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LIMITATIONS

1 "Flutter" may be caused by:


A) Low airspeed aerodynamic wing stall
B) Distortion by bending and torsion of the structure causing increasing vibration in the
resonance frequency
C) High airspeed aerodynamic wing stall
D) Roll control reversal
2 A commercial jet aeroplane is performing a straight descent at a constant Mach Number with
constant weight. The operational limit that may be exceeded is:
A) V
MO

B) V
D

C) V
NE

D) M
MO

3 V
MO
:
A) Is the calibrated airspeed at which M
MO
is reached at 35000ft
B) Should be chosen in between V
C
and V
D

C) Is equal to the design speed for maximum gust intensity
D) Should be not greater than V
C

4 Which statement with respect to the climb is correct?
A) At constant TAS the Mach number decreases
B) At constant IAS the Mach number increases
C) At constant IAS the TAS decreases
D) At constant Mach number the IAS increases
5 A jet transport aeroplane is in a straight climb at a constant IAS and constant weight. The
operational limit that may be exceeded is:
A) V
MO

B) M
MO

C) M
D

D) V
A

6 V
MO
:
A) Is the calibrated airspeed at which M
MO
is reached at 35.000 ft.
B) Should be not greater than V
C
.
C) Is equal to the design speed for maximum gust intensity.
D) Should be chosen in between V
C
and V
D
.
7 In a high speed descent at M
MO
you will reach V
MO
at:
A) FL250
B) 350kts
C) FL270
D) M 0.8
8 Aileron reversal can be caused by:
A) Both A and B.
B) Twisting of the wing above reversal speed.
C) Fries type ailerons at low angles of attack.
D) Neither A nor B.
9 What is the relationship of V
MO
and M
MO
, in a climb and descent?
A) If climbing at M
MO
, Indicated Airspeed is increasing.
B) If climbing at V
MO
, it is possible to exceed M
MO
.
C) If descending at M
MO
, V
MO
cannot be exceeded.
D) If climbing at V
MO
, Mach number is decreasing.
10 V
A
is:
A) The speed at which a heavy transport aeroplane should fly in turbulence.
B) The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is allowed.
C) The maximum speed at which rolls are allowed.
D) The speed that should not be exceeded in the climb.
11 Which speed represents the maximum flap extended speed?
A) V
lof

B) V
s1

C) V
fe

D) V
fc

12 What is the danger when recovering from an emergency descent?
A) The landing gear may collapse.
B) Directional stability.
C) Structural damage.
D) Engine stall.
13 Flutter can be eliminated using:
A) Mass balancing.
B) A canard in front of the main wing.
C) A T-tail.
D) Powered flying controls.
14 An aircraft has a mass of 60,000kg and a limiting positive load factor of 2,5. V
A
is calculated as
the EAS at which full positive elevator deflection will give the limiting load factor at the stall, and
is 237kts. If the aircraft mass is reduced to 40,000kg by fuel burn, what will be the new V
A
?
A) 194 kts
B) 375 kts
C) 150 kts
D) 237 kts
15 Which speed represents the manoeuvring speed?
A) V
LO

B) V
NE

C) V
A

D) V
SO

16 A commercial jet aeroplane is performing a straight descent at a constant Mach Number with
constant weight. The operational limit that may be exceeded is:
A) V
NE

B) M
MO

C) V
D

D) V
MO

17 Flutter may be caused by:
A) Distortion by bending and torsion of the structure causing increasing vibration in the
resonance frequency.
B) Low airspeed aerodynamic wing stall.
C) High airspeed aerodynamic wing stall.
D) Roll control reversal.
18 Reduction of flutter may be achieved using:
A) Frise ailerons lumped masses attached forward of the control surface hinge line.
B) A horn balance.
C) Frise ailerons.
D) Lumped masses attached on the control surface hinge line to keep the control surface
centre of gravity aft of the hinge line.
19 On airplane, the limit load factor in normal category is:
A) 4,4 G
B) +3,2 G
C) +3,8 G
D) +6,0 G
20 The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a large jet transport aeroplane with flaps
extended is:
A) 2.0
B) 1.5
C) 3.75
D) 2.5
21 For an aeroplane with one fixed value of V
A
the following applies. V
A
is:
A) The speed at which unrestricted application of elevator control can be used, without
exceeding the maximum manoeuvring limit load factor
B) The speed at which the aeroplane stalls at the manoeuvring limit load factor at MTOW
C) The maximum speed in smooth air
D) Just another symbol for the rough air speed
22 The relationship between the stall speed V
S
and V
A
(EAS) for a large transport aeroplane can be
expressed in the following formula: (SQRT= square root)
A) V
A
= V
A
SQRT (3.75)
B) V
A
= V
S
SQRT (2.5)
C) V
S
= V
A
SQRT (2.5)
D) V
S
= V
A
SQRT (3.75)
23 V
A
is:
A) The speed at which a heavy transport aeroplane should fly in turbulance
B) The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is allowed
C) The speed that should not be exceeded in the climb
D) The maximum speed at which rolls are allowed
24 Load factor is:
A) 1/Bank angle
B) Wing loading
C) Lift/Weight
D) Weight/Lift
25 The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a light aeroplane in the UTILITY CATEGORY in the
clean configuration is:
A) 3.8
B) 4.4
C) 6.0
D) 2.5
26 By what percentage does VA (EAS) alter when the aeroplane's weight decreases by 19%?
A) 10% lower
B) No change
C) 19% lower
D) 4.36% lower
27 The positive manoeuvring limit load factor for a light aeroplane in the utility category in the
clean configuration is:
A) 4.4
B) 2.5
C) 6.0
D) 3.8
28 By what percentage does V
A
(EAS) alter when the aeroplane's weight decreases by 19%?
A) 4.36% lower
B) 10% lower
C) No change
D) 19% lower
29 Which load factor determines VA?
A) Maneuvering ultimate load factor
B) Gust load factor at 66ft/sec gust
C) Maneuvering limit load factor
D) Maneuvering flap limit load factor
30 What can happen to the aeroplane structure flying at a speed just exceeding VA?
A) It will collapse if a turn is made
B) It may suffer permanent deformation because the flight is performed at too large
dynamic pressure
C) It may break if the elevator is fully deflected upwards
D) It may suffer permanent deformation if the elevator is fully deflected upwards
31 What is the limit load factor of a large transport aeroplane in the manoeuvring diagram?
A) 3.75
B) 2.5
C) 1.5
D) 6
32 For airplanes which have a high wing loading (W/S):
A) Total drag is mainly induced drag.
B) Vertical gusts have more influence on the load factor.
C) Vertical gusts have less influence on the load factor.
D) Total drag is mainly profile drag.
33 An aircraft in straight and level flight has a CL of 0.35, and a 1s increase in angle of attack would
increase the CL by 0.079. If a vertical gust increased angle of attack from the 1g value by 2s,
what load factor would result?
A) 0.45
B) 1.45
C) 4.43
D) 5.08
34 The distribution of ... and ... in a structure determine natural frequencies and modes of
vibration.
A) Flaps, slats
B) Passengers, payload
C) Mass, stiffness
D) Stringers, longerons
35 Which load factor determines V
A
?
A) Manoeuvring flap limit load factor.
B) Manoeuvring ultimate load factor.
C) Manoeuvring limit load factor
D) Gust load factor at 66 ft/sec gust.
36 What is the positive limit load factor for large jet transport aircraft?
A) n = 3.75
B) n = 1.0
C) n = 2.5
D) n = 1.5
37 The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.4. Increase of angle of
attack of 1 degree will increase CL by 0.09. A vertical up gust instantly changes the angle of
attack by 5 degrees. The load factor will be:
A) 2.13
B) 2.0
C) 3.18
D) 1.09
38 The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.42, increase in angle of
attack of 1 degree increases CL by is 0.1. A vertical up gust instantly changes the angle of attack
by 3 degrees. The load factor will be :
A) 2.49
B) 1.71
C) 0.74
D) 1.49
39 The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.35. Increase in angle of
attack of 1 degree will increase CL by 0.079. A vertical up gust instantly changes the angle of
attack by 2 degrees. The load factor will be :
A) 0.45
B) 0.9
C) 1.45
D) 1.9
40 Which statement regarding the gust load factor on an aeroplane is correct (all other factors of
importance being constant)?
1 Increasing the aspect-ratio of the wing will increase the gust load factor
2 Increasing the speed will increase the gust load factor
A) 1 and 2 are correct
B) 1 is correct, 2 wrong
C) 1 and 2 are wrong
D) 1 is wrong, 2 correct
41 Which of the following statements is true?
A) Through extension of the flaps in severe turbulence the centre of pressure will move aft
which will increase the margins to the structural limits
B) By increasing the flap setting in severe turbulence the stall speed will be reduced and
the risk for exceeding the structural limits will be decreased
C) Through extension of the flaps in severe turbulence it is possible to reduce the speed
and increase the margins of the structural limits
D) Limiting factors in severe turbulence are the possibility of a stall and the margin to the
structural limitations
42 Which combination of speeds is applicable for structural strentgh in gust (clean configuration)?
A) 50ft/sec
B) 55ft/sec
C) 65ft/sec at all speeds
D) 66ft/sec
43 The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.4, increase in angle of
attack of 1 degree increases CL by 0.09. A vertical up gust instantly changes the angle of attack
by 5 degrees. The load factor will be:
A) 2.0
B) 3.18
C) 2.13
D) 1.09
44 The shape of the gust load diagramm is also determined by the following three vertical speed in
ft/s (clean configuration):
A) 15, 56, 65
B) 25, 55, 75
C) 35, 55, 66
D) 25, 50, 66
45 The extreme right limitation for both V-n (gust and manoeuvre) diagrams is created by the
speed:
A) V
D

B) V
C

C) V
flutte
r
D) V
MO

46 Which has the effect of increasing load factor? (all other relevant factors being constant)
A) Vertical gusts
B) Increased aeroplane mass
C) Increased air density
D) Rearward CG location
47 What wing shape or wing characteristic is the least sensitive to turbulence:
A) Wing dihedral
B) Straight wings
C) Winglets
D) Swept wings
48 Which statement is correct about the gust load on an aeroplane (IAS and all other factors of
importance remaining constant)?
1 the gust load increases, when the weight decreases
2 the gust load increases, when the altitude increases
A) 1 and 2 are correct
B) 1 is correct, 2 wrong
C) 1 and 2 are wrong
D) 1 is wrong, 2 correct
49 The shape of the gust load diagram is also determined by the following three vertical speed in
ft/s (clean configuration):
A) 15, 56, 65
B) 25, 55, 75
C) 35, 55, 66
D) 25, 50, 66
50 What effect will gusts and turbulence have on the load factor of an airplane when it changes its
airspeed?
A) Load factor decreases as airspeed increases.
B) The load factor can increase or decrease, depending on the weight of the aircraft.
C) Airspeed has no influence on the load factor.
D) Load factor increases as airspeed increases.
51 Which combination of speeds is applicable for structural strength in gust (clean configuration) ?
A) 65 ft/sec at all speeds.
B) 66 ft/sec and V
D
.
C) 55 ft/sec and V
B
.
D) 50 ft/sec and V
C
.
52