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Polyurethanes for thermo-activatable

solvent-free hot-melt adhesives


Sticks.
Content 1. Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Property spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Product range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. Processing hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. Form of supply and storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7. Quality assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3
1. Desmomelt

Description
Desmomelt

adhesive raw materials are lin-


ear, thermo-activatable polyurethanes with
terminal hydroxyl groups in solvent-free,
carrier-free form based on crystallizing
polyester polyols and aromatic diisocya-
nates.
They are available in the form of granules
for extrusion or direct coating for scatter
coating applications.
4
Because of their many favorable proper-
ties, polyurethane adhesives have for
many years held an established position
in bonding technology, and their impor-
tance is increasing all the time. While
many systems are still solventborne, ever
stricter regulations have led to increasing
demand for environmentally friendly, sol-
vent-free polyurethane adhesives.
The well known products Desmocoll

(for
solvent adhesives) and Dispercoll

U (for
aqueous adhesive dispersions) have, as a
result, been supplemented by the new sol-
vent-free, carrier-free Desmomelt

prod-
ucts.
Desmomelt

adhesive raw materials are


mostly used in bonding applications in-
volving the thermo-activation process.
This process is shown in Fig. 1 with the aid
of the change in modulus of the polymer
at the different stages of the bonding
process. Immediately before bonding, the
solvent and carrier-free Desmomelt

ad-
hesive system is activated by heating it to a
relatively low temperature of e.g. 70 C.
As a result, the crystalline polyester seg-
ments melt and the adhesive becomes
soft and tacky. At this point in time, the
two substrates can be joined together. In
phase 1 of the process, the viscosity of the
adhesive increases further as it cools
down and the polyester segments begin to
recrystallize. With the crystallization of
the soft segments in phase 2, the adhe-
sive attains its final strength.
2. Desmomelt

Property spectrum
Time Seconds Minutes Days
Solvent and carrier-free
Low activation temperature for
heat-sensitive substrates
Fig. 1: Phases of the bonding process with thermo-
activatable polyurethane adhesives
Although the nature of the application can
vary considerably, all Desmomelt

grades
have a number of technical advantages:
The Desmomelt

products are beneficial


because they have a low activation tem-
perature compared with conventional hot-
melt adhesives, making them especially
suitable for heat-sensitive substrates.

Thermal activation
M
o
d
u
l
u
s
Phase
Phase
5
Temperature [C]
T
a
c
k

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
0
0
.
2
0
.
4
0
.
6
0
.
8
1
.
0
1
.
2
1
.
4
1
.
6
1
.
8
2
.
0
Fig. 2: Tack vs. temperature for Desmomelt 540
Wet film: 0,50 mm, substrate: coated AI,
piston: steel/PVC rigid, bonding pressure: 1 bar,
pressing time: 10 s
To illustrate the positive activation prop-
erties of adhesive systems based on
Desmomelt

, the tack temperature curve for


a Desmomelt

grade was plotted using an


automatic tack measuring device. Fig. 2
shows that, depending on the joining pres-
sure and joining time, a bond can be pro-
duced at very low temperatures, sparing the
substrate from exposure to elevated tem-
peratures.
No bleeding of adhesive into
porous substrates
The low activation temperature does not
mean, however, that the product disap-
pears into the substrate. Even though a
thermoactivated Desmomelt

is tacky, it
still behaves in virtually the same way as an
elastomer. The risk of the adhesive bleed-
ing into porous substrates is therefore min-
imal in the case of Desmomelt

.
Specific viscoelastic properties prevent the
adhesive from penetrating too far into
porous substrates. It remains in the joint
region wich has beneficial effects on the
properties of the laminated fabric.
Although this is of considerable practical im-
portance for the user, it means that, during
the bonding process, the sensitive equilib-
rium between wetting and penetration (for
example in the case of fabric bonding) has to
be maintained through the careful choice of
the process parameters. The so-called
Dahlquist criterion correlates the contact-
ability of an adhesive system with its storage
modulus, and provides a certain help in
establishing the right process parameters
6
High process reliability over a
broad temperature range
Fig. 3: Viscoelastic
properties of various
hot-melt adhesives
In contrast, Desmomelt

can be processed
over a broad temperature range, more or
less excusing any fluctuations in the pro-
cess conditions.
As Fig. 3 shows, other systems based on
other raw materials especially the tested
copolyesters are restricted by a very nar-
row process window.
Temperature [C]
Adhesive Tape
(Dahlquist criterion)
S
t
o
r
a
g
e

m
o
d
u
l
u
s

G


[
P
a
]
1
E
+
0
4
1
E
+
0
5
1
E
+
0
6
1
E
+
0
7
1
E
+
0
8
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
I
Copolyester film
I
Copolyamide film
I
Polyurethane (Desmomelt

530)

Fabric 1

Hot-melt adhesive film

Fabric 2

Fig. 4 illustrates the specific rheological be-


havior of Desmomelt

based on the example


of two layers of fabric bonded together with
a hot-melt film based on Desmomelt

530. It
can be seen clearly that the Desmomelt

adhesive film only affects the outer layer of


fiber and does not penetrate into the entire
structure. As a result, the fabric does not go
hard and the so-called textile hand of the
final article is retained. Apart from this, the
processor need not fear any soiling of his
laminating unit.
No hardening of the fabric
structure
Fig. 4: REM micrograph of a bonded fabric
7
Outstanding adhesion, initial
and final strength
Due to the typical properties of polyure-
thane adhesives, Desmomelt

has out-
standing adhesion and excellent initial and
final strength.
Resistance to washing and
dry-cleaning
Another advantage is that all Desmomelt

grades are resistant to the everyday washing


(e.g. at 40 C) and dry-cleaning processes to
which fabrics are normally subjected.
The processing of Desmomelt

does not
cause any nuisance from odor or have any
impact on the environment, and the coated
substrates can be stored for an unlimited
period before bonding.
Wide range of recrystallization
rates and thermoplasticities
Easy processing due to low
gel contents
The Desmomelt

granule grades were de-


veloped for the production of hot-melt films
and fleece by extrusion. They all have in
common their ease of processing due to the
low gel contents.
Within the range of Desmomelt

granules
there is a wide choice of recrystallization
rates and thermoplasticities, as can be seen
from the Shore A hardness measurements
shown in Fig. 5 as a measure of increasing
crystallinity.
The present product range comprises two
granule types:
Desmomelt

530 is a fast crystallizing poly-


urethane with low thermoplasticity.
Desmomelt

540 is a very fast crystallizing


grade, also with low thermoplasticity.
Hot-melt films and fleece produced with
Desmomelt

can be processed by the con-


ventional laminating technique, e.g. hot cal-
enders, membrane presses or continuous
presses. The advantages are obvious:
1. easy and safe handling
2. high reliability and
3. fast bonding.
Time [min]
I
Desmomelt

540
G
Desmomelt

530
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

[
S
h
o
r
e

A
]
0
10 20 30 40 50 60
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
Fig. 5: Shore A hardness measurement as a measure of
the crystallization rates of the various Desmomelt

granule types at 23 C
Decrystallization: 25 min at 75 C
8
Substrates can, of course, also be provided
in advance with Desmomelt

adhesive films
(direct coating). Because of the thermally
reversible pseudo-network structure of the
Desmomelt

, use can be made for this pur-


pose of any processing method suitable for
thermoplastic polymers, such as extrusion
by slit dies or special perforated dies and
the melt-print process (in combination with
an extruder).
3. Desmomelt

Product range
The range of Desmomelt

grades covers a
large number of fields of application for the
respective adhesive systems (film, nonwo-
ven fabric, direct coating), e.g. in the textile,
footwear, automotive and furniture indus-
tries.
Commercial products/ Form Particle size Crystallization Thermoplasticity Viscosity of a
Trial products supplied [m] rate 15% solution
in MEK [mPas]
Desmomelt

530 granules fast very low 1000 1400


Desmomelt

540 granules very fast very low 1500 2100


9
One of the main areas of application for hot-
melt films and fleece based on Desmomelt

granules is the bonding of fabrics, especial-


ly in the garment sector. Other substrates
frequently bonded with the aid of hot-melt
laminate film include paper and plastic film,
leather and wood products. Common to
most of the bonding processes is that, very
shortly after production of the final article,
the bond is subjected to considerable
forces and stresses, which means that top
initial strength and fast curing must be
guaranteed. In fact, the bonded articles
sometimes have to be subjected to further
processing immediately. The properties of
the Desmomelt

granules are ideal for such


processes where short cycle times are es-
sential.
Fig. 7: Desmomelt

-coated fabric/nonwoven as a
stiffening element in the shoe
Fig. 6: Fabric-to-foam bonding for car interior trim
Short cycle times thanks to
high initial strength
4. Desmomelt

Application
10
5. Desmomelt

Granules
Processing hints
Desmomelt

granules can be processed


under the same conditions as other ther-
moplastic polyurethanes which have a
comparable melt rheology. It is known that
polyurethanes, because of the reverse reac-
tion into their educts at temperatures
>150 C, are only heat-stable for a limited
period. Long dwell times in the extruder and
high melt temperatures must therefore be
avoided.
Generally speaking, higher-powered screw
drives are needed for processing polyure-
thanes than for other plastics to ensure
optimum homogenizing. Irrespective of the
process conditions, a high torque must be
applied. For the production of film with low
thicknesses, it is advisable to use breaker
plates with screen packs. Generally, the use
of grooved feed bushes is recommended in
order to improve the linear conveying char-
acteristics of the extruder. The tables on
the left give an overview of the necessary
machine setup.
When designing the molding tools, it is
generally possible to apply the experience
gained with the extrusion of thermoplastics.
Desmomelt

is supplied as non-predried
granules. It is therefore urgently recom-
mended to dry them before processing.
Excessive moisture leads to processing
problems and to a reduction in the quality
of the finished part. Experience has shown
that no problems whatsoever occur in the
production process at a water content be-
low 0.1 %, resulting in perfect extrudates.
Feed zone* 165C
Compression zone* 185C
Metering zone* 185C
Die/head * 185C
*) must be adjusted to the geometry
Three-zone-screw total length 25 30 D
Function zone divided equally or
Feed 30 %
Compression 40 %
Metering 30 %
Pitch constant 1 D
Flight depth ratio 2 3: 1
Screw geometry:
Extruder drive rating:
Recommended temperature profile:
Screw diameter Drive rating
[mm] [kW]
30 16
45 25
60 40
90 60
120 90
11
Shear rate Gamma [1/s]
I
130C
I
150C
I
180C
M
e
l
t

v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

E
T
A

[
P
a

s
]
1
.
0
E
+
0
2
1
.
0
E
+
0
3
1
.
0
E
+
0
4
1
.
0
E
+
0
5
1.0E+01 1.0E+02 1.0E+03
Shear rate Gamma [1/s]
I
130C
I
150C
I
180C
M
e
l
t

v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

E
T
A

[
P
a

s
]
1
.
0
E
+
0
2
1
.
0
E
+
0
3
1
.
0
E
+
0
4
1
.
0
E
+
0
5
1.0E+01 1.0E+02 1.0E+03
Fig. 8: Flow curves of Desmomelt

530
Since Desmomelt

granules have a tendency


to cake at only 45 C, high drying tempera-
tures must be dispensed with. Experience
has shown that a suitable material for pro-
cessing can be obtained in dry air driers at
just 35 C after approx. 12 hours.
The following flow curves (melt viscosity as
a function of shear rate, Figs. 89) show a
uniform variation over the observed tem-
perature range. All Desmomelt

grades are
relatively sensitive to temperature fluctu-
ations above all at low shear rates.
Fig. 9: Flow curves of Desmomelt

540
12
Desmomelt

granules are packed in 25 kg


sacks. The paper sacks contain a poly-
ethylene inliner. 30 sacks are stacked on a
pallet to make 750 kg, and shrink-wrapped
with polyethylene film.
All Desmomelt

grades have excellent sta-


bility. If properly stored in cool, dry condi-
tions, the shelf life is at least 6 months. Care
must be taken to keep Desmomelt

away
from direct sunlight.
Fig. 10: Pallet with Desmomelt

granules
6. Desmomelt

Form of supply and


storage
6.1 Form of supply
6.2 Storage
13
Our customers make very high and varied
demands on the raw materials they work
with. Nowadays, factors such as quality
assurance, economical production pro-
cesses and environment-friendliness are a
major challenge for all the materials used. Fig. 11: Sample extrusion for determining the gel content
7. Desmomelt

Quality assurance
Quality testing of
Desmomelt

granules under
practical conditions
Our customers throughout the world take it
for granted that we have the know-how, ex-
pertise and ability to correctly evaluate the
importance of these criteria.
14
Fig. 12: Determining the peel strength
Tailor-made problem solutions
through global proximity to
our customers
Innovative research, ongoing development,
and close proximity to our customers with
customer service bases throughout the
world guarantee continuous dialogue with
our partners and enable us to come up with
tailor-made problem solutions.
This information and our technical advice whether verbal,
in writing or by way of trials are given in good faith but
without warranty, and this also applies where proprietary
rights of third parties are involved. Our advice does not
release you from the obligation to verify the information
currently provided especially that contained in our safety
data and technical information sheets and to test our
products as to their suitability for the intended processes
and uses. The application, use and processing of our prod-
ucts and the products manufactured by you on the
basis of our technical advice are beyond our control and,
therefore, entirely your own responsibility. Our products are
sold in accordance with the current version of our General
Conditions of Sale and Delivery.
Edition: 10-2005 Order-no.: MS 00####
Printed in Germany E
Bayer MaterialScience AG
TPU Business Unit
51368 Leverkusen
Deutschland
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For further information in the United States, Canada and Mexico,
visit our web site at
www.bayermaterialsciencenafta.com
Were there for you
with expertise and commitment all over the world:
Europe, Middle East, Africa Region:
TPUemea@bayermaterialscience.com
Tel. +49 214 30 81673, Leverkusen
Asia-Pacific Region:
TPUapac@bayermaterialscience.com
Tel. +852-28947150, Hongkong
NAFTA Region:
TPUinfo@bayer.com
Tel. +1-800-662-2927, Pittsburgh
For further information in the United States, Canada and Mexico,
visit our web site at
www.bayermaterialsciencenafta.com