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DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

QUESTION:
Design a RCC retaining wall to retain earth up to a height of 12’. Base of
the footing is to be placed 3’ below NSL. Soil has density of 120 lb/ft3.
Angle of internal friction of soil is 30°. Earth surface that is to be retained
is horizontal on which a surcharge load of 300 lb/ft2 is acting. Take
qall=2500 lb/ft2
Usefc'=4000 Psi & fy=40,000 Psi.

SOLUTION:
Given that,

Height of Retaining wall above NSL = 12’


Depth of footing below NSL=3’
Density of soil,γsoil=120 lb/ft3
Density of concrete,γconc.=150 lb/ft3
Angle of internal friction, φ=30°
fc'=4000 Psi
fy=40,000 Psi

STEP 1
ASSUMPTION OF SIZES:

Base thickness=stem thickness =H12


H10=15’×12”12=15”=1.25’
Base width=23H =23× 15'=10’
Width of toe =13×10'=3.3’
Width of heel=10'-3.3'-1.25'=5.45'
H'=Height of surcharge load
H'=Surcharge loadDensity of Soil=300120=2.5'

STEP 2
DESIGN OF STEM:

While we are designing the stem/arm of retaining


wall, we have to consider the height of stem only
(i.e. from top of base to the top of stem), because
here we have to calculate the active pressure of
soil on the stem only.

So use
H=13.75'

i. Calculation Of Soil Pressure:

1 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

Ca=1-sinφ1+sinφ
Ca=1-sin30°1+sin30°=0.33
Pa=12γCaH(H+2H')
Pa=12×120×0.33×13.75'(13.75'+2×2.5')=5104.69 lb

ii. Moment & Reinforcement Calculation:


Centroidal
distance,y=H2+3HH'3H+2H'=13.75'2+3×13.75'×2.5'313.75'+2×2.5'=
5.19'

M=Pa×y=5104.69×5.19'=26493.34 lbft
Mmax=1.6×M=1.6×26493.34
Mu=Mmax=42389.35 lbft=508672.15 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2
ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×508672.150.85×4000×0.9×12"×12.5"2
Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"
ρ=0.0079

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy
ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000
ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin OK

iii. Selection of bars & spacing:

Vertical Reinforcement On front face of wall:

Ast=ρbd
Ast=0.0079×12"×12.5"=1.185 in2
Provide #6 bars @ 4"c/c see Nilson page 736

Temperature & Shrinkage Steel:

Ast=ρbh
Ast=0.002×12"×15"=0.36 in2
Provide #3 bars @ 3.5" c/c see Nilson page 736

iv. Check for shear:

Vu=1.6×Pa
Vu=1.6×12×Ca×γ×HH+2H'
Vu=1.6×12×120×0.33×13.75'(13.75'+2×2.5')
Vu=8167.5 lb/ft=680.625 lb/in

2 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

v. Capacity of Section:

=2φfc'×bd
=2×0.9×4000×12"×12.5"
=17076.3 lb/in >Vu OK

STEP 3

CURTAILMENT OF BARS:

Bars are curtailed from top where B.M is Mmax2

Mu=Mmax=42389.35 lbft=508672.15 lbin


Mu2=Mmax2=21194.675 lbft
Mmax2=12×1.6×γ×Ca×H1×H1+2H'×H12+3H1H'3H1+2H'
21194.675=12×1.6×120×0.33×H13+3H12H'3
21194.675=12×1.6×120×0.33×H13+3H12×2.53
21194.675=10.56H13+79.2H12
H1=10.55'

According to ACI code, the following value should be added in the curtailed value
of steel,

• 12"
• 12"×dia of bar=12"×1"=12"
• 0.04×Ab×fyfc'=0.04×0.44×400004000=11.13"

Maximum of above three values is selected, i.e. 12” is selected.


So, Curtailment =10.55’-1’=9.55' from top.

ρ for Mmax2,
ρ'=ρ2=0.00792
ρ=0.00395>min.value of temp.& shrinkage steel i.e.0.002
Ast'=Area of curtailed steel
Ast' =ρbh=0.00395×12"×15"=0.711 in2
Area of steel,As=ρbd=1.185 in2
12 As 23 As
0.5925 in2 0.79 in2
0.79 in2 is more close to 0.711 in2 so curtail each 2nd alternate bar

3 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

PLAN & SECTION

Step 4

STABILITY CHECKS:

There are three stability checks,

i. Check For Overturning Moment


Resisting momentOverturning moment>2

While calculating over turning moment we have to consider total length


of retaining wall (i.e. from the bottom of the base to the top of the
stem) because here we have to calculate the Active force per unit
length of wall.

So use
H=15'

Pa=12γCaH2
Pa=12×120×0.33×152=4455 lb
Centroidal distance,y=H3=153=5'
O.T.M=Pa×y
O.T.M=4455×5
O.T.M=22275 lbft

Sr. Weight Area×Density x Resiting Moment


# "lb" “ft” "lbft"

5.452+1.25+3.3=7.2 65465.4
01 13.75'×5.45'×1×120=8992.5
8'

02 10'×1.25'×1×150=1875 102=5' 9375

4 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

03 1.75'×3.3'×1×120=693 3.32=1.65' 1143.45

13.75'×1.25'×1×150=2578.12
04 1.252+3.3=3.925' 10119.15
5

5.452+1.25+3.3=7.2
05 2.5’×1'×300=750 5460
8'

W=14888.625 M=91563

Resisting momentOverturning moment>2


9156322275=4.11>2 OK

If this check is not OK then increase the


thickness of toe, heel or stem as per
requirement.

ii. Check For Sliding Force:

Resisting forceSliding force≥1.5


Sliding force=Pa=4455 lb
Resisting force=μ×∑W+12γCpH2=0.3×14888.625+12×120×3×1.252
Resisting force=4466.59+281.25=4747.84 lb

Here μ is the coefficient of friction between soil


and earth and its value lies between 0.3-
0.45.

Resisting forceSliding force≥1.5

4747.844455=1.06≥1.5 NOT OK
So we have to provide key under the base.

Design of Key:

Resisting force=1.5×Sliding force


Resisting force=1.5×4455
Resisting force=6682.5 lb
Additional resisting force provided,Pp=6682.5-
4747.84
Additional resisting force to be provided,Pp=1934.66 lb
Additional Resiting force,,Pp=12×γ×H12×1Ca
1934.66=12×120×H12×10.33
H1=3.26'
Depth of Key=3.26'-1.25'=2.01'

iii. Check For Bearing Capacity Of Soil:


5 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir
(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

a=Stablizing moment-O.T.MStablizing forceW


a=91563-2227514888.625
a=4.65'
Eccentricity,e=B2-a
e=102-4.65'
e=1.09'
e≯B6=106=1.67'
0.35≯1.67' OK

If this check is not OK then increase the length of base “B”

qmax=WB×1+W×eB26≯qall

qmax=14888.62510+14888.625×0.351026
qmax=1801.52 lb/ft2 ≯qall OK
qmin=WB×1-W×eB26≮zero
qmin=14888.62510-14888.625×0.351026
qmin=1176.2 lb/ft2 ≮zero OK

If this check is not OK then increase “B”.

STEP 5

DESIGN OF TOE & HEEL:

6 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

625.3210=x15.45
x1=340.8 lb/ft2

625.3210=x21.25
x2=78.16 lb/ft2

625.3210=x33.3
x3=206.36 lb/ft2

i. Design Of Toe:

Taking moment about junction of toe and stem.


Mu=1.6Moment of bearing capacity-0.9Moment of concrete in toe
Mu=1.61595.16×3.3×3.32+12×206.36×3.3×23×3.3-
0.93.3×1.25×1×150×3.32
Mu=14176.73 lbft=170120.75 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2
ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×170120.750.85×4000×0.9×12×12.52
Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"
ρ=0.00255

ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy
ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000
ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin NOT OK

Selection of bars & spacing:

Ast=ρminbd
Ast=0.005×12×12.5
Ast=0.75 in2
Provide #6 bars @ 7" c/c

ii. Design of heel:

Taking moment about junction of heel and stem,

7 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

Mu=1.2Concrete in heel+1.6soil in heel+Surcharge moment in heel


Mu=1.21.25×5.45×1×150×5.452+1.613.75×5.45×1×120×5.452+300×5.45×5.
452

Mu=49677.43 lbft=596129.175 lbin

ρ=0.85fc'fy1-1-2Mu0.85fc'φbd2
ρ=0.85×4000400001-1-2×596129.1750.85×4000×0.9×12×12.52
Where,φ=0.9 & b=12" & d=h-2.5"=15"-2.5"=12.5"
ρ=0.009
ρmin=200fy=20040000=0.005

ρmax=0.75ρb=0.75×β1×0.85fc'fy×8700087000+fy
ρmax=0.75×0.85×0.85×400040000×8700087000+40000
ρmax=0.037

ρmax>ρ>ρmin OK

Selection of bars & spacing:

Ast=ρbd
Ast=0.009×12×12.5
Ast=1.35 in2
Provide #7 bars @ 5" c/c

Temperature & Shrinkage Steel:

Ast=ρbh
Ast=0.002×12×15
Ast=0.36 in2
Provide #3 bars @ 3.5" c/c

8 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

9 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)
DESIGN OF STRUCTURES
Design Of Retaining Wall With Surcharge Load

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS

10 Compiled By: Muhammad Sajid Nazir


(2005-CE-38)