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Chapter 11 - Substance Use / Impulse Control disorder, Chapter 13 - Schizophrenia and related

psychotic disorders Chapter 14 (online on Niihka) - Neurodevelopmental disorders


Exam 4 Review Sheet
Definitions:
Substance intoxication-
Physiological reactions, such as
impaired judgment and motor
ability, as well as mood changes
resulting from the ingestion of
psychoactive substances
Substance abuse- Pattern of
psychoactive substance use
leading to significant distress or
impairment in social and
occupational roles and in
hazardous situations
Substance dependence-
Maladaptive pattern of substance
use characterized by the need for
increased amounts to achieve the
desired effect, negative physical
effects when the substance is
withdrawn, unsuccessful efforts to
control its use. And substantial
effort expended to seek it or
recover from its effects (also
known as addiction)
Depressants- psychoactive
substances that result in
behavioral sedation, including
alcohol, and sedative, hypnotic,
and anxiolytic drugs
Stimulants- Psychoactive
substances that elevate mood,
activity, and alertness, including
amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine,
and nicotine
Opiates- addictive psychoactive
substances such as heroin, opium,
and morphine that cause
temporary euphoria and analgesia
(pain reduction)
Hallucinogens- any
psychoactive substance such as
LSD or marijuana that can
produce delusions,
hallucinations, paranoia, and
altered sensory perception
Fetal alcohol syndrome- pattern
of problems including learning
difficulties, behavior deficits, and
characteristic physical flaws,
resulting from heavy drinking by
the victims mother when she was
pregnant with the victim
Withdrawal- severely negative
physiological reaction to removal
of a psychoactive substance, which
can be alleviated by the same or a
similar substance
Schizophrenia- devastating
psychotic disorder that may
involve characteristic
disturbances in thinking
(delusions), perception
(hallucinations), speech,
emotions, and behavior
Delusion-psychotic disorder
featuring a persistent belief
contrary to reality (delusion) but
no other symptoms of
schizophrenia
Hallucination- s a perception in
the absence of apparent
stimulus that has qualities of real
perception. Hallucinations are
vivid, substantial, and located in
external objective space.

Alogia- deficiency in the
amount or content of speech, a
disturbance often seen in
people with Schizophrenia
Anhedonia-Inability to experience
pleasure, associated with some
mood and schizophrenic disorders
Catatonia- disorder of movement
involving immobility or excited
agitation
Avolition- apathy or the
inability to initiate or persist in
important activites
Psychotic behavior- severe
psychological disorder category
characterized by hallucinations
and loss of contact with reality
Dopamine hypothesis- argues that
the unusual behavior and
experiences associated with
schizophrenia (sometimes
extended to psychosis in general)
can be fully or largely explained by
changes in dopamine function in
the brain.
Age of 25, sharp decrease in
accidents b/c ending of brain
development

Synaptic pruning- Synaptic
pruning refers to the process by
which extra neurons and
synaptic connections are
eliminated in order to increase
the efficiency of neuronal
transmissions. It happens by
reducing the number of weak
neurons into more efficient
synaptic configurations. The
process is done to weed out
neuronal structures in the brain
that are deemed not necessary.
Many children prune out
neurons that have become
damaged in order to improve
the overall networking capacity
in each particular area of the
brain. It is a process that occurs
naturally as the child develops.


Learning disorders- reading,
mathematics, or written
expression performance
substantially below levels
expected relative to the persons
age, IQ score, and education
Pervasive Developmental
Disorder- Wide-ranging,
significant, and long-lasting
dysfunctions that appear before
the age of 18
Autistism Spectrum disorder-
Impairment in social
communication: Relative to
age, Few to no friends, Joint
attention problems, Social
awareness

Aspergers disorder (historical)-
characterized by impairments in
social relationships and restricted
or unusual behaviors, but without
the language delays seen in
autism
Fragile X syndrome- Pattern of
abnormality caused by a defect in
the X chromosome resulting in
intellectual disability, learning
problems, and unusual physical
characteristics
Rett disorder progressive
neurological developmental
disorder featuring constant
hand-wringing, intellectual
disability, and impaired motor
skills
Childhood Disintegrative
Disorder- involving severe
regression in language, adaptive
behavior, and motor skills after a
2-4 yr period of normal
development
PKU- phenylketonuria: recessive
disorder involving the inability to
break down a food chemical
whose buildup causes intellectual
disability, seizures, and behavior
problems. PKU can be detected by
infant screening and prevented by
a specialized diet
Amniocentesis- Prenatal
medical procedure that allows
the detection of abnormalities
(ex Down Syndrome) in the
developing fetus. It involves
Chorionic Villus Sampling-a
genetic test conducted during
early pregnancy that samples cells
found in the placenta (chronic
villi) and assesses possible genetic
Intellectual disability- a diagnosis
received when one achieves a
significantly below-average score
on a test of intelligence and by
limitations in the ability to
removal and analysis of
amniotic fluid from the mother
or chromosomal problems in the
fetus
function in areas of daily life
Down Syndrome- type of
intellectual disability caused by
a chromosomal aberration
(Chromosome 21) and involving
characteristics physical
appearance. Sometimes known
as trisomy 21


Disorders Covered
Substance Use Disorder:
At least 2 of the following
causing impairment or distress
occurring in the last 12 months:
Taken in greater amounts or over
longer period than intended
Unsuccessful attempts to cut
back/control use
Time spent to obtain, use, recover is
excessive or problematic
Craving
Use continued despite knowledge of
social or interpersonal problems
caused/worsened by substance
Important activities given up or
stopped
Recurrent use in physically
hazardous situations
Use continued despite knowledge of
physical or psychological problems
caused/worsened by substance
Tolerance
Withdrawal


Substance Intoxication Disorders: Acute,
intervention is needed
Reversible substance-specific
syndrome
Significant maladaptive
behavior or psychological
changes
o Experienced as
impaired judgment,
mood change, or
lowered motor ability

Substance Withdrawal Disorders:
Delirium Tremens
Hallucinations
Body tremors
Seizures
Cardiac problems
Stroke

Gambling Disorder: Very similar to
substance use disorders


Trichotillomania- hair pulling urge, may be
trauma related: higher F:M ratio
Intermittent Explosive
Disorder: Aggressive
outbursts; overlaps with
Antisocial PD

Kleptomania- recurrent failure to resist
urges to steal things not needed for
personal use or their monetary value
Pyromania- an impulse- control disorder
that involves having an irresistible urge to
set fires
Schizophrenia- devastating psychotic
disorder that may involve characteristic
disturbances in thinking(delusions),
perception(hallucinations), speech,
emotions and behavior
Schizophreniform Disorder- Psychotic
disorder involving the symptoms of
schizophrenia but lasting LESS THAN 6
months
Schizoaffective Disorder- Psychotic disorder
featuring symptoms of both schizophrenia
AND Major Mood Disorder
Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder- A
disturbance in speech fluency that
includes a number of problems with
speech, such as repeating syllables or
words, prolonging certain sounds, making
obvious pauses, or substituting words to
replace ones that are difficult to articulate
Language Disorder: limited speech in all
situations, expressive speech is
significant below receptive language
Social (pragmatic) Communication
Disorder- difficulties with the social aspects
of verbal and nonverbal communication
including verbosity, prosody, excessive
switching topics, and dominating
conversations
Tourrettes Disorder- developmental
disorder featuring multiple dysfunctional
motor and vocal tics
ADHD: Either Inattentive or Hyperactive,
onset before 12, impairments in multiple
areas including behavioral, cognitive,
social academic
Specific Learning Disorder- academic
performance that is substantially below
what would be expected given the persons
age, intelligence quotient (IQ score), and
education. Performance, short of
expectations
Autism Spectrum Disorder: impairment in
social communication & restricted
repetitive patterns
Intellectual Disability: below average
intellectual functioning (IQ of 70 or
below), deficits in adaptive functioning
(communication, social participation),
and disorder of childhood (before 18)


General Questions:
Describe the differences between substance intoxication, abuse, and dependence.

How are people positively and negative reinforced to use substances?


How can substance use disorders be effectively treated?

How can substance use disorders be effectively prevented?


At what point does gambling become pathological?

What are the subtypes of schizophrenia?


What are the phases of schizophrenia?


Describe genetic influences on schizophrenia.


What is the difference between schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder(see the book)?


When do symptoms of schizophrenia typically emerge?


Describe cultural factors involved in diagnosing schizophrenia.


Why might patients be noncompliant with medication for schizophrenia?


Are boys or girls more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD?


List several causes of ADHD.


Do all children with ADHD respond positive to medications? How can medications help manage
symptoms of ADHD?


What are some common classification systems for severity of intellectual disability?



Do vaccines cause Autism?


What role do genes and environment play in Austism Spectrum Disorders?