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DOS design of a retaining wall

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QUESTION:

Design a RCC retaining wall to retain earth up to a height of 12’. Base of

the footing is to be placed 3’ below NSL. Soil has density of 120 lb/ft3.

Angle of internal friction of soil is 30°. Earth surface that is to be retained

is horizontal on which a surcharge load of 300 lb/ft2 is acting. Take

qall=2500 lb/ft2

Usefc'=4000 Psi & fy=40,000 Psi.

SOLUTION:

Given that,

Depth of footing below NSL=3’

Density of soil,γsoil=120 lb/ft3

Density of concrete,γconc.=150 lb/ft3

Angle of internal friction, φ=30°

fc'=4000 Psi

fy=40,000 Psi

STEP 1

ASSUMPTION OF SIZES:

H10=15’×12”12=15”=1.25’

Base width=23H =23× 15'=10’

Width of toe =13×10'=3.3’

Width of heel=10'-3.3'-1.25'=5.45'

H'=Height of surcharge load

H'=Surcharge loadDensity of Soil=300120=2.5'

STEP 2

DESIGN OF STEM:

wall, we have to consider the height of stem only

(i.e. from top of base to the top of stem), because

here we have to calculate the active pressure of

soil on the stem only.

So use

H=13.75'

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

Ca=1-sinφ1+sinφ

Ca=1-sin30°1+sin30°=0.33

Pa=12γCaH(H+2H')

Pa=12×120×0.33×13.75'(13.75'+2×2.5')=5104.69 lb

Centroidal

distance,y=H2+3HH'3H+2H'=13.75'2+3×13.75'×2.5'313.75'+2×2.5'=

5.19'

M=Pa×y=5104.69×5.19'=26493.34 lbft

Mmax=1.6×M=1.6×26493.34

Mu=Mmax=42389.35 lbft=508672.15 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2

ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×508672.150.85×4000×0.9×12"×12.5"2

Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"

ρ=0.0079

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy

ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000

ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin OK

Ast=ρbd

Ast=0.0079×12"×12.5"=1.185 in2

Provide #6 bars @ 4"c/c see Nilson page 736

Ast=ρbh

Ast=0.002×12"×15"=0.36 in2

Provide #3 bars @ 3.5" c/c see Nilson page 736

Vu=1.6×Pa

Vu=1.6×12×Ca×γ×HH+2H'

Vu=1.6×12×120×0.33×13.75'(13.75'+2×2.5')

Vu=8167.5 lb/ft=680.625 lb/in

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

v. Capacity of Section:

=2φfc'×bd

=2×0.9×4000×12"×12.5"

=17076.3 lb/in >Vu OK

STEP 3

CURTAILMENT OF BARS:

Mu2=Mmax2=21194.675 lbft

Mmax2=12×1.6×γ×Ca×H1×H1+2H'×H12+3H1H'3H1+2H'

21194.675=12×1.6×120×0.33×H13+3H12H'3

21194.675=12×1.6×120×0.33×H13+3H12×2.53

21194.675=10.56H13+79.2H12

H1=10.55'

According to ACI code, the following value should be added in the curtailed value

of steel,

• 12"

• 12"×dia of bar=12"×1"=12"

• 0.04×Ab×fyfc'=0.04×0.44×400004000=11.13"

So, Curtailment =10.55’-1’=9.55' from top.

ρ for Mmax2,

ρ'=ρ2=0.00792

ρ=0.00395>min.value of temp.& shrinkage steel i.e.0.002

Ast'=Area of curtailed steel

Ast' =ρbh=0.00395×12"×15"=0.711 in2

Area of steel,As=ρbd=1.185 in2

12 As 23 As

0.5925 in2 0.79 in2

0.79 in2 is more close to 0.711 in2 so curtail each 2nd alternate bar

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

Step 4

STABILITY CHECKS:

Resisting momentOverturning moment>2

of retaining wall (i.e. from the bottom of the base to the top of the

stem) because here we have to calculate the Active force per unit

length of wall.

So use

H=15'

Pa=12γCaH2

Pa=12×120×0.33×152=4455 lb

Centroidal distance,y=H3=153=5'

O.T.M=Pa×y

O.T.M=4455×5

O.T.M=22275 lbft

# "lb" “ft” "lbft"

5.452+1.25+3.3=7.2 65465.4

01 13.75'×5.45'×1×120=8992.5

8'

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

13.75'×1.25'×1×150=2578.12

04 1.252+3.3=3.925' 10119.15

5

5.452+1.25+3.3=7.2

05 2.5’×1'×300=750 5460

8'

W=14888.625 M=91563

9156322275=4.11>2 OK

thickness of toe, heel or stem as per

requirement.

Sliding force=Pa=4455 lb

Resisting force=μ×∑W+12γCpH2=0.3×14888.625+12×120×3×1.252

Resisting force=4466.59+281.25=4747.84 lb

and earth and its value lies between 0.3-

0.45.

4747.844455=1.06≥1.5 NOT OK

So we have to provide key under the base.

Design of Key:

Resisting force=1.5×4455

Resisting force=6682.5 lb

Additional resisting force provided,Pp=6682.5-

4747.84

Additional resisting force to be provided,Pp=1934.66 lb

Additional Resiting force,,Pp=12×γ×H12×1Ca

1934.66=12×120×H12×10.33

H1=3.26'

Depth of Key=3.26'-1.25'=2.01'

5 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

a=91563-2227514888.625

a=4.65'

Eccentricity,e=B2-a

e=102-4.65'

e=1.09'

e≯B6=106=1.67'

0.35≯1.67' OK

qmax=WB×1+W×eB26≯qall

qmax=14888.62510+14888.625×0.351026

qmax=1801.52 lb/ft2 ≯qall OK

qmin=WB×1-W×eB26≮zero

qmin=14888.62510-14888.625×0.351026

qmin=1176.2 lb/ft2 ≮zero OK

STEP 5

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

625.3210=x15.45

x1=340.8 lb/ft2

625.3210=x21.25

x2=78.16 lb/ft2

625.3210=x33.3

x3=206.36 lb/ft2

i. Design Of Toe:

Mu=1.6Moment of bearing capacity-0.9Moment of concrete in toe

Mu=1.61595.16×3.3×3.32+12×206.36×3.3×23×3.3-

0.93.3×1.25×1×150×3.32

Mu=14176.73 lbft=170120.75 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2

ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×170120.750.85×4000×0.9×12×12.52

Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"

ρ=0.00255

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy

ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000

ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin NOT OK

Ast=ρminbd

Ast=0.005×12×12.5

Ast=0.75 in2

Provide #6 bars @ 7" c/c

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

Mu=1.21.25×5.45×1×150×5.452+1.613.75×5.45×1×120×5.452+300×5.45×5.

452

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2

ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×596129.1750.85×4000×0.9×12×12.52

Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"

ρ=0.009

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy

ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000

ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin OK

Ast=ρbd

Ast=0.009×12×12.5

Ast=1.35 in2

Provide #7 bars @ 5" c/c

Ast=ρbh

Ast=0.002×12×15

Ast=0.36 in2

Provide #3 bars @ 3.5" c/c

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

(2005-CE-38)

DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

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(2005-CE-38)

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