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INSULATION COORDINATION FOR GIS - NEW ASPECTS

M. P. Meirelles, R. Vaisman, R. Azevedo, A. J. S. Junqueira M. Lacorte, W. Hofbauer


CEPEL ABB High Voltage Technologies
BRAZIL SWITZERLAND
Summary
Insulation coordination is one of the most important
aspects to be considered during the planning of a
substation. Properly done it minimises the risk of
failures in the substation caused by overvoltages and
such contributes to a high availability of the substation.
A characteristic layout of a GIS substation is considered
in order to analyse - by using a simulation model - the
lightning overvoltages occurring in this substation
caused by a back flash in the transmission line. The
impact of the location of the surge arrester, the effect of
the length of the GIS as well as the effect of other
design parameters of a GIS substation on the lightning
overvoltages in the substation are investigated.
Based on the results obtained conclusions for insulation
coordination studies are drawn.
Key-word: insulation coordination, GIS, lightning
overvoltage.
1 - Introduction
Insulation coordination is one of the fundamental
dimensioning criteria for all electric systems. Properly
done it results in a restriction of insulation flashovers
or breakdowns caused by overvoltages to those parts of
a system where consequential damages are quite
limited. Further improvement can be achieved by the
correct application of surge arresters which effectively
reduce the probability of costly damages.
Based on many years experience general design rules
were set up how to protect electric systems efficient and
effective against damages caused by internally or
externally generated overvoltages. Today software
simulation tools are used which enable to calculate
qualitatively and quantitatively the impact of insulation
coordination measures on the propagation of
overvoltage surges. An important aspect to be
considered refers to the lightning surge injection into
the substation [1].
This is an important factor especially when it comes to
the overall optimisation of a GIS substation surge
protection. Traditionally a GIS substation is protected
by an outdoor arrester at the GIS entrance. Depending
on the layout of the GIS, additional GIS arresters have
to be used to achieve full protection of the GIS. This
raises the question whether and under which conditions
it is technically and economically reasonable to use just
GIS arresters instead of additional outdoor arresters
and vice versa.
This question is analysed more in detail for a GIS
substation model typically used in a 500 kV AC
transmission system. The analysis is based on digital
simulations performed using EMTP - Electromagnetic
Transients Program - worldwide used for this purpose.
2 - GIS-Substation
The electric system considered in this study consists of
three sections which are characteristic for many GIS
substations (Figure 1).
21, rue dArtois, F-75008 Paris
http://www.cigre.org
Session 1998
CIGR
23-101
CEPEL - Cx. Postal 68007, 21944-970, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil
Tel. +55 21 260 8937 Fax: +55 21 260 2236
Supply System
Tower 5 Tower 4 Tower 3 Tower 2 Tower 1
15m
8m
6m
Stroken Tower
Outdoor Arrester CVT
GIS
GIS Bushing
300m
300m 300m 300m
2km
Transformer
Figure 1 - Schematic representation of the electrical system considered in the study
2.1 - Transmission System
The rated voltage of the transmission system considered
in the study is 500 kV / 50 Hz.
The towers are modeled by a T equivalent diagram of
surge impedances as shown in Figure 2. Typical values
for the footing resistances of the towers are:
- 5 for Tower 1;
- 10 for the other Towers.
Figure 2 - Tower geometry and tower EMTP model
The equivalent diagram of the supply system used
consists of a power frequency voltage source in series
with a resistance. This resistance has the same value as
the transmission line surge impedance in order to avoid
reflections.
2.2 - Outdoor Section
The outdoor connections between Tower 1 and GIS
bushing (Figure 1) are simulated by a 0.5 H/m
inductance.
As only a single phase is considered when performing
the overvoltage calculations inside the GIS, the other 2
phases of the transmission line are connected to earth at
Tower 1 by lumped capacitances of 10 nF.
Regarding the capacitive voltage transformer CVT, two
different configurations are simulated :
- no CVT;
- CVT represented by 5 nF to ground.
The outdoor surge arrester has a protection level of
1055 kV at 20 kA. It is simulated as a non linear
resistance connected to the phase-wire by a 5 H
inductance representing the length of the connection
leads plus the height of the arrester.
A simulation with the surge arrester directly connected
to the phase-wire is also performed in order to show the
influence of the connection leads on the surge
protection.
2.3 - GIS Section
The GIS bushing is modeled by two surge impedances
in series represented by
Z
bushing
= Z1 + Z2
where: Z1 = 200 surge impedance, length = 3m.
Z2 = 30 surge impedance, length =1 m.
For comparison a simulation is also performed with
the bushing modeled as a lumped capacitance of 150 pF
[2]. The calculation results show that the two different
models have a negligible effect on the overall
overvoltages. Therefore the study is performed only
Z
Z
Z
R footing
with one bushing model represented by two surge
impedances in series.
The GIS is simulated by a surge impedance of 60 ohms.
The length of the GIS is varied in the range of 15 m to
150 m. The termination of the GIS is either a power
transformer directly connected to the GIS and
simulated by a 4 nF capacitance to ground or an open
line-disconnector.
The GIS surge arrester used in the study has a
protection level of 1022 kV at 20 kA. It is simulated by
a non linear resistance directly connected to the GIS.
3 - Lightning
According to the worldwide practice a lightning
protection study must be performed considering two
types of lightning strokes:
a direct stroke;
a back flash.
3.1 - Direct Stroke
This means a lightning stroke directly to a phase wire.
3.2 - Back Flash
A back flash is caused by a direct lightning stroke to
the ground wire or to a tower of a line, followed by a
flashover across the insulation between the tower and a
phase wire.
For a back flash calculation a lightning stroke in a
critical distance to the substation and a current level
which is the highest to be expected once in a period of
400 years is considered [3]. In this study a lightning
stroke to the second tower and a current magnitude of
300 kA is assumed representing a 0.014% probability
of incidence [4, 5].
A simulation with 200 kA lightning current is done in
order to analyse its influence on the insulation
coordination result, since this value is rarely
exceeded [5].
The back flash across the phase insulation of the struck
tower is simulated by the so called Leader Progression
Model [6] programmed in a subroutine TACS of
EMTP.
In general the overvoltage values resulting from a back
flash are higher than those of a direct stroke to the
phase wire. Therefore only lightning surge parameters
of a back flash are considered in this study.
4 - Simulations
The main objective of insulation coordination studies
for planned substations is to minimize the risk of
failure due to overvoltages. Instead of applying
probability concepts literature also suggests the use of a
deterministic approach where a safety margin must be
taken into account [1].
In this way, although the standardized BIL for 500 kV
systems is 1550 kV, the lightning studies must lead to
overvoltages not higher than BIL/1.2, where the safety
margin of 20% is used to determine the calculated
maximum overvoltage, that will be used as reference.
U
cw
coordination withstand voltage
U
cw
= BIL/1.2 = 1550/1.2 = 1292 kV
A simulation with a safety margin of 15%
(U
cw
= BIL/1.15 = 1348 kV) is done in order to analyse
the influence of this limit since this value is largely
used [7].
Four different surge protection concepts of the
substation regarding arrester types and their positioning
are simulated:
outdoor surge arrester positioned between the CVT
and the GIS bushing;

GIS surge arrester positioned at the GIS bushing
(GIS entrance);

GIS surge arrester positioned at half length of the
GIS;

GIS surge arrester positioned at the transformer.
5 - Results
5.1 - GIS Length Effect
Figures 3 to 5 show the calculated overvoltages at the
CVT outside the GIS, at the GIS entrance and at the
transformer respectively considering the four different
locations of the arrester.
The resulting overvoltages as a function of the GIS
length is strongly non-linear which results from
different reflections of the surge waves. Therefore no
general statement can be made that the longer a GIS
the higher the overvoltage.
For any fixed reference node in the substation the local
overvoltage occurring in general strongly depends on
both the location of the surge arrester and the length of
the GIS. However, related to such a reference node
there are certain ranges of the GIS length in which the
effectiveness of the surge arrester is independent of its
location.
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
OUTDOORARRESTER
GISARRESTERATGISENTRANCE
GISARRESTERATHALFLENGTHOFGIS
GISARRESTERATTRANSFORMER
Ucw=1292 kV
Figure 3 - Voltage at the CVT in function of the GIS
length
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
OUTDOORARRESTER
GISARRESTERATGISENTRANCE
GISARRESTERATHALFLENGTHOFGIS
GISARRESTERATTRANSFORMER
Ucw=1292kV
Figure 4 - Voltage at the GIS entrance in function of
the GIS length
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
OUTDOORARRESTER
GISARRESTERATGISENTRANCE
GISARRESTERATHALFLENGTHOFGIS
GISARRESTERATTRANSFORMER
Ucw=1292 kV
Figure 5 - Voltage at the transformer in function of the
GIS length
5.2 - Surge Arrester Location Effect
The effectiveness of the surge arrester at different
locations can be seen also in Figures 3 to 5. In general
the surge protection of a GIS substation by a GIS
arrester located directly at the GIS bushing (GIS
entrance) is comparable with that of an outdoor
arrester.
For more than about 100 m effective length of a GIS
surge arresters on two locations will be necessary in
order to guarantee an adequate surge protection for the
GIS substation.
5.3 - Capacitive Devices Effect
The effect of the presence of capacitive devices (CVT)
in a substation can be seen in figures 6 and 7 and
demonstrated by the overvoltages occurring at the
transformer.
Due to the wave characteristic of lightning surges the
effect of capacitive devices is not easily predictable. It
could be expected that capacitive devices will damp
surges. This might be correct for specific layouts of the
substation but cannot be taken as a general rule.
Therefore investigations have to be done individually
for any layout and location of the surge arrester.
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
WITH CVT
WITHOUT CVT
Ucw=1292 kV
Figure 6 - Overvoltage at the transformer in function of
the GIS length considering outdoor surge arrester
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
WITH CVT
WITHOUT CVT
Ucw=1292kV
Figure 7 - Overvoltage at the transformer in function of
the GIS length considering GIS surge arrester located
at the GIS bushing
5.4 - Connection Leads
Figure 8 shows the influence of the connection lead
between the phase wire and the outdoor surge arrester
on the overvoltage protection. The longer the lead the
less effective is the surge arrester which is again an
effect of the traveling surge wave.
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
OUTDOORARRESTERWITH LEAD
OUTDOORARRESTERWITHOUT LEAD
Ucw=1292kV
Figure 8 - Voltage at coupling capacitor in function of
the GIS length
5.5 - GIS Termination Effect
The influence of the GIS termination on the
overvoltage at the termination is analysed for the
substation protected with an outdoor surge arrester and
presented in Figure 9.
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
GISWITHOPEN-END
GISWITHCAPACITIVE-END
Ucw=1292 kV
Figure 9 - Voltage at transformer in function of the GIS
length
No general statement can be made that the overvoltage
at an open end will always be higher than at any other
termination of the GIS as demonstrated for the
transformer [7]. There is also a strong influence of the
length of the GIS due to the wave characteristic of the
surges.
5.6 - Lightning Current Magnitude Effect
The effect of the lightning current magnitude on the
overvoltages in different reference nodes is shown for
an outdoor surge arrester (Figure 10) and a GIS surge
arrester at the GIS bushing (Figure 11).
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
VOLTAGEATCVT- 200kA
VOLTAGEATCVT- 300kA
VOLTAGEATTHETRANSFORMER- 200kA
VOLTAGEATTHETRANSFORMER- 300kA
Ucw=1292 kV
Figure 10 - Overvoltage in function of the GIS length
considering outdoor surge arrester
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
VOLTAGEATCVT- 200kA
VOLTAGEATCVT- 300kA
VOLTAGEATTHETRANSFORMER- 200kA
VOLTAGEATTHETRANSFORMER- 300kA
Ucw=1292kV
Figure 11 - Overvoltage in function of the GIS length
considering GIS surge arrester
While for both locations of the arrester the current
magnitude has a quite high influence on the
overvoltage outside the GIS there is much less or nearly
no influence at the transformer.
5.7 - Safety Margin
The adopted safety margin of 20%, which is a very
restrict condition, can be reduced to 15% assuming that
the substation has an accurate representation. Figures
12 and 13 shows the overvoltages at CVT and at the
transformer considering the outdoor arrester and the
GIS arrester positioned at the GIS bushing respectively.
Considering this new margin, practically there is no
restriction of using only one arrester to achieve full
protection of all sections of a GIS substation, for GIS
lengths less than 100m.
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
VOLTAGEATCVT
VOLTAGEATTHETRANSFORMER
Ucw=1348kV - SafetyMargin of 15%
Ucw=1292 kV - SafetyMargin of 20%
Figure 12 - Comparison of diferent safety margins
considering overvoltages with the outdoor arrester
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
Length [m]
P
e
a
k

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
M
V
]
VOLTAGEATCVT
VOLTAGEATTHETRANSFORMER
Ucw=1348 kV - SafetyMargin of 15%
Ucw=1292 kV - SafetyMargin of 20%
Figure 13 - Comparison of diferent safety margins
considering overvoltages with the GIS arrester at GIS
bushing
6 - Conclusions
Due to the wave characteristic of lightning surges a
proper insulation coordination for a GIS substation has
to consider many different aspects:
The length of the GIS has a significant influence on
the overvoltages in the substation. No general
statement can be given for common lengths of GIS
that the longer the GIS the higher the overvoltages.

The location of a GIS arrester at the GIS bushing
offers an equivalent lightning protection for the GIS
substation as an outdoor surge arrester as long as
the effective length of the GIS is less than 100 m.

For GIS lengths more than 100 m in minimum two
surge arresters at different locations should be
considered for an effective protection of the GIS
substation.

The impact of capacitive devices in the GIS
substation on the overvoltages is not predictable.
Detailed analyses are required.
The connection lead of an outdoor surge arrester
has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the
arrester. The longer the connection lead the higher
the overvoltages in the GIS substation.

The GIS termination has a strong impact on the
overvoltages at the termination. No general
statement can be given that the overvoltages at an
open termination are the highest.

The lightning current magnitude has a strong
impact on the overvoltages outside the GIS but it is
minor inside the GIS.
Proper insulation coordination of any GIS
substation requires an accurate digital simulation.
Doing this, a safety margin of 15% can be adopted,
which may lead to the use of only one arrester to
protect the GIS substation for usual GIS lengths.
7 - References
[1] - "A Simplified Method for Estimating Lightning
Performance of Transmission Lines"; IEEE WG on
Lightning Performance of Transmission Lines, IEEE
Trans. PAS-104, April/1985.
[2] - "Electric Transients and Insulation Coordination";
Salgado F.M., Vaisman R. et al, EDUFF/FURNAS -
Centrais Eltricas SA, 1987 (in Portuguese).
[3] - "Lightning Overvoltage Protection of GIS"; GIS
Technical Information; ABB Hochspannungstechnik
AG, Doc. No.: HASV 685 401 E - AK 4G.1- A05/92.
[4] - "Simplified Procedures for Determining
Representative Substation Impinging Lightning
Overvoltages"; Erikson A. and Weck K., CIGRE Paper
no. 33-16, Paris, 1988.
[5] - "Modeling Guidelines for Fast Front Transients";
IEEE WG on Modeling and Analysis of System
Transients, IEEE Trans. PWRD, Vol. 11, No.1,
January 1996.
[6] - "Modeling of Transmission Line Exposure to
Direct Lightning Strokes"; Farouk A.M. Rizk, IEEE 90
WM 084-4 PWRD, Atlanta, Georgia.
[7] - "Re-evaluation of the Ligthning Impulse Level of
Transformers and Shunt Reactors"; Vaisman R. et al,
CIER Congress, Chile, 1987.