of
sand arrct
the follorving results were obtainecl: .'
:. ' -ff{!fiti-,.sj::tt '.
Pressure(kPa) : 0 50 100 200 300 400
Settlement (rnm) : 0 1 2,i" 7,6 12.5

.,,,:.-::r
., .'i "

*,,:;,;,:1.
,i.l .:)
i{'1i;: ^Y

i--

(ii) Discussthe limitatig*:lpl*ge loadtest.

c)
I '.-:.. ..;-
':,.1.1'1
I . : 'i.-
:a:!r;' ;;:
'('
:-
!4. (a) A group of g pires arra*ged in
a square pattcrn is used as a founclation
for a column insand ol'ingle
of internal ir.iction oil-i0.. piles 300
diameter and 10 m irr length ar.e placed r-n:..rir:
ai a spacin€i.of ?50 mm ir: eacl,
direction. calcuiate rhe lold carrying
capacity.of the.piie group aciop;ing
a factor of safety of 2.5. Assume
ih"-,rrrii *uight oitn* soil as 1g
The No and N, values uro ,o"p""tively kl..ilrira.
26 ^"AVi.+-.'
The results of pile load test conducted
on ore of rhe above mentioned
piles are given below : r

Load (kN): 0 150 200 250 300 400 500 600


Settiement(mm) : 0 i.4E 2..25 Z.7S g.6 E,,S J.0.25 g0

Malte an estimate of settlcrnent of pile group,


if the calculatedsafe load
were appliedon it,

Or
4
(b)
- (i)/ Determine the group of a pile supported footirrg in rt
uniform ciay o1.ii""ion "M.1tJ,
80-kPa. fhe piles are placed in B rorvs *,iur
4 piles in each ror,,,.fhe pires are spacedat gc)o
mm cy'cin both the
directions. Trre rength and diameier of the piles
are .12 m anc
300 mm respectively.Take ad,hesionfaetor as 0.3.
(10)
,/
1.1:.: '#llai l: meanl i : ' " .: r , . c ; - i v . , ^- . itrr;.-*. ;.- ^ - :;
q i : i n ; ? , ^ . ,^;i"
is its infruenceon trre'foctorJ."i"t
L'ucs rL('ccu'j t"'l;;
;;ffi'
15' (a) (i) There are two retaining rvalls of same height,
or:.ewith a sn:ooth
back and the other. w-i_tha rough bach. Both-thu
walls. aie ,utuir.,ing
iil
wnre'xpe"i;;;
i*ft*ffi.ffi'?u-+Bft.}$$i"m-H$' u,.ngi'oi
(5)
(ii) A smooth vertical rvall of h6ight 4 m, retains
a cohesionlessbackfrll
rvith. an angle of fnternar fiiction of 300, void
ratio of 0.62 ancr
specific gravity of solids ol 2,7.,,Drawthe active
ili !ru""*."
distribution diagram if the til fully dry (2) I'ully submerged.
"'oit'ii
(1I)
; J': ': i
Or i
/
b),-/A retaining- wall g m high with_.a t-9g.angle
' of g0" r+,ith the.horizontar
retains a cohesionless
soii t.5tt-u.|-n+-;l;
fricrion il ;;r;eight of
80"and1ekr.r/m3.
Theangleofriaurii.ti;;i; ;;;. r;-;;tiiii"rrr""",,
sioping
1t It angle of 10" to the horizontal. By curmannis |apnicat
method, find the total active thrust,'whun ti"ru
is a line load of l0l klt/m
at a horizontal distance 2,5 mfrom thg
7f crest of the wall.

Nt [o" -8l. tl *Jd' *,'t1lu/^c


l\

s 9226
2,** >9'9) " r e\
4c'l

CDG tA IST
-_;it

iti:,1;l

'.,i t"
.an ";:

:.,..:ni

,1.
i

id''tffi:"na
"i*imj p*
'{ijim.H;m*''..T;.'Ii'i*,$si$fF...j$'.'i..T|'t:.-,ii:ry':r+]'i*.'''.;.,.*
rt.':i.,,'F::j:'"iffiffiffii";.,i;-,,"}fl;i:;:.-,i..,i,.-".,",.,,-,,,,,..,*.o;.-,,.:.',.',.-.i.*.i#.t$*"eTl.i+:.'r.ri'-
. . ; : : . "l B - i '.El.wffiyour answer.
.....;.::.''.iiffiii,x*gi**.**r.'.iil,:.+''::.ii._.':"t'.!'1;1'|'!.1|;:']i.,i.:
, ,ffigq".$grjs,SF tJreoryof Earth
Coulomb's
"+d
..".;..o.:'.,i.f}:|...:i.oPHH..:'l.:::.....j.r..l..r.:iii$::.,,1\;]:.r.i':*i.']:
. . ..". .
.- ';. :'r ' . "10. . rig
- ; i , 1 ; 1 . ; r j 1l li ;l ". .i ,: ,...: .. , ..r. .
iElepyorr cm4dke a verticrilsw dthout wall suppurts?
. '.:ii

:'i. :-1.
'r:':.'-;:i?r'- {i': .#
Pi{ATB - (5 x 16 = 8O narks)

1L. (il Wh^at are the,pLases ia a'co.mplete subsurface exploration? Indicate the
,,irrfo.ryqli* tbaf6*ts be.obtaiued
in.earfo:stq.ge-,q,
-- St,*c * |,jU).,_,
i',: +
,. ,, : ,,
- -,'
ffi), A,seisui,icrefraction,stud.Y fotow'rng'dsta'i
of ag ar'-'e,q++gpven'the
'. '1,"::;;t,. ::
' ii::t

Distance fron irnpact point


'"'$i:
.to geopbone (m) 15 60 90 LZA
Time to receive wave (eec.) 01095. , ;0:6 0.10 0.11 a:Lz
(1) P,Iot.the,,timetravel datq the seisnic velocity for the

',C$), .Deter.tnine thp

(8)'' Ilsiqg #he .eeield'iC' the 'probable ,esdh


materials'in the:tlw ,t
(Jq).,
, , _,.

(i)
L2,
? Discuss buiefua&ou depth of founctatisn.
(6)

.."" lgis tg,bedaeed


footing: rcuftl.,'rhe
*She
. stibsoil is
= ltths#sr- affi
tlat
,:l:.:::: .eheined
..'i.!'b$\:-:., l
.,
.conditian .pnerra,ils,

.0
A,squane .footlgg i2 :.n x 2 :m is to'be,fsu,udeel.a!-.tibe .sarne ;de"ptJr
rrhere the plab,load test was conducted. Detemine tJre alloweble
-'-
iitiu. rmcihe ftd#nisltuo :thrit'the fed# of'#fety sh*a" ifdu".
"gaid

2 cEG{(#)i155
t3Y (a) Dravr the pnessure,distribrrtion beneath a rigid and flexible footing
f\ % und.er various types of soil. (6)

(ii) felp sdlr'rmnc of sizes {fl$ mrn'x'400 tnt aild 5O0.Ynrnx 500 'n'n
spaced at 4 m clc c87iy loads,,of 600 kN qn}d 900 k[.{ re-s.pectively.
fire first.ooh:nn is on tfte,boritdary :tine. :Gbd ;the $ilain,dlinensions
of .a .reotang,tl- combined footiqg if, tJre'allosnifitre ;fufi4i@':capacity
draw theshba'
i,b :1^80:skPa.-r$so ac;and bendiqg.vnrn:nerd iliegrm
for'thdfooting. (10)

Or

ft) (i) Describe the,method.ofpmportioning footing for equaLsettlement.


(8)
. ".:. i..'" .:
(iD Describe,tftej,I,S::6b'i1e'of practice for,design tiFrdftifiiiln&ations. (8)
" .
...,,;
.14. (a) (il tsriefl',y:dis.9gqrthe-.m'ethodof obta:i'rri'19
andl:SlryTtests. (6)

(fi) Desigp.raififiatio1npile giroup to carq;r a load'of 9000 k!.{ including the


rFeigst :df ltlie.,pjlb cap at a site'where' tJre'soil: is,uirlfom' cley- to a
^; :deFth..df t20,'m .undertrain by rodc. The anrerqge,uneorfined
----"*'r*..-4seqryeggixr€-istreagth--of;the.€*Efr-,isf,O-" ?--.'sharctraymay be

i i.EguiA'+Ti'",iit
,of 60%. Adopt"aiEactor of"safrir$..6f ,$ agdinst shear
fidflrre" rT0)

(4'

'.,t!
I:L
:lli::

r, =,lsqfff ji#=lvCI".
irof 20 $repG.h
.Ofiffisrknent of
:--:
6T tJre. -water'.tablb
_r:r,;
;'is,,atthe
,,bgth"sides-,,For,this,rrall. detCuqliibitheifo[o$ring.
. , . ! . : . . ,: 1 : . . : l

distribution,n'dffi ;depfb.
pressurc distributioa with depth.

B ClBGl,(A)il55
(b) (1) lWrite Step by-stqppr,ocethrne'of:Grflniri'iio{S'*graphical"metJroclto fmil
.f;he
inClined .badk
,resslr€ idue,to'a sloping gforlnd .on
(8)
the s@bility 9f
Diqcuss,in.detail trhbv,@,ous:agpe-Gts:of,,checkiqg
\\-/ -1$)

l:rir,',..,..;li.,t

:il:i:,i',t+*
Ir'i!t

'i',:ii*'
! :
l,i'i':

' i ,r,,
' '

'
,.i..:,']".: .:
'
l.;,,,.r:,. .

4 scmGfGs)a!65
2*n>52'9) .,r,
f6i
CEG (A) 155

B.E./B.Tech.(Part-Time) DEGREEEXAMINATION, APRIIA{AY 2008.

Fifth Semester

Civil Engineering

PTCE 340 _ FOI]NDATION ENGINEERING

(Regulation 200012002)

Time: Threehours Maximum : 100marks


Answer ALL questions.
IS : 6403-1981ispermitted.
PARTA-(10 x2=20 marks)

1. - What do you understand about disturbedand undisturbed ga'nples?


,-//

2. The SPI'If value recorded in a silty fine sand was 16 at which the effective
overburden pressure was 80 klrl/m3. Determine the corrected lP value. ' '."

$ What are the different types of foundation.' failure? State the tlpe of soil in
which they occur?

4/ Say Ttue of False and Justifyyour answer:


Ttre pemissible settlement of a footing founded on clayey soil is more than
that founded on sandy soil.

5"r- List various [4pes of foundation. .

6..- State the situations under which m&forrrraation is adopted.

.k A wooden pile is being driven with a drop-he"'r"er weighting 25 kN and


having a free fall of 0.8 m. Detennine the load carrying capacity of the pile
according to the Engineering \ev's fomula. Ttre penetration in the last blow
iS 6,rrm.

8..- Define group efficiency. Caq it be greater than 1. Justifr /our nhsss1..

*' Bing out the differences between Rankine's and Coulomb's theory of Earth
pressures.

10. How deep you can make a vertical cut without wall supports?

,dt
I
I

PARTB-(Sx16=80marks)

11. (i) What are the phas,es in a complete subsurface exploration? Indicate the
informationthatoareto be obtained in each stage.
Aj , trg c_;6 , , ,(U).
,,
(ii) A seisrnic refraction study of an area has given the following data :
Distance from i'npact point
to geophone (m) 15 B0 60 90 t20
Time to receive wave (sec.) O.OZ5 0.0b 0.10 0.11 0.L2
(1) Plot the time travel data and determine the seismic velocity for the
surface layer and underlying layer.
(2) Determine the thickness of the upper layer.
(3) using the seisnic velocity infomation, give the probable earth
materials in the two layer. (10)

12. (i) Discuss briefly about selection of location and depth of foundation.
? (6)
(ii) A rectangular footing with a pi"o *"r of t.4m x 2 m is to be placed
at a depth of 2 m below the ground surdG]Ee6ting would. be
subjected to a load inclined at 10o to the vertical. The subsoil is
clayey, sandy silt, possessi'g C=18kN/m3 , c'=10kN/m2 and
Q' = 30". Assuming the rate of loading is such that d.rained
condition prrirvails, compute the magnitude of load the footing can
carry if the water table is at the basc of the;flooting. use I.s. 6408
(1981) reconlmendation. Take factor of safety as B. (10)

Or
I

(b] (i) what are the various components of settlement? Discuss different
methods sf minirni sin g settlenent. (6)
(ii) A plate load test was conducted on a uniform deposit of sand and
the following results were obtained.

Pressure kPa: 0 50 100 200 g00 400 b00 600

Settlement: .0 1 2 4 7.5 LZ.6 20 40


A square footing 2 m x 2 m is to be founded at the same depth
where the plate load test was conducted. Determine the allowable
load on the footing so that the factor of safety against shear failure
is not less than 3. (10)

2 cEG (A) r55


B{ rd (i) Draw the pressure distribution beneath a rigid and flexible footing
f--/" €
under various tlpes of soil. (6)
(ii) Tow columns of sizes 400 mrn x 400 mm and 500 mm x 500 rnm
spaced at 4 m c/c carry loads of 600 kN and 900 kIV respectively.
The first column is on the boundary line. Find the plan dirnsnslsns
of a rectangular combi:red footing if the allowable bearing capacity
is 180 kPa. Also draw the shear force and bending moment diagram
for the footing. (10)

Or

(b) (i) Describe the method of proportioning foottng for equal settlement.
(8)
(ii) Describe the I.S. Code of practice for design of raft foundations. (8)

14. (a) (i) BrieflydiscussthemetJ:od.


of obtainin- sffi
and SCPT tests. "r*r-Yfr*rrom
(ii) Design a friction pile group to carry a load of 3000 klrl including the
weight of the pile cap at a site where the soil is uniform clay to a
depth of 20 m underlain by rock. Tlre average unconfined
compressive strength of the clay is 70 kl{/m2. The clay may be
assumed to be of normal sensitivity and nom.ally loaded with a
tiquid lirnit of 6AVo. Adopt a Factor of safety of 3 against shear
failure. (10)

Or

s{
'
'--t'
(i) What is negative skin friction? Give practical example. (4)

(ii) For the following data compute the settlement of the group
assuming the load to be transferred at %3 of the length of the pile.
r Depth of clay layer = !9_rSJoad on piles = 250q 4ry, length of
__ _ |
piles = .10.5 m, diameter of each pile = A4-t!" spacing of
piles = L.2 m, clc, No. of piles = L6; width of pile-tap = 5 m, Initial
-!{ .f
void rat6:10".90, c" = 0.45and 7uE16kN/ms (12)

15- (a) A Frictionless wall of total height 6 m retains a homogeneous horizontal


backfill possessing the following propertiesi To = 18kN/ms i Q = 3A.
Backfill carries a uniform surcharge of 20 kPa. Depth of embed'nent of
wall below the dredge fiAa i" a-m. Assume tfiit the water table is at the
level of dredge lirne on both sides. For tJris wall determine the following.
(i) Ttre active lateral earth pressure distribution with depth.
(ii) The passive lateral pressure distribution with depth.
"""tfr
(iii) The magnitude and locations of the active and passive forces. (16)

Or

cEG (A) 155


(b) (i) Write step by step procedure of Culmanns graphical method to find
acrwe*.A\presstrre due to a sloping ground on the inclined back
;=ta concrete retaining wall. (8)
- (ii)
1--,- Discuss in detail the various aspects of checking the stabitity of
Retainingwall. (8)

4 cEG (A) r55