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Mathematics IV: Advanced Algebra



Chapter 3: Conic Sections
At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
identify the equations of the different conic sections;
graph and identify the important parts of the different conic section;
solve word problems involving applications of conic sections; and
solve systems of nonlinear equations and inequalities.

Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Conic Sections
The general equation of the second degree in two variables and , also called
quadratic equation in and , has the form


Where are constants and are not all zero.

In this chapter, we will only consider the case where , hence, the equation


As will be seen in the succeeding discussions, the following situations may arise depending on
the values of the coefficients in Lesson 3.2:
1. If , then the graph is either a circle, a point or the empty set.
2. In either of the following cases, the graph is a parabola:
(a) , and , or
(b) , and .
3. If , then the graph is either an ellipse, a point or the empty set.
4. If , then the graph is either a hyperbola or two intersecting lines.

The circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola are called conic sections, or simply conics.
The point and a pair of intersecting lines are considered as degenerate conics.

The curves above are named conic sections because each can be illustrated as an
intersection of a plane with a right circular cone of two nappes, each extending indefinitely far.

Although we have illustrated the different conic sections using the three dimensional
approach, in the succeeding sections, we will define each of them as a set of points in a plane
satisfying certain geometric conditions.


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Figure 3.1 Circle


Figure 3.3 Parabola


Figure 3.5 A pair of lines

Figure 3.2 Ellipse


Figure 3.4 Hyperbola



Figure 3.6 A point
In Chapter, we have discussed circles. Before we proceed to the discussion of the other
conic sections, we first study the concept of translation of axes.











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Lesson 3.2: Translation of Axes
Let be a point in the plane. To translate the axes to the point
means to construct another pair of axes,

axis parallel to the axis and

axis parallel
to the axis, having the origin at .

Figure 3.7

Thus, the plane has two sets of coordinate axes, and each point in the plane has two
pairs of coordinates: with respect to the original and axes, and

with
respect to the new

and

axes. The two pairs of coordinates are related according to


the equations

.

EXAMPLE 3.2.1
Given the circle with equation

in the plane, translate


the axes to the center of this circle (name the new axes

and ) and give it equation in terms


of the new variables and .

Solution: The standard form of the equation of this circle is


Therefore, its center is

Figure 3.8

When the axes are translated to the point , each point of the circle
will have another pair of coordinates,

, with respect to the new set of


axes, where

.

Thus, an equation of the circle with respect to the variables and is


As shown in the previous example, translating the axes does not alter the shape
of a given curve but possibly gives a simpler equation for the curve. In the
succeeding lessons, though, we will apply translation of axes in the reverse
manner. This will be illustrated in the following example.

EXAMPLE 3.2.2
A circle has center at the point in the plane. The axes are translated to this
center so that an equation of the circle with respect to the new pair of coordinate axes is

.
Given an equation of the circle in terms of the variables and (with respect to the original
coordinate axes).
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EXERCISES 3.2
In exercises 1 4, a pair of equations is given. Draw a sketch of the graph of the first equation,
then sketch the graph of the second equation using a suitable translation of axes.
1. || | |
2. || | |
3.
4.


In exercises 5 14, determine how many units and in what direction the graph of the first
equation must be shifted to obtain the second equation.
5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.


11.


12.


13.


14.


In exercises 15 22, give the resulting equation if the following translations are applied to the
given equations.
15. units up;


16. units to the right;
17. units to the left;

units down;


18.

units to the left; units up; | |


19. units to the left; units up;


20. units to the right; units down;


21. units to the left; unit down;


22. units to the right; units up;





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Lesson 3.3: Parabolas
Suppose we have a line and a point not on . Consider a point whose distance
from (the perpendicular distance) equals its distance from . If we collect all such points on
the plane, we obtain a curve called parabola.



Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10

DEFINITION 3.3.1
A parabola is the set of all points in a plane equidistant from a fixed point and a fixed
line not containing .

The point in the definition above is called the focus of the parabola and the line is its
directrix. Throughout this section, we will assume that the line is either horizontal or vertical.

The line through perpendicular to the is called the axis of symmetry, or simply axis,
of the parabola. If we fold the plane along the axis, the parabola will be divided into two parts
and these parts will coincide.

There is exactly one point of the parabola that lies on the axis of symmetry. It is called
the vertex of the parabola. From the definition of a parabola, the vertex therefore is
equidistant from the focus and the directrix . The distance from the vertex to the focus (or
the directrix) is called the focal distance. Throughout this section, we shall denote the focal
distance by , where .

Equation of a Parabola
A. Standard Form
Consider a parabola with vertex at and focus at . Since

is
horizontal, then the directrix is the vertical line .

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Figure 3.11

Let be any point of the parabola. If is the point on fro which || is the
distance from (so is horizontal), then by definition of a parabola, we have
|| ||
Note that for this equality to hold, the point must be either in the first or the fourth
quadrant. That is, the parabola must be opening to the right.

The point has coordinates . Therefore, || . Also by the Distance
Formula,
||


Thus, we have


Squaring both sides to remove the square root sign and simplifying, we have


This is an equation of the parabola with vertex at the origin and focus at .

If, on the other hand, the focus at , where , and the vertex is at the origin,
then the parabola open to the left and its equation is

. This can be verified by going


through the computation above, interchanging and .

Similarly, it can be verified that if the vertex of the parabola is the origin and the focus is
, then the equation

. If the vertex is and the focus is , the equation


is

.



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The four equations above are said to be in standard form. We summarize the details in
the following table.

STANDARD FORM OF THE EQUATION OF A PARABOLA WITH VERTEX AT THE ORIGIN
FOCUS EQUATION PARABOLA OPENS

To the right

To the left

Upward

Downward

Let us consider the general case where the vertex of the parabola is the point in
the plane. Suppose the parabola opens upward. We wish to find an equation of the
parabola.

First, translate the axes to the point and obtain a new set of axes, and . Recall
that if and

are the coordinates of a point on the plane with respect to the original
and the new set of axes, respectively, then

and

.



Figure 3.12

With respect to the axes and , has coordinates and therefore the parabola
has equation

. Substituting to and to , we obtain the desired


equation in and ,


This is the standard form of the equation of the parabola opening upward and having the vertex
at . Its directrix is the horizontal line and its focus is the point .

For the other three cases, parabola opening downward, to the right or to the left, the
equations can also be derived by translation of axes. We give each of these equations together
with the corresponding focus and directrix in the following table.

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STANDARD FORM OF THE EQUATION OF A PARABOLA WITH VERTEX AT
PARABOLA OPENS EQUATION FOCUS DIRECTRIX
Upward


Downward


To the right


To the left



B. General Form
If the square in any of the equation above are expanded and similar terms combined,
we obtain an equation in one of the following form.
AXIS EQUATION
Vertical


Horizontal



Each of these equations is referred to as the general form of the equation of a parabola.
Notice that exactly one of the variables and is squared. Also, if we multiply both sides of the
equation by any nonzero constant other than , the graph of the resulting equation is the same
parabola, although the coefficient of the squared term is not . Thus, the general form of the
equation of a parabola with horizontal or vertical axis of symmetry is


Where exactly one of and is zero. When , the axis is horizontal and the parabola open
to the left or to the right. When , the axis is vertical and the parabola opens upward or
downward.

EXAMPLE 3.3.2
Write an equation of the parabola with vertical axis of symmetry, vertex at the point
, and passing through the point .

EXAMPLE 3.3.3
Find the vertex, focus and directrix of the parabola whose equation is



EXAMPLE 3.3.4
Find an equation of the parabola with horizontal axis and which contains the points
and . Find its vertex, focal distance, focus and directrix.

To sketch a parabola if its equation is known, it suffices to plot three distinct points of
the parabola then connect them through a smooth U shaped curve. One of these three points
must be the vertex. The other points can be obtained by assuming a value to the non squared
variable or , then solving for the values of the other variable from the resulting quadratic
equation.

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An example of pair of points of the parabola other than the vertex are the endpoints of
the latus rectum. The latus rectum of a parabola is the line segment connecting two points of
the parabola, perpendicular to the axis of symmetry and passing through the focus . It can be
verified using any of the previous standard form of the equation of a parabola that the length of
the latus rectum is , where is the focal distance.



Figure 3.14

EXAMPLE 3.3.5
Sketch the parabola having the equation

.

EXAMPLE 3.3.6
Water issuing from the end of a horizontal pipe meters above the ground, forms a
parabolic curve, the vertex being at the end of the pipe. At the point below the line of the
pipe, the flow of the water has curve outward beyond the vertical line through the end of
the pipe. How far beyond this vertical line will the water strike the ground?















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EXERCISES 3.3
For the parabola in exercises 1 16, find the (a) focal distance, and the coordinates of the
(b) vertex, (c) focus, and (d) endpoints of the latus rectum. Also, find the equation of the (e) axis
of symmetry and the (f) directrix. Finally, (g) sketch the graph.
1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.


11.


12.


13.


14.


15.


16.


In exercises 7 34, find an equation of the parabola(s) having the given conditions.
17. Focus at , directrix at
18. Focus at , directrix at .
19. Focus at , directrix at
20. Focus at , directrix at
21. Vertex at , focus at
22. Vertex at , focus at
23. Vertex at , directrix at


24. Vertex at , directrix at
25. Vertex at , axis vertical, passes through
26. Axis horizontal, passes through
27. Axis vertical, crosses the axis at , and the intercept are
28. Opens downward and endpoints of latus rectum at
29. Opens to the left and endpoints of the latus rectum at
30. Vertex on the line ; focus on the line ; directrix
31. Vertex on the line ; focus on the line ; directrix
32. Length of the latus rectum is ; directrix ; vertex on the line
33. Opens to the right, length of the latus rectum is , passing through , and vertex on
the line
34. Focus ; passing through ; axis parallel to the axis.
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35. A cable suspended between two poles which are ft apart has a sag of ft. If the cable
hangs in a form of a parabola, find its equation with the origin at its lowest point.
36. The center cable of a suspension bridge forms a parabolic arc. The cable is suspended from
the tops of the two support towers, which are meters apart. The tops of the towers are
meters above the road and the lowest point of the cable is midway between the
towers and ten meters above the road. Find the height of the cable above the road feet
from a tower.
37. A light reflector is in the shape of a paraboloid so that its cross section is parabolic. If a
light source is placed on the location of the focus of the reflector, the light rays will reflect
off the surface, forming a beam of light parallel to the axis. Suppose that the light reflector
is inches in diameter. If the light source is located inches from the vertex, determine
the depth of the reflector so that the beam of the reflected light is parallel to the axis.
38. A searchlight is shaped like a paraboloid. If the light source is located 2 ft from the base
along the axis of symmetry and the depth of the searchlight is 4 ft, what should the width of
the opening be?
39. A satellite dish is shaped like a paraboloid. Signals that strike the surface of the dish are
reflected to a single point which corresponds to the focus of the parabola. This point is
where the receiver should be located. Suppose that the dish is 10 feet across and 3 feet
deep at its center, at what position should the receiver be placed?
40. A satellite TV receiving dish is in the shape of a paraboloid. Find the location of the receiver,
which is placed at the focus, if the dish is 6 ft across at its opening and 2 ft deep.
41. Water flowing from a suspended garden hose to the ground follows a parabolic path, with
the hoses opening as the vertex. Suppose this opening is 15 feet high and that the water
strikes the ground a horizontal distance is 7 feet from where the opening is located. At what
height is the horizontal distance of the water 1 foot from the opening?
42. A bridge is to be built in the shape of a parabolic arch and is to have a span of 100 ft. The
height of the arch a distance of 40 ft from the center is to be 10 ft. Find the height of the
arch at its center.
43. A parabolic arch has a height of 24 meters and a width of 32 meters at the base. If the
vertex of the parabolic is at the top of the arch, at which height above the base is it 16
meters wide?
44. A water way for a boat ride in a recreational park has a parabolic cross section. This water
way has depth of 12 feet and a width of 6 feet at the surface. Boats with rectangular cross
section will be used and they are found to sink to a depth of 4 feet when placed on the
water filled water way. What is the maximum width that these boats can have so that
they will float and move smoothly on the water way.
45. The endpoint of the latus rectum of a parabola are and , where . If the
directrix of the parabola passes through the point , find and the equation of the
parabola.
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46. Find all values of such that the parabola

will have a directrix having


an equation of .
47. Find all points of the parabola

such that the perpendicular line segment from


to the directrix and the line segment from to the focus are two sides of an equilateral
triangle.
48. The locus of the midpoints of the segments joining the points of the parabola

and
the focus is also a parabola. Find the vertex of the second parabola.
49. Show that the graph of an equation of the form


(a) is a parabola if .
(b) is a horizontal line if and

.
(c) is two horizontal lines if and

.
(d) contains no point if and

.



















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Lesson 3.4: Ellipses
Definition 3.4.1
An ellipse is a set of all points in a plane that the sum of whose distances from two fixed
points

and

is a constant. Each of the two fixed points

and

is a focus (plural: foci) of


the ellipse.
When

and

are the same point, the curve formed is a circle. Hence, well assume
throughout the discussion that the foci of an ellipse are two distinct points, thereby making a
distinction between circles and ellipses.
According to the definition, if

and

are any two points of an ellipse with foci

and

, then the sum |

| |

| of the distances of

from

and

is equal to the sum of


|

| |

| of distances of

from

and

. That is
|

| |

| |

| |

|





Figure 3.18
The line through the foci of an ellipse is called its principal axis. In this section, we will
only consider horizontal or vertical principal axis. The two points of the ellipse that lie on the
principal axis are called vertices and the line segment joining them is callled the major axis. The
midpoint of the major axis is called the center of the ellipse. It can be verified that the center is
also the midpoint of the line segment whose endpoints are the foci. The distance from the
center to a focus is called the focal distance
The line segment through the center, perpendicular to the major axis and whose
endpoints are on the ellipse is called the minor axis. Its endpoints are called co vertices.
Throughout this section, we will denote by the distance from the center to a vertex (or
half the length of the major axis), by the distance from the center to a co vertex (half the
length of the minor axis), and by the focal distance. Because

and

are distinct, then


. Likewise, and .






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Lemma 3.4.2
For any point of the ellipse with foci

and

, then |

| |

|
Proof: The lemma says that the constant sum of distance mentioned in the definition of ellipse
is equal to the length of the major axis. Let be a vertex of the ellipse that is closer to

than
to

. If is any point of the ellipse, then


|

| |

| |

| |

|
Thus, it suffices to show that |

| |

| . If is the other vertex, then |

| |

|,
because is the midpoint of both and

. Thus,
|

| |

| |

| |

| || .
This show that |

| |

| .










Figure 3.20
Lemma 3.4.3
The constants and are related according to the equation

.
Proof: Let be a co vertex of the ellipse with foci

and

. From Lemma 3.4.2,


|

| |

|
If is the center of the ellipse, then the triangles

and

ar congruent right triangle


with right angle at and legs of lengths and . Thus, |

| |

Therefore,


Dividing both sides by 2 and squaring both sides, we obtain


Because , then the previous lemma implies that . That is, the major axis is
always longer than the minor axis.




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Equations of an Ellipse
A. Standard Form
Consider an ellipse with center at the origin. Suppose the major axis is on the .
Then the vertices are and , the foci are

and

, and the co
vertices are and .







Figure 3.21
Let be any point of the ellipse. Then by Lemma 3.4.2
|

| |

|
Using the distance formula, we have |

and |


Therefore,


We want to have an equation free of radicals. To do this, first isolate one radical on the left
hand side, then square both sides.


Expanding the squares and isolating the remaining radical, we have


Divide both sides by and square both sides.
(


Recall that

, so substituting, we have


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Divide both sides by

to obtain


This is the standard form of the equation of an ellipse with center at the origin and major axis
on the .
Using the same procedure, we can show that when the major axis of the ellipse is on the
and the center is the origin, then an equation of the ellipse is


In general, when the center of the ellipse is the point , then by translation of axes,
similar to the derivation shown in the case of the parabola, an equation of the ellipse is


when the major axis is horizontal, or


when the major axis is vertical.

Standard Form of the Equation of an Ellipse
Center Major axis Equation
horizontal


vertical


horizontal


vertical



B. General Form
If the square in any of the above equations are expanded and similar terms combined,
we obtain the following general form of the equation of an ellipse


where . That is, either both and are positive or both are negative.

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Example 3.4.4
Find the center and foci of the ellipse having the equation


Example 3.4.5
Find an equation of the ellipse with center at , a vertex at , and which passes
through the origin.
Example 3.4.6
Determine whether the graph of the given equation is an ellipse, a point, or an empty
set:
(a)


(b)


(c)



To draw a sketch of an ellipse, we begin by locating the center. Then we count units
from the center to both sides of the center along the major axis to obtain the vertices. Similarly,
the co vertices are obtained by counting units alone the minor axis starting from the center.
Then we connect the vertices and the co vertices using a smooth curve that looks like an
elongated circle.
Example 3.4.7
Sketch the ellipse having the equation


Example 3.4.8
The arch of a bridge over a two lane highway is in the shape of a semi ellipse. The
distance from the base of the arch on one side of the road to the base on the other is .
The height of the arch at the center is . Can a container van that is high and
wide pass under the bridge without going over the center line of the bridge?








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Exercises 3.4
For the ellipse in exercises 1 14, find the coordinates of the (a) center, (b) vertices, (c) foci,
and (d) co vertices. Finally, sketch the graph of the ellipse.
1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.


11.


12.


13.


14.


In exercise 15 18, determine whether the graph of the given equation is an ellipse, a point, or
an empty set.
15.


16.


17.


18.


In exercises 19 31, find an equation of the ellipse(s) satisfying the given conditions.
19. Center , length of minor axis , distance between foci .
20. Center , length of minor axis , foci and .
21. Center , major axis of length , minor axis of length .
22. Center , passing through and .
23. Vertices and ; co vertices and .
24. Vertices and ; focus .
25. Foci ; co vertices and .
26. One vertex at , one co vertex at .
27. One focus at , one vertex at , length of minor axis .
28. Center , one vertex at , one endpoint of the minor axis at .
29. Center at , one focus at , passing through .
30. Center , one focus at , and passing through.
31. Center , distance between foci

, passing through .
Solve problems in exercises 32 42.
32. A triangle in the plane has a perimeter of units. If the two vertices lie at and
, find the condition that must be satisfied by the third vertex.
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33. A one way road has an overpass in the form of a semi ellipse, feet high at the center,
feet wide. Assuming a truck is feet wide, what is the tallest truck that can pass under
the overpass.?
34. A bridge is built in the shape of a semi ellipse. The bridge has a span of ft and
maximum height of ft. Find the height of the arch at distances of ft and ft from the
center.
35. Suppose that a orbit of a planet is in the shape of an ellipse for which the distance between
vertices is million kilometers and the distance between the foci is million
kilometers. Find an equation of the orbit.
36. A racetrack is in the shape of an ellipse feet long and feet wide. What is the width
feet from the side?
37. A whispering gallery is constructed such that its ceiling is a semi ellipse. A person standing
at the focus can whisper and be heard by another person standing at the other focus
because all the sound waves that reach the ceiling from one focus are reflected to the other
focus. How high will the ceiling be at the center of such a whispering gallery if the hall is
feet in length and foci are feet apart?
38. Mark, standing at one focus of a whispering gallery, is meters from the nearest wall. His
friend is standing at the other focus meters away. Find the length of this whispering
gallery and the height of its ceiling at the center.
39. A point moves in the coordinate plane so that the sum of its distances from and
is equal to . Find the equation of the graph traced by the point.
40. The definition of the latus rectum for the ellipse is the same as for the parabola a line
segment through the focus, perpendicular to the major axis, and terminating on the curve.
Find the equation of the ellipse centered at the origin where the distance between the two
foci is and the length of the latus rectum is .
41. Show that the length of each latus rectum for an ellipse is

.
42. Find an equation of the set of points in a plane, each of whose distance from is one
half its distance from the line .








20

Lesson 3.5 Hyperbola
Recall that, to define an ellipse, we take the sum of the distances from two foci. For a
hyperbola, instead of taking the sum, we take the difference. It will be seen that the equations
of hyperbolas are, in some sense, similar to those of ellipses; the plus being replaced by minus.
Despite the similarities, the ellipses and hyperbolas have completely different shapes.

Definition 3.5.1
A hyperbola is the set of all points in the plane that the absolute value of the difference
of whose distances from two distinct fixed points

and

is a constant. These two fixed


points are the foci of the hyperbola.

According the definition, if

and

are any two points of a hyperbola with foci

and

, then
|

| |

| |

| |

|







Figure 3.25

The line through the foci is called the principal axis. Throughout this section, we will
only consider vertical or horizontal principal axes. The two points of the hyperbola that lie on
the principal axis are called vertices, and the line segment joining them is the transverse axis.
The midpoint of the transverse axis is the center of the hyperbola. It can be shown that the
center is also equidistant from the two foci.
Throughout this section, we shall denote by the distance from the center to a vertex.
It is also half the length of the transverse axis. The distance from the center to a focus will be
denoted by .
For the hyperbola, the vertices are closer to the center than the foci. That is, .



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Lemma 3.5.2
If is any point of a hyperbola with foci

and

, then |

|
Proof: Let

and

be the vertices of the hyperbola. Essentially, the lemma says that the
constant absolute value of differences mentioned in the definition of hyperbola is equal to the
length of the transverse axis

. Since

is a point of the hyperbola, then


|

| |

| |

| |

|. Thus, it suffices to show that |

| |

| . Now, if

is the focus that is on the same side of the center as

, then
|

| |

| |

|
Since |

| |

|, then
|

| |

| |

|
This implies that ||

| |

|| |

|
Let be the positive number such that

We define the conjugate axis as


the line segment whose length is , perpendicular to the transverse axis and whose midpoint
is the center of the hyperbola.







Figure 3.26
Take note that is possible that or , that is, the conjugate axis may be shorter
or longer than the transverse axis.

Equation of Hyperbola
A. Standard Form
Suppose the center of the hyperbola is the origin and the transverse axis is on the
. Then the foci are

and

. If is any point of the hyperbola,


then, as shown earlier,
|

| |

|
Using the distance formula, |

and |


Substituting in the previous equation, we have
|

|



22

Removing the absolute value sign and isolating one radical, we have


We want to obtain an equivalent equation free of radicals. Thus, squaring both sides and
simplifying,


Squaring both sides, we have


Recall that

. Thus,


Dividing both sides by

, we obtain


This is the standard form of the equation of the hyperbola with center at and transverse
axis on the .
If the center of the hyperbola is the origin and the transverse axis is on the ,
then slight changes in the above derivation will yield the following equation.


By translation of axes, then we obtain from above the following equations when the center is at
point . When the transverse axis is horizontal, the equation is


And when the transverse axis is vertical, we have






23

Standard Form of the Equation of a Hyperbola
Center Major axis Equation
horizontal


vertical


horizontal


vertical



B. General Form
Notice that the coefficients of the terms

and

in any of the above equations have


different signs, one is positive and the other is negative. Thus, expanding the squares above and
combining similar terms, we obtain the following general form of the equation of a hyperbola


where

Asymptotes of a Hyperbola
A hyperbola is composed of two non intersecting curves called its branches, each one
containing a vertex and extending indefinitely to one side of the vertex it contains. These two
curves approach two diagonal lines called asymptotes. If the hyperbola has center , then
the equations of the asymptotes are as follows:
1. when the transverse axis is horizontal (Figure 3.27)


2. when the transverse axis is vertical (Figure 3.28)


The derivation of these equations is beyond the scope of this book. The concept of limits
in calculus is necessary in order to show that the branches of the hyperbola indeed approach
these lines. At this point, we remark that a way to obtain such equations is to replaced by the
constant on the right hand side of the standard form of the equation of the hyperbola.
Take note that the two asymptotes of the hyperbola intersects at the center of the
hyperbola.

24








Figure 3.27 Figure 3.28

The asymptotes serve as a guide when sketching the hyperbola. Actually, these lines can
be drawn even without getting their equations. Given the equation of the hyperbola, we start
by locating its center. The direction of the transverse axis can be obtained from the given
equation. Thus, along this direction (vertical or horizontal), we count units from the center to
both sides of the center. Then in the direction perpendicular to the transverse axis, we count
units from the center to both sides of the center. Next, draw a rectangle whose sides have
these four points obtained as their midpoints. This rectangle is called the auxiliary rectangle.
Connect each pair of opposite vertices of the auxiliary rectangle by a line. It can be verified that
these two lines from have equations given above, and therefore, are the asymptotes of the
hyperbola. Finally, we sketch the two branches of the hyperbola by drawing curves, starting
from the vertices, approaching the asymptotes.







Figure 3.29

Example 3.5.3
Sketch the hyperbola whose equation is

)
(

)
(

)
(

)

25

Example 3.5.4
The vertices of a hyperbola are and and the endpoints of the
conjugate axis are and . Find the equation of the hyperbola.

Example 3.5.5
Find the center, vertices, foci and asymptotes of the hyperbola having the equation


Example 3.5.6
Find an equation of the hyperbola that has a focus at and the lines
as asymptotes.

Example 3.5.7
Determine whether the graph of the equation is a hyperbola or a pair of lines:
(a)


(b)



Example 3.5.8
Points

and

are m apart, and it is determined from the sound of an explosion


heard at these points at different times that the location of the explosion is m closer to


than to

. Show that the location of the explosion is a hyperbolic curve and give a Cartesian
equation for this curve.












26

Exercises 3.5
For the hyperbolas in exercises 1 10, find the coordinates of the (a) center, (b) vertices, (c)
foci. Also, (d) give the equations of the asymptotes and (e) sketch the graph.
1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.


In exercises 11 14, determine whether the graph of the given equation is a hyperbola or pair
of lines.
11.


12.


13.


14.


In exercises 15 25, find an equation of the hyperbola satisfying the given conditions.
15. Center , transverse axis length of is along the , a focus at .
16. Center , transverse axis parallel to the and length of , conjugate axis of
length
17. Centered at the origin, passing through

and

.
18. Center at , transverse axis along the , passing through points and
.
19. Asymptotes are and ; are and .
20. Conjugate axis along the , one vertex at , asymptotes are
and .
21. Foci , passing through the point (

).
22. Foci at and , transverse axis of length


23. Center , transverse axis parallel to , passing through , the asymptotes
are perpendicular to each other.
24. Asymptotes

and

and passing through ( )


25. One focus at , Asymptotes intersecting at and an asymptote passing
through.

27

Solve the word problems in exercises 26 31.
26. One of the asymptotes of the hyperbola with horizontal transverse axis contains the points
and . Find the equation of the hyperbola if is one of the vertices of its
auxiliary rectangle.
27. Two radio signaling stations at and lie on an east west line, with 100 miles west of
. A plane is flying west on a line 50 miles north of the line . Radio signals are sent
(travelling at 0.2 miles/ sec) simultaneously from and , and the one sent from arrives
at the plane 400 sec before the one sent from . Where is the plane?
28. Two stations that are 2 km apart receive a sound signal issued from a source located at
point . The station located at gets the signal 4 seconds earlier than the
station at . Use 0.33 km/ sec as the speed of sound and find the equation of the
hyperbola containing .
29. Two stations that transmit radio signals are positioned 100 miles apart along a straight
shore where is west of . If the speed of each radio signal is 186, 000 miles per second,
(a) what time difference between the two signals should the ship be looking for if it wants
to enter a harbor 20 miles west of station ?
(b) what is the approximate location of the ship if it is 80 miles offshore when the desired
time difference is obtained?
30. Two LORAN stations that transmit radio signals are positioned 250 miles apart along a
straight shore where is west of . If the speed of each radio signal is n186, 000 miles per
second,
(a) what time difference between the two signals should the ship be looking for if it wants
to enter a harbor 25 miles east of station ?
(b) what is the approximate location of the ship if it is 50 miles offshore when the desired
time difference is obtained?
31. Suppose that the cost of producing product I is P150 less per unit at point than at point .
The distance between and is 100 km. Suppose that the route of delivery of the product
is a straight line, the delivery cost is P8 per unit per kilometer. Find the curve at any point of
which the commodity can be supplied from either or at the same total cost. Take the
points and at and , respectively.
32. Find the value(s) of such that the graph of the equation

is
(a) a parabola.
(b) an ellipse.
(c) a hyperbola.
(d) a pair of intersecting lines.

28

Lesson 3.6: Systems of Linear and Quadratic Equations
In this section, we will solve systems involving linear and quadratic equations in two variables,
say and . Solutions to such systems are pairs of values of and that will make all the
equations in the system true. If is a solution to a system of equations, then the
point is a point of intersection of the graphs of the equations. Thus, if a system has no
solution, then it means that the graphs do not intersect.
Example 3.6.1
Solve the system
{




Example 3.6.2
Solve the system
{




Example 3.6.3
Sketch the graphs of the equations

and

, and
find their points of intersection.













29

Exercises 3.6
In exercises 1 15, solve the given system of equations, and make a rough sketch of the graph
of each equation on a single coordinate system.
1. {




2. {




3. {




4. {




5. {



6. {



7. {



8. {


9. {



10. {



11. {



12. {



13. {



14. {



15. {



16. {



17. {



18. {




19. Find an equation of the common chord of the two circles

and

.
20. The square of a certain number exceeds twice the square of another number by

. Also, the
sum of their squares is

. Find possible pairs of numbers that satisfy these conditions.


21. Prove that a hyperbola does not intersect its asymptotes.




30

Review for Chapter 3
1. Identify the graph of the conic section whose equation is given. Give the coordinates of its
center, vertices, co vertices and foci when applicable.
(a)


(b)


(c)


2. Find an equation of the ellipse with center , vertical principal axis, and which contains
the points and .
3. Find an equation of the hyperbola with asymptotes and and a
vertex as . Graph the asymptotes and the hyperbola, indicating the center, foci, and
vertices.
4. Find the points of intersection of the curves

and

. Then sketch their graphs on the same Cartesian plane. Indicate the
coordinates of the centers, and points of intersection.
5. A triangle in the plane has a perimeter of 12 units. If two vertices lie at and ,
sketch and identify the graph of the set of all possible locations of the third vertex.
6. Suppose . Sketch the parabolas


Show that they have a common focus for any and .
7. A comets orbit is a parabola with the sun at the focus. When the comet is million
miles from the sun, the line from the sun to the comet makes an angle of with the axis of
the parabola. The comet comes closest to the sun when it is at the vertex of the parabola.
What will be the minimum distance between the comet and the sun?
8. The graph of

is a hyperbola with coordinate axes as asymptotes. What translation of


will produce the graph of