You are on page 1of 78

Remote Sensing and GIS

Applications for Hilly Watersheds


SUBASHISA DUTTA
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
IIT GUWAHATI
Deciding Alternative Land Use Options in a Watershed Using GIS
2
Source: Anita Prakash et al, 2007
High Resolution of IRS-P6 Imagery
VIENNA
3
Source: NRSC website
High Resolution of CARTOSAT-2 Imagery
4
Part of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India Source: NRSC website
Topics to be covered Topics to be covered
Hydrological response of a hillslope under Hydrological response of a hillslope under
extreme rainfall events
GIS as a tool for watershed management
Analysis of digital elevation model ( terrain
data))
Case studies and discussion
5
The Hydrologic Cycle at hillslope
6
Physical Processes Involved in Runoff Generation
Hillslope Hydrology Hillslope Hydrology
Critical Hydrologic Processes
Infiltration
Overland Flow
Subsurface Stormflow Subsurface Stormflow
Soil Macropores and Water Flow
Consequences :
Flash Floodingg
Slope Failures and Slides
Soil Erosion
7
Debris Flow
Groundwater Pollution
Hillslope Experimental Plot
Geographic Location - 2612 N latitude and 9142 E Geographic Location 26 12 N latitude and 91 42 E
longitude
T h
8
Topography Average slope 20%, COV 10.49%
Microtopographic variation not significant
Hillslope Experimental Setup
UPSTREAM CHANNEL
PROFILE
PROBE
LOCATION
Upper Channel
SIDE
PLATES
OVERLAND
VENTURIMETER
VALVE
LOCATION
18 m
Piezometer
Side Plate
DOWNSTREAM
CHANNEL
OVERLAND
FLOW
PUMP
PUMP
Piezometer
POND
MEASURING
TANK
OUTLE
T
Lower Channel
6 m
Extreme Storm Intensity about 50 - 400
mm/hr
9
mm/hr
Storm Durations 15 -120 minutes
10
Overland Flow - Results
6
3
4
5
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

t
c
(
m
i
n
)
Sparse
Moderate
Dense
0
1
2
T
i
m
e

o
f

C
o
n
c
e
Outflow hydrograph
Fig. 5
0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Equivalent Rainfall Intensity, i (mm/hr) Fig. 6
Relationship between t
c
and i
300
Sparse
Similar response in sparse and
moderrate vegetation
Similar macropore network
150
200
250
n

R
a
t
e
,
f
b

(
m
m
/
h
r
)
Sparse
Moderate
Dense
Distinct changes in behavior in
dense vegetation
Significant change in macropore 0
50
100
0 100 200 300 400 500
I
n
f
i
l
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
11
connectivity and network
0 100 200 300 400 500
Equivalent Rainfall Intensity, i (mm/hr)
Fig. 7
Relationship between f
b
and i
At t 22 i
Initial state
Temporal dynamics of subsurface storm flow
At t=22min
At t=18min.
Initial state
At t=42 rainfall ceased
At t=51min.
At t=29 min.
At t=42 rainfall ceased
At t 51min.
12
Temporal dynamics of subsurface storm flow ( Continued)
At t=66min. At t=85 min. At t=99 min.
C i i l Ob i Critical Observations :
1. Fast subsurface stormflow ( within 1-2 hours of the storm event)
2. Initiation of subsurface storm flow occurs for even a storm event of
50 mm/hr
3 T ll h d t t bl f ti th b d k
13
3. Temporally perched water-table formation on the bed-rock
Saturation in zones of convergent
topography p g p y
Hydrological effect of land use/land cover change y g g
Change in top soil macroporosity, more likely to have overland flow
generation
Blocking of subsurface stormflow path, more concentrated flow
generation, leading high sheet erosion
B i th h ld fl h i it i t ll d b i f ll i t it Being a threshold flow mechanism, it is controlled by rainfall intensity,
vegetation condition, soil layers
Wetness index, based on DEM, predicts the subsurface storm flow
paths paths
Identification of Hotspots in a hilly watershed, related to flash floods
and soil erosion, sediment transport capacity and natural sediment
trapper
Land use/land cover planning to be carried out by integrating
hydrological knowledge on geospatial database
17
18
Why GIS?
C h dl hi ll f d d t Can handle geographically referenced data or
spatial data as well as non-spatial data
Can handle relational numerical expressions
between these data sets
Ideal for natural resource management
19
B i F ti f GIS Basic Functions of GIS
Capturing data
Storing data
Manipulating data
Retrieving and Querying data Retrieving and Querying data
Analyzing data
Di l i d t Displaying data
20
Data Types
Spatial Data Non-spatial Data
Topography
Land Use Land Cover
S il
Descriptive Attributes
Soil Type
Soil
Water bodies
State District Blocks
Soil Type
Land Use Type
Village Name
State, District, Blocks
Villages
Forests
Street Name
Forests
Geology
Road Network
21
Representation of Spatial Data
22
23
Spatial Data Models
Vector Data Model Raster Data Model
Based on geometry of Digital Representation
G id C ll
Point
as Grid Cells
Satellite Images
Line
P l
Aerial Photographs
Polygon
Digital Elevation
Models (DEM)
24
Vector and Raster Data Model
25
Vector Data Model
B i hi l f
Arc-Node data structure
Basic graphical features
Point
Line
Polygon
26
Arc-Node Data Structure
Polygon Arc List Polygon Arc List Polygon Polygon Arc List Arc List
Arc
Number
Start
node
Vertices End
node
Arc
Number
Start
node
Vertices End
node
Arc
Number
Arc
Number
Start
node
Start
node
Vertices Vertices End
node
End
node
Nodes & Vertices
Arc-node structure Polygon structure
A 1,2
B 2 3
A 1,2
B 2 3
AA 1,2 1,2
BB 2 3 2 3
1 20 d,c,b.a 10
2 10 e 20
1 20 d,c,b.a 10
2 10 e 20
11 20 20 d,c,b.a d,c,b.a 10 10
22 10 10 ee 20 20
27
B 2,3 B 2,3 BB 2,3 2,3
3 10 f,g,h,i,j 20 3 10 f,g,h,i,j 20 33 10 10 f,g,h,i,j f,g,h,i,j 20 20
Topology : Defining Spatial Relationships
Three major topological concepts:
Connectivity: Arcs connect to each other at
nodes.
Area definition: Arcs that connect to surround
d fi l an area define a polygon
Contiguity: Arcs have direction and left and
i ht id right sides
28
Connectivity
29
Area Definition
30
Contiguity : Adjacency
31
Vector Data Model
Points: represent discrete point features
each point location
has a record in the
table
airports are point features
h i t i t d
32
each point is stored as a
coordinate pair
Vector Data Model
Lines: represent linear features
each road segment
has a record in the
table
33
roads are linear features
Vector Data Model
Polygons: represent bounded areas
each bounded polygon
has a record in the
table
polygonal features
34
polygonal features
Multiple Layers of Vector Data
35
Data Structures
where of GIS is determined by coordinate where of GIS is determined by coordinate
(map) data structures, but
what of GIS is determined by tabular
(relational database) data structures ( )
GIS Database = Coordinate data + Attribute Data
36
Attribute Data Structures
Attribute data are stored in database tables.
Tables are composed of:
Fi ld Fields
and and
Records
37
Use of Tabular Data
Making queries
Promotingandsortingrecords Promoting and sorting records
Displaying selected sets
Modifying selected sets
Basicdescriptivestatistics Basic descriptive statistics
38
Making Queries
Selecting records from tables/features
39
Displaying Selected Sets
Selecting records from tables also select features
fromthemes from themes
40
Analysis Tools of GIS
BUFFER ANALYSIS
OVERLAY ANALYSIS
NETWORK ANALYSIS
41
Buffering
Quantifying a spatial entity to influence its neighbours
or the neighbours to influence the character of a or the neighbours to influence the character of a
Spatial entity
Point
Line
Polygon
42
Polygon
POINT BUFFER
43
LINE BUFFER
44
Overlay Analysis
Point over Polygon
45
Line over Polygon
Overlay Operators
46
Analysis of DEM for extraction of Watershed y
parameters
47
Digital Elevation Models
Remotely Sensed Satellite Images
Digital Elevation Models (DEM)
Raster Data
Structure
48
DEM Data from Contours
Contours
720 720
Contours
740
720
700
680
49
680 700 720 740
DEM Elevations
Contours
700
680
50
A Simple Digital Elevation Model
67 56 49 46 50
cell size
53 44 37 38 48
50
(cell value)
58 55 22 31 24
61 47 21 16 19
(cell value)
12 11 12 34 53
cell
51
DEM Data Sources
1 kmDEM of the earth (GTOPO)
100 mDEM from 1:250,000 scale maps
30 m DEM from 1:24,000 scale map , p
90 mShuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) p g p y ( )
52
Using DEM Data
1 1
Direction of Steepest Descent
67 56 49 67 56 49
53 44 37 53 44 37
58 55 22 58 55 22
26 . 16
2
44 67
=

14
1
53 67
=

Slope:
53
2
1
Eight Direction Pour Point Model
32 64 128
16 1 16
8 4
1
2 8 4 2
54
Flow Direction Grid
2 2 4 4 8
1 2 4 8 4
128 1 2 4 8
2 1 4 4 4
1 2 16 1 1
55
30 Meter DEM
Ele ationsinmeters Elevations in meters
ftp://ftp.tnris.state.tx.us/tnris/demA.html
56
Flow Direction Grid
32 64 128
16
8 4
1
2
57
Fl N k Flow Network
58
Flow Accumulation Grid
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0 3 2
2
1
0
0 0
0
0
3 2 2
11
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
1
1
15
0
0
0
0 0
0
11
1
1 15
0
2 5
24
1
0
1
2 24 5
59
Fl A l i 5C ll Th h ld Flow Accumulation > 5 Cell Threshold
St Li
0 0
0
0 0
Stream Lines
0
0
0
3 2 2
0 0
0
11
1
0
0
0 0
1
1
2
15
24 5
60
0 2 24 5
St N t kf 5 ll Th h ld Stream Network for 5 cell Threshold
Drainage Area
0 0 0 0 0
0
0
0 3 2
2
0
0
0
0
0
11
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
15
2 5
1
61
0
24
1
Watershed Outlet
62
Watershed Draining to the Outlet
63
SRTM Data Source Website: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/
64
SRTM Data Selection Option
65
Sample DEM Data
66
SRTM Data: 90 m Resolution
Computing Flow Direction
67
Flow Direction Map
Flow Accumulation from Raw DEM
Discontinuous
Flow Lines or
Loops Loops
Sinks
Filling is Required
68
Sink Filling
C ti St Li
69
Continuous Stream Line
DEM Data Pre-processing
Raw DEM Data
Interactive Interactive
Sink Filling
NO
Continuous
Flow Lines
YES
Generate
Select O tlet
Generate
Watershed
70
Stream Lines
Select Outlet Watershed
Boundary
Filled DEM Data
71
Stream Network from Filled DEM
72
Defining Watershed Boundary
Watershed Boundary
Outlet
73
Case studies : GIS and RS applications
74
Case study : Shiwalik hill in Dehradun
DEM t CARTOSAT i DEM : stereo CARTOSAT imagery
Wetness index image
Ln(As/S)
Stream power index (A *S)
Sediment transport index
75
Source: suresh kumar et al, 2008, ISRS-36, 159-165
Case study-2: Spatial distribution of annual sediment yield estimation
Source: Manish and Suresh
76
Study area: Jhikhu Khola watershed in NEPAL
Conclusion and Discussions
Extreme hydrological response of a hillslope :
discussed, their prediction based on wetness index, , p ,
their knowledge for land use/land cover planning
GIS: introduced its use in watershed management GIS: introduced, its use in watershed management
Digital elevation model: extraction of watershed
parameters, wetness index, stream power index
Recent case studies using high-resolution DEM and g g
satellite remote sensing
77
Th k Y Thank You
78