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Notice to readers

The way in which the following manual


refers to DoCS residences was correct at
the time of publication. Any reference in
the manual to DoCS residences should
now be read as Family and Community
Services NSW, Ageing, Disability and
Home Care (ADHC) Large Residential
Centres.
Version 1.0
Accommodation Support Directorate
Ageing, Disability and Home Care
Department of Family and Community Services NSW
July 2012
Final


Food Services Manual Update September 2003

This manual was first published in August 2000 by the Department of
Community Services to provide standards and information about quality and
safety to larger residential services for people with a disability.

The information provided in this manual continues to be useful. However, it
should be noted that since publication of this manual the NSW Government in
May 2001 adopted the Food Standards Code under Food Regulation 2001,
thereby replacing the previous Food (General) Regulation 1997.

Since this update in 2003 the Standards in the Australia and New Zealand Food
Standards Code have been made legislative instruments under the Legislative
Instruments Act 2003.

The current (2012) Food Standards Code can be accessed at:
http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodstandards/foodstandardscode.cfm/
Food Regulation 2001 can be accessed at:
http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/

NSW Family and Community Services, Ageing, Disability and Home Care is
making the resource available to provide a good practice framework for Large
Residential Centres.

Food safety measures outlined in the manual need to be linked to Food Safety
Standard 3.2.2 Food Safety Practices and General Requirements, which
includes:

Food handling skills and knowledge

Food handling controls storage
processing
disposal
recall

Health and hygiene of food handlers

Cleaning, sanitising and maintenance

Temperature control

Compliance with the Food Standards Code is monitored by the NSW Food
Authority.

Services should also refer to the Food Standards Code in relation to waste
management, equipment and staff. Services are advised to contact the NSW
Food Authority on 1300 552 406 if they have any questions or require
additional information.

Links to Food Standards Code updated J uly 2012
FOOD
m a n u a l
s e r v i c e s
Producedbythe
NSWDepartmentofCommunityServices
4-6 Cavill Avenue,AshfieldNSW2131
www.community.nsw.gov.au
August2000
ISBN0731043014
78
MESSAGE
from the director-general
Food is love, or thats what my mother always said. Food warms, nourishes and fuels the
body, stirs the heart, entices with its fragrance, colour and taste. Enjoying food is one of
lifes pleasures. We want to increase our clients enjoyment of their food and increase its
nourishment.
Healthy nutrition is something most of us take for granted. In our own homes we recognise
the important contribution to our health of a balanced diet and safe food handling.
At work, in our residences, staff work together to give the best nutritional care for our
clients. The more staff there are involved in the preparation of clients food, the clearer the
guidelines need to be about practice and quality.
This Food Services Manual provides us with clear guidelines and standards for healthy meal
planning and preparation. It also provides our staff with guidance on mealtime practices.
This Manual is the first of its kind for DoCS residences. It includes input from dietitians who
are specialists in food handling as well as feedback from our community partners, staff and
managers in our residences.
I recently funded additional dietitians for our residences so that at each location you will gain
specialist input while you are implementing the practice guidelines.
We will accompany the distribution of this Manual with training for our managers who are
responsible for food services management. This training will include details about how to
use the Manual and work with your dietitian in the continuous improvement process of
planning and reviewing your residences food services.
Recently I outlined the progress our residences are making in improving food services to
the Minister, the Community Services Commissioner and some of our community partners.
This Manual will assist you to continue to improve our nutrition services to our clients and
help you create a sense of well being in our clients from enjoyable and nourishing food.
Car mel Niland
Director-General
Food Services Manual
i
79
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ThewritersoftheFoodServicesManualaregratefulfortheadviceandguidancethathas
beenavailablethroughtheInstituteofHospitalCateringandtheirpublicationFoodService
GuidelinesforHealthcare.Theyalsowouldliketoacknowledgetheassistanceandadviceof
anumberofpeopleworkingtowardsqualityimprovementinfoodservicesinthedisability
servicessectorinNSW.TheyincludeRonJ ames,AnneGrieve,CarmelCurlewis,J eanette
MossandRussellJ ones.
Those who were directly involved in the writing and preparation of this document were
MarilynRyan,MargaretvonKonigsmarkandLynStewart.
FoodServicesManual
ii
80
CONTENTS
Int r oduct ion..............................................................................................p1
Sect ions
1 SummaryofstandardsforfoodservicesinDoCSresidences......................p3
2 ContinuousQualityManagement.............................................................p5
3 Menuplanning.....................................................................................p8
4 Texture-modifiedmeals........................................................................p19
5 Mealtimes,diningenvironmentandmealservice.................................... p22
6 Foodsafety .......................................................................................p26
7 Ordering,receiving,storageandinventorycontrol...................................p37
8 Kitchensafety....................................................................................p42
9 Dishwashing......................................................................................p45
10 Wastedisposalandrecycling...............................................................p49
11 Cleaningandpestcontrol....................................................................p52
12 Equipmentpurchasingandmaintenance................................................p56
13 Staffselection,orientationandtraining..................................................p59
Resour ces
1 Usefulreferences...............................................................................p65
2 Usefulcontacts..................................................................................p66
Glossar y...................................................................................................p67
Appendices
1 Exampleofformatforarecipecard......................................................p70
2 Samplecleaningschedule....................................................................p71
3 Temperaturestandardsforacook-servefoodservicesystem...................p72
4 Temperaturestandardsforacook-chillservicesystem............................. p73
5 Commonmicrobiologicalhazardsandtheircontrols................................. p75
Contents
FoodServicesManual
iii
INTRODUCTION
W ho is t his M anual for ?
TheFoodServicesManualDisabilityServicesprovidesaframeworkforfoodservice
management in residential services for people with disabilities. These residences
provide meals for large groups of people, which may in reality be as few as 10
peopleorasmanyas600.Generally,theManualappliestoservicesthatprepare
foodforlargernumbersthanafamilyunitinahome.
Itisalsointendedtoapplytoresidenceswhereoneormorecooksareemployedto
preparefoodfortheclients.ThisManualalsoappliestothoseresidencesthatreceive
foodpreparedbyanotherserviceatadifferentlocation.
W hat ar e t he uses of t his M anual?
TheManualaimstobeausefulresourceforpeoplewhoare:
developingpoliciesandproceduresforafoodservice;
monitoringthequalityofafoodservice;
developingandimplementingaqualityimprovementprogramforafoodservice;
and
developinganddeliveringtrainingprogramsforstaffworkinginfoodservices.
W hat does t he M anual cont ain?
The Manual is divided into sections that highlight various topic areas that are
fundamentaltobuildingaqualityfoodservice.
Each section begins with the standard for a particular topic area and suggests
proceduresforsuccessfullyobtainingthisstandard.Eachsectionalsolistsanumber
ofmethodstomonitorthequality,aswellasexamplesofpoorandgoodpractice.
TheManualhighlightsthebasicaspectsforeachtopicareaandisnotintendedtobe
fullycomprehensive.
Using t his M anual t o wr it e policies and pr ocedur es for your ser vice
Therearepoliciesthatcanbeadoptedbyaserviceorganisationastheystandinthis
Manual.Alternatively,thesepoliciescanalsobeusedasaguideandadaptedtosuit
anindividualservice.
Inordertosuccessfullyimplementeachstandardandachieveahighstandardinfood
service,theorganisationshouldfollowascloselyaspossibletheprocedureslisted
withineachtopicarea.
Introduction
FoodServicesManual
1
Developing a M ission St at ement
AstatementofanorganisationspurposeiscalledaMissionStatement.Itdefinesin
simple, clear language what the organisation is trying to do and the outcomes it
hopes to achieve. Mission statements for catering organisations or government
departments are usually customer focused expressions of the overall aim of the
service.
ThefollowingMissionStatementcanbeusedbyorganisationsprovidingfoodservices
forpeoplewithdisabilities:
Themissionofthe(insertnameofservice)foodserviceistoprovideallourclients
with high quality nutritious food that is enjoyable, safe to eat and meets their
individualneeds.
Notethatindividualneedsincludesnutritionalandsocialneeds.
Ot her sour ces of infor mat ion
TheInstituteofHospitalCatering(NSW)publishedamanualin1997entitledFood
ServiceGuidelinesforHealthcare,whichhasbeendrawnheavilyindevelopingsections
ofthisManual.FoodServiceGuidelinesforHealthcarecanbeusedasacompanion
volumetothisManual,particularlyforlarge-scalefoodserviceoperations.Itprovides
more detailed guidelines on topics such as cook-chill production and storage,
descriptionsfortypicalrolesandresponsibilitiesforcommonstaffpositionsinfood
serviceoperations,andmodelHACCPplansforindividualmenudishes.
Introduction
FoodServicesManual
2
1 SUMMARY
ofstandardsforfood
servicesinDoCSresidences
Summaryofstandards
FoodServicesManual
3
1
Ourfoodservicewillcontinuallystrivetoimprovethequalityofthefoodandtheservice
weprovide.
EachClientwithadisabilitywillbeoffered,orhaveaccessto,foodofgoodqualitythat
they can enjoy. Food provided will meet their nutritional needs and their cultural
requirements.Foodwillbeofferedtotheminawaythatisappropriatetotheirphysical
capabilitiesandlevelofindependence.
Each client with a disability who requires texture-modified food will be offered visually
appealing,palatablemealsandsnacksthatmeetstheirnutritionalandswallowingneeds.
Theywillbeservedinasafemanner.
Eachclientwithadisabilitywillbeofferedgoodqualityfoodthatisprepared,assembled
and distributed in a safe manner. This will be achieved by the development and
implementation of a food safety program in accordance with Hazard Analysis Critical
ControlPoint(HAACP)systemrequirements.
Ourfoodwillbeordered,receivedandmanagedinawaythatensuresthepreservation
ofitsquality,providesvalueforourmoney,providesreliabledeliveryandminimisesits
waste.
Wewilltakeallnecessaryprecautionstoensureasafeworkingenvironmentforourfood
servicestaffandtocomplywithallOccupationalHealthandSafety(OH&S)regulations.
Eachclientwithadisabilitywillhaveaccesstovisuallyappealingmealsservedinasafe
manner. They can expect flexibility at meal time. They will receive a consistent and
appropriatelevelofservicewhentheyareunwellorneedachangeinmealtimedueto
anappointmentorotherchangestotheirusualroutine.
Eachclientwithadisabilitywillhaveaccesstoclean,sanitisedutensilsforeatingand
drinking.
Ourwastewillbestoredanddisposedofsoitdoesnottocontaminateourpremises,
equipmentorfood.
We will have cleaning and sanitation programs together with pest control programs
whichminimisetheriskofourfoodbeingcontaminated.
Ourequipmentwillbepurchasedaccordingtoourneedsandinacosteffectivemanner.
Ourequipmentwillbemaintainedtoprovideoptimumserviceandsafety.
Wewillselecttherightstaffforthetasksrequired.Ourstaffwillundertakeappropriate
orientationandongoingtrainingasnecessary.
Summaryofstandards
FoodServicesManual
4
2 CONTINUOUS
QualityManagement
ContinuousQualityManagement
FoodServicesManual
5
2
STANDARD
Our food ser vice will cont inually st r ive t o impr ove t he qualit y of t he
food and t he ser vice we pr ovide.
PROCEDURES FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE
WeuseasystemofContinuousQualityManagement(CQM).Thismeansthatallour
foodservicestaffarecommittedto,andinvolvedinacreativeprocessofimprovement.
1.AContinuousQualityManagement(CQM)programfocusesonclientneedsand
improvementofservice,evenwhennoproblemsareidentified.Thisdiffersfrom
QualityAssurance(QA)whichfocusesoncomplianceofregulationsorstandards
andfollowsaproblemsolvingapproach.
2.CQMinvolvesthefollowingsteps:
St ep 1 : Assign r esponsibilit y
St ep 2 : Define t he scope
Define the scope of service which is to be monitored and evaluated. In a food
service,thescopeshouldbeallaspectsofservicefromfoodprocurementoffood
ingredientstoserviceatthemealtableoraclientschair.
St ep 3 : Ident ify impor t ant ar eas
Identify important areas which may have the greatest impact on the quality of
servicetoourclientsandusetheseformonitoringandevaluation.Examplesfor
food service would include quality of food purchased, food safety, recipe testing
anddocumentation,andtrainingofstaff.
St ep 4 : Ident ify indicat or s
Theseshouldbeobjectiveandmeasurableandshouldhelptodirectattentionto
potential problems or opportunities to improve the service. For example,
temperaturecontrolandmealtimesatisfactionsurveys.
St ep 5 : Collect and or ganise infor mat ion
Thisshouldfollowapre-determinedpatternandtimeinterval.Itcouldberoutine
oratrandom.
St ep 6 : Evaluat e and assess infor mat ion gat her ed
This may be on the basis of a pre-determined standard or in comparison with
previousevaluations.Theassessmentshouldoccurinacollaborativeandinclusive
wayinvolving,amongstothers,staffwhohavebeenresponsibleforthemonitoring.
St ep 7 : Take act ion t o impr ove t he ser vice
Whenproblemsareidentified,actionplansshouldbedevelopedandenactedto
solvetheproblemorimprovetheservice.Thismayinvolveachangetoprocedures,
useofdifferentequipmentoradministrativechanges.Staffmembersshouldbe
fullyinformedandinvolved.
St ep 8 : Evaluat e t he act ions
This is necessary to make sure that the actions taken have been effective. All
ContinuousQualityManagement
FoodServicesManual
6
actions should be documented. Evaluation of the actions taken (changes made)
shouldincludetheviewsofthestaffmembersinvolvedandthosewhoareperforming
theon-goingmonitoring.
St ep 9 : Communicat ion
Thefindingsfrom,andconclusionsof,monitoringandevaluation,includingactions
takentoimprovetheservice,shouldbedocumentedandclearlycommunicatedto
staff.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Achecklistofallmonitoringactivitiesforthequalityimprovementprogram.
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Whenthereisinsufficientmonitoring.
Whenmonitoringshowsthereisaproblem,nothingisdoneaboutit.
Informationcollectedbymonitoringactivitiesisfiledwithoutfurtherexamination.
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Aqualityimprovementprogramappliestovariousaspectsofthefoodservicesuch
asthemenu,foodsafetyandstafftraining.
AllstaffmembersareinvolvedinCQMandarekeptfullyinformedoftheresults.
ContinuousQualityManagement
FoodServicesManual
7
3 MENU
planning
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
8
3
STANDARD
Eachclient wit hadisabilit ywillbeoffer ed, or hasaccesst o, foodof
good qualit y t hat t hey can enjoy. Food pr ovided will meet t heir
nut r it ionalneedsandt heir cult ur alr equir ement sandwillbeoffer ed
t ot heminawayt hat isappr opr iat et ot heir physicalcapabilit iesand
level of independence.
PROCEDURES FOR M ENU PLANNING
1 . M inimum food quant it ies
Themenuwillbedesignedinconsultationwithadietitianandwillprovideatleast
theminimumquantitiesshowninTable3(1).
Whenmenusareassessedfornutritionaladequacytheymaybecomparedagainst
theminimumfoodquantitiesindicatedinTable3(1).Themenushouldsupplythe
minimumfoodquantitiesperdayonaverageoverthewholemenuperiod.
Servingsizesmay,inpractice,belargerthantheminimum.(Pleaserefertothe
exampleofthemenupatternonpage13).Furthermore,thevariationinindividual
needsalsomeansthatservingsizeswillbedifferentfordifferentclients.
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
9
Table 3 (1 ) M inimum food quant it ies t o be pr ovided by t he menu
FOOD GROUP M IN. No. OF M IN. SERVING SIZE COM M ENTS
SERVES PER DAY
Fruit 2 1mediumfreshfruit Canbefresh,cannedorjuice
120gcannedfruit (juiceshouldprovidenomore
100mlfruitjuice than1serve)
Vegetables 5 60g Legumescanbecountedasboth
&Legumes offeravarietyof vegetableandmeatalternative.
coloursateachmeal Fruitmayoccasionally
substituteforvegetable.
Breads,cereals, 5c 1slicebread Wholemealorwhitehighfibre
riceandpasta 120ghotcereal breadsshouldbeused.
30gcoldcereal Usebreadsandcerealsas
90grice,pasta thickeningagentsinblendedfood
Meat,poultry, 1 75gcookedweight Legumescanbecountedasboth
fish,eggs. 1-2eggs vegetableandmeatalternative
Legumes,nuts
andseeds
Milk,cheese 3a 1cupmilk Dessertsbasedonmilkcanhelp
&yoghurt 40gcheese meettherequirementformilkfoods
200gyoghurt
1cupcustard
Fatsand Minimumquantities Notapplicable Unsaturatedspreadtobeavailable
spreads arenotapplicable forbreadandunsaturatedfats
andoilsusedincooking
Indulgences 2 b Foodsthataregenerallyenjoyedbut
arenotessentialtoabalanceddiet,
andmay,ifconsumedinexcess,lead
tonutritionalproblems
a. It is difficult to provide more than one serve of milk within each meals menu. Providing milk drinks
betweenmealsisarecommendedwaytowardsmeetingtherequirementformilkandmilkfoods.
b. Indulgencesarefoodsthataregenerallyenjoyedbutarenotessentialtoabalanceddiet,andmay,if
consumedinexcess,leadtonutritionalproblems.Indulgencesinclude1mediumpieceofplaincakeor
1bun,1smallpieceofrichcakeorsweetpastry,2-3biscuits,40-50gprocessedmeat,30g(1small
packet)potatocrispsorsimilarsnack,2scoopsicecream,2standardglassesofalcohol,softdrinkor
cordial.
1meatpie = 3indulgences
1pasty = 3indulgences
1sausageroll = 2indulgences
1slicepizza = 2indulgences
1chocolatecoveredbar = 2indulgences
c. Dependingonwhatsuppliesareavailableattheresidentialunitonly2-3servesofbread/ cerealmay
needtobesuppliedinthemealtimemenuitself.
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
10
2 . Choice
Menuswillbeplannedasselectivemenusinorderthatclientshaveachoiceof
food.ThisimpliesthatthemenuhasachoiceofdishesANDthatthesealternatives
areavailableforclientstochoosefrom,oralternativelyforstafftochooseontheir
behalf.
Inallourlargerresidences,informationaboutmenuchoicesmustbepromoted
(suchasthroughadisplay)sotheycanbeorderedbyaclient.Toavoidunduefood
wastage,andtoallowforforwardestimationoffoodrequirements,menusmay
indicatethatanalternativedishisavailableinlimitedorspecificquantities.
Insmallerresidences,thevarietyofalternativedishesmaybelessthanforalarge
residence with a bigger food service operation. Nevertheless, the variety of
alternativedishesshouldbewideenoughsothatclientsarenotrepetitivelyoffered
thesamelimitedalternatives.(Pleaserefertoexamplesofpoorpracticeandgood
practiceattheendofthisSection).
Forclientswhoaretotallydependantonotherstochoosefromthemenuontheir
behalf,thereshouldbeamechanismbywhichtheyareprovidedwithanacceptable
alternativefoodormealwhentheyobviouslydislikeorrejectafood.
Menuplansshowingalternativeitemsavailableshouldbeabletobeproducedif
requestedbyapersonmonitoringorevaluatingthefoodservice.
Thefollowingtablerepresentstheminimumchoicesrecommendedinamenu.
Table 3 (2 ) M inimum choices r ecommended in t he menu
BREAKFAST LIGHT M EAL M AIN M EAL
Fruit Onehotproteinbaseddish;and
Onecoldproteinbaseddish
(egsaladorsandwich)
Twohotprotein-baseddishes
Hotandcoldcereal Potatoorpastaorrice*
ifsandwichnotserved
Potatoorpastaorrice*
Whiteandwholemeal
toastandbread
Onevegetable Twovegetables
Hotdishavailabletothose
whoneeditfortheir
energyrequirements
Whiteandwholemealbread Whiteandwholemealbread
Unsaturatedmargarine Unsaturatedmargarine Unsaturatedmargarine
Fruit Fruitandmilk-baseddessert
Wholeandlowfat
milkavailable
Wholeandlowfat
milkavailable
Wholeandlowfat
milkavailable
Tea,coffee,water Tea,coffee,water Tea,coffee,water
Pepper,sugar Pepper,sugar Pepper,sugar
M ORNING TEA AFTERNOON TEA SUPPER
Coffee,tea,water,
othercoldbeverage
Coffee,tea,water,
othercoldbeverage
Coffee,tea,water,
othercoldbeverage,hotmilk
Biscuitorfruit Biscuitorfruit Biscuitorfruit
* Caremustbetakenwhensubstitutingriceandpastaforpotatotoensurethattheminimumnumber
ofvegetableservingsareavailable.
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
11
3 . Guidelines for pr omot ing healt h
The menu will be planned using the following general guidelines based on the
DietaryGuidelinesforAustralians(1992).Someoftheseguidelinesareapplicable
toamenuofferingchoice.Somespecificguidelinesmayneedtheassistanceofa
dietitianforinterpretationintothemenu,particularlyforchildren,veryunderweight
people,theagedandthoseonspecialdiets.
ThefollowingisadaptedfromIHCFoodServiceGuidelinesforHealthcare.
Offer a select ive menu wit h a wide var iet y of foods
PlanmenususingTheCoreFoodGroupsasshowninTable3(1).Thesewere
developedtoup-datetheFiveFoodGroupsbytranslatingtheDietaryGuidelines
andRecommendedDietaryIntakes(RDIs)intorecommendedamountsoffoods
toconsumefromthecereals,vegetables,fruit,meatandalternativesandmilk
groupstoprovidethebasisofahealthydiet.
Pr ovide lower fat opt ions
Themenushouldhaveanomorethan15%highfatmaindisheseachweek.
Examplesofhighfat dishesar efr iedfoods, sausages, past r ybased, cr eam
based foods
Providereducedfatdairyproducts
Usecookingmethodssuchassteaming,grillingandbakingmoreoftenthan
frying
Minimiseadditionoffats(eg.margarine,oil)
Whenmeatisonthemenu,maximiseuseofleancutsofmeat,poultryand
fish.
Minimisetheuseofrouxbasedgraviesandsauces
Use monounsat ur at ed or polyunsat ur at ed fat s
Useunsaturatedoilsforfrying
Makesandwicheswithunsaturatedmargarine
Useunsaturatedornooilsaladdressings
Provideunsaturatedmargarineforspreadingonbreadandtoast
Pr ovideplent yofwholegr aincer eals, wholemealbr ead, veget ablesandfr uit
Offerachoiceofbreakfastcereals,includingwholegrain
Offerfruitateverymeal
Incorporatemorelegumes,brownriceandwholemealpastainmenus
Provideawidevarietyofsaladsasalternativestohotmeals
Makesandwichesonwholemealbreadorhighfibrewhitebread
Offerwholemealbreadateachmealorhighfibrewhitebread
Offerwholemeal,lowfatbiscuitsorcakes/ slicesorwholemealbread/ bread
productsformid-mealsnacks
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
12
Use less salt
Preparesandwichesandothermealswithoutaddedsalt
Minimise added salt and/ or boosters in cooking and utilise reduced salt
stock,soupbasesandboosters
Buyreducedsaltproductswherepossible
Minimiseinclusionoffoodscontaininghighamountsofsaltorsodium,such
asbacon,ham,cornedbeef
Enhancetheflavourofdisheswithherbsandspices
Offer pr oduct s wit h lower sugar levels
Offerfruit-baseddessertsasalternativestocakes
Buycannedfruitspackedinnaturaljuiceorwater
Provideunsweetenedjuices
4 . Int egr at ion of special diet s int o t he menu
Themenushouldspecifyselectionsfortexture-modifiedmealsegminced,puree.
Themenuwillbedesignedinsuchawaythatmostspecialdietscanbechosen
fromthemainmenuitemsasmuchaspossible.
Forexample,themodernapproachtodiabeticdietsallowsthediabeticmenutobe
integratedintothemainmenu.Byworkingwithadietitianitispossibletodesigna
lowfat,highfibremenuitemsthatprovidesadequatechoiceforclientswithdiabetes
andthosewithoutdiabetes.
5 . St andar dised r ecipes
Astandardisedrecipeisonewhichhasbeentailoredtosuitaparticularpurpose
inafoodserviceoperation.Advantagesofthisprocessinclude:
Auniformandconsistentproductquality
Reliabilityoftotalyield
Consistentportionsizes
Improvedworkflowinpreparation
Efficiencyinmenuplanningandordering
Costcontrolandminimisationofwastage
Assistsinstafftraining
Recipe development
Stepstostandardisearecipe:
1.Securerecipestotestbyeitherbuyingarecipebookorrecordingtheprocedures
currentlyusedbycooks.
2.Determinethebaserecipeamountsfortherequiredyieldeg25,50or100
servings
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
13
3.Developanevaluationformfortestingrecipes,includingimportantcriteriasuch
as:
Aestheticcharacteristicsincludingappearance,taste,aroma
Nutritionalconsiderationsegfatandsodiumcontent
Texturesuitability,especiallyfortexture-modifieddiets
Yieldtomatchportionsizes
Problemsinpreparationegequipmentandstaffskills
Cost
4.Determinetheyieldbyusingthefollowingsteps:
Determineandwritedown:Thetotalweightofcookedproductequals...
Determineandwritedown:Theportionsizerequiredis...
Determine the number of portions you have produced by the following
calculation:
Totalweightofcookedproductdividedbyportionsizerequired...
5.Preparetheitemandrecordanychangesinthetrialrecipeifnecessary
6.Test the recipe with an employee who is unfamiliar with recipe to ensure
consistency.
7.Incorporatetherecipeintherecipefile
Recipe for mat
Recipes should be easy to access and protected to keep clean (ie stored in a
plasticsleeveorlaminated).
Formatshouldbeeasytoreadandallowforavarietyofyields.
SampleformatisgiveninAppendix1.
Use t he menu planning checklist
when developing a menu.
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
14
6 . Wr it ing your menu t he st eps
Writingthemenuisbestdoneinasequenceofsteps.Thefollowingstep-by-step
guideisusuallyhelpful:
St ep1 . Writeyouroverallsampledailymenupatternwhichprovidestheframework
onwhichyoubuildyourmenu.
ForExample:
Breakfast: 100mlorangejuice
30gcoldready-to-eatcerealOR120gcookedhotcereal
150mlmilk
2eggsOR60gproteinequivalentOR
180gtomatospaghettiORbakedbeans
1-2slicestoast
10gpolyunsaturatedmargarine
10gjam/ honey/ Vegemite
30mlmilkfortea/ coffee
Lunch/ lightmeal:
150mlsoup(inwinter)
Lightdish:
90gmeatorequivalentindrydish
orwithsaladOR140-220gwetdish
(75g-90gasediblemeatportion)
90gpotatoorriceorpasta
60gvegetable
OR
Sandwich:
30gmeatorequivalent
60gvegetable
4slicesbread
20gpolyunsaturatedmargarine
1piecefreshfruit
30mlmilkfortea/ coffeeORwaterorcoldbeverage
Dinner/ mainmeal:
90gmeatorequivalentindrydishorwithsaladOR
140-220gwetdish(75g-90gasediblemeatportion)
90gpotatoorriceorpasta
2x60gvegetable
120gcannedfruit+milk/ otherdessert
Midmeals/ snacks:
Biscuit,cake,bread,muffin,scone,sandwichorfruit
30mlsmilkfortea/ coffeeORcoldbeverage
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
15
St ep 2 . Determine the length of your menu cycle. A 4 week cycle is a useful
length.
St ep 3 . Choosethelunchanddinnerproteinbaseddishes.Decideproportionof
differentmeatsandmeatalternatives.Ensure3-4servesofredmeatperweek
andsufficientvarietyofproteinequivalents.
St ep4 . Addthevegetableswhichareappropriateforeachmeal-considerwhich
vegetables,riceorpastamayalreadybeinthedish.Includesaladsifappropriate,
considercolourandtexturecombinations.
St ep 5 . Addbreadifpartofameal.
St ep6 . Addsoupifappropriatetotheseason-considerwhatflavoursmayalready
havebeenusedinthemaindishes.
St ep7 . Adddessertsconsiderwhatgrainsmayhavealreadybeenusedineach
meal,considervarietyintextureandflavourthatmaycomplementthemeal.
St ep 8 . Addhotbreakfastdishifdesired.
St ep 9 . Addfruit.
St ep 1 0 . Addcerealstobreakfast.
St ep1 1 . Addbetweenmealnourishments(snacks)ie.morningtea,afternoontea
andsupper.
M enu planning checklist
0 Doesthemenuprovidetheminimumfoodquantitiesfornutritionaladequacy?
0 Arethefoodsofferedinseason,availableandwithinbudget?
0 Istheresufficientvarietyofcolour,taste,shape,cookingstyles,textures?
0 Istheresufficientseparationtimesbetweensimilardishes?
0 Isthererepetitionofsamefoodsoncertaindaysoftheweek?
0 Arethecombinationsvisuallyappealingandsuitedtotheneedsoftheresidents?
0 Isthereseasonalvariation?
0 Aretheworkloadsbalancedforthestaffandequipmentresources?
0 Dothestaffhavetheskillsandequipmentnecessaryforproduction?
0 Havetheclientsandstaffbeenconsultedinmenudevelopmenttothemaximum
extentpossible?
0 Aretherestandardisedrecipesforalldishes?
0 Isthemenuregularlyevaluatedandreviewed?
M enu subst it ut ions
Itisoccasionallynecessarytomakemenusubstitutionswhenthereareshortages
orproblemswithfooddeliveriestothekitchenorfacility.Thesubstitutionsshould
beassimilaraspossibletotheoriginalmenuitem.Ifthereisadietitianonstaff,
he/ sheshouldbenotifiedofanymenuchangesastheymayneedtoadjustthe
mealplanforaclient.
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
16
The need to substitute should be minimised, documented and reviewed. If
substitutionoccursfrequently,achangeinorderingsystemsorsuppliersshould
beinvestigated.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Reviewofreliabilityofstandardisedrecipeswithevaluationcriteria
Auditofuseofstandardisedrecipes
Auditofmenuforcomplianceagainstmenuplanningpolicyandprocedures
Nutritionalassessmentofthemenubyadietitian
Tastetestingpanelofmenuitems
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Themenuisnotcyclicorrepeatedbutthereisanewanddifferentmenuevery
week.
Themenuhasacycleofonly2weeks.
Themenuoffersnochoicetoclients.
When a client rejects a menu dish, the only alternatives they are offered are
tinnedspaghettiorbakedbeans.
Themenuisnotreviewedatleastonceperyear.
Standardisedrecipesarenotused.
Thereisnomenudocumentation.
The workload in the kitchen is not balanced, and is, at times, overwhelming for
staff.
Take-away/ conveniencefoodsareusedmorethanonceaweek.
Friedchipsareonthemenumorethanonceperweek.
Culturalorreligiousfoodpreferencesarenotcateredfor.
TherearenospecialcelebrationarrangementsegChristmas,birthday.
Nutritionandqualityoffoodiscompromisedbypoorcostcontrolmeasures.
Recipesnotused,areinadequateornotrepresentativeofdishesonmenu.
Whenmealsareplatedtherearenoportioncontrolguidelinesused.
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Reflectinggeneralcommunitypractice,themainmealisconsumedintheevening
andnotinthemiddleoftheday.
Whitebreadservedishighinfibre.
Between meal nourishment (snacks) and supper includes healthy cake or
sandwiches,fruitoryoghurt.
Acoldalternativechoiceisofferedaswellastwohotchoicesatthemainmeal.
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
17
Clients who are totally dependant on others to choose from the menu on their
behalfhavealistoffoodlikesanddislikeswhichisregularlyupdatedandreviewed.
Thisinformationisgatheredbycarestaffastheyassisttheclientatmealtimes.
Whennewfooditemsareaddedordeleted,theentriesaredated.
Residentialunitsreceivingfoodfromamainkitchenorfromanoutsidecontractor
order a small number of alternative dishes to the main dish as stand-by or
contingencymealsforclientswhomayunexpectedlyrejectameal.
Nutritionalassessmentofthemenubyadietitian.
Documentationisabletodemonstratethatthemenumeetsplanningstandards.
Amenuboardisdisplayedfortheresidents-dishescanbeshownpictorially,if
moreappropriate.
Arefrigeratorisavailabletocertainidentifiedclientswhocanhaveaccesstotheir
ownfoodanddrinkatanytime.
Whereclientsareindependentineatinganddrinking,teaandcoffee-makingfacilities
areavailableatalltimes.
Abowloffreshfruitisavailableatalltimesforclientchoice.
Watercoolersaresituatedforeasyaccessbyclients.
Communityaccessisavailableformealswhereappropriate,however,take-away/
conveniencefoodisusednomorethanonceaweek.
Themenudoesnotrelyonthepurchaseofpre-madeproducts.Menudishesare
madefrombasicingredients.
TheSummermenuisdifferentfromtheWintermenu.
Themenuincludeschangesforspecialholidaysandcelebrationsacrossdifferent
cultures.
Themenuincludesfoodsanddishedfromdifferentcultures.
Documentedevidencetoshowthatrecipesaretestedandstandardised.
On-goingprogramofrecipedevelopmentandtastetesting.
Menuplanning
FoodServicesManual
18
4 TEXTURE-MODIFIED
meals
Texture-modifiedmeals
FoodServicesManual
19
4
STANDARD
Each client wit h a disabilit y who r equir es t ext ur e-modified food will
beoffer edvisuallyappealing, palat ablemealsandsnackst hat meet s
t heir nut r it ional and swallowing needs. They will be ser ved in a safe
manner.
PROCEDURES FOR TEXTURE-M ODIFIED M EALS
1. Consultaspeechpathologistand/ ordietitiantodeterminetheappropriatetextures
requiredfortheclients.
2. Using standardised terminology, define a range of texture consistencies which
willbeavailabletotheclientsofyourfoodservice.Dothisinconsultationwitha
dietitianandspeechpathologist.
3. Ensurethatthecarersunderstandtherangeoftextureconsistenciesavailable.
4. Experimentwithmenuitemstoachievecorrecttextures.
5. Ensurethefoodservicehasappropriateequipmenttomodifytextures.
6. Construct standardised recipes to ensure repeatability of the food items and
dishes.
7. Specifytexture-modifiedmealsinthemenu.
8. Usebread,wheatflake(egWheat-Bix,Vita-Brits)biscuitsorFarexasathickening
agent in savoury dishes if possible (breads & cereals are usually deficient in a
texture-modifieddiet)orotherwiseacommercialthickenerrecommendedbythe
dietitianorspeechpathologist.
9. Vegetablepureescanthickensomedishes.
10.Texture-modifiedmealcomponentsarepreparedandservedseparately.
11.Ensuremaximumnutrientdensityoftexture-modifiedmealsinconsultationwitha
dietitian.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Auditoftexture-modifiedmealsforcompliancewithtextureguidelines.
Conducttastetestingoftexture-modifiedfooditems.
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Noguidelinesexistforarangeoftexturesinthetexture-modifiedmenu.
Thereisnoconsultationwithaspeechpathologistanddietitian.
Puree (or vitamised) foods are mixed together when prepared or served. This
resultsinfoodthatisunappealingincolourandwherefoodscannotbedistinguished
intastefromanother.
Fooditemsonthemain(regular)menuarepureedwithoutconsiderationoftexture,
suitabilityorstabilityoftheproductduringhotandcoldstorage.
Texture-modifiedmeals
FoodServicesManual
20

EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE


Specialisedpublications* areusedtodevelopstandardisedrecipes.
Texture-modifiedmealsarespecifiedinthemenuandfollowthestandardmenu
planningguidelines.
Foodmouldsorextrusiongunsareusedtoenhancetheappearanceoftexture-
modifiedfood.
Tastingpanelsassistfoodproductionstaffinrecipedevelopmentoftexture-modified
dishes.
Descriptionsoftexture-modifiedfooditemsisuser-friendlyandmayincludedrawings
orphotographs.
* Specialised publicat ions on t ext ur e-modified foods include:
Martin,J &Backhouse,J :(1993)GoodLooking,EasySwallowingCreativeCatering
forModifiedTextureDiets,J FCFoundation,Adelaide,SouthAustralia.
SmoothFoodCuisineaseriesofrecipebooklets.TitlesincludeBreakfasts,Lunches,
Vegetables,MainMeals,PartyFoods,Desserts,ThickenedDrinks.
Availablefrom: SeniorDietitian,DisabilityServicesCommission
146-160ColinStreet
WestPerthWA6005
Tel(08)84269211
Switchboard (08)94269200
E-mail:mlane@dsc.wa.gov.au
Texture-modifiedmeals
FoodServicesManual
21
5 MEAL TIMES,
diningenvironment
&mealservice
Mealtimes,diningenvironment&mealservice
FoodServicesManual
22
5
STANDARD
Each client wit h a disabilit y will have access t o visually appealing
meals ser ved in a safe manner. They can expect flexibilit y at meal
t ime. They will r eceive a consist ent and appr opr iat e level of ser vice
whent heyar eunwellor needachangeint het imeoft heir mealdue
t o an appoint ment or ot her changes t o t heir usual r out ine.
PROCEDURES FOR M EAL TIM ES, DINING ENVIRONM ENT &
M EAL SERVICE
1 . M eal t imes
Thereshouldbenomorethan14hoursbetweentheeveningmealandbreakfast.
Theeveningmealshouldnotcommencebefore17.30.Ifthetimebetweendinner
andthefollowingbreakfastisgreaterthan14hours,thenasubstantialsupper
suchassandwiches,fruit,yoghurtorcakemustbeserved.
Mealtimesaretobeplannedtoofferanoptimalpatternthatsuitsthephysiological
needsofclientsforfood.Thismeansthattheperiodsbetweenmealsshouldnot
besoshortthatpeoplehavenohungerforthenextmeal.Similarly,theperiods
shouldnotbesolongthatthepeopleexperienceundueanduncomfortablehunger.
Meal times should be determined by the needs of the clients rather than the
constraints of the units within the residency. The following are suggest ed meal
times:-
Breakfast 07:0008:00
MorningTea 10:0010:30
Mid-daymeal 12:0013:00
Afternoontea 14:3015:00
Eveningmeal 17:3018:30
Supper 19:3020:30
Flexible meal t imes
There should be flexibility to allow for those people who have community
engagements,areillormaywishtohavemealsatdifferenttimes.Inthesesituations,
mealsthataresafeandofahighqualitymustbeavailable.
2 . Dining envir onment
Thediningareashouldreflectcommunitystandardsandprovideapleasant,safe
andsocialenvironment.
Theenvironmentshouldenableandencourageinteractionbetweenresidentsand
staffinasocialandpositivemanner.Smallnumbersofpeopleinthesamedining
areashouldbepreferredtolargenumbers.
Mealtimes,diningenvironment&mealservice
FoodServicesManual
23
3 . M eal ser vice
Consist ent wit h ident ified needs of t he client
Mealtimemanagementrecommendationsshouldbespecifiedandfollowed.
Forexample:
Allfoodanddrinksofferedtoresidentsareinaccordancewiththeiridentified
needsincludingnutrition,texturemodification,personalpreference,culturalor
religiouspreferences.
Adaptiveutensilsandequipment.
Positioningguidelines.
Levelofsupervisionrequired.
Behavioursupport.
Theserequirementsnecessitateregularandreliablecommunicationbetweenthe
food service personnel, therapy staff and direct care personnel. Mealtime
managementguidelinesforresidentsshouldbedocumentedandreadilyaccessible
inthediningarea.
Ser vice of food it ems
Importantconsiderations:
Visualappealfooditemsshouldbepresentedinanappealingmanner.Foods
shouldnotbemixedtogetherontheplate.
Quantitiesconsistentwithstandardportionsorasrecommendedbyanindividual
mealtimemanagementplan.Standardisedservingutensilsshouldbeused.
Cutleryandcrockeryshouldbevisuallyappealing,suitedtotheneedsofthe
residents.Itshouldnotbecracked,chippedordiscoloured.
FoodhandlingpracticesasdiscussedinSection6.
M eal subst it ut ion
Residentsshouldbeofferedchoiceatmealtimes.Ifapersonrefusesameal,a
nutritiousalternativeshouldbeoffered.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
To monitor the standard of the meals being served, an audit should regularly take
placethatcomparesthemealstothestandardssetoutintheguidelines.
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Staffandresidentsdonotknowwhatisonthemenubeforethemealbegins.
Mealserviceissoinflexiblethatresidentswhoareawayfromthediningareaat
mealtimeshavenowayofhavingtheirmealkeptforlaterorservedlater.
Thereisnotimelimitonkeepinghotmealshotforlateservice.
Theeveningmealisearlyandthereisnosupperforsomeoralloftheclients.
Mealtimes,diningenvironment&mealservice
FoodServicesManual
24
Thebreakfastismorethan14hoursaftertheeveningmeal.
Thediningareasareunattractiveanddonotreflectcommunitystandards.
Thereispoorportioncontrolduringmealplating.
Sometimes,thereisinsufficientfoodavailable.
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Photographsoffoodportionsaredisplayedforstaff.
Photographsofplatedmealsaredisplayedforclients.
Diningareashavetablecloths/ placematsand,forspecialoccasions,appropriate
tabledecorations.
Temperatureoffoodismaintainedforsloweaters.
Thetimeperiodbeforemealsisusedasatimeforpositiveinteractionbetween
staffandresidents,andbetweenresidents.
Largegroupsofresidentshavebeendividedintosmallergroups(6-8)fordining.
Mealtimes,diningenvironment&mealservice
FoodServicesManual
25
6 FOOD
safety
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
26
6
STANDARD
Each client wit h a disabilit y is offer ed, good qualit y food t hat is
pr epar ed, assembled and dist r ibut ed in a safe manner. This will be
achieved by t he development and implement at ion of a food safet y
pr ogr am in accor dance wit h HAACP syst em r equir ement s.
FOOD SAFETY PROCEDURES
Foodsafetymeanssafefoodhandlingpractices.Safefoodhandlingmeansthatfood
is secured, received, stored, prepared, cooked, transported and served in such a
wayastominimisecontaminationandgrowthofbacteria.
Safefoodhandlingpracticesshouldbestandardpracticeinafoodservice.Safefood
handlingpracticesarefundamentaltothepreparationoffoodthatisnutritious,palatable
andenjoyabletoeat.
1 . Per sonal hygiene
Clot hing
Acleanuniformorothercleanprotectiveclothingmustbeworndaily.Theuniform
shouldnotbewornoutsidethefoodserviceareapriortoorduringworkhours.
Clothing,includingaprons,whichbecomeexcessivelysoiled(contaminated)during
thedayshouldbechanged.
Staffworkinginthekitchenfoodpreparationareashouldhavetheirhairprotected
tominimisethepossibilityofhaircontaminatingfood.Hatswhichcoverthehair
andkeephairoffthefaceshouldbeworn.
Loosejewellerysuchasbracelets,wristwatches,dropearrings,brooches,and
necklacesmustnotbewornwhilstinfoodpreparationarea.
Fingernailsshouldbeshortandnailpolishmustnotbeworn.
Handsmustnotbewipedonclothing.
Hand washing
Thefollowingstepsareessential:
Washingyourhandsinwarmrunningwaterinaseparatewashbasintothat
usedforfoodpreparation.
Rinsewithwarmwater.
Usesoapordetergentsothathandsandforearmsarelathered.
Useanailbrushtoscrubdirtyhandsandnails.
Rinsewithwarmrunningwater.
Dryhandsthoroughlywithdisposablepapertowelorhotairdryer.
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
27
Staffmustwashhands:
Immediatelybeforecommencingwork,includingafterabreakand/ orsmoking
acigarette.
Immediatelyaftervisitingthelavatory.
Immediatelyafterusingahandkerchiefornasaltissue.
Immediatelyaftertouchinghair,noseorotherfacialareas.
Immediatelyaftercoughingintotheirhands.
Wheneverhandsbecomecontaminatedegafterhandlingrawfoodorgarbage.
Betweenhandlinguncookedandcookedfood.
1 2
5 st eps t o effect ive
hand washing.
3 4 5
Cut s and sor es
Staffwithcutsandsoresontheirhandsmustcover
the area with a waterproof dressing or covering.
Bluecoloureddressingsaretheindustrystandard.
Disposable gloves, which are changed with each
new task, are recommended under these
circumstances.
2 . St aff illness
Staff cannot work with food when they have an infectious illness (such as
gastroenteritis, hepatitis A and salmonella infection) or condition such as boils,
abscessesorotherlesionscontainingpus.
A wat er pr oof dr essing
must be cover ed by
a disposable glove.
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
28
3 . Food handling pr act ices
Cr oss-cont aminat ion
Careneedstobetakentoensurethatcookedfoodsarenotcontaminatedbyraw
foods.Forexample,micro-organismsonrawmeatcouldcauseseverefoodpoisoning
ifallowedtocrosscontaminateareadytoeatfood.
St aff pr act ices
Personalhygieneisimportantasoutlinedabove.
Ifdisposableglovesareworn,theymustbechangedbetweendifferenttasks.
Staffshouldnothaveunnecessarycontactwithfood.
AccesstotheFoodServiceareashouldbelimitedtothosewhohavealegitimate
reasonforbeingthere,egstoreormanagerialpersonnel.
Smokingmustbeprohibitedinthefoodpreparationandstoragearea.
It is not permissible to sit, walk, stand or lie on surfaces that are used for
preparingorservingfood.
Bagsorwrappersshouldnotbeopenedbystaffpersonsbreath.
Eatinginthekitchen,otherthanlegitimatefoodtasting,shouldbeavoided.
Utensilsusedfortastingmustbecleanandthoroughlywashedandsanitised
betweentastes.
INAPPROPRIATE KITCHEN BEHAVIOUR
DO NOT make unnecessar y
cont act wit h food.
DO NOT blow int o a bag
befor e put t ing food inside it .
DO NOT sit on
kit chen count er s.
DO NOT smoke
in t he kit chen.
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
29
Equipment / Ut ensils
Equipment (e.g. slicers, trays, racks) and utensils such as knives all need to be
consideredaspossiblesourcesofcross-contamination.Staffneedtounderstand
howtheincorrectuseofequipment,andtheuseofuncleanequipmentcancause
cross-contamination.
Foodmustbepreparedonstainlesssteelworkingsurfacesorplasticcuttingboards.
Theuseofwoodencuttingboardsisnotrecommended.Plasticboardsshouldbe
discardedwhenthesurfacebecomesroughorgrooved.
All equipment must be sanitised between the use of raw and cooked foods. A
commonlyusedcolourcodeforcuttingboardsinthefoodserviceindustryis:
GREEN salads,vegetablesandfruitproducts
WHITE bakeryanddairyproducts
RED rawmeat,rawpoultry
YELLOW cookedmeats
BLUE rawfish
Utensilsusedinfoodpreparation(egknives,spoonsandthermometers)mustnot
bestoredinapocketofclothing.
4 . Temper at ur e cont r ol
Timetemperaturecontrolisanessentialfactorinpreventingthegrowthoffood
poisoningbacteria.
The time at which high risk foods (eg
c
perishableandcookedfoods)areleftin
theDangerZoneof5Cto60Cmust Boiling point 100
Cooking temperatures destroy
most bacteria
75
bekeptasshortaspracticallypossible.
Food service operations should adopt Warming temperatures prevent
growth but allow survival of bacteria
anoperatingstandardofhighriskfoods
60
staying no longer than 2 hours in the
temperature danger zone. Current
legislation in NSW provides for a
Room
temperature
maximumof4hours.
Freezing point Hot food, which is to be kept hot,
should be held at or above 60C
Danger Zone
Temperatures allow rapid growth
of bacteria, including food
poisoning bacteria
5
chilling temperatures bacteria dormant
0
Freezing temperatures
bacteria dormant but not dead
-18
between preparation or reheating
andconsumption.Thistimeinterval
should be as short as possible, to
ensure nutrient retention and
productquality;
Coldfoodshouldbeheldatorbelow5C;
Frozenfood(suchasicecream)shouldbeheldcoldatorbelow-18C.
Foodswhenr eceivedChilledfoodsshouldhaveatemperaturebetween0Cand
5C.Frozenfoodshouldbeatorbelow-18C.
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
30
Prepar edingredient sIflargequantitiesofingredientsorcomponentsareprepared
in excess of the available capacity for immediate cooking, then these prepared
foodingredientsmustbeusedwithinonehourorreturnedtorefrigeration.
Thawing fr ozen food Frozen food must not be thawed at room temperature.
Thawingshouldbepreferablyunderrefrigeration.Oncethawed,thefoodmustbe
usedorcookedandnotrefrozen.Foodthatisthawedbyuseofamicrowave,must
becookedoreatenimmediately.
Cooking The duration and temperature of the cooking must be sufficient to
ensureheatpenetrationtothecentreofthefood.Thecentreofthefoodmust
reach 70C for 2 minutes. A practical way of ensuring this is to use a probe
thermometerandmakesurethecoretemperaturereaches75C.
CoolingThisisanimportanthighriskstageofproductionbecausesomebacteria
canformsporesifthefoodtemperatureisallowedtodroptooslowlyandremain
above5Cfortoolong.UnderthecurrentlegislationinNSW,theFoodAct(1989)
andFood(General)Regulation(1997),foodshouldbecooledrapidlyto5Cwithin
4hours.
Food safety standards proposed in 1999 by the Australia New Zealand Food
Authority(ANZFA),butnotyetenacted,areasfollows:
...whencoolingcookedpotentiallyhazardousfood,coolthefood:
a.withintwohoursfrom60Cto21C;and
b.withinafurtherfourhoursfrom21Cto5C.
Note:Forcook-chillfoodservicesystemsrapidcoolingstandardsareitemisedin
Appendix4.
Reheat ing Chilled food which is being reheated should be heated to a core
temperatureabove75Casquicklyaspossible. Bainmariesshouldnotbeused
forreheating.Theyshouldalreadybeheatedwhenhotfoodisplacedinthem.
Somemicro-organismsproduceheat-stabletoxinswhichwillnotbedestroyedby
re-heatingthefood.Thereheatingoffoodmustnotbereliedupontomakefood
safe.Hygieneisimportantthroughouteachstage.
Left over foodAnyfoodexcesstorequirementandwhichistobeheldovertothe
nextdayshouldberefrigeratedpromptly.Thefoodcontainersshouldbecovered
andmarkedwiththedate,andthefoodusedwithin24hoursorthrownout.
Cook-chill food ser vice syst ems
Someservicesareproducersorreceiversoffoodusingacook-chillsystem.The
following pointsapplytothoseservices.Cook-chillmeansafoodservicebasedon
the cooking of food, followed by a rapid chilling and storage at a controlled low
temperature.
Themaximumstoragetimeforashort-termcook-chillproductis5days.
Time/ temperaturecontrolsareacriticalfactorinacook-chilloperation.
Cook-chillfoodsystemsrequireextracaretobetakenwithtemperaturecontrol
offoodstorageandreheating.Ifpreparedfoodrisesabove5Cbutremains
below10Cduringchilledfoodstorageanddistribution,theproductmustbe
used within 12 hours. If the food temperature rises above 10C during this
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
31
period,thenthefoodmustberegardedasunsuitableforuseanditmustbe
discarded.
Chilledpreparedfoodusingacookchillsystem,hasamaximumstoragelifeof
5days,includingthedayofproductionandthedayofconsumption.
Shouldacold-platedmeal,whichhasnotbeenheated,requireholdingatthe
point of service, the chilled meal may be covered, menu attached and kept
underrefrigerationforashorttime.Atimelimitshouldbeplacedonthismeal
before it must be thrown out. The temperature history of the meal will help
determinethetimelimitsetandtherulewhichaserviceshouldimposeonthis
procedure. If appropriate, serving staff may heat the meal to the required
temperaturewhenrequired.
Cook-chillfoodthathasbeenreheatedforserviceshouldbeservedor,ifnot
required,discarded.Anymealswhicharenotusedcanbeheldhotforashort
time (no longer than 1 hour). They must not be rechilled and held for later
reheatinganduse.
See Appendix 3 : Temper at ur e st andar ds for a cook-fr esh food ser vice syst em
See Appendix 4 : Temper at ur e st andar ds for a cook-chill food ser vice syst em
5 . Food Safet y Plans (or Pr ogr ams) using HACCP pr inciples
Food services are expected to develop and implement a food safety plan which
helps them keep their food safe. The following information about HACCP food
safetyplansprovidesbackgroundinformationandisnotintendedtobeanAtoZ
guideondevelopingaplan.Serviceswillneedtoassembletheirfoodsafetyteam
andaccesstrainingaboutfoodsafetyplanningbeforetheyarereadytodevelop
andimplementaplan.
W hy do we need food safet y plans?
Peoplearemorelikelytogetfoodpoisoningtodaythan20yearsago.
Therearemoredangerousandahighernumberofpoisonousmicro-organisms
infoodnow.
People eat food outside of the home more than before and food prepared
outsidethehomeispreparedinmoreriskywaysthanbefore.
ItisimportanttoAustraliasabilitytocompeteinternationallyinexportingfood.
Thefollowgroupsofpeoplearemorevulnerabletofoodpoisoningastheyare
morelikelytobeeatingfoodpreparedoutsidethehome.
infantsandchildren
elderly
thesickandimmuno-suppressed
pregnantwomen
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
32
W hat is HACCP?
HACCPstandsforHazardAnalysisandCriticalControlPointsandispronounced
HASSUP.
Itisapracticalandpreventativetechniquethatisusedbyfoodmanufacturersand
foodserviceoperationstohelpensurethattheirfoodproductsaresafe.
Itwasdevelopedintheearly1960sintheUSAfortheNASAspaceprogram.It
was adopted by the World Health Organisation as a model for developing food
safetyprogramsinfoodindustriesfromagriculturalproductionoffoodtoservice
offoodtoconsumers.Todaytheconceptisusedbythefoodindustrythroughout
theworld.
Definit ions:
Hazar d apotentialtocauseharm
Risk thepossibilitythatagivenhazardwilloccur
Cr it ical Cont r ol Point (CCP) apoint,steporprocedureatwhichcontrolis
appliedtoprevent,eliminateorreducean
identifiedfoodsafetyhazard
Hazar d Analysis Cr it ical isapracticalsystemoffoodcontrolwhich
Cont r ol Point (HACCP) involvesasystematicapproachtothe
identificationandassessmentofthehazardsand
riskswithinthefoodoperationanddefinesthe
meansoftheircontrol
HACCP suggests t wo st ages, first the HAZARD ANALYSIS, followed by the
identificationofPOINTSintheprocesswhereCONTROLISCRITICAL.
W hich hazar ds need t o be ident ified? Those ones which have the potential to
endangerthesafetyoftheconsumerorthequalityofthefood.Thehazardsare
usually from food poisoning bacteria and their multiplication or other forms of
contaminationsuchasforeignbodiesorchemicals.
Whenar et heylikelyt ooccur ?Atanystageofthewholeprocessfrompurchasing,
receipt,throughstorage,preparation,cooking,deliveryandserving.
W hen ar e t he point s cr it ical? When the problem could be a real risk to the
consumerandcouldhavethepotentialtoresultinhazardousfoodbeingconsumed.
W hat cont r olsar eneeded?Potentialproblemsmustbeassessedtoensurethat
theyareeliminatedorreducedtoasafelevel.
See Appendix 5 Common micr obiological hazar ds and t heir cont r ols
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
33
The seven HACCP Pr inciples
PRINCIPLE1 Conductahazardanalysis
PRINCIPLE2 Determinecriticalcontrolpoints(CCPs)
PRINCIPLE3 Establishcriticallimits
PRINCIPLE4 EstablishasystemtomonitorcontroloftheCCPs
PRINCIPLE5 Establishthecorrectiveactiontobetakenwhenmonitoring
indicatesthataparticularCCPisnotundercontrol
PRINCIPLE6 EstablishproceduresforverificationtoconfirmthattheHACCP
systemisworkingeffectively
PRINCIPLE7 Establish documentation concerning all procedures and
recordsappropriatetotheseprinciplesandtheirapplication
The st eps t o food safet y planning
Assemblethefoodsafetyteam

Drawprocessflowchart

Confirmflowchartonsite

Conducthazardanalysisandestablishpreventativemeasuresateachstep

Determinecriticalcontrolpoints

Establishcriticallimitsforeachcontrolpoint,
monitoringproceduresandcorrectiveactions

Establishdocumentationandrecordkeeping

Trainstaffandimplementonestepatatime

Establishverificationproceduresandreviewthefullsystem
A HACCP food safet y plan (or pr ogr am) does not st and alone.
HACCP food safet y plans (or pr ogr ams) ar e par t of a qualit y management
pr ogr am.
Continuous quality improvement programs use a method called the quality
improvementcycle.Thequalityimprovementcyclefocusesoncustomerneeds,
incorporating the following stages: monitoring, assessment, action and
evaluation.TheHACCPprocessalsoincorporatesthisapproach.
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
34
monit or ing assessment
evaluat ion act ion
It is par t of est ablishing good qualit y food. Food of good qualit y is:
clean
unspoiled
safe
and... meets other standards relating to the particular food or dish eg.
lettuceisfresh,crisp,correctcolour,washed/ unwashed,andsoforth.
The suppor t pr ogr ams for your HACCP food safet y plan t her efor e must
include
cleaningandpestcontrol
equipmentmaintenanceandmaintenanceoffacilities
orderingandreceiving(includingspecificationsforpurchasedfood)
personalhygiene
controlofchemicalsuseandstorage
training
Foodsafetyisbestensuredbyfocusingontheelimination(orattheveryleast,
minimising)ofanycompromisetoproductsafety.HazardAnalysisCriticalControl
Point(HACCP)isapracticable,preventativeapproachtofoodsafetymanagement.
HACCPrequiresthatafoodsafetyprogramisimplemented,enforcedandreviewed
byafacilityproducingfoodandthatthisprogramisaudited.
AnyHACCPplanmustbepreparedbyapersonorpersonswithadequateknowledge
offoodsafetyprograms(seeSection13ontraining).Inaddition,thispersonor
persons must have an intimate knowledge of the products and process details
uniquetothefacility.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Personalhygienechecklist
Regularinspectionsofpersonalhygiene
Auditoffoodhandlingpractices
Auditofhandwashingfacilities
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
35
Visualcheckofsafefoodhandlingprocedures
Chilledfoodtemperatureauditduringstorage
Time-temperatureauditduringpreparation
Time-temperatureauditduringcooking
Time-temperatureauditduringbulkportioning
Foodtemperatureauditduringchilling
CCPmonitoringasintheHACCPplan
Monitortemperatureofbulkfoodbeforeandafterreheating(rethermalisation)
Crosscontaminationinspection
Monitortemperatureofhotandcoldfoodsatplating
Monitortemperatureofcoolroomsusedtoholdbulkcookedfoodorchilledplated
meals
InternalauditofFoodSafetyPlanatleastonceayear
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Nomonitoringorcheckingofsafefoodhandlingprocedures
Disposableglovesarenotchangedforeachnewtask
Staffreceivenotraininginfoodsafety
Frozenfoodisthawedatroomtemperature
Calibratedthermometersarenotusedfortemperaturetesting
Foodisheldhotforlongperiodsbeforebeingplatedandservedtoresidents
Thetemperatureoffoodatplatingisnotmonitored
TheFoodSafetyPlanisnotaworkingdocument
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Staffparticipateinfoodsafetyauditsandchecks
DocumentedandimplementedHACCPfoodsafetyplan
Staffwashhandsinapprovedmanner
Chopping boards are colour coded and are cleaned and sanitised in approved
manner
Incook-freshfoodservicesystems,theperiodbetweenthecompletionofcooking
andserviceofhotfoodtoresidentsisminimised
Incook-chillfoodservicesystems,theperiodoftimebetweenreheatingofchilled
foodandserviceofhotfoodtoresidentsisminimised
ThestepsoutlinedintheFoodSafetyPlanareimplementedandmonitored
Whennon-conformitytotheFoodSafetyPlanisidentified,theappropriatemanager
discussesthenon-conformitywiththestaffmemberresponsibleandensuresthat
theissuesandcorrectiveactionisunderstood.(Thisisaveryimportantpartofa
successfulFoodSafetyPlan).
ExternalauditoftheFoodSafetyPlanoccursataregularinterval.
Foodsafety
FoodServicesManual
36

7 ORDERING,
receiving,storage&
inventorycontrol
Ordering,receiving,storage&inventorycontrol
FoodServicesManual
37
7
STANDARD
Foodshouldbeor der ed, r eceivedandmanagedinawayt hat ensur es
t hepr eser vat ionofit squalit y, pr ovidesvaluefor our money, pr ovides
r eliable deliver y and minimises it s wast e.
PROCEDURES FOR ORDERING, RECEIVING, STORAGE AND
INVENTORY CONTROL
1 . Supplier s
Compare purchasing by retail, wholesale and contract procedures to ensure
themostcosteffectiveandreliablesupply.Keepthenumberofsupplierstoa
minimum.
Preparesimplebutcompletespecificationsordescriptionsoffooditemsrequired,
toincludedetailssuchassize,type,packsize,quality,varietyandfoodsafety
criteria.
Documentallagreementswithsuppliers.
Iftendersorcontractsareprepared,thefollowingissuesshouldbeconsidered:
Evidenceofsuppliercompliancewithasuitablefoodsafetyplan
Adequatepick-upanddeliveryarrangements
Reliabilitytomeetdeliverytimes
Disposalofwaste
Arrangementsforafterhoursandemergencyservices
Mechanismsformaintainingthequalityoftheservices
Mechanismsfordealingwithproblemsinservicedelivery
Amounts(volumes/ weights/ numbers)ofitemstobeincludedintender
Food Service Managers must ensure that the information is an accurate
estimationofconsumptionfortheperiodspecifiedinthetender
Specificdetailsshouldbelistedthatincorporatetheaboveissues
2 . Or der ing food and supplies
Thepersonresponsiblefororderingfoodandsuppliesshouldestablishasystematic
orderingscheduletoensureanadequateflowofgoodstomeetproductionneeds.
He/ sheshouldconsiderthefollowing:
Prepare a food order schedule which details the types and quantities of
ingredientsneededforeachdayofthemenucycletoyieldtherequirednumber
ofserves.
Determine minimum and maximum stock levels to suit the production
requirements.
Develop communication strategies between production staff and the person
responsiblefororderingthefoodandbeverages.
Ordering,receiving,storage&inventorycontrol
FoodServicesManual
38
3 . Receiving of goods
Allfooditemsmustbeofgoodqualitytoensureanendproductthatispalatable
andsafe.
Theingredientsshouldshownovisiblesignsofphysicaldamage,contamination,
odour,dirtandslime.Cannedfoodshouldnotbedamaged.Allpackagingshould
be intact. Frozen food should not show evidence of previous thawing and
refreezing(suchasiceinthepackaging).
Foodwhichisofdoubtfulquality,orabovethetemperaturespecifiedforchilled
orfrozenfoods,shouldnotbeacceptedfromthesupplier.
Iftherawmaterialhasause-bydatecodeorbestbefore,makesurethereis
adequateshelf-liferemainingbeforeacceptingdelivery.
Checkthequantityreceivedcomparedtotheorderand/ ortenderspecifications.
Adequatescalesshouldbeavailabletocheckweights.
Arrangeforreplacementofpoorqualityitemsorarrangeforextradeliveries
foritemsnotreceived.
Adjustinvoicesordeliverydocketsforreplacementgoodsoritemsnotreceived.
AReturnforCreditNotemaybeappropriatetosubmitwithinvoicesordelivery
docketsforreplacementgoodsorshortages.Aprocedureforthehandlingof
theinappropriategoodsshouldbedocumentedforeachoperation.
Allrawfoodshouldbereceivedinacleanareainthekitchen.Rawfoodsshould
bereceivedandstoredasfarawayaspracticablypossiblefromcookedfoods,
soastoreducetheriskofcrosscontamination.
Always check deliver ed goods
against t he or der list .
4 . Food st or age
Storage areas should be placed near as possible to receiving and relevant
preparation areas to achieve good work flow and to minimise cross
contamination.
Provideadesignatedstorageareafordamaged/ unsuitablefoodtobereturned
tosuppliers.
Perishable foods are transferred immediately on delivery to chilled or frozen
storage.
Ordering,receiving,storage&inventorycontrol
FoodServicesManual
39
Allunnecessarypackagingshouldberemovedfromfooditemsbeforestorage.
Stockisrotatedtopreventperishable,frozengoodsanddrygoodsexceeding
theiruse-bydate.Afirst-in-first-out(FIFO)systemofinventorycanassistwith
ensuringadequatestockrotation.
Condensationincoolroomsandrefrigeratorsisminimisedtoreducethepotential
forListeriagrowthandcontaminationinandonfoods.
Storageroomandfoodtemperaturesaremonitoredandactiontakenifstandards
arenotachieved.
Dr y st or age
Usedfornon-perishablefoodsincludingdriedfood,cannedandbottledfoods
Mustbeclean,dry,coolandwellventilatedenvironment
Checkanymanufacturersstorageinstructionsonlabelsomecannedhams
mayneedtoberefrigeratedbelow4C
Allfoodmustbestoredinsuitablecontainersatleast15cmofftheground
Shelvingdesignshouldmaximisestorageefficiencyandaircirculation
Allfoodmustbelabelledwithnameofproductandeitheritsusebydateorthe
dateproductwaspurchased
Cleanonaweeklybasis
Checkregularlyforsignsofinsectinfestation
Fr uit and veget ables
Storeincool,dryenvironment
Allowsufficientaircirculation
Freshfruitandvegetablesdeterioratequicklyorderonlyamountstobeused
inappropriatestoragetime
Storeincontainersatleast15cmoffthefloor
Cool r ooms and r efr iger at or s
Usedforperishablefooditems,includingmeat,fish,poultry,eggproductsand
milk
Allfoodshouldbecovered
Allfoodshouldbedatemarked
Cooked and raw foods should be stored separately, ie in different areas to
preventcrosscontamination
Allowsufficientaircirculation
Floorandshelvingmusthavearegularcleaningschedule
Temperatureischeckedweeklyandmustbebetween0Cand5C
Storeincontainersatleast15cmoffthefloor
Fr eezer s
Allfrozenfoodshouldbeplacedinfreezerimmediatelyupondelivery
Allfrozenfoodiswrapped,sealedandlabelledwithnameanddate
Temperatureischeckedweeklyandshouldbebetween-18Cand-22C
Ordering,receiving,storage&inventorycontrol
FoodServicesManual
40
Aregularcleaningscheduleisinplace
Thefreezerisnotoverloadedbeyondcapacity
Inawalkinfreezer,foodshouldbestoredatleast15cmoffthefloor
5 . St ock cont r ol and issue of supplies
Maintaininventorylevelrecordsforallfoodandnon-fooditems
Keepstorageareassecureandonlyallowaccesstoauthorisedpeople
Frozenfoodsareissuedtocovermenurequirementsallowingsufficienttime
forthawingatatemperaturebelow5C
TheFoodServicesManagerordelegatetoreviewandauthoriserequestsfrom
staffforstockfromthedryandperishablesstores
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Auditsofqualityandtemperatureoffoodsduringreception
CCPmonitoringasdocumentedintheHACCPplan
Refrigeration/ freezertemperatureaudits
Auditstocheckthatpurchasespecificationsaremet
Auditofstocktakingproceduresandstocklevels
Auditofcleaningschedulesofstorageareas
Monitoringoffoodrequisitionsfromstores
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Fooditemsarenotcheckedatdelivery
Storageareasareovercrowded
Foodandorfoodcontainersarestoredontheground
Temperaturesofcoolrooms,refrigeratorsandfreezersarenotchecked
Frozenfoodsarethawedatroomtemperature
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Afoodpurchasingguideisdevelopedfromthemenu,regularlycheckedandadjusted
againstproductionrequirement
Supplierswhodonotcomplywiththecontractrequirementsarenotedandreported
totheManagerorpersoninchargeofpurchasing
Thereisevidenceofstockrotation
Foodisstoredincontainersorcoveredappropriately
Allstorageareashavedocumentedcleaningschedules
Rawfoodsareseparatedfromcookedfoods
Ordering,receiving,storage&inventorycontrol
FoodServicesManual
41

8 KITCHEN
safety
Kitchensafety
FoodServicesManual
42
8
STANDARD
We will t ake all necessar y pr ecaut ions t o ensur e a safe wor king
envir onment for our foodser vicest affandt ocomplywit hallOH&S
r egulat ions.
PROCEDURES FOR KITCHEN SAFETY
RegulationsrelatingtoOccupationalHealth&SafetyActshouldbereflectedinwork
practices.Someimportantsafetyconsiderationsinclude:
1 . Equipment
AllequipmentshouldbeinstalledtomeetAustraliandesignandsafetystandards.
Itshouldberegularlyinspectedandmaintained.
Cuttingmachinesshouldbefittedwithsafetyguardsinplace.
Allrelevantpersonnelshouldbetrainedinthesafeoperationofeachpieceof
equipment.
Safestorageareaforknivesshouldbeprovided.
2 . Pr emises
Allareasshouldbemaintainedtominimisetheriskofaccidents.
Floorswillbeofnon-slipconstructionandmaintainedinacleanfashion.
Electricalconnectionsmustbecarriedoutbylicensedandqualifiedpersonnel
andregularlyinspectedfordefects.
Workareaswillbedesignedtoalloweasyaccessandworkflow.
Adequatelightingandventilationwillbeprovided.
Always clean up floor spills as soon as possible.
3 . Chemicals
Chemicalsmustbeadequatelylabelledandstoredseparatelyfromfooditems.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) information should be available and
accessibletostaff.
Chemicalsshouldbeusedinaccordancewithmanufacturersrecommendations.
Kitchensafety
FoodServicesManual
43
4 . Fir e Pr ecaut ions
All personnel should know the procedures for reporting fires, and know the
locationanduseoffireextinguishersandfireexits.
All food service staff should be trained in the prevention of fires, burns and
scolds.
5 . Lift ing
All personnel should receive training in correct manual handling and lifting
procedures.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Auditofequipmentmaintenancerecords
Visualauditoffloorsafety
AuditofMaterialSafetyDataSheets(MSDS)
Equipmentsafetychecklist
Auditoffiresafetyequipment
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Suspectedfaultyequipmentisnotappropriatelyserviced
Firstaidequipmentisnotavailable
Workareasareclutteredwithitemsinappropriatelystored
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Allfloorspillsarecleanedupassoonaspossible
Staffwearnon-slipshoes
Regularfiredrillstakeplace
Staffreceiveongoingtraininginsafeworkpractices
Kitchensafety
FoodServicesManual
44
9 DISHWASHING
Dishwashing
FoodServicesManual
45
9
STANDARD
Eachclient wit hadisabilit ywillhaveaccesst oclean, sanit isedut ensils
for eat ing and dr inking.
PROCEDURES FOR DISHWASHING
Thestepsindishwashingarepre-cleaning,cleaning,sanitisinganddrying.
1 . The minimum equipment r equir ement s for dishwashing must be
met
Foodservicesmustprovideanduseadishwashingmachineoradoublebowlsink
with two compartments to wash up crockery, cutlery and any other kitchen
equipment.
Clause15oftheFood(General)Regulation1997states:
(1)Anypremisesorvehicleinwhichfoodispreparedforcustomers:
(a)forconsumptiononthesamepremisesorvehicle,or
(b)forconsumptiononsomeotherpremisesorvehicle(beingthepremisesor
vehicleonwhichitissoldorotherwiseprovided),mustbeprovidedwitha
dishwashing machine, a glass washing machine (if appropriate), a double
bowlsinkoratubcontaining2compartments.
Foodscrapsshouldbescrapedorrinsedoff.Heavilysoileditemsmayneedpre-
soakinginwarmwateranddetergent.
2 . The minimum wat er t emper at ur e r equir ement s for dishwashing
must be met
Clause15(4)and(5)oftheFood(General)Regulation1997states:
(4)Adishwashingmachine:
(a)must be connected to a water supply that provides potable water to the
machineataminimumtemperatureof60C,and
(b)mustbedesignedandequippedtoautomaticallyprovideandmaintainthe
followingconditionsduringeachcycleofoperation:
(i) thetemperatureofthewater(measuredattheoutletofthewashspray
assembly)istobeatleast55C,
(ii)theminimummachinesettingforthewashcycletimeistobeatleast60
seconds,
(iii)thetemperatureofthewaterintherinsetankistobeatleast82C,
(iv)therinsecycletimeistobeatleast10seconds,
(v)thetemperatureofrinsewater(measuredattheoutletoftherinsespray
assembly)istobeatleast77C,and
(c)mustbefittedwithcontrolsthatpreventthemachinefrombeingoperated
unless:
(i) thetemperatureofthewaterinthewashtankisatleast60C,and
(ii)thetemperatureofthewaterintherinsetankisatleast82C,and
Dishwashing
FoodServicesManual
46
(d)mustbedesignedandequippedtousesufficientappropriatesoapordetergent
in the wash tank to clean eating utensils and drinking utensils adequately,
and
(e)mustbeabletowasheatingutensilsanddrinkingutensilscompletelyinone
operation,and
(f) mustbefittedwith:
(i) separate thermometers (visible to the operator and accurate to within
1C)toindicatethetemperatureofthewaterinthewashtankandrinse
tank,or
(ii)separatepilotlights(visibletotheoperatorandaccuratetowithin1C)to
indicate that the water in the wash tank and rinse tank is at the
temperaturesrequiredbyparagraph(c).
(5)Theprovisionofsubclause(4)(a),(b),(c)and(d)donotapplytoadishwashing
machinethatcleansbychemicalsanitising.
SpecificreferencetomachinewashingisalsomadeinClause34(b)and(c)ofthe
Food(General)Regulation1997:
(b)by using a dish washing machine which chemically sanitises the utensils
usingrinsewatercontainingatleast50milligramsperkilogramofsodium
hypochloritethroughouttherinsecycleatarinsecycletemperatureofat
least50C,or
(c)by using a dish washing machine that complies with clause 15(4) and to
whichanappropriateamountofdetergentoranothersuitablecleaningagent
hasbeenadded.
3 . Ot her consider at ions
Foodscrapsmustberemovedfromallareasofthemachine,includingspray
openingsandwasherscreens.
Dish/ potwashingmachineshouldbefreefromanyscaledeposits.
Crockery,cutleryandpotsshouldbecorrectlystackedasrecommendedinthe
dish/ potwashingmachineinstructions.
Anappropriatetypeandamountofdetergentasrecommendedbythedish/
potwashingmachinemanufacturerorthechemicalsuppliermustbeused.
Quickdryingracksshouldbeusedifablowerdryerisnotavailable.
4 . If dishwashing and pot washing ar e done by hand t he minimum
equipment r equir ement s must be met as follows:
AsinClause15(2)and(3)oftheFood(General)Regulation1997:
(2)Adoublebowlsinkor2compartmenttub:
(a)must have one bowl or compartment supplied with potable water at a
temperatureofatleast45Candsufficientsoapordetergenttowashutensils,
and
Dishwashing
FoodServicesManual
47
(b)musthavetheotherbowlorcompartmentsuppliedwithpotablewaterata
temperatureofatleast77Cforuseforrinsingutensils.
(3)Athermometer,accurateto1C,istobeprovidedadjacenttothesinkortub.
Regularchangingofwaterinsinksisrequiredasthewaterdirtiesorcools.The
sinkswaterlevelshouldnotbetoppedup,ordetergentaddedtothecool/ dirty
water.
Dishesandutensilsshouldbeair-driedinracks.Theuseofteatowelsshouldbe
avoidedbutiftheiruseisnecessary,theymustbecleanandusedonceonly.
Always r inse dishes in a second sink
filled wit h hot wat er.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Auditdishwashingprocedure
Monitorwashandrinsetemperatures
Visualauditofwashedwares
CriticalControlPoint(CCP)monitoringasdocumentedintheHACCPplan
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Dishesandutensilsarewashedbyhandinwaterwhichisdirtyandnotchanged
regularly
Teatowelsareusedfordryingandarenotchangedregularly
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Staffaretrainedincorrectdishwashingprocedures
Dishwasherischeckedregularlyfortemperaturecontrolofwashingandrinsing
water
Dishwashing
FoodServicesManual
48
10 WASTE
disposal&recycling
Wastedisposal&recycling
FoodServicesManual
49
10
STANDARD
Our wast ewillbest or edanddisposedofsoit doesnot t ocont aminat e
our pr emises, equipment or food.
PROCEDURES FOR WASTE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING
Suitably designed and identified waste containers should be placed conveniently
aroundthefoodserviceareas.
Plasticlinergarbagebagsmustbeusedandmustbetiedbeforecollectionorprior
todepositintobulkwastecontainers.
Wastecontainersmustbefittedwithtightlyfittinglidswhennotinuse.
Garbagemustberemovedfromthekitchenfrequentlyandnogarbagemustbe
leftinkitchenareasovernight.
Cleaningschedulesshouldbemaintainedforgarbagecontainers.
Garbagestoragecontainersshouldbeplacedonaconcretebasewhichisregularly
cleanedwithdetergentandwater.Theareashouldbeprotectedfromdirectsunlight
andthecontainersclosedwithlids.
Recyclable waste should be placed in appropriate and labelled containers and
storedsafelyawayfromfoodservicearea.
Reducing wast e
Todetermineyouropportunitiesforwastereductionusethefollowingchecklist.
Someoftheseopportunitiesmaybeusefultoyourfoodserviceoperation.
Wast e r educt ion oppor t unit ies Cur r ent Cur r ent Oppor t unit y
act ion act ion
YES NO
Pur chasing
Buyinbulk* toavoidexcesspackaging
Purchaseproductsinconcentratedforms
Purchaseproductswithminimalpackaging
Purchaseproductsmadefromrecycledmaterials
Purchaseproductsformultipleuse
Deliver ies
Returnsystemforcardboardboxes
(especiallywaxedboxes)
Suppliersprovidefoodinreusablecrates
Suppliersprovidefoodinplaincardboardboxes
Suppliersrefillorexchangeemptycontainers
Food
Portioncontrol
Produceaccordingtoclientnumbers
Wastedisposal&recycling
FoodServicesManual
50
Wast e r educt ion oppor t unit ies Cur r ent Cur r ent Oppor t unit y
act ion act ion
YES NO
St or age
Storeleftoverfoodinairtightcontainers
Usereusabledeliverycontainers
Recycling
Setuprecyclingprograms
Collectionbinsforwaxedcardboard
Collectionbinsforcolouredandclearglass
Collectionbinsforaluminiumcans
Collectionbinsforfoodscrapsonly
Area-widecollectionservices
Transportpolystyreneboxes
tocollectioncentresforrecycling
Donatecorkstocommunity
organisationseg.GirlGuides
* Notethatpurchasinginbulkcanbeafalseeconomyiftheamountpurchasedisinexcessofshort-term
needs.Theextrastoragerequiredmayalsopresentunnecessaryfoodsafetyrisks.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Wasteaudit
CriticalControlPoint(CCP)monitoringasdocumentedintheHACCPplan
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Garbageisexposedeitherinthekitchenorstoragearea
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Increasinguseofrecyclablepackaging
Inspectionrevealsappropriatetreatmentofgarbageandwastematerial
Systeminplacetomonitorandreducefoodwaste
Wastedisposal&recycling
FoodServicesManual
51
11 CLEANING
&pestcontrol
Cleaning&pestcontrol
FoodServicesManual
52
11
STANDARD
We will have cleaning and sanit at ion pr ogr ams t oget her wit h pest
cont r ol pr ogr ams t hat minimise t he r isk of our f ood being
cont aminat ed.
PROCEDURES FOR CLEANING AND PEST CONTROL
1 . Clean and sanit ise all kit chen sur faces and equipment accor ding
t o a planned schedule
Thescheduleshouldidentifythestaffmemberresponsibleforeachcleaningtask
as well as the frequency, method and equipment necessary to clean the area.
PleaserefertoAppendix2.
Thescheduleshouldincludecleaningofthefollowingareas:-benchtops,cooking
utensils,cookingequipment,refrigerators(orcoolrooms),freezers,allfoodstorage
areas,chemicalstorageareas,walls,floors(includingdrains),ceilings(including
lightfittings,fansandexhaustvents)anddoors.Itshouldalsoincludetoiletfacilities,
amenityrooms,canteensandoffices.
Considerthefollowing:
Spoilage organisms and food poisoning organisms (such as Listeria
monocytogenes)cangrowunderrefrigeration.Shelving,doorsealsanddoor
handles on refrigerators and cool rooms all require regular cleaning and
sanitation.
Theuseofporousandabsorbentmaterials(suchasragsandsponges)isnot
acceptableunlesstheyaretobeusedonceonly.Porousandabsorbentmaterials
canharbourmicro-organismsandcanleadtocrosscontamination.
Reusablecleaningmaterialsshouldbesanitisedbetweenuses.
Overheadairvents,conveyorbelts,potandpanstorageshelves,cupboards,
crockeryandcutlerystorageequipmentandallhotorcoldfoodholdingequipment
mustberegularlycleanedandsanitised.
Regular ly clean over head vent s.
Cleaning&pestcontrol
FoodServicesManual
53
Cleaningmethodsforfloorsurfacesmustensurethatwatersplashdoesnot
contaminatekitchensurfaces.
Equipmentshouldbedismantledbeforecleaning.
Mopsandothercleaningequipmentusedinfoodserviceareasshouldnotbe
usedinotherareas(eg.toilets).
2 . Sanit ising
Cleaningremovesobviousgrimeandfoodparticles.Sanitisingisthereductionof
microbestoasafelevel(ie.anacceptablylowlevel).Sanitisingfollowscleaningand
itisusuallycarriedoutbyoneofthefollowingmethods:
Hot water for a time and temperature combination that is effective in killing
micro-organisms. This method is used usually for small utensils. A minimum
temperatureofhotsanitisingwaterinasinkmustbe77C(or82Cforapot
ordishwasher).
Chemicalsanitiserapplicationaftercleaning.Thisisusuallythepreferredmethod
ofsanitisingfloorsandkitchensurfaces.
Kitchen chemical sanitisers are usually either iodine compounds, quaternary
ammonium compounds or phenolics. Micro-organisms can become resistant to
somesanitisers. Forthisreasonitisgoodpracticetochangethetypeofsanitiser
youuseoccasionally.
Sanitisersshouldalwaysbeusedatthestrengthrecommendedbythemanufacturer.
3 . Cleaning of kit chen floor s
Floorsmustbekeptfreefromspillage(cleanupspillagesasyougo).
At the end of each day kitchen floors should be scrubbed (manually or with a
machine)withsoapordetergentandwaterofatleast45C.Asanitisermayalso
beusedbutisgenerallymoreeffectiveifusedafterthedetergentorsoapywater
areremovedfromthesurfaceratherthanmixedinwiththesoapordetergent.
Floorsshouldnotbehosedorcleanedinamannerwhichwouldcausesplashing.
Strawandwoodenbroomsshouldnotbeused.Kitchenmops,bucketsandother
cleaningequipmentshouldbecleanedandsanitiseddaily.Sanitisingmethodsshould
be using hot water above 77C or by washing clean and soaking in sanitising
solutionatthestrengthrecommendedbythemanufacturer.
4 . A pest and r odent cont r ol pr ogr am should be in oper at ion t o
pr event pest infest at ions t hat may lead t o t he cont aminat ion of
r aw food ingr edient s, food pr oduct s or equipment
Thepremises* andequipmentshouldbedesignedandmaintainedtoreduceaccess
ofpestssuchasrats,mice,flies,cockroaches,antsandbirds.Thismayinclude
theuseofinsectscreens,electricinsectkillers,baitsortheuseofpestcontrol
contractors.
* Note:Thereareconstructionrequirementslegislatedforfoodserviceareas.
Cleaning&pestcontrol
FoodServicesManual
54
Externalentrancesandwindowsarekeptclosedorprovidedwithscreensto
preventpestaccess.
Storeallfoodsappropriately(SeeSection7FoodStorage).
Schedulecleaningofallpotentialareasofrisk.
Kitchengarbagecontainersshouldbecleaneddailyormorefrequentlyifrequired.
Store waste and garbage in vermin and fly proof containers away from food
servicearea.
Scheduleregularinspectionsforevidenceofpestsandnestingareas.
Whenpestsarefoundcontactapestcontrolagency.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Sanitationchecklist
Auditofcleaningschedules
AuditofMaterialSafetyDataSheets(MSDS)
Microbiologicalswabsofequipmentandsurfaces
Pestcontrolrecords
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Nocleaningscheduleexists.
Kitchenmopsareleftindirtywaterinwringerbuckets.
Noregularpestcontrolprogramexists.
Insectscreensareinpoorconditionandallowentryofinsects.
Oninspectionthereisevidenceofpestinfestationinfoodstores.
ThekitchenpremisesdonotmeetthestandardsrequiredundertheNSWFood
Act1992andFood(General)Standards1997.
MSDSisnotavailableoneachcleaningchemicalused.
Petsareallowedinthekitchenarea.
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Acleaningscheduleisdisplayedfortheuseoffoodservicestaff.
Recordscanbeproducedofcleaningandsanitationmonitoring.
Cleaningchemicalsareclearlylabelledandstoredsecurelyawayfromfood.
Advice from a local government Environmental Health Inspector is sought in
developing quality improvement goals for the kitchen premises, cleaning and
sanitation,andpestcontrolprograms.
Cracksinwallsandfloorsarerepairedimmediately.
Cleaning&pestcontrol
FoodServicesManual
55
12 EQUIPMENT
purchasing&maintenance
Equipmentpurchasing&maintenance
FoodServicesManual
56
12
STANDARD
Our equipment will be pur chased accor ding t o our needs and in a
cost effect ive manner. Our equipment will be maint ained t o pr ovide
opt imum ser vice and safet y.
PROCEDURES FOR EQUIPM ENT PURCHASING AND
M AINTENANCE
1 . Equipment pur chase
Purchaseofequipmentcanbeaveryexpensiveexercise.Itisimportanttoresearch
needsandavailableequipmentthoroughlyevenifonlyonepieceofequipmentis
beingpurchased.
Documentneeds listalltheactivitiestheequipmentisrequiredtoperform
whatcapacityisrequired
whatspaceisavailablefortheequipment
considercleaningrequirements
considerserviceandrepair,replacementparts
Collectinformation/ brochuresforalltheequipmentthatcouldfulfiltheneeds.
Constructatableincludingeveryfeaturedesiredintheequipment.Showhow
eachproductisable(ornot)tomeettherequirements.
Makeadecisionandpurchasetheequipment.Ifpurchasingalargeamountof
equipment,specificationsshouldbewrittenandputtotender.
Smallerfacilitiesshouldconsidercommercialgradeequipment.Whilstitmaybe
moreexpensive,thelifeoftheequipmentshouldbelongerandmoretroublefree.
2 . Equipment must be maint ained in opt imal wor king or der
Thereshouldbeaninventoryofallequipment.
Eachpieceofequipmentshouldhavealogkeptofits:
Purchasedateandcost
Repairs
Routinemaintenance
Warrantydocuments
A routine maintenance schedule should be established according to
manufacturersrecommendations.
Thoroughrecordswillhelptodeterminewhenanitemofequipmentisbecoming
tooexpensivetorepairandwouldbebetterreplaced.
Equipment should be calibrated when relevant. That is, steps are taken to
ensurethattheitemisworkingcorrectly.Forexample,handheldthermometers
arecheckedforaccuracyusingthemanufacturersguidelines.
Equipmentpurchasing&maintenance
FoodServicesManual
57
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Auditmaintenancerecords
Monitorage,breakdownsandcostofrepair
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Frequentandunexpectedequipmentbreakdown.
Equipmentisunsuitableforproductionofqualityfood.
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
EquipmentiscalibratedaccordingtotherequirementsoftheFoodSafetyPlan.
Keypersonnelwithinthefoodservicedepartmentareconsultedregardingequipment
specifications.
Equipmentpurchasing&maintenance
FoodServicesManual
58
13 STAFF
selection,orientation&training
Staffselection,orientation&training
FoodServicesManual
59
13
STANDARD
Appr opr iat e st aff should be select ed for t he t asks r equir ed. St aff
ar e t o under t ake appr opr iat e or ient at ion and ongoing t r aining as
necessar y.
PROCEDURES FOR STAFF SELECTION, ORIENTATION &
TRAINING
1 . St aff select ion
The requirements of the job to be done should be carefully assessed and an
appropriatelytrainedpersonselectedforthejob.
AJ obDescriptionshouldbeavailableforeachpositionintheFoodService.It
will include the role of the person holding that position, an organised list of
dutieswhichreflecttherequiredskillsandresponsibilities,aswellasthelineof
authority.
A J ob Specification should be available for each position. This will state the
dutiesorroleofthepositionandtheminimumstandardsordesirablequalities/
experiencerequiredforapplicants.
Forexample:-
Posit ion:Chef
Role: The Chef is responsible to the Food Service Manager for the daily
supervisionofstaffinfoodproduction,fortherequisitioningofsuppliesfor
thisareaandforensuringfoodproductionstandardsaremaintained.
Desir able Qualit ies or Exper ience:
Recognisedtradequalificationsincommercialcookery
Provenexperienceasacommercialcook
Provensupervisoryexperience
ExperienceintheimplementationofHACCPprogram
A knowledge of Equal Employment Opportunity principles, Occupational
HealthandSafetystandardsandQualityImprovementpractices
ForotherexamplesofJ obSpecifications,refertotheInstituteofHospitalCatering
Manual.
2 . An or ient at ion pr ogr am
Orientationshouldbeprovidedforeachnewmemberofstaffattheirinductionand
shouldincludealloftheusualinformationabouttheresidenceandlegislation,but
mustalsoinclude:-
a) OH&Sasitrelatestofoodserviceareas;
b) Safefoodhandlingpractices;
c) PersonalHygiene;
Staffselection,orientation&training
FoodServicesManual
60
d) Foodpreparationtechniquesappropriatetothefacilityandtheirduties,and
e) Discussionofworkschedule.
A Policy and Procedure Manual should be clearly written and available to all
employees.
3 . Educat ion and t r aining
Trainingisanintegralpartofsuccessfulfoodproductionandismandatoryforsafe
food.Itismanagementsresponsibilitytoensurethatongoingtrainingisprovided
andunderstoodbystaff.
Ongoingtrainingshouldinclude:
FoodsafetyincludingHACCPmonitoringandhygieneprocedures
Infectioncontrol
KitchenSafety(OH&SincludingFireProcedures)
ManualHandling(consultwithOccupationalHealthandSafetyDepartment/
CommitteeandPhysiotherapyDepartment)
Nutrition
Texturemodification
MealPresentation
QualityImprovement
Training programs should be competency based. Training outcomes should be
identifiedforeachtrainingprogram/ module.
For example, the training outcome for food service managers and consultant
dietitiansundertakingfoodsafetytrainingcouldbeWriteaHACCPbasedFood
SafetyPlanandImplementtheFoodSafetyPlan.Thetrainingoutcomeinfood
safety training for cooks and kitchen hands could be Implement food safety
proceduresandmonitorproceduresoftheFoodSafetyPlan.
An example of one-on-one t r aining.
Staffselection,orientation&training
FoodServicesManual
61
AMinimumTrainingScheduleshouldbedevelopedforallnewemployeeswhoare
involvedinfoodservicetoresidents.AsamplescheduleislistedbelowinTable1.
Table 1 : Tr aining schedule
Tr aining Per sonnel Time fr ame
Orientation Foodpreparationstaff
Fooddeliverystaff
Foodservicestaff
Immediatelyon
employmentbefore
commencementofduties
DirectCareWorker
Foodsafety(including
HAACPmonitoringand
hygieneprocedures)
Foodpreparationstaff
Fooddeliverystaff
Foodservicestaff
DirectCareWorker
Within6monthsof
commencingservice
Refresherannually
Infectioncontrol Foodpreparationstaff
Fooddeliverystaff
Foodservicestaff
Within3monthsof
commencingservice
DirectCareWorker Refresherannually
KitchenSafety(fire,
safety,manualhandling)
Foodpreparationstaff
Fooddeliverystaff
Foodservicestaff
Within3monthsof
commencingservice
DirectCareWorker Regulartrainingsessions
Nutrition DirectCareWorker Within12monthsof
Foodpreparationstaff commencingservice
Texturemodification Foodpreparationstaff
Foodservicestaff
DirectCareWorker
Within3monthsof
commencingservice
Mealpresentation Foodpreparationstaff
Foodservicestaff
DirectCareWorker
Within3monthsof
commencingservice
Qualityimprovement Foodpreparationstaff
Fooddeliverystaff
Foodservicestaff
Within12monthsof
commencingservice
DirectCareWorker Refresherannuallyoras
scheduledbyCQM
program
Staffselection,orientation&training
FoodServicesManual
62
4 . Feedback on st aff per for mance
Astafffeedbackorsupervisionsystemshouldbedevelopedandeachemployee
shouldreceiveregularsupervisionorfeedbackonhoweffectivelytheyfulfiltheir
roleandresponsibilities.Thesupervisorshouldalsoassesstheemployeesgoals
andaspirationsandencourageeffectiveutilisationofdemonstratedstrengths.If
improvementisdesirable,furthertrainingoreducationshouldbeencouragedand
ifnecessary,performanceimprovementstrategiesputinplace.
QUALITY IM PROVEM ENT (M ONITORING ACTIVITIES)
Auditstaffrecords
Audittrainingprogramdocumentation
Auditappraisalrecords
EXAM PLES OF POOR PRACTICE
Trainingisnotprovided
Staffarenotinformedofalltrainingopportunities
Pooremployeeperformanceisnotaddressedadequately
EXAM PLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Staffareinformedofalltrainingopportunities
Apositivelearningenvironmentexists
Anannualappraisalsystemisinplace
Staffselection,orientation&training
FoodServicesManual
63
RESOURCES
Resources
FoodServicesManual
64



1 . USEFUL REFERENCES
Recipes for Lar ge Number s
AshleyandAnderson1996
HospitalityPressPtyLtd
POBox426
ElsternwickVic3185
Cooking for Plent y - no longer in pr int
Heart Foundation Cookbook - in print
National Heart Foundation
407 Elizabeth St, SurryHillsNSW2010
Tel1300 362 787
Food Ser vice Guidelines for Healt hcar e
InstituteofHospitalCatering(NSW)
POBox1220
ChatswoodNSW2067
Food Book for Licensed Resident ial
Cent r es, Host els & Gr oup Homes
(CentralSydneyAreaHealthService
1996)
Copiesavailablefrom:
TheManager,BoardingHouseTeam
CentralSydneyAreaMentalHealth
Services
POBox1386
RozelleNSW2039
Refer ence Code for a Cook Ser ve Food
Syst em
(TechnicalSeriesTS21.NSWHealth
Department,March1998)
Availablefrom:
BetterHealthCentre
LockedMailBag5003
Gladesville NSW 2111
Tel0298160452
Refer ence Code for a Convent ional Cook
Chill Food Syst em
(TechnicalSeriesTS16.NSWHealth
Department,March1998)
Availablefrom:
BetterHealthCentre
LockedMailBag5003
Gladesville NSW 2111
Tel0298160452
Safe and Sound: Food Safet y for
Super visor s and M anager s in t he Food
Ser vice Indust r y
MaryJ ohnston,SusanShackleton
andPipDuncan
LongmanPaul,Auckland,NZ,1994
Food Poisoning Pr event ion in Aust r alia
Merry,G.
MacMillan,Australia,1989
Resources
FoodServicesManual
65
2 . USEFUL CONTACTS
Wor kCover Aut hor it y of NSW
ForinformationonMSDSforcleaning
chemicals
400KentSt
SydneyNSW2000
Internet:www.workcover.nsw.gov.au
Aust r alia New Zealand Food Aut hor it y
(ANZFA)
MailinglistfortheANZFAnewsletter:
Informationofficer
ANZFA
POBox7186
CanberraMailCentre ACT 2610
Tel:0262712241
Fax:0262712278
Internet:www.anzfa.gov.au
Commonwealt h Gover nment Bookshop
32YorkSt
Sydney NSW 2000
Tel:0292996737
Bet t er Healt h Cent r e
ForNSWHealthDepartmentpublication
Tel:0298160452
Food Science Aust r alia Infor mat ion
Ser vices (par t of CSIRO)
Internet:www.dfst.csiro.au
FoodSafety&Hygienequarterly
newsletter
Tel:0294908397
Food Safet y Campaign Gr oup
Internet:www.safefood.net.au
Local Gover nment Offices
(Local Councils)
EnvironmentalHealthOfficers
Communicable Diseases Int elligence
Australianfoodpoisoningstatistics
Internet:www.health.gov.au/ hfs/ pubs/ cdi
Resources
FoodServicesManual
66
GLOSSARY
Glossary
FoodServicesManual
67
The following t able defines some of t he t er ms used in t his M anual.
Resident ial unit : Aresidentiallocationwheremealsareservedand
whichisremotefromthemainkitchenorplace
wherefoodisprepared.
Cont inuous Qualit y
M anagement (CQM ):
Allfoodservicestaffarecommittedtoand
involvedinacreativeprocessofimprovement.
Qualit y Impr ovement
(M onit or ing act ivit ies):
Waysinwhichwecanmakesureweachieve
andmaintainthelevelofqualityrequired.
Bet ween meal
nour ishment s:
Thistermisusedinterchangeablywithsnacks.
Itreferstomorningtea,afternoonteaand
supper.
Ret her malisat ion: Reheating.
St andar ds: Formallydocumentedrequirements,againstwhich
performancecanbejudged.
Pot able: Cleanwaterthatissafefordrinking.
M SDS (M at er ial Safet y
Dat a Sheet ):
MaterialSafetyDataSheetisadocument
preparedbyamanufacturerforthesafeuseofa
hazardouschemical.
HACCP (Hazar d Analysis
Cr it ical Cont r ol Point ):
HazardAnalysisCriticalControlPointisa
practicable,preventativeapproachtofoodsafety
management.
Audit : Aprocessthatchecksifasystemisactually
workingasitisintended.Forexample,toaudita
HACCPplanmeanstosystematicallycheckthat
theproceduresusedintheHACCPplanare
achievingtheoutcomestheyaredesignedto
achieve.
Hazar d: Abiological,chemicalorphysicalagentthatmay
contaminatefoodandposearisktothesafetyof
thefood.
List er ia: Listeriamonocytogenesisafoodpoisoning
bacterium
Glossary
FoodServicesManual
68
APPENDICES
Appendices
FoodServicesManual
69
Appendix 1 : Example of for mat for a r ecipe car d
D
i
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h
:

P
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a
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Appendices
FoodServicesManual
70
Appendix 2 : Sample cleaning schedule
It em: Workbenchesandcounters
Per son r esponsible:
Fr equency: Start and end of each day and as required
withusage.
M at er ial/ pr oduct s used: Scraper, brush, clean cloths, detergent,
sanitiser
Pr ocedur e: Removefoodparticles
Rinsewithwarmwater
Applydetergentandwash
(ensure correct concentration and contact
timebyfollowingmanufacturersinstructions)
Applysanitiser
(ensure correct concentration and contact
timebyfollowingmanufacturersinstructions)
Rinsewithcleanwaterorairdry.
Appendices
FoodServicesManual
71
Appendix 3 : Temper at ur e st andar ds for a cook-ser ve food ser vice syst em
AdaptedfromtheReferenceCodeforaCookServeFoodSystem.TechnicalSeriesTS21.
NSWHealthDepartment,March1998
PROCESS STEP CONTROL POINT TEM PERATURE STANDARD
Receivingfood Pointofdelivery Chilledfood0-5C
Frozenfood-18C
Foodstorage Refrigeration Vegetablechiller4-10C
Chiller0-5C
Freezer-18C
Thawing Refrigeration Thawingfood0-4C
Preparation Usingperishablefoods Usewithin1hourofremovalfromChiller.
Holdingtimeinpreparationareacanbe
longeriftemperatureoffooddoesnot
exceed10C.
Cooking Cookingprocess Centreoffood70Cfor2minutes,or
equivalentheatprocess(eg.75Ccore
temperature)
Bulkportioning
ofbulkhotfood
Portioningprocess Foodtemperatureofeach
batchattheendofportioning>70C
Hotholding Hotstorage Foodtemperature>60C
(coretemperature)
Transportationof
bulkhotfood
Hottransportation
container
Foodtemperature>70C(core)at
beginningofdeliveryrunandfood
temperature60Cattheendofthe
deliveryrun.
Hotplating(followedby
hottransportationor
on-sitehotdistribution)
Platingprocess FoodTemperature60C
(coretemperature)
Ensureplatesheatedto70Cbefore
plating.
Platingroomairtemperature22-25C
Transportationofhot
platedmeals
Platedmealininsulated
transportcontainer
Foodtemperature70C
(core)atbeginningofdeliveryrunandfood
temperature60Cattheendofthe
deliveryrun.
On-sitedistribution
toconsumer
Platedmeal Foodtemperature60C
atpointofdeliverytoconsumer.
Appendices
FoodServicesManual
72
Appendix 4 : Temper at ur e st andar ds for a cook-chill food ser vice syst em
AdaptedfromReferenceCodeforaConventionalCookChillFoodSystem.TechnicalSeries
TS16.NSWHealthDepartment,March1998
PROCESS STEP CONTROL POINT TEM PERATURE STANDARD
Receivingfood Pointofdelivery Chilledfood0-5C
Frozenfood-18C
Foodstorage Refrigeration Vegetablechiller4-10C
Chiller0-5C
Freezer-18C
Thawing Refrigeration Thawingfood0-4C
Preparation Usingperishablefoods Usewithin1hourofremovalfromChiller.
Holdingtimeinpreparationareacanbe
longeriftemperatureoffooddoesnot
exceed10C.
Cooking Cookingprocess Centreoffood70Cfor2minutes,or
equivalentheatprocess(eg.75Ccore
temperature)
Bulkportioningof
bulkhotfood
Portioningprocess Foodtemperatureofeachbatchat
theendofportioning60C.Portioning
timelimitif30minutes.
Bulkchilling Rapidchilling Foodintrays:coretemperaturereduced
from70Cto3Cwithin1.5hr.
Wholeportionsofmeat,poultryorfish:core
temperaturereducedfrom70Cto3C
within2.5hr.
Airtemperature0C
Refrigeratedstoragefor
bulkcookedchilledfood
Chilledstorage Foodtemperature0-3C
Airtemperature3C
Chilledbulkportions
commerciallyproduced
Pointofdelivery Foodtemperature0-3C
Chilledplating Platingroom Airtemperature15C.
Iftheplatingtimecannotbekepttoless
than30minutesafterremovalfrom
refrigeratedstorage,thenairtempofthe
platingroommustbe10C
Chilleddistribution Delivery Temperatureofplatedmeals0-5C.
Deliveryvehicleairtemperature3C.
Chilledstorageof
platedmeals
Chilledstorage Temperatureofplatedmeals0-5C.
Airtemperature3C.
Rethermalisation
(reheating)
Reheatingofbulkchilled
foodorofplatedchilled
food
Temperatureatcentreoffood
70Cwithin1.5hrofbeingremovedfrom
refrigeratedstorage.
Appendices
FoodServicesManual
73
Hotplatingfollowed
byconsumption.
Platingprocess Platingtime15minofcompletionof
heatingorremovalfromhotstorage.Hot
storageat70C.
FoodTemperature60C(core
temperature)
Ensureplatesheatedto70Cbefore
plating.
Platingroomairtemperature22-25C.
Hotplatingfollowed
byhotdistribution
Platingprocess Platingtime15minofcompletionof
heatingorremovalfromhotstorage.Hot
storageat70C.
FoodTemperature60C(core
temperature)
Ensureplatesheatedto70Cbefore
plating.
Platingroomairtemperature22-25C.
Packingofhot
platedmeals
Packing Time5minfollowingcompletionof
reheatingorremovalfromhotstorage.
Temperatureofpackingroomair22-25C.
Transportationofhot
platedmeals
Platedmealininsulated
transportcontainer
Foodtemperature70C
(core)atbeginningofdeliveryrunandfood
temperature60Cattheendofthe
deliveryrun.
Hotstorage Hotstorage Foodtemperature60C(core
temperature)
On-sitedistribution
toconsumer
Platedmeal Foodtemperature60C
atpointofdeliverytoconsumer.
Appendices
FoodServicesManual
74
Appendix 5 : Common micr obiological hazar ds and t heir cont r ols
Followingisalistofactivitiesinvolvedincommonfoodserviceoperations.Foreachactivity,
themicrobiologicalhazardsaredefinedandthecontrolmeasuresidentified.
(adapted from Bryan, F. L. (1982) Microbiological hazards of feeding systems, in
MicrobiologicalSafetyofFoodsinFeedingSystems,NationalAcademyPress,Washington
DC,ABMPSReportno.125,pp64-80).
ACTIVITY M ICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARD CONTROL
Purchase Foodpoisoningorganisms
infoods;foodsfromunsafe
sources;contaminateddry
andtinnedstock
Purchasefoodonlyfrom
reputablesuppliers;specifyno
damagedstockortins
Receipt Growthoforganismsduring
deliveryperiod
Ensuresupplierusesrefrigerated
(below5C)vehicle;frozenfood
transportedat-18Corbelow
Refrigeratedstorage Microbialgrowthif
temperaturetoohighor
storagetoolong;cross
contamination
Ensurecoldrooms/ fridges
operatebelow5C;rotate
stock;storerawfoodsbelow
cookedfoods;keepfoodcovered
Frozenstorage Microbialgrowthif
temperaturetoohigh
Maintainfreezersbelow-18C
Drystorage Microbialcontamination
viainsects,rodentsetc
Keepfoodscoveredandprotect
fromcontamination;maintain
lowtemperatureandhumidity
Thawing Growthofbacteriaduring
thawing;incompletethawing
Thawincoldroom,fridge
orusingmicrowaveoven;thaw
completelybeforecooking
Rehydration Contaminationduring
rehydration;bacterialgrowth
inrehydratedproduct
Usecleanutensils,containers;
usefoodpromptlyorrefrigerate
Preparation Crosscontaminationfrom
rawproducts;contamination
fromfoodhandler,dirty
utensilsandequipment
Avoidhandlingrawfoodandthen
cookedfood;avoidhandlingfoodnot
tobecooked;excludesickfood
handlers;goodpersonalhygiene
Cooking Inadequatecookingallowing
pathogenstosurvive;
survivalofsporesduring
cooking
Ensuretime-temperatureparameters
aresufficienttokillpathogens;
keepfoodhotorcoldaftercooking
topreventgrowthfromspores
Handlingfoodsthat
arenotsubsequently
heated
Pathogensinfood;cross
contaminationfromraw
food;contaminationfrom
foodhandlershands,
equipment,utensils
Keepfoodcoldtoinhibitmicrobial
growth;avoidhandlingrawfoodand
thenfoodsnottobecooked;avoid
handlingfoodswithhandsusegloves,
utensils;excludesickfoodhandlers;
goodpersonalhygiene
Appendices
FoodServicesManual
75
Holdingperishablefoods
atroom/ outdoor
Growthofpathogens Minimisesuchholding;keep
foodabove60Corbelow5C
temperatures
Hotholding Growthofpathogensif
temperaturetoolow
Keephotfoodsabove60C;preheat
devicesbeforetransferringfoodsto
them;donotstackfoodsinbainmaries
aboveheatinglevel
Coolingaftercooking Growthofpathogens Minimisetimeatroomtemperature;
coolfoodsrapidly;useshallow
containers;storeatlessthan5C;
ensurefridge/ coldroomisoperating
below5C
Reheating Growthofpathogens
duringreheating
Reheatquicklytominimisetime
between5and60C;ensurefoods
reachadequatetemperaturetoprevent
growthofpathogensduringhotstorage
Displayingfood Contaminationfrom
consumers;incorrect
storagetemperatures;
contaminationfrom
decorativeitems,labels
Coverfoods;protectfrom
contaminationbyconsumers;
ifself-servicedisplayprovidesneeze
guards,superviseandremove
contaminatedequipmentandfood;
keepperishablefoodabove60Cor
below5C;avoidusingdecorative
tems,labelsetc.onfoodfordirect
consumption
Servingfood Contaminationfrom
foodhandler
Useutensils,gloves;avoidtouching
partsofcutleryandcrockerythatwill
beincontactwithfood;avoid
separatingwrappingpapersbylicking
fingerfirst;goodpersonalhygiene
Cleaningandsanitising
ofequipment
andutensils
Failuretoremovepathogens
fromsurfaces
Pre-cleanbyscraping/ rinsing;wash
withdetergentandhotwater(atleast
45C);rinsewell;sanitiseusingwater
at77Coraboveorusechemical
sanitiser;measuresanitisercarefully
andallowcorrectcontacttime;airdry
andstoreawayORusedishwashing
machine
Appendices
FoodServicesManual
76