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This is a brief information of the introduction of applications of second order differential equation..

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Roll No: Me-037

Dated: 25/9/2014

1. Skydiving

The principal quantities used to describe the motion of an object are position ( s),

velocity ( v), and acceleration ( a). Since velocity is the time derivative of the position,

and acceleration is the time derivative of the velocity, acceleration is the second time

derivative of the position. Therefore, the position function s(t) for a moving object can

be determined by writing Newton's Second Law, F

net

= ma, in the form

2. Simple harmonic motion.

Consider a spring fastened to a wall, with a block attached to its free end at rest on an

essentially frictionless horizontal table. The block can be set into motion by pulling or

pushing it from its original position and then letting go, or by striking it (that is, by

giving the block a nonzero initial velocity). The force exerted by the spring keeps the

block oscillating on the tabletop. This is the prototypical example ofsimple harmonic

motion.

The force exerted by a spring is given by Hooke's Law; this states that if a spring is

stretched or compressed a distance x from its natural length, then it exerts a force

given by the equation

F=-kx

The positive constant k is known as the spring constant and is directly realted to the

spring's stiffness: The stiffer the spring, the larger the value of k. The minus sign

implies that when the spring is stretched (so that x is positive), the spring pulls back

(because F is negative), and conversely, when the spring is compressed (so that x is

negative), the spring pushes outward (because F is positive). Therefore, the spring is

said to exert arestoring force, since it always tries to restore the block to its equilibrium

position (the position where the spring is neither stretched nor compressed). The

restoring force here is proportional to the displacement ( F = kx x), and it is for this

reason that the resulting periodic (regularly repeating) motion is called simple

harmonic.

Newton's Second Law can be applied to this springblock system. Once the block is set

into motion, the only horizontal force that acts on it is the restoring force of the spring.

Therefore, the equation

Or

This is a homogeneous secondorder linear equation with constant coefficients. The

auxiliary polynomial equation is ,which has distinct conjugate complex

roots . Therefore, the general solution of this differential equation is

This expression gives the displacement of the block from its equilibrium position (which

is designated x = 0).

3. Damped oscillations.

The springblock oscillator is an idealized example of a frictionless system. In real life,

however, frictional (or dissipative) forces must be taken into account, particularly if you

want to model the behavior of the system over a long period of time. Unless the block

slides back and forth on a frictionless table in a room evacuated of air, there will be

resistance to the block's motion due to the air (just as there is for a falling sky diver).

This resistance would be rather small, however, so you may want to picture the spring

block apparatus submerged in a large container of clear oil. The viscosity of the oil will

have a profound effect upon the block's oscillations. The air (or oil) provides

a damping force, which is proportional to the velocity of the object. (Again, recall the

sky diver falling with a parachute. At the relatively low speeds attained with an open

parachute, the force due to air resistance was given as Kv, which is proportional to the

velocity.)

With a restoring force given by kx and a damping force given by Kv (the minus

sign means that the damping force opposes the velocity), Newton's Second Law

( F

net

= ma) becomes kx Kv = ma, or, since v = and a = ,

This secondorder linear differential equation with constant coefficients can be

expressed in the more standard form

The auxiliary polynomial equation is mr

2

+ Kr + k = 0, whose roots are

The system will exhibit periodic motion only if these roots are distinct conjugate

complex numbers, because only then will the general solution of the differential

equation involve the periodic functions sine and cosine. In order for this to be the case,

the discriminant K

2

4 mk must be negative; that is, the damping constant K must be

small; specifically, it must be less than 2 mk . When this happens, the motion is said

to be underdamped, because the damping is not so great as to prevent the system

from oscillating; it just causes the amplitude of the oscillations to gradually die out. [If

the damping constant K is too great, then the discriminant is nonnegative, the roots of

the auxiliary polynomial equation are real (and negative), and the general solution of

the differential equation involves only decaying exponentials. This implies there would

be no sustained oscillations.]

In the underdamped case , the roots of the auxiliary polynomial equation

can be written as

and consequently, the general solution of the defining differential equation is

REFERENCE

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/differential-equations/applying-differential-

equations/applications-of-second-order-equations

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