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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


In the world of advertising and media, consumers are seen as audiences. They
are the individuals who acquire the absorption process of every advertisement
channeled through media by the advertisers. Hence, the makers of advertisements call
a certain strategy that will capture their selected and targeted audiences in such a way,
brand incorporation is formed. It is believed that Covert advertisements deliver strong
and powerful messages than conventional advertisements.
It is visible from the word covert; this advertising delves itself from the principles
of non-promotional media. A definition from (Mohan, 2011) says that Covert advertising
is a type of promotion that uses undercover tactics to raise the image of a brand or
name and helps it to become both recognizable and memorable to the target audience.
Covert advertising is presently a hot trend in the promotion of goods and services.
Another explanation says that Covert advertising is one major form of
brandcommunication which allows the advertiser communicate a salient message to the
audience, it gives an opportunity to develop an ongoing relationship between a
consumer and a brand. The concept of covert advertising is aimed at having consumers
pay attention to the communication but not realize that it is an advertised message that
they otherwise might ignore, the advertiser here also tries to make the disguise appear
material to consumers (Russel, 1998; Stephen, Pola&Sonja, 2000;Rotfeld, 2000).

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Background of the Study

In this research, it is vital to expound the goals of covert advertising and how it
creates a hit into the advertising atmosphere. Since covert advertising is not a new
strategy to dig introduction, the mass media is greatly affected due to its use and
significance into the economical existence. It is apparently because advertisers
contemplate more on their financial prowess to cope up with the advertisings required
bucks to put up one (Mohan, 2011). Moreover, covert ads are presently considered as
hot trends onto the advertising landscape and even in the internet makingonly vested
brands practice this unique kind of strategy toward the audience proper.
Advertising in covert form, before, was subdivided by (Podnar and Golub 2001)
into 3 techniques: (1) An article paid by a profitable organization with intention to
present its products or services as to improve its reputation;(2) An article written on a
certain theme with intention to draw attention to products of advertisers mentioned; (3)
A journalistic contribution sent by the people working in public relations and showing
unchanged messages for media; (4) An article based on a message for media, but
containing only that information which are good for a certain company because
otherwise this company would withdraw its ordered ads from this media (obligation).
Today, covert advertisements are commonly seen in films, movies, music videos
and any other TV segments in a form of placements. (Nelson & Gloria, 2011)
exemplified CasinoRoyale, aHollywoodmovieall thecharactersmadeuseof Sony
Vaiolaptops, Sony Ericsson phonesandBraviatelevision sets;alsoin
Bollywood'sModupeTemi, anindigenousmovie, Nasmalt wastheonly
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drinkthecharacterstooka andthey alsomadefavorablementionof it in thecourseof
themovie.
The case above represented and image of a covert advertising technique that is
included in Adam Ransons study. (Ranson, 2011) presented and subdivided into three
techniques in executing a well-versed covert advertising. The branches are called and
in a form of Product Placement, Program Sponsorship and Promotional Plug-ins.
This research will emphasize the exploration of the roles of the present centurys
advertising in covert form. This will give clarity to the influence of covert ads to brand
recall and vice versa. Likewise, the relationship will determine changes affecting
behaviors physiologically and socially.

Statement of the Problems

1. Which Covert advertising technique generates the highest brand recall?
2. What is the difference in the level of brand recall when respondents are grouped
according to audience lifestyles?




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Research Objectives

The research aims to achieve the following objectives:
1. To determine the variations of the selected audience lifestyles through Apples
covert advertisements and its messages.
2. To find out the effects of Apples covert ads to the target audience from the
Filipino respondents view.
3. To determine the relationship of Apple covert advertisements to brand recall.

Hypotheses

The rate of brand recall is a paramount determinant of how covert
advertisements can meet the purpose of delivering its brand messages to the targeted
audiences. According to (Singh, 2013), a good rate of brand recall by covert placements
can be met through curiosity, awareness and trial. Another statement from (Liu, 2002)
proclaims that an execution of a covert advertisement depends on the rate of brand
awareness directed to form a rate of consumer memory or brand recall.
H01 Brand Recall is similar among all types of covert advertisement.
Audience lifestyle is an important demographic influence in measuring the rate of brand
recall from a covert advertisement. (Jo and Jung, 2011) discussed about a significant
role of the advertiser to acquire effective and efficient ads that could generate recall, the
advertiser must dig deep into media and seek for the lifestyle of the audience. Likewise,
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brands can possess personality traits identical to humans and represent attitudinal and
lifestyle characteristics which provide self-expressive (symbolic) benefits for the
customers who are associated with them. This particular facet of brands is animportant
driver of consumer preference and memory, choice and purchase between different
products offering the same functional utility (Hogg, Cox and Keeling, 2000).
H02 Brand Recall does not vary when grouped according to audience lifestyle.

Significance of the Study

This study will showcase its contributions in various areas of human behavior,
understanding the evidences of the intervening audience lifestyles and how covert
advertising relates to the variables. This shows evidences that the interest of the study
shall not harm values and ethics socially (norms) and intellectually from the lifestyles
given.
This research will convince, influence and motivate the educators, businesses,
regulators and various readers how compelling the effects of covert placements are.
Also, the entire inquiry will supply greatly to the Marketing and Advertising profession
carrying useful advancements for definition and application of covert advertising.
Improvement of the academia will carry a proof of the relationship of Advertising and its
very techniques towards the audience.


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Scope and Limitations

The exploration of this research is limited for Apple advertisements due to its
frequent showcasing of covert placements in various ways. Moreover, the respondents
are all pressed to Marketing and Advertising Students ranging from 1
st
year to 4
th
years
taking their academic course in De La Salle University- Dasmarinas.
For the completion of this research proposal, there are such constraints observed
for sampling done by online survey forms. The respondents were critical about the
errors of the submit button discouraging them shortly to get insights. Time is also
observed as a constraint and made the research proposal limited to a shorter timetable
because of the incessant series of school day suspensions due to inclement weather
that interfere with our research construction.

Definition of Terms

Covert Advertising
Covert Advertising is a non-promotional way of embedding of subjected products
into numerous entertainments using undercover tactics for authentic incorporation. This
new procedure aims to integrate advertising for the purpose of acquiring awareness and
consumer memory.

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Covert Advertisement
Covert Advertisements are crafted messages from the incorporation of a brand in
such entertainment and media, prolonging its elements for a period of time or even
mentioning the brands name, symbols and attributes for endorsing. Apple Co.
maintained its label the top brand with the most covert communications seen in films,
music videos, TV series/shows and etc.
Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. is a leading multinational corporation that deals with the development,
design and sale of high-end electronics for consumers around the world. This
corporation spearheaded the creation of the various generations of iPhone, iPod, iPad
and etc. Apple Inc. tops off the other leading brand when it comes to covert
communications, recorded as number 1, this year against Coca Cola (Soft drink brand).
Product Placement
Product Placement is a covert advertising technique promoting a brand through
appearances on TV, movies, music videos, books and etc. This kind of non-traditional
technique usually goes through a subtle flow of messages. Apple Co. is often initiated to
have agreements between numerous entertainment heads for placements in their film
material.
Promotional Plug-ins
Promotional Plug-ins are another type of covert advertising technique that
manifests more verbal communications through mentioning of the brand name,
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attributes and symbols during a period of time in any TV entertainments, shows, series,
seminars and etc.
Program Sponsorships
Program Sponsorship is a type of covert advertising that exemplifies the nature
of the agreement of the TV program and the brand, providing more open opportunities
of endorsing and placements. This manner holds the purpose increasing brand to
program relationship into awareness then results to brand recall.
Brand Recall
Brand Recall is a measure of how targeted individuals in Marketing and
Advertising remember the brand in a qualitative manner. This depicts the rate of the
consumer memory when a brand, product or a message was manifested through
channels. This measure can be tested through surveys, interviews or even just asking
the respondent how well does the consumer/audience remembers the brand.








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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


This research aims to know in which of the three levels of covert advertising
(product placement, program sponsorships and promotional plug-ins) generates the
highest brand recall and to know what the difference in the level of brand recall is when
respondents are grouped according audience lifestyle. The inquiry demonstrated
various literatures to support the framework and its concepts.
Product Placement
According to (Steortz 1987, Babin and Carder 1996) previous studies, product
placement has focused on brand recall or recognition and according to (Gupta and
Gould 1997) it also focused on attitudes. There are studies that viewers were able to
recognize brands that were placed within a film (Babin and Carder 1996). According to
the research of (Cristel A. Russel of University of Arizona, 1998) there are three types of
product placements in which the viewers can recall or remember the brand categorized
according to their modality and relevance (cfBettman 1979), these are namely: (1) A
purely visual type of placement which involves placing the brand in the background in
one of two ways: either through creative placement, which insinuates the brand into the
film or through on set placement, which positions the product on the film itself example
is a food brand in the kitchen itself. (2) Auditory or verbal, this type of placement refers
to the brand being mentioned in a dialogue. It is depending on the context in which the
product is mentioned, the frequency is with which it is mentioned. (3) In some cases, the
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product becomes part of the plot, taking a major place in the story line or building the
persons character. They call it the pot placement.

(Petty and Cacioppo 1981, Allen and Madden 1985) Celebrities are very effective
for the viewers to recall the brand especially when placed on the film. Even though they
generated a great deal of controversy (Allen and Madden 1985, Bierley, McSweeney
and Vannieuwkerk 1985) Gornns results demonstrated that product preferences can be
conditioned through a single exposure to appealing or un appealing music. This finding
was supported by (Zajonc and Markus 1982) that the nature of conditioned response
linked to product placement is mostly affective.
By the year 1990s product placement moved to online games.(Villafranco and
Zeltzer 2006). This type of product placement has been carried through into some
online game environments where products are used by game characters or integrated
into the background of the game scene. According to the research of (Chaney, Lin and
Chaney, 2004) it shows that the brand/product recall was low and depended on the way
the products/ brand were presented (as pictures or in words). Game experience itself
had no positive influence on product/brand recall. But some researchers have
investigated the receptiveness of game players to the advertising message. (Nelson,
Keum, and Yaros, 2004, Tina Winkler, Kathy Buckner, 2006) have determined that
those who are negative about advertising in general are also negative about advertising
in games and vice versa. They also noted that players are more positive about brands
in games with added realism and that product placements seem to be more effective
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when used in more subtle ways. When used inappropriately, players tended to reject
the product placement. According to (Tina Winkler, Kathy Buckner, 2006) the online
game players can recall the company, the brand, and the product that is incorporated
into the advergame and whether level of recall might depend on different influences
such as online game experience.
Program Sponsorships
For firms, television sponsorship represents an interesting alternative to
traditional TV advertising and other forms of marketing communication for three main
reasons. First, the sponsor is likely to gain goodwill by associating itself with a popular
program targeted to a selected audience. Second, the sponsor often buys a good
portion of the commercial time within the program, which prevents communication
interference from competitors (Gay, 1988).
(Meenaghan 1991) observed that corporations consider sponsorship as very
useful in achieving brand recall, brand awareness and brand image. According to
(Russel and Lane 1996) the key to increase the awareness of a company or product
name, i.e. recall, and to build loyalty with a specific target audience is sponsorship. One
advantage of TV sponsorship is that they can enable a brand to build its personality
through its association with the brand values of a particular programme. It can deliver
powerful results for an advertiser's brand as it encourages consumers to engage with
the brand through its association with the programme they have actively chosen to
watch.
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Sponsorships are giving many benefits, such as increased recall level,
awareness levels, sales and greater market share. (e.g. Abratt et al.,
1987;Apostolopoulou and Papadimitriou, 2004; Irwin andAsimakopoulos, 1992; Lough
et al., 2000; Ludwig andKarabetsos, 1999; Scott and Suchard, 1992). Given the
potential benefits involved in sponsorship, and in order to maximize financial and other
returns, corporations need to be strategic not only in their choice of properties with
which to form partnerships but also in the allocation of resources to those agreements.
In the (Promo, 1993) Billions of dollars are invested in sponsoring such events. In
1990, some corporations even spent $23.5 billion in sponsoring an event in the United
States. That is how many corporations are supporting the TV sponsorships; they are
investing a big amount of amount for their product to be advertised. Even though the TV
sponsorships only have the following criteria: only a brand logo can be exposed, and
the billboard cannot contain slogans, statements, pictures and sound except for a voice
over telling the name of the sponsoring company or the brand (Tolonen, 2009).
Promotional Plug-ins
According to (Vicki Abt, Leonard Mustazza, 1997) talk show is a confrontational
display of personal conflicts among everyday no celebrities, plucked from often well-
deserved obscurity, and entered our cultural consciousness in the mid 1980s with the
syndication of the still top rated Oprah Winfrey show. The viewers are the real product,
and this particular product is sold to advertisers. Ratings thus become the indication on
how many viewers a station has to sell.
According to (Bernard M. Timberg, 2002) in most successful national television
talk show, the host has rarely been simply the star of the program. Major talk show
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hosts have traditionally attained a high degree of control over their shows and the
production teams that run them. From a production stand point, the host frequently acts
as a managing director. From a marketing stand point, the host is the label, the
trademark that sells product. From the organizational stand point, the hosts personal
power as entrepreneur is pivotal. The host deals with advertisers, network executives
and syndicators. The host is the one irreplaceable part with a new brand to the widest
possible audience. Whoever the host and whatever the format, these are the defining
characteristics of the TV talk show.

Achievers
According to the research of (Ling Gao, Marjorie J.T. NortonZhi-ming Zhang and
Chester Kin-man To, 2009) Career-oriented and ambitious, Achievers expect to achieve
a lot and aspire to the pinnacle of their fields. Prestigious brand names are important to
them to symbolize status or represent power and success, but their interest or
knowledge in fashion is limited. Although Achievers have the lowest percentages of
reported interest in fashion and purchase of luxury fashion brand they spend no less on
clothing than other segments. They also said achievers, and Idealists seem the most
promising target markets for luxury fashion goods. Achievers have strong awareness of
well-known brands and conspicuously use products bearing such brands to display their
affluence, achievement, and status. Efforts to market luxury fashion goods to Achievers
should emphasize the goods prestige value rather than functional features.
Advertisements aimed at Achievers could note that individuals who have already
arrived are conscious of luxury brands and recognize the prestige of branded luxury
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fashion goods or even expect consumers with high status and achievement to use
these goods. The advertisements would suggest that owning and displaying these
goods signal affluence and high achievement and status, especially in the aspired social
class, or even facilitate climbing the social ladder. Nevertheless, impressing upon
Achievers the prestige value of luxury fashion goods seems critical for encouraging their
purchase of the goods.
Savvy
According to the research of (Emma K. Macdonald and Mark D. Uncles, 2007)
There are six characteristics of savvy consumers (SCs). These are: (1) Technological
sophistication is a core component of all descriptions of SCs (Day and Montgomery
1999, Uncles 2006, Urban 2004, Wind and Mahajan 2002, Zwick and Dholakia 2004).
This sophistication is evident in high rates of adoption of new and increasingly complex
technologies, from mobile phones to internet applications. It is also evident in the ability
of consumers to handle multiple technologies through media multi-tasking (e.g.,
seamlessly moving between computer, TV and iPod). Many of these new technologies
are user-directed (e.g., navigating around web-sites), demanding that consumers
quickly acquire procedural knowledge to gain full benefit from the technology (Page and
Uncles 2004). Consumers Technology Readiness measured through a combination
of enablers and inhibitors determines their responsiveness to new technologies
(Parasuraman 2000). Research based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has
found that consumers are adept problem-solvers and will readily adopt a new
technology which has high perceived usefulness, even if its usefulness is at the
expense of perceived user-friendliness (Davis et al. 1989, Venkatesh and Davis
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2000).(2) Network competency is a core component of the SCs skill set. In referring to
network competency, the current study encompasses both interpersonal connections by
consumers and their use of information technology to access vast online networks.
Previous studies have tended to focus on one or the other; for example, Savolainens
(2002) definition of network competence refers to use of IT by consumers to search for
information but does not consider offline network competency. East et al.s (2005)
comprehensive study of recommendation effects focuses on interpersonal-word-of-
mouth, but does not specifically consider the impact of online connectivity. Both these
types of network competency are briefly reviewed. (3) Interpersonal network
competency refers to the general ability of consumers to harness a network of useful
personal contacts in relation to buying products/services and engaging in markets. We
know that personal information sources are valuable, for instance recommendation can
have more impact on brand choice than advertising (East et al. 2005) and such sources
are often seen as more credible than non-personal sources (Feick and Price 1987). In
assessing intangible services, consumers ask friends and people they see as credible
sources to judge both experience and credence attributes of products (Herr et al. 1991),
and they do the later even though it raises the problem of trusting another consumer
even when that other consumer does not have the ability to make a proper assessment
of credence attributes (Mittal 2004). (4) Online network competency is a separate
construct which focuses attention on the intersection of consumers competency in their
use of interpersonal connections and their use of information technology to access
others through the mega-net (the network of networks) (Lacobucci, 1988). Typical is
the way consumers (and marketers, for that matter) are harnessing the benefits of word-
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of-web: consumers by making use of product information from experts and each other
(Dellarocas, 2003); marketers through use of buzz or viral marketing campaigns (Phelps
et al. 2004). Consumer network competency results in at least three key advantages to
the consumer: (a) they are able to tap into the collective knowledge of other consumers
and thus have easier access to information which enables more informed choice, (b) by
connecting to a wider world through the mega-net, consumers encounter new ideas and
perspectives which may subsequently influence their mental state and behaviors, and
(c) by joining with others to form collectives, consumers may have greater influence in
the marketplace, for example through blogging, online chat-rooms and consumer forum.
(5) Marketing literacy refers to the fact that consumers are familiar with the ideas,
objectives and methods of marketing and advertising. This is demonstrated when they
apply marketing terminology in their day-to-day lives, when they comprehend
marketing-speak in films/TV shows, and when they prove themselves adept at
decoding advertising (Brown 2004, Harker and Egan, 2004). A further sign of literacy is
their sophisticated approach-avoidance stance towards marketing and advertising: they
are often skeptical of the ploys used by marketers, but nevertheless confident of their
ability to evaluate and form judgments about the claims made (Harker and Egan, 2004).
Furthermore, some consumers work in marketing-related employment and the on-going
popularity of marketing studies at college/university level attests to the widespread
interest in, and understanding of, marketing mechanisms. Whereas traditionally
consumers may have been viewed as victims of the media/marketing machine, they
now show signs of being positively ruthless in their response to marketing (Mackay,
2002, p35). This is illustrated in their willingness to harness technology to exert greater
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control over their consumption of media, such as by downloading radio segments, TV
episodes and full length movies via the internet, to be played on a portable device at
their leisure. Or in their sometimes subversive use of online sites such MySpace and
YouTube to access and comment on marketing related material. (6) Consumer self-
efficacy refers to the consumers self-assessment of his/her ability to perform behaviors
related to consumption (building on Bandura 1977). This characteristic is said to be
more prevalent today because of the democratization of information. Access to real-time
information through the web, and other connective technologies, gives consumers both
individual and collective bargaining power. As a result, consumers are seen to be
increasingly demanding, assertive and taking control in their dealings with organizations
(Szmigin 2003, Wind and Mahajan 2002). Furthermore, the concept of consumer co-
creation (Prahalad and Ramaswamy 2004), where the consumer actively co-creates
value with the organization, implicitly relies on the notion of consumer self-efficacy. (7)
Consumer expectations refer to the expectations that consumers have of information
flows between the firm and the consumer. SCs are said to have enhanced expectations
of the organization in that they expect on-going dialogue with and support from the firm;
in other words, they demand deep engagement (Prahalad and Ramaswamy 2004).
This includes requiring the organization to open up its operations to the scrutiny of
consumers (Urban 2004). Consumers have always expected organizations to be
responsive to their requests although they have often resigned themselves to being
disappointed (Fournier, Dobscha and Mick, 1999). However, consumers now have
greater ability to enforce their expectations through ready access to information (about
firms, products, markets) and through the ease of forming collectives with likeminded
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consumers. Additionally, with regards to their own personal information, SCs
increasingly understand the value of this information, and are aware that there is a vast
amount of their personal information stored on company databases (Mitchell, 2004).















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CHAPTER III
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


This research concentrates on the effectiveness of covert advertising and the
relationship of the three techniques in covert form towards brand recall. Likewise, the
research contemplates on how audience lifestyle affects the rate of the consumer
memory generated by covert advertisements. The framework explains that there is a
rate of recall for every covert communication used in any fields of entertainment. (See
Fig 1).
A research of (Verwijmeren; Karremans; Stroebe; Wigboldus, 2013) explains
that the present findings build on this notion, and demonstrate that the effect of
subliminal advertising is also moderated by existing habits. As to the limits of subliminal
advertising, for a relatively strong habitually chosen brand, priming of that brand did not
influence brand choiceeven if the primed brand was goal-relevant. As to the workings
of subliminal advertising, the findings demonstrate that, remark-ably, if people habitually
consumed an alternative brand more frequently than the primed brand, participants
were actually influenced by brand-priming such that they were more likely to choose the
primed brand over the habitual brand. (Aartset. Al, 2013) defined the variable as a
behavior when performedrepeatedly, it may become automatically triggered by
environmental cues and thus become a habit.
With the completion of the conceptual structure, (Ranson, 2011) subdivided
Covert advertising into three distinct ones. These are Product Placement, Program
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Sponsorship and Promotional Plug-ins. (Balasubramanian, 1994) discussed that
Product placements are paid product messages aimed at influencing movie or television
audiences via the planned an unobtrusive entry of a branded product into movie or a
television program. Thus, the influence generated, will create brand awareness and
gradually create consumer memory.
Second sub-variable is Program sponsorship that is mainly to be present in
shows, segments and frequent TV series.Sponsorship also appeals to corporations as a
marketing communication medium because it can be tied to othermarketing activities
that are designed to influence bothcustomers and strategic partners. (Howard and
Crompton, 1995) suggested that it moves a customer from theinterest stage of the
product adoption process to the desire stage, which involves a seriousevaluation about
whether or not to purchase a product.
The relationship of brand recall to Promotional Plug-ins depicts the use of key
characters such as celebrities or personalities that supports the incorporation of the
brand inside the message. (Erfgen, 2011) elaborates that this kind of
advertisingmessage also should include two-sided appeals in celebrity endorsements,
because the empirical findings consistently verify their effectiveness. On the one hand,
weak endorsements might not express the celebritys conviction about the product
adequately and thus fail to achieve the greatest persuasive effect (brand recall). On the
other hand, strong endorsements might evoke psychologicalreactance, in response to
perceived restrictions on freedom and control (e.g., Brehm 1966; Brehm and Brehm,
1981). Through these testimonials the collaboration of covert techniques develops a
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clear relationship to the consumers and audience through their cognition that supports
brand recall.
From the structure, (see figure 1) Brand recall serves as the independent
variable to be measured when manifestations from the three concepts. A research from
(Yoo, 2007) explains that traditional metrics can be used to measure brand awareness
through on-the-line covert advertising, research using implicit memorymeasures shows
that long-term ad exposure effects, andexposure-induced affective or behavioral
predispositions, compliment the shortcomings of traditional measures such as recall and
recognition particularly when consumers are not engaged in processing the
advertisements.
To acquire results from operational zed procedures, profiling of the selected
audience lifestyles was inserted to intervene the relationship of Covert Advertising
together with the techniques namely: (1) Product Placement, (2) Program Sponsorship
and (3) Promotional Plug-ins to Brand Recall. Selected lifestyles for comparative
analyses included in the framework will be an Achiever and a Savvy. (Dealtry, 2004)
explained an excerpt of having a savvy thought that the transition to taking personal
responsibility for ones own learningconfronts each person with their own inherent
thinking and behavioraltendencies in terms of strengths and weaknesses. It is about
personal strength, strategic learning choice of character, leadership and achieving
social co-operation in a competitive and often selfish world. And it is within that context
that they have to take very important decisions about their future learning. Awareness
for theirpossibility and the quality of new learning experiences and accountability for
outcomes suddenly arrive at a crucial meeting point.
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On the other hand, (Foong; Shariffudin; Mislan, 2012) deliberately explained the
results theyve acquired concerning their research about High-achievers, the research
findings showed a marked difference between personality traits, critical and creative
thinking and multiple intelligences between high achievers and normal students. These
results implied that high achievers are different, have different needs and learn
differently from their normal counterparts; as such some attention and consideration
must be given to these groups of learners.









Figure 1 Conceptual Framework- Covert Advertising Techniques towards Brand
Awareness intervened by Audience Lifestyles


COVERT ADVERTISING
-Product Placement
-Program Sponsorship
-Promotional Plug-ins

BRAND RECALL
AUDIENCE LIFESTYLE
-Achiever
- Savvy

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CHAPTER IV
METHODOLOGY

Research Design
The research covers an interest from the concepts of a quantitative research.
Hence, statistical data and theories will be seen from the variables of the structure (see
Fig 1). The inquiry contends to be an exploratory research where data and insights were
absorbed from the respondents respectively.
The respondents are selected through their certain profiles to maximize
demographic capacity. Knowledge of the research basically came from exploratory
procedures to gather information from the respondents perspective and only from them.
The general purpose of the research to know what comparisons are strong
regarding the conceptual framework. Also, other goal is to separate the respondents
into divisions where it is connected to the intervening variables. Specific grounds are
determined to complete the exploratory thought of the research.
Sampling Procedure
The procedure for sampling was taken from the understanding of purposive
sampling. The method of acquiring the sample was based upon what is perfectly
needed in the construction of the study.
The selected population was respectively selected virtually inside De La Salle
University- Dasmarinas campus represented by students who belong to a particular
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program, BSBA Marketing and Advertising Management, currently studying in the year
2013. The entire population of the course-takers summed up approximately to 700
students.
This figure demonstrates of computing the sample size explains below:









Computation (Figure 2)
The exact number of the sampling size generated from the selected group of population
tends to be 255 students. The sampling size is subjected to data collection proper.


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Methods of Data Collection
With the completion of computation of the sampling size, the collection of data
was performed through the methods of online survey. The purpose of this procedure,
virtually, is to cope up with the time constraints approaching. The questionnaire
developed by the researchers was converted virtually carrying accurate and reliable
queries intended for the selected sampling size (respondents).
The reliability of the questionnaire scored exactly 0.89, explaining that the online
questionnaire was reliable enough for actual data collection. (see fig 3)

Reliabilty Results for the Questionnaire (Figure 3)
The construction of the questionnaire was intended for the knowledge of the
Marketing and Advertising students. It consists of a series of queries satisfying the need
of the research. The first part elaborates profiling and also to know the frequency
needed. The second part contends about fulfilling the needed for brand recall when
grouped according to covert advertising techniques.

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Data Analysis
After the phase of gathering the data needed from the online tool (survey)
emulated, a series of analyses shall be performed. The suggested statistical tool that is
to support the entire analysis was an application of the T-Test procedure.
Since the research contends to have comparisons from two samples, that are,
savvy and achiever; the procedure completes to have results from a T-Test. This
statistical tool supports answers after comparing the actual difference between the two
given means in relation to the data variation.











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APPENDIX A
SELECTED ADS FROM APPLE














P a g e | 34


















P a g e | 35


























P a g e | 36

APPENDIX B
RESULTS FROM CRONBACH










P a g e | 37

APPENDIX C
QUESTIONNAIRE

We are conducting a research on how the respondents recall Apple in terms of Covert
Advertising (Sponsorships, Product Placement and Promotional Plug-ins). May we
request you to diligently accomplish the questionnaire? Your honest insights will help us
generate your brand recall accurately, insight about Covert Advertising concerning
Brand Recall.
Thank you for your cooperation
I. Please fill out the space provided

1. What day do you prefer when you shop in the malls?
_____A day given by the mall for discounts, reductions and promos. (3-day
Sale, Weeklong sale, Seasonal sale, Holiday sale, Clearance Sale,
Inventory sale, and etc.)

____Typical day or any day

2. What particular product do you prefer?
_____ Cheap products associated with high usage.
_____ Prestige products on the trend.


3. What month do you prefer when buying a coat for winter
_____ December
_____ October
4. What month do you prefer buying a summer outfit for summer
_____March
_____February

5. When you enter the supermarket what do you buy first
_____ Needs
_____ Wants

6. On average, how many hours do you spend watching TV or MOVIES per week
_______ I dont watch TV
P a g e | 38

_______ 1- 3 hours
_______ 4-8 hours
_______ 9 14 hours
_______ 15 19 hours
_______ More than 20 hours

II. Please check only one answer

1. Where did you last see an Apple product being advertised
_________ Movies, Videogames, Music videos, TV shows/series (Product
Placements)

_________ Sponsored TV shows, Sponsored Radio stations (Program
Sponsorship)

_________ Celebrity talk shows and TV seminars (Promotional Plug-ins)

A. Product Placements (YouTube, movies, video games, TV
shows/series)


Strongly
agree
Agree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

1. I am more likely to
remember an apple
product after seeing
as product placement
in a TV show, movie
or video game.

2. I am more likely to
remember an apple
product after seeing it
BEING USED in a TV
show, movie or video
game.

3. I am more likely to
purchase an apple
product after seeing it
in a movie, video
games or in a TV
show.

P a g e | 39

B. Program Sponsorships (Sponsored TV shows, Sponsored Radio
stations)

C. Promotional Plug-ins (Celebrity talk show and TV seminar)
Strongly
agree
Agree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

1. I am more likely to
remember an apple
product after seeing
as a Program
Sponsorship in a
sponsored TV show or
in a sponsored radio
stations

2. I am more likely to
remember an apple
product after seeing it
BEING USED in a
sponsored TV show or
in a radio stations

3. I am more likely to
purchase an apple
product after seeing it
in a sponsored TV
show or in a radio
stations

Strongly
agree
Agree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

1. I am more likely to
remember an apple
product after seeing
as a Promotional
Plug-ins in a celebrity
talk show or in a TV
seminar

2. I am more likely to
remember an apple
product after seeing it
BEING USED in a
celebrity talk show or
in a TV seminar

P a g e | 40




3. I am more likely to
purchase an apple
product after seeing it
in a celebrity talk show
or in a TV seminar