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Date: August 26, 2011 Time: 8 am - 8:50 am

Model Solutions

1. Let A be an n n matrix such that the system of equations Ax = 0 has a non-trivial solution. Is it possible that

the system of equations A

t

x = b has a unique solution for some b R

n

? Justify. 2

Solution: Since Ax = 0 has a non-trivial solution, we have rank(A) < n. We know that rank(A

t

) = rank(A),

and so rank(A

t

) < n. If rank[A

t

| b] = rank(A

t

), then the system A

t

x = b has no solution. If rank[A

t

| b] =

rank(A

t

) < n, then the system A

t

x = b will have innitely many solutions. In either case, A

t

x = b cannot have

a unique solution.

Aliter

Since the system of equations Ax = 0 has a non-trivial solution, we nd that the matrix A is not invertible. We

also know that A is invertible i A

t

is invertible. Thus the matrix A

t

is not invertible, and hence the system of

equations A

t

x = b cannot have a unique solution for any b R

n

.

2. Examine whether the following sets are subspaces of R

2

: 1+1

(a) {[x, y]

t

: x R, y Z} (b) {[x, y]

t

R

2

: 2x +y = 0 or x + 2y = 0}.

Solution: (a) Let S = {[x, y]

t

: x R, y Z}. We see that [0, 1]

t

S and

1

2

R, but

1

2

[0, 1]

t

=

0,

1

2

t

/ S.

Hence S is not a subspace of R

2

.

(b) Let T = {[x, y]

t

R

2

: 2x + y = 0 or x + 2y = 0}. We see that [1, 2]

t

T and [2, 1]

t

T, but

[1, 2]

t

+ [2, 1]

t

= [1, 1]

t

/ T. Hence T is not a subspace of R

2

.

3. Prove or disprove: If S = {v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

, v

5

, v

6

} is a linearly dependent set of vectors in R

5

then each vector of S

must be a linear combination of the remaining vectors of S. 2

Solution: Consider the set S = {v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

, v

5

, v

6

}, where v

1

= [1, 0, 0, 0, 0]

t

, v

2

= [0, 1, 0, 0, 0]

t

, v

3

=

[0, 0, 1, 0, 0]

t

, v

4

= [0, 0, 0, 1, 0]

t

, v

5

= [0, 0, 0, 0, 1]

t

and v

6

= 0 = [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]

t

. Clearly S is a linearly dependent

set, since 0 S. However, the vectors v

1

, v

2

, v

3

, v

4

and v

5

are linearly independent and v

6

= 0. Hence v

1

is not

a linear combination of the vectors v

2

, v

3

, v

4

, v

5

and v

6

.

Thus, the given statement is disproved by the above counterexample.

4. Let A and B be two matrices of sizes mn and n m respectively and let m > n. Prove that the matrix AB is

not invertible. 2

Solution: We have rank(AB) rank(B) n < m. Since AB is an m m matrix and rank(AB) < m, we nd

that the matrix AB is not invertible.

Aliter

Since rank(B) n < m, we have that there is non-zero solution of the system Bx = 0. Let u R

m

be such that

u = 0 and Bu = 0. Then we have (AB)u = A(Bu) = A0 = 0. Thus u is also a non-zero solution of the system

(AB)x = 0. Hence the matrix AB is not invertible.

5. Find a basis for the subspace spanned by the vectors [2, 1, 3, 1]

t

, [1, 2, 0, 1]

t

, [0, 2, 2, 1]

t

and [1, 1, 1, 1]

t

. 2

Solution: We have

1 2 0 1

2 1 3 1

0 2 2 1

1 1 1 1

R

2

R

2

2R

1

1 2 0 1

0 3 3 1

0 2 2 1

1 1 1 1

R

4

R

4

R

1

1 2 0 1

0 3 3 1

0 2 2 1

0 1 1 0

R

2

1

3

R

2

1 2 0 1

0 1 1

1

3

0 2 2 1

0 1 1 0

R

3

R

3

+ 2R

2

1 2 0 1

0 1 1

1

3

0 0 0

1

3

0 1 1 0

R

4

R

4

+R

2

1 2 0 1

0 1 1

1

3

0 0 0

1

3

0 0 0

1

3

R

4

R

4

+R

3

1 2 0 1

0 1 1

1

3

0 0 0

1

3

0 0 0 0

The last matrix is in row-echelon form. Hence a basis for the subspace spanned by the given vectors is

[1, 2, 0, 1]

t

, [0, 1, 1,

1

3

]

t

, [0, 0, 0,

1

3

]

t

.

End

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