You are on page 1of 18

1

CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION


DDA2132
Chapter 6
BRICKS CONSTRUCTION
By
Dr. Mohamad Syazli Fathi
Introduction
A brick is defined in BS 3921 as a walling unit with size of 225
mm length, 112.5 mm width and 75 mm height has an actual
dimensions of 215 x 102 x 65 mm.
Brickwork is used primarily in the construction of walls by the Brickwork is used primarily in the construction of walls by the
bedding and pointing of bricks into bonding arrangements.
The term also covers the hollow and other lightweight
concrete blocks that conform to BS 3921.
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
2
Masonry Construction Terminology
1. Arris : The edges formed by the inter-section of plane surfaces of a
brick.
2. Frog : The depression provided in the face of a brick during its
manufacturing. Frogs are provided in bricks to form a key of mortar
in between any two adjacent courses or layers of brickwork so as to
i th l t l t th f th t t t d th i ht increase the lateral strength of the structure, to reduce the weight
of bricks so that they can be laid with convenience, and to provide
a place for putting impression of trademark or the year of
manufacture of the bricks.
3. A stretcher is when bricks are laid with their side surfaces in
elevation. It provides longitudinal strength to the wall.
4. A header is when bricks are laid with their end surfaces or widths in
elevation. It provides transverse strength to the wall.
5. Cross joints : The joints other than bed joints normal to the surface
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
j j j
of the wall.
6. Perpends : The vertical joints between bricks either in longitudinal
or cross directions. The perpends of the alternate courses should be
in the same vertical lines.
7. Bed joint : The horizontal mortar joints, between any two
consecutive courses of brickwork.
8. Quoins : The external corners of walls.
Masonry Construction Terminology
Arch:
An opening
made of bricks
or one or more
stones. Arches
can be used to can be used to
allow much
greater opening
widths than are
possible with
lintels.
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
1) Round arches: were developed by the Romans (basically a semi-circle)
2) Peaked arches: were developed in Islamic architecture, and used also in
the gothic context.
3) Flat arches: made form a large stone or stones, or bricks laid obliquely,
with a keystone
3
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
4
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
MANUFACTURE OF CLAY BRICKS
Pressed bricks : 2
processes of pressed brick
manufacture; semi-dry and ; y
the stiff plastic method.
Wire cut bricks : is
extruded as a continuous
ribbon and is cut into brick
units by tightly stretched
wires spaced at the height
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
wires spaced at the height
or depth for the required
brick.
Soft mud process bricks.
5
Varieties of brick
Common brick ; for general building work
Facing brick ; for attractive appearance
when used without rendering or plaster.
Engineering bricks; dense and strong and
conform to defined limits for absorption and
strength.
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Types of bricks.
Solid : Those in which small holes passing through or
nearly through the brick do not exceed 25% of its
volume or in which frogs do not exceed 20% of its volume or in which frogs do not exceed 20% of its
volume. A small hole is defined as a hole less than 20mm
wide or less than 500 mm2 in area.
Perforated : Those in which small holes passing through
the brick exceed 25% of its volume and the holes are
small.
Hollow : Those in which the holes passing through the
b i k d 2 % f i l d h h l l
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
brick exceed 25% of its volume and the holes are larger
than the small holes.
Cellular : Those in which small holes are closed at one
end and exceed 20% of the volume of the brick.
6
MORTARS FOR BRICKWORK
Mortar : a mixture of sand and lime or a mixture of sand
and cement with or without lime. It is proportioned by
weight or volume. The effect of lime is to make the mix g
more workable. It should be used within 2 hours of
mixing or be discarded.
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
MORTARS FOR BRICKWORK
The mortar used in brickwork transfers the
tensile, compressive and shear stresses
if l b t dj t b i k t ti f th uniformly between adjacent bricks to satisfy the
following :
1. Have adequate strength, but not greater than the
required for the design strength.
2. Have good workability.
3. Needs to retain plasticity long enough for the bricks to
b l id
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
be laid.
4. Be durable over a long period
5. Bond well to the bricks
6. Be able to be produced at an economic cost.
7
TYPICAL MIXES (by volume)
1. Cement mortar(cement:sand)
1:3 suitable for brickwork in exposed conditions such as
t d f d ti parapets and foundations.
2. Lime mortar(lime:sand)
1:3 - for internal use only
3. Gauged mortars(cement:lime:sand)
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
3. Gauged mortars(cement:lime:sand)
1:1:6 suitable for most condition of severe exposure.
1:2:9 suitable for most conditions except those of
severe exposure
1:2:12 internal use only.
DAMPNESS PENETRATION
Dampness can penetrate into a building through the
brick walls by :
The rain penetrating the head of the wall and
soakingdown into the buildingbelowthe roof soaking down into the building below the roof
level. This can be overcome by insertion of a suitable
damp-proof course in the thickness of the wall.
The rain beating against the external wall and
soaking through the building. This can be overcome
by cement rendering or suitable cladding such as vertical
tile hanging or constructing a cavity wall.
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
The ground moisture entering the building above
the ground floor level. This can be overcome by
insertion of a suitable damp-proof course in the thickness
of the wall.
8
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
9
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
DAMP PROOF COURSES
To provide a barrier to the passage of moisture
from an external source into the building. 3 types
of DPC
1. Those below ground level to prevent the entry of
moisture from the soil.
2. Those placed just above groung level to prevent
moisture creeping up the wall by capillary action called
rising damp.
3. Those placed at openings, parapets and similar
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
3. Those placed at openings, parapets and similar
locations to exclude the entry of the rainwater which
falls directly onto the fabric of the structure.
10
MATERIALS FOR DPC
BS 743: SPECIFICATION FOR MATERIALS FOR DPC
Be completely impervious
Be durable, longer life than other component in the building and
should not need replacing during its lifetime.
Comparatively thin sheets so as to prevent disfigurement of the Comparatively thin sheets so as to prevent disfigurement of the
building.
Strong enough to support loads placed upon it without exuding
from the wall
Flexible enough to give any settlement of the building without
fracturing.
BS 6398 : Specification for bitumen damp proof courses for
masonary
BS 6515 : Specification for polythene damp proof courses
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
BS 6515 : Specification for polythene damp proof courses
for masonary.
BS 8215 : Code of practice for design and installation do
damp proof courses in masonary construction.
MATERIALS FOR DPC
Lead : flexible material , therefore irregular shapes can be
formed but expensive and exude under heavy loading.
Copper : Thin sheets but expensive.
Bitumen : felt formand can be laid quickly. Various bases Bitumen : felt form and can be laid quickly. Various bases
such as Hessian, fibre, asbestos and lead. Inexpensive but
easily torn.
Mastic asphalt : applied in 2 layers of total thickness 25
mm, applied is-situ, jointless but expensive in small
quantities.
Polythene : low density polythene sheets of 0.5 mm
thick, easily laid but torn and puncture easily.
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Slates : Should not be less than 230 mm long and 4 mm
thick. Laid in 2 courses. Limited flexibility but impervious
and durable.
Bricks : BS 3291, laid in 2 courses in cement mortar and
can be out of context with the general faade of the
building.
11
Bond.
The arrangement of bricks in each layer so as to avoid
continuity of vertical joints in any two adjacent courses
both on the face and inside of a structure is called bond.
This is done by overlapping bricks or stones in the This is done by overlapping bricks or stones in the
successive courses longitudinally as well as transversely.
Necessity of providing bond to achieve the following
objects:
1. The primary object is to break the continuity of the vertical joints
in the successive courses both in length and thickness of a
masonry structure.
2 To ensure longitudinal and lateral strength of the structure
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
2. To ensure longitudinal and lateral strength of the structure.
3. To enable the structure to act as a bounded mass and to
distribute the load uniformly to its foundation.
4. To provide pleasing appearance by laying bricks symmetrically.
Types of Bonding
1. Stretcher Bond
2. Header Bond
3 English Bond 3. English Bond
4. Flemish Bond
Materials for bonding.
i. Mortar : cement : sand = 1: 2
ii. Plastisicer : to be mixed with
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
mortar so that its workable.
iii. to strengthened brick wall:
Used Exmet or starter bar every
fourth layer, stiffener, brick-pier.
12
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
13
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
BRI CK J OI NTS : J OI NTI NG AND POI NTI NG
J ointing : the finish given to joints when carried out as
the work proceeds.
Pointing : the finish given to joints by raking out a depth
of 20 mmand filling in on surface with a hard setting of 20 mm and filling in on surface with a hard setting
cement mortar which could have a colour additive. Can
be applied to new and old building.
Examples of jointing and pointing : pg 120
1. Flush joint
2. Recessed joint
3. Weathered joint
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
j
4. Keyed joint
5. Weathered pointing
6. Rake out joint
14
The different common mortar joint finished:
1) Flush joint: excess mortar is scraped away with the flat
of the trowel, until the mortar is flush with the brick.
2) Raked joint: the tip of the trowel is used until the
mortar is set back about from the brick.
3) Stripped joint: wood inserts are used to form a joint
similar to raked joint, but flat edged.
4) Weathered joint: mortar is set back from the top brick,
and slopes down to meet the bottom brick (this is an
expensive procedure).
5) Concave joints: are formed with a special tool, and are
like raked joints.
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
j
6) Struck joint: flat joints set far into the wall, these are
only used in interior functions.
7) Combinations of the above can also be used (i.e.
different horizontal and vertical joints).
Details in page 129 Brick J oints
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
15
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
16
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
17
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004
18
Aceh Mosque
Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004 Mohamad Syazli Fathi 2004