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Chapter 21

Harmonic Analysis

Because of the wide and ever increasing applications of power electronic devices, such as variable speed
drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), static power converters, etc., power system voltage and
current quality has been severely affected in some areas. In these areas components other than that of
fundamental frequency can be found to exist in the distorted voltage and current waveforms. These
components usually are the integer multipliers of the fundamental frequency, called harmonics. In
addition to electronic devices, some other non-linear loads, or devices including saturated transformers,
arc furnaces, fluorescent lights, and cycloconverters are also responsible for the deterioration in power
system quality.

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Harmonic Analysis Introduction

The presence of harmonics in a power system can give rise to a variety of problems including equipment
overheating, reduced power factors, deteriorating performance of electrical equipment, the incorrect
operation of protective relays, interference with communication devices, and in some cases, circuit
resonance to cause electric apparatus dielectric failure and other types of severe damage. Even worse,
harmonic currents generated in one area can penetrate into the power grid and propagate into other areas,
resulting in voltage and current distortions for the entire system. This phenomenon has become a major
concern for power quality due to the ever-increasing usage of electronic devices and equipment in power
systems.

Using computer simulation, the phenomena of power system harmonics can be modeled and analyzed.
The PowerStation Harmonic Analysis program provides you with the best tool to accurately model
various power system components and devices to include their frequency dependency, non-linearity, and
other characteristics under the presence of harmonic sources. This program has two analytical methods,
Harmonic Load Flow and Harmonic Frequency Scan, which are the most popular and powerful
approaches for power system harmonic analysis. By using those two methods in combination, different
harmonic indices are computed and compared with the industrial standard limitations, existing and
potential power quality problems, along with security problems associated with harmonics, can be easily
revealed. Causes to those problems can be identified and different mitigation and corrective schemes can
be tested and finally verified.

Some of the main features of the PowerStation Harmonic Load Flow Study are summarized below:

Common & Integrated Database
Fully Inherited 3-D Data Structure, Including Infinite Presentations, Unlimited Configurations, &
Multiple Data Revisions
Looped, Radial, or Combined Systems
Systems with Multiple Swing Buses
Systems with Isolated Sub-Systems
Systems with Zero Impedance Branches (Tie Circuit Breakers)
Systems with De-Energized Buses & Branches
Automatic Adjustment of Cable/Line Resistance According to Operating Temperatures
Automatic Adjustment of Transformer Impedance According to Tolerance
Automatic Adjustment of Current Limiting Reactor Impedance According to Tolerance
Multiple Loading Categories
Load Diversity Factors
Complete Fundamental Load Flow Calculation
Automatic LTC Settings for Fundamental Load Flow
Modeling of Frequency Dependency of Rotary Machine Impedance
Modeling of Non-linearity & Frequency Dependency of Cable/Line & Transformer Impedance
Modeling of Frequency Dependency of Other Power System Components & Loads
Effect of Transformer Phase Shifting to Harmonic Flow
Effect of Machine & Transformer Winding Connections & Grounding Types to Harmonic Flow
Harmonic Current Injection Method
Positive, Negative, & Zero Sequence Harmonics
Harmonic Order up to 73
rd

Harmonic Voltage Source
Harmonic Current Source
User-Expandable Harmonic Source Library
User-Selected Harmonic Source Inclusion by Device Categories
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Harmonic Analysis Introduction

Calculation of Various Harmonic Indices Based on IEEE Standards
Total RMS Value (RMS) for Both Bus Voltages & Branch Currents
Total Arithmetic Summation Value (ASUM) for Both Bus Voltages & Branch Currents
Total Harmonic Distortions (THD) for Both Bus Voltages & Branch Currents
Telephone Influence Factors (TIF) for Both Bus Voltages & Branch Currents
I*T Product for Branch Currents
Built-in Harmonic Filters in Different Types
Automatic Filter Sizing Based on Different Criteria
Check and Flag Filter Overloading
Verifying Performance of Harmonic Filters
Graphic One-Line Display of Study Results
Slider Bar to Display Fundamental Load Flow, Total & Individual Harmonic Distortion
Graphic Plots of Voltage & Current Waveform for Viewing & Printing
Graphic Plots of Voltage & Current Spectrums for Viewing & Printing
Text Report for Input Data, Fundamental Load Flow Results, Voltage & Current Harmonic Indices,
Tabulated Voltage & Current Harmonic
Crystal Reports for Preformatted Reports
Flag Violations of Bus Total & Individual Harmonic Distortion Limits

Some of the main features of the PowerStation Harmonic Frequency Scan Study are summarized
below:

Same System & Component Modeling Capabilities for Harmonic Load Flow & Fundamental Load
Flow
Modeling of Frequency Dependency of Rotary Machine Impedance
Modeling of Non-linearity & Frequency Dependency of Cable/Line & Transformer Impedance
Modeling of Frequency Dependency of Other Power System Components & Loads
Transformer Phase Shifting
Machine & Transformer Winding Connections & Grounding Types
Built-in Harmonic Filters in Different Types
Automatic Filter Sizing Based on Different Criteria
User-Definable Frequency Scan Range & Step
Graphic One-Line Display of Study Results
Slider Bar to Display Bus Driving Point Impedance Magnitude & Phase Angle at Selected
Frequencies
Graphic Plots of Bus Driving Point Impedance in Ohms for Viewing & Printing
Graphic Plots of Bus Driving Point Impedance Phase Angle for Viewing & Printing
Text Report for Input Data, Fundamental Load Flow Results, Tabulated Bus Driving Point Impedance
Magnitudes & Phase Angles


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Harmonic Analysis Study Toolbar

21.1 Study Toolbar
The Harmonic Analysis Study Toolbar will appear on the screen when you are in the Harmonic Analysis
Study mode. This toolbar has eight function keys as shown below.

Run Harmonic Load Flow

Run Frequency Scan

Display Options

Report Manager

Harmonic Analysis Plots

Halt Current Calculation

Get On-Line Data

Get Archived Data

Run Harmonic Load Flow
Select a study case from the Study Case Toolbar when you are in Harmonic Analysis Study mode. Click
on the Run Harmonic Load Flow button to perform a harmonic load flow study. A dialog box will
appear for you to specify the output report name if the output file name is set to Prompt in the Output
Report list box. The harmonic load flow study results will appear on the one-line diagram and can be
viewed in output report text and plot formats after the calculation completes.
Run Frequency Scan
After selecting a study case from the Study Case Toolbar, click on the Run - Frequency Scan button to
perform a harmonic frequency scan study. A dialog box will pop up asking you the output file name if
Prompt is set in the Output Report list box. As in the harmonic load flow study, study results are
displayed on the one-line diagram and can be viewed in output report text and plot formats after the
calculation completes.
Display Options
Click on the Display Options button to customize the one-line diagram annotation display options under
the Harmonic Analysis Study mode. See Display Options for more information.
Report Manager
Click on the Report Manager button to select a format and view harmonic analysis output report.
Harmonic analysis reports are provided in two formats: ASCII text files and Crystal Reports.
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Harmonic Analysis Study Toolbar

The Report Manager provides four pages (Complete, Input, Result, and Summary) for viewing the
different parts of the output report for both text and Crystal Reports. Available formats for Crystal
Reports are displayed on each page of the Report Manager.



Choosing any format other than TextRept in the Report Manager activates the Crystal Reports. You
can open the complete harmonic analysis report or just a part of it, depending on the format you choose.
The preformatted Crystal Reports names are:

Branch
Bus
Cable
Complete
Cover
Filter Overloading
Filter
HA Source
Harmonic Library
Harmonic Source
Impedance
Line
Load Flow Report
Machine
Reactor
Results
Summary
Transformer
UPS
VIHD Report
VTHD Report

You can also select output files from the Output Report list box.


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Harmonic Analysis Study Toolbar


This list contains all the output files in the current project folder with the same file extension specified.
To change output file extensions, you can click on the List Output Reports button next to the Output
Report list box, which will allow you to select a different output file extension.



The output reports for harmonic load flow studies have an extension of .har.

PowerStation text output reports can be viewed by any word processor such as Notepad, WordPad, and
Microsoft Word. Currently, by default, the output reports are viewed by Notepad. You can change the
default viewer in the ETAPS.INI file to the viewer of your choice. Refer to Chapter 1 for detailed
information on changing the INI file.

The text output reports are 132 characters wide with 66 lines per page. For the correct formatting and
pagination of output reports, you MUST modify the default settings of your word processor application.
For Notepad, WordPad, and Microsoft Word applications we have recommend settings that are explained
in the Printing & Plotting chapter.
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Harmonic Analysis Study Toolbar

Harmonic Analysis Plots
Click on the Harmonic Analysis Plots button to select and plot the curves from the selected output plot
file. The plot file name is the same as the output text file displayed in the Output Report list box. Plot
files for harmonic load flow have .hfp as an extension.
Halt Current Calculation
The Stop Sign button is normally disabled. When a harmonic load flow or a harmonic frequency scan has
been initiated, this button becomes enabled and shows a red stop sign. Clicking on this button will
terminate the current calculation. One-line diagram displays and plots will not be available if you
terminate the calculation before it completes, and the output report will be incomplete.
Get On-Line Data
If the ETAP key installed on your computer has the on-line feature, you can copy the on-line data from
the on-line presentation to the current presentation.
Get Archived Data
If the ETAP key installed on your computer has the on-line feature, you can copy the archived data to the
current presentation.
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-7 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor

21.2 Study Case Editor
The Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor contains solution control variables, system loading conditions,
report options, harmonic source modeling options, and component plot selection. PowerStation allows
you to create and save an unlimited number of study cases for each type of study. Like all other study
types, you can easily switch between different harmonic analysis study cases. This feature is designed to
organize your study efforts and save you time.

A study case can be used for any combination of any configuration status, one-line diagram presentation,
and Base/Revision Data.

To create a new harmonic analysis study case, go to the Project Editor, right-click on the Harmonic
Analysis sub-folder inside the Study Cases folder, and select Create New. The program will then create a
new study case, which is a copy of the default study case, and adds it to the Harmonic Analysis sub-
folder.


When you are in the Harmonic Analysis mode, you can access the Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor
by clicking on the Study Case button on the Study Case Toolbar. You can also access this editor from the
Project View by clicking on the Harmonic Analysis sub-folder under the Study Cases folder.

The Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor consists of three pages: Info page, Model page, and the Plot
page.
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Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor

21.2.1 Info Page
This page is provided for you to specify some general solution parameters, loading conditions, report
options, and study case information.


Study Case ID
The study case ID is shown in this entry field. You can rename a study case by simply deleting the old ID
and entering a new ID. Study case ID can be up to 12 alphanumeric characters. Use the Navigator button
at the bottom of the editor to go from one study case to another.
Fundamental Load Flow
These settings are used for the fundamental load flow calculation solution control, and apply to both
harmonic load flow and harmonic frequency scan studies.
Max. Iteration
Enter the maximum number for iterations. If the solution has not converged before the specified number
of iterations, the program will stop and inform the user. The recommended and default value for
maximum iteration is 2000.
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Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor

Precision
Enter the value for the solution precision, which is used to check for the fundamental load flow
convergence. This value determines how precise you want the final solution to be. The default and
recommended value for precision is 0.000001.
Accel. Factor
Enter the convergence acceleration factor for the fundamental load flow calculation. Typical values are
between 1.2 and 1.7. The default value is 1.45.
Frequency Scan
These values are used for only harmonic, frequency scan calculations.
From
Specify the starting frequency in Hz for frequency scan. The default is the system fundamental
frequency.
To
Specify the finishing frequency in Hz for frequency scan. This value should be greater than the From
frequency and is an integer multiplier of the system fundamental frequency.
Step (df)
Specify the frequency step in Hz. This value is the interval between two adjacent frequency points during
a harmonic frequency scan study, and is a positive integer number.
Plot Step
This value determines the resolution of the frequency scan plot. The smaller it is, the smoother the plot
will look, but requires more data to be recorded. The default value for it is 1, which means every point
calculated from the harmonic frequency scan study will be plotted.
Fundamental Loading
In this section, you can specify the system loading conditions for the fundamental load flow calculation.
The fundamental loading conditions will also affect the harmonic load flow and the harmonic frequency
scan calculations.
Loading Category
Select one of the ten loading categories for this study case. With the selection of any category,
PowerStation uses the percent loading of individual motors and other loads as specified for the selected
category. Note that you can assign loading to each one of the ten categories in the Nameplate page,
Loading page, or Rating page for most load components. Harmonic Filter loading is calculated from its
parameters.
Operating Load
Check this option to operate P and Q as specified in the relevant component editors.
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Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor

Charger Loading
Load Category
Select this option to use the P and Q specified in the Loading Category section of the Charger Editor for
chargers.
Operating Load
Select this option to use the P and Q as specified in the Operating Load section of the Charger Editor.
Note that if this option is selected, it is required that a DC load flow calculation is run first in order to
estimate the charger load.
Load Diversity Factor
Apply appropriate load diversity factor(s) for the fundamental load flow as well as harmonic load flow
and frequency scan analysis. The choices are:
None
Select None to use the percent loading of each load as entered for the selected loading category, i.e., no
diversity factor is considered.
Bus Maximum
When the Bus Maximum option is selected, the loading of all motors and other loads will be multiplied
by the maximum diversity factor of the bus, which they are directly connected to. Using this option, you
can define the initial loading for harmonic analysis studies with each bus having a different maximum
diversity factor. This study option is helpful when the future loading of the electrical system has to be
considered.
Bus Minimum
When the Bus Minimum option is selected, the loading of all motors and other loads will be multiplied by
the bus minimum diversity factor of the bus that they are directly connected to. Using this option, you
can define the initial loading for harmonic analysis studies with each bus having a different minimum
diversity factor.

This study option may be useful in some cases where the effect of light loading condition needs to be
investigated.
Global
When this option is selected, PowerStation will ask you to enter global diversity factors for constant kVA
and constant Z loads, respectively. When you select this option, PowerStation will globally multiply all
constant kVA and constant Z loads of the selected loading category with the entered values. Using this
option you can define the initial loading for harmonic analysis studies with fixed diversity factors for all
loads.

Note that a constant kVA load diversity factor of 125% implies that the constant kVA loads of all buses
are increased by 25 percent above their values as specified by the selected loading category. This value
can be smaller or greater than 100 percent.
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Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor

Report
This section allows you to specify report options for Crystal Reports.
VTHD
If this box is checked, a summary of buses whose VTHD (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion) exceeds
the limit will be reported.
VHD
If this box is checked, a summary of buses whose individual VHD (Voltage Harmonic Distortion) for any
harmonic exceeds the limit will be reported.
Filter Overloading
If this box is checked, a summary of overloaded filters will be reported.
Remarks 2
nd
Line
You can enter up to 120 alphanumeric characters in this remark box. Information entered here will be
printed on the second line of every output report page header. These remarks can provide specific
information regarding each study case. Note that the first line of the header information is global for all
study cases and entered in the Project Information Editor.
21.2.2 Model Page
This page is provided for you to choose the modeling methods for different types of components.


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Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor

Skip Harmonic Source
In this section, you can specify globally what types of components you do NOT want to model as
harmonic sources. The results will affect both the harmonic load flow and the harmonic frequency scan
studies. For example, if a type of component is selected to not be modeled as a harmonic source, then all
components of this type will be modeled as impedances with the appropriate values in both the harmonic
load flow and the harmonic frequency scan studies.
Utility
If this box is checked, then all the power grid (utility) components will not contribute harmonics to the
system. This corresponds to the situation where the grid has no or negligible harmonic contamination.
Generator Saturation
If this box is checked, then all synchronous generator components will not be considered as harmonic
sources. This corresponds to the situation that generators are not significantly saturated; thus, they
generate near-ideal sinusoidal voltages.
Transformer Saturation
If this box is checked, then all transformer components, both 2-winding and 3-winding, will not be
considered as harmonic sources. This is true for transformers, which are close to their rated loading
conditions.
Charger/Converter
If this box is checked, then all charger and converter components will not be considered as harmonic
sources.
Inverter
If this box is checked, then all inverter components will not be considered as harmonic sources.
UPS
If this box is checked, then all UPS components will not be considered as harmonic sources.
VFD
If this box is checked, then all VFD components will not be considered as harmonic sources.
Static Load
If this box is checked, then all static load components will not be considered as harmonic sources.
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Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor

21.2.3 Plot Page
Select the components you want to display on the one-line diagram and in plot format. The selections are
applied to both the harmonic load flow and the harmonic frequency scan studies.



Device Type
Select the type of components or devices from the list. Only the components associated with the listed
types can be selected for plotting.
Plot Options
Device ID
This table provides a list of the devices or components for the given Device Type.
Plot/Tabulate Column
You can select a device or component and click next to it under the Plot/Tabulate column. An X will be
placed next to this device or component to include it in the plot list.
Plot/Tabulate
You also can include a device or component in the plot list by first selecting that device or component,
and then checking this box. An X will be placed next to this device or component in the Plot/Tabulate
column.
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Harmonic Analysis Display Options

21.3 Display Options
The Harmonic Analysis Display Options consist of a Results page and three pages for AC, AC-DC, and
DC info annotations. Note that the colors and displayed annotations selected for each study are specific
to that study.
21.3.1 Results Page
Select the result information to be displayed on the one-line diagram.



Color
Select the color for the harmonic analysis result annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
Bus
Select kV or % to display bus voltages in kV or percent of the bus nominal voltage.
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Harmonic Analysis Display Options

Show Units
Click on this check box to include or suppress bus display units.
Flows
Branch Current
Click on this check box to include or suppress one-line displays for branch current and other information
for branches from the harmonic load flow and the harmonic frequency scan calculations.
Show Units
Click on this check box to include or suppress branch display units.
Total Harmonic Info
In this section, you can select specific information to display for buses and branches. The information is
related to the total harmonic distortion, etc.
Bus Voltage
RMS or ASUM
Choose to display the bus total voltage in RMS or ASUM (Arithmetic Summation) including
contributions from the fundamental component and all harmonic components.
THD or TIF
Choose to display the bus voltage THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) or TIF (Telephone Influence Factor).
Branch Current
RMS or ASUM
Choose to display the branch total current in RMS or ASUM, including contributions from the
fundamental component and all harmonic components.
THD or TIF
Choose to display the branch current THD or TIF.
Frequency Scan
This section sets the option for one-line display of the harmonic frequency scan results.
Z Magnitude
Click on this check box to display the bus driving point impedance magnitude.
Z Angle
Click on this check box to display the bus driving point impedance phase angle.
Show Unit
Click on this check box to show units for the bus display from the harmonic frequency scan study.
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Harmonic Analysis Display Options

21.3.2 AC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for AC elements.
Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
ID
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ID of the selected AC elements on the one-line
diagram.
Rating
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ratings of the selected AC elements on the one-
line diagram.

Device Type Rating
Gen. (Generator) kW / MW
Power Grid (Utility) MVAsc
Motor HP / kW
Load kVA / MVA
Panel Connection Type (# of Phases - # of Wires)
Transformer kVA / MVA
Branch, Impedance Base MVA
Branch, Reactor Continuous Amps
Cable / Line # of Cables - # of Conductor / Cable - Size
Bus kA Bracing
Node Bus Bracing (kA)
CB Rated Interrupting (kA)
Fuse Interrupting (ka)
Relay 50/51 for Overcurrent Relays
PT & CT Transformer Rated Turn Ratio
kV
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram.

For cables/lines, the kV check box is replaced by the button. Click on this button to display the
cable/line conductor type on the one-line diagram.
A
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings (continuous or full-load ampere)
of the selected elements on the one-line diagram.

For cables/lines, the Amp check box is replaced by the button. Click on this button to display the
cable/line length on the one-line diagram.
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Harmonic Analysis Display Options

Z
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the impedance values of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram.

Device Type Impedance
Generator Subtransient reactance Xd
Power Grid (Utility) Positive Sequence Impedance in % of 100 MVA (R + j X)
Motor % LRC
Transformer Positive Sequence Impedance (R + j X per unit length)
Branch, Impedance Impedance in ohms or %
Branch, Reactor Impedance in ohms
Cable / Line Positive Sequence Impedance (R + j X in ohms or per unit length)
D-Y
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the connection types of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram.

For transformers, the operating tap setting for primary, secondary, and tertiary windings are also
displayed. The operating tap setting consists of the fixed taps plus the tap position of the LTC.
Composite Motor
Click on this check box to display the AC composite motor IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.
Use Default Options
Click on this check box to use PowerStations default display options.
21.3.3 AC-DC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for AC-DC elements and composite networks.
Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
ID
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the IDs of the selected AC-DC elements on the one-
line diagram.
Rating
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ratings of the selected AC-DC elements on the
one-line diagram.

Device Type Rating
Charger AC kVA & DC kW (or MVA / MW)
Inverter DC kW & AC kVA (or MW / MVA)
UPS kVA
VFD HP / kW

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Harmonic Analysis Display Options

kV
Click on the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram.

A
Click on the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram.

Device Type Amp
Charger AC FLA & DC FLA
Inverter DC FLA & AC FLA
UPS Input, output, & DC FLA
Composite Network
Click on this check box to display the composite network IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.
Use Default Options
Click on this check box to use PowerStations default display options.
21.3.4 DC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for DC elements.
Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.
ID
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the IDs of the selected DC elements on the one-line
diagram.
Rating
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ratings of the selected DC elements on the one-
line diagram.

Device Type Rating
Battery Ampere Hour
Motor HP / kW
Load kW / MW
Elementary Diagram kW / MW
Converter kW / MW
Cable # of Cables - # of Conductor / Cable - Size
kV
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram.

For cables, the kV check box is replaced by the button. Click on this button to display the conductor
type on the one-line diagram.
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Harmonic Analysis Display Options

A
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram.

For cables, the Amp check box is replaced by the button. Click on this button to display the cable
length (one way) on the one-line diagram.
Z
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the impedance values of the cables and impedance
branches on the one-line diagram.
Composite Motor
Click on this check box to display the DC composite motor IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.
Use Default Options
Click on this check box to use PowerStations default display options.


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Harmonic Analysis Calculation Methods
21.4 Calculation Methods
Power system harmonic analysis involves modeling the frequency characteristics of different components
of power systems, computing harmonic indices at given buses and branches, identifying problems
associated with the existing harmonics, and providing an environment to simulate and test any migration
methods. This section briefly discusses these topics and prepares you to use the PowerStation Harmonic
Analysis program to carry on your projects or analyze your systems in the most effective way.
21.4.1 Standard Compliance
PowerStation Harmonic Analysis program fully complies with the latest version of the following
standards:

1. IEEE Standards 519, IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in
Electrical Power Systems
2. IEEE Standards 141, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Power Plants
3. ANSI/IEEE Standard 399, IEEE Recommended Practice for Power System Analysis
21.4.2 Component Modeling
For harmonic analysis, frequency characteristics and the non-linearity of power system components must
be recognized and modeled appropriately. Depending on their nature and behavior, these components are
modeled in very different ways.

Non-linear loads in power systems are essentially either injecting harmonic currents into the system or
applying harmonic voltages at the given points. Therefore, they are conventionally modeled as current
sources and voltage sources with harmonic frequencies. Normal power sources such as power grids or
generators, if they contain harmonic components in their fixed voltages, are modeled as voltage sources
with harmonic frequencies.
Harmonic Current Source
Non-linear loads that can be modeled as a harmonic current source in PowerStation are:

Static Load
UPS
Charger/Converter
VFD
Transformer

Static loads, chargers/converters and VFDs, if they are modeled as a harmonic current source, will inject
harmonic current into the connected buses.

When a saturated transformer contributes significant harmonic current into the system (most likely when
the transformer is lightly loaded), it can also be modeled as a harmonic current source. Harmonic current
source generated by a transformer is normally placed at the primary side; however, if there is a triple n
th

harmonic current specified for a transformer and the transformer winding and ground connections do not
allow the triple n
th
harmonic current to flow in the primary winding, the secondary side and then the
tertiary side will be considered as the location for the harmonic current source.
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Harmonic Analysis Calculation Methods
When a UPS is modeled as a load, it injects harmonic current into the connected bus. On the other hand,
if a UPS is modeled as a branch, then it will inject harmonic current into both the AC input bus and the
AC output bus. As a result, the path from the AC input bus to the AC output bus inside the UPS will be
opened in harmonic load flow calculations.

To model a component as a harmonic current source, go to the Harmonic page of that component and
select an appropriate harmonic current library via the Library button and Harmonic Library Quick Pick
Editor. Magnitudes of harmonic current from a harmonic current source are in percentage of the
component rated fundamental current.
Harmonic Voltage Source
The following components can be modeled as a harmonic voltage source in PowerStation:

Power Grid
Synchronous Generator
Inverter
Charger/Converter
Static Load

Polluted power grids (utilities) or saturated synchronous generators can be modeled as harmonic
voltage sources if they contain significant voltage distortion.

Inverters, chargers/converters, and static loads can also be modeled as harmonic voltage sources if they
primarily cause voltage distortion instead of current distortion.

To model a component as a harmonic voltage source, go to the Harmonic page of that component and
select an appropriate harmonic voltage library via the Library button and Harmonic Library Quick Pick
Editor. Magnitudes of harmonic voltage from a harmonic voltage source are in percentage of the nominal
voltage at the connected bus.
Harmonic Impedance for Rotating Machines
If a rotating machine is not modeled as a harmonic source, its equivalent harmonic impedance is its
negative impedance.
Harmonic Impedance for Load Components
For a load or a shunt component, when it is not modeled as a harmonic source, its equivalent harmonic
impedance is calculated from its fundamental loading using an equivalent parallel R and X circuit.

The reactance part of the harmonic impedance for rotating machines and load components are adjusted
linearly based on the order of harmonic.
Harmonic Impedance for Branch Component
Harmonic impedance of a branch component is computed from the impedance at the fundamental
frequency by considering adjustments due to harmonic frequency. For an impedance branch, the
adjustment is linear and only applies to the reactive part. For cable, transmission line, transformer, and
reactor components, the adjustment applies to both the resistive and reactive parts. This is because of the
skip effect and non-linear change in their reactance under high frequency.
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-22 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Calculation Methods
Zero Sequence Impedance
If the triple n
th
harmonics (3
rd
, 9
th
, etc.) exist in the system, then zero sequence impedance of a component
is used for the calculation. For rotating machines and some of the branch components, if their zero
sequence impedances are specified in their editors, these impedances will be used with the adjustment to
the harmonic frequency. For other components, their equivalent zero sequence impedances are assumed
to be the same as their positive counterpart. It is very important to point out that for rotating machines
(including the utility grid), transformers and harmonic filters, Delta or Wye connections, grounding
methods, and grounding impedances will all affect the triple n
th
harmonic flow in the system.
Harmonic Indices
The effect of harmonics is usually measured in terms of several indices that are defined below. Note that
the definitions are applied to both voltage and current.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), also known as Harmonic Distortion Factor (HDF), is the most popular
index to measure the level of harmonic distortion to voltage and current. It is a measure that shows the
ratio of the mean-square-root of all harmonics to the fundamental component. For an ideal system, THD
is equal to zero. THD is determined by:
1
2
2
F
F
THD
i

=

where F
i
is the amplitude of the i
th
harmonic, and F
1
is that for the fundamental component.
Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD)
Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD) simply calculates the ratio of a given harmonic component to the
fundamental component. This value is sometimes used to track the effect of each individual harmonic
and examine its magnitude. IHD is determined by:

1
F
F
IHD
i
=
Root Mean Square (RMS) - Total
This is the square root of the sum of the squares of the magnitudes of the fundamental plus all harmonics
in the system. For a system with no harmonics at all, the total RMS should be equal to the fundamental
component RMS. The total RMS is determined by:

=
1
2
i
F RMS

Operation Technology, Inc. 21-23 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Calculation Methods
Arithmetic Summation (ASUM)
This is the arithmetic summation of the magnitudes of the fundamental and all harmonics. It adds the
magnitudes of all components directly to have a conservative estimation of the crest value of voltage and
current, and is useful for the evaluation of the maximum withstanding ratings of a device. ASUM is
determined by:

=
1
i
F ASUM
Telephone Influence Factor (TIF)
Telephone Influence Factor (TIF) is a variation of the THD with a different weight given to each of the
harmonics based on its amount of interference to an audio signal in the same frequency range. Normally,
the current TIF has a more significant impact on adjacent communication systems. The TIF is determined
by:
( )
2
1
2
1

=
i
i i
F
F W
TIF

where W
i
is the TIF weighting factor. The values for the weighting factors for different harmonic
frequencies are given in the IEEE Standard 519.

=
1
i
F ASUM
I*T Product (I*T)
I*T Index is a product current components (fundamental and harmonics) and weighting factors, as shown
in the formula below:

=
=
H
h
h h
T I T I
1
2
) (

where I
h
= current component
T
h
= weighting factor
h = harmonic order (h=1 for fundamental)
H = maximum harmonic order to account

Operation Technology, Inc. 21-24 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Calculation Methods
21.4.3 Harmonic Load Flow Study
The Harmonic Load Flow Study first carries out a load flow calculation at the fundamental frequency.
The results of the fundamental load flow sets the base for the fundamental bus voltage and branch
currents which are used later to calculate different harmonic indices. Then, for each harmonic frequency
at which any harmonic source exists in the system, a direct load flow solution is found by using the
current injection method. The harmonic frequencies considered are all the low order frequencies from the
2
nd
to the 15
th
, plus the characteristic harmonics from the 17
th
up to the 73
rd
. Impedance of components is
adjusted based on the harmonic frequencies and the types of components. For a triplen harmonic
frequency, a zero sequence impedance is adjusted to the actual frequency and the zero sequence network
is used.

From the harmonic load flow calculation, the harmonic components for bus voltages and branch currents
are found, and then all harmonic indices are computed accordingly. The computed bus THD and IHDs
are compared with their limits as specified by the user in the Bus Editor and, if any violations are
detected, flags are placed in the text report next to the associated bus in the Harmonic Information
section.

The harmonic load flow study generates text output reports showing the system input data, fundamental
load flow results, system harmonic information, and tabulation of bus voltages and branch currents with
all harmonic contents. These results can also be viewed directly from the one-line diagram using the
Harmonic Load Flow Slider and the Harmonic Display Options Editor. Along with the text report and
one-line display, bus voltage and branch current plots are also available to show both voltage and current
waveforms in time domain and the harmonic spectrums in a bar chart.
21.4.4 Harmonic Frequency Scan Study
One particular concern with harmonics is the resonance condition in the power system. Because of the
existence of both inductive components and capacitive components in the system, at certain frequencies,
resonance conditions might occur at some buses. If the resonance occurs at a bus where a harmonic
current is injected into the system, an overvoltage and overcurrent condition will be observed.

The PowerStation Frequency Scan program is the best tool to investigate the system resonance problem.
It calculates and plots the magnitudes and phase angles of bus driving point impedance over a frequency
range specified by the user; thus, any parallel resonance condition and its triggering frequency can be
clearly identified. The harmonic frequency scan study also allows users to tune their harmonic filter
parameters and test the final results.

The frequency range for scanning is defined by the user, which starts from the fundamental frequency and
can go as high as the user needs.

The results from the frequency scan study are reported in a text report which includes the system input
data, the fundamental load flow results, and a tabulation listing bus driving point impedances. The same
tabulated information is also given on the one-line diagram, as well as in a plot format.
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-25 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Calculation Methods
21.4.5 Harmonic Filter
Harmonic filters are extensively used to mitigate harmonic problems. A properly designed harmonic
filter can prevent the harmonic current from injecting into the system, or it can provide a low impedance
path at the tuned frequency to remove a parallel resonance.

The PowerStation Harmonic Filter Editor provides all the practical and popular filter structures for you to
choose from. A Filter Sizing program is also available in this editor for the Single Tuned filter type, with
which users can optimize the filter parameters based on different installation or operation criteria.

Harmonic filter loading is usually a concern in practical application. Two loading conditions are to be
checked: capacitor Max. kV and inductor Max. I, both of those values are specified in the Harmonic
Filter Editor, Parameter page. The capacitor Max. kV is a peak value, calculated by considering voltage
drop across the capacitor, and the inductor Max. I is an rms value, calculated by considering current flow
through the inductor. Note that in calculating these values, all voltage and current components including
fundamental and harmonics are included. If Filter Overloading, check box in the Harmonic Analysis
Study Case Editor. If Info page is checked, comparisons will be made between the calculated values and
the specified values by Harmonic Load Flow study. Percentage of overloading will then be computed and
reported in the Filter Overloading report.
21.4.6 Transformer Phase Shift
Properly configuring transformer phase-shift can be helpful for cancellation of certain harmonics, thus
improving system power quality.

ETAP PowerStation Harmonic Analysis program uses transformer phase-shift to adjust network
impedance phase angle in the Harmonic Load Flow study. Transformer phase-shift is specified in the
Transformer Editor Tap page based on transformer connection convention, namely Standard Positive
Sequence connection and Standard Negative Sequence connection. In addition, a user also can specify
Special phase-shift for a transformer.
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-26 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Required Data

21.5 Required Data
To run a harmonic analysis study, you need to provide all the data required for load flow and short-circuit
calculations. In addition to that, you need to provide some harmonic related data, such as harmonic
sources, modeling methods, and filters. A summary of these data for different types of components is
given in this section. Note that except for the harmonic library information, which is required only for the
harmonic load flow study, all other data are mandatory for both the harmonic load flow and the harmonic
frequency scan studies.
Bus Data
Bus ID
Nominal kV
Load Diversity Factor (when Loading is set to Maximum or Minimum Diversity Factor)
Harmonic Limit Category
VTHD (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion) Limit
VIHD (Voltage Individual Harmonic Distortion) Limit
Branch Data
2-Winding & 3-Winding Transformers
Transformer ID
Bus Connections
Rated kV & MVA
Positive & Zero Sequence Impedance & X/R Ratios
Impedance Tolerance
Tap & LTC Settings
Winding Connections for all Windings
Phase Shift as in Standard Positive or Negative Sequence connections, or Special configurations
Grounding Type & Parameters for all Windings
Harmonic Library Information, if any
Cable/Transmission Line
Cable or Transmission Line ID
Bus Connections
Conductor Type, Size, Rated kV, # of Conductors per Phase, & Length
Use Library Data or Enter Cable Resistance, Reactance, & Susceptance Values, Both Positive & Zero
Sequence Values Required
Impedance
Impedance ID
Bus Connections
Resistance, Reactance, & Susceptance Values, Both Positive & Zero Sequence Values Required
Current-Limiting Reactor
Current-Limiting Reactor ID
Bus Connections
X/R ratio & Impedance, Both Positive & Zero Sequences Values Required
Impedance Tolerance
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-27 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Required Data

Machine Data
Power Grid (Utility) Data
Power Grid (Utility) ID
Bus Connection
Operating Mode (Swing, Voltage Control, or Mvar Control)
Nominal kV
%V & Vangle for Swing Mode
%V, MW Loading, & Mvar Limits (Qmax & Qmin) for Voltage Control Mode
MW & Mvar Loading for Mvar Control Mode
3-Phase MVAsc & X/R Values or Positive Sequence %R & %X
1-Phase MVAsc & X/R Values or Zero Sequence %R & %X
Grounding Connection
Grounding Type
Harmonic Library Information, if any
Synchronous Generator Data
Synchronous Generator ID
Bus Connection
Operating Mode (Swing, Voltage Control, or Mvar Control)
Rated kV
%V & Vangle for Swing Mode of Operation
%V, MW loading, & Mvar Limits (Qmax & Qmin) for Voltage Control Mode of Operation
MW & Mvar Loading for Mvar Control Mode of Operation
Rated MVA
Harmonic Z (X2)
Zero Sequence Impedance
X/R Ratio
Winding Connection
Grounding Type & Parameters
Harmonic Library Information, if any
Synchronous Motor Data
Synchronous Motor ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kW/hp & kV
Power Factors & Efficiencies at 100%, 75%, & 50% Loadings
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
Harmonic Z (X2)
Zero Sequence Impedance
X/R Ratio
Winding Connection
Grounding Type & Parameters
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-28 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Required Data

Induction Machine Data
Induction Machine (Motor or Generator) ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kW/hp & kV
Power Factors & Efficiencies at 100%, 75%, & 50% Loadings
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
Negative Impedance X2
Zero Sequence Impedance
X/R Ratio
Winding Connection
Grounding Type & Parameters
MOV Data
MOV ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Initial Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kW/hp & kV
Power Factor & Efficiency
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
Load Data
Static Load Data
Static Load ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kVA/MVA & kV
Power Factor
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
Grounding Connection/Type
Harmonic Library Information, if any
Lumped Load Data
Lumped Load ID
Bus Connection
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kVA/MVA & kV
Power Factor
% Motor Load & % Static Load
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Grounding Connection/Type

Operation Technology, Inc. 21-29 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Required Data

Capacitor Data
Capacitor ID
Bus Connection
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kV
Mvar/Band & # of Banks
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
Grounding Connection/Type
Harmonic Filter Data
Harmonic Filter ID
Filter Type
Rated kV & 3-Phase kvar for Capacitors
Xl & Q for Reactors
R, if applicable
Grounding Connection/Type
UPS Data
UPS ID
Bus Connection
AC Connections
Rated kW/MW & kV
AC Input & Output Rated kV
Power Factor and Efficiency
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Harmonic Library Information, if any
VFD Data
VFD ID
Bus & Motor Connection
Harmonic Library Information, if any
Charger Data
Charger ID
Bus Connections
Status & Associated Demand Factor
AC Ratings
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Harmonic Library Information, if any
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-30 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Required Data

Inverter Data
Device ID
Bus Connection
AC Rating
AC Output Voltage in %
Harmonic Library Information, if any
Study Case Parameters
Study Case ID
Max. Number of Iterations
Precision
Acceleration Factor
From Frequency (for Harmonic Frequency Scan)
To Frequency (for Harmonic Frequency Scan)
Step (for Harmonic Frequency Scan)
Plot Step (for Harmonic Frequency Scan)
Fundamental Loading Category
Fundamental Loading Condition (Loading Category, Operating Load)
Load Diversity Factor (None, Bus Maximum, Bus Mininum, or Global)
Charger Loading Option (Loading Category, Operating Load)
Report Option (for Crystal Reports)
All Options in Model Page
Buses & Branches to be Plotted
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-31 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

21.6 Output Reports
Output reports for harmonic analysis studies are available in different levels and are arranged into three
formats: text output reports, one-line diagram displays, and plots.
21.6.1 View from Study Case Toolbar
This is a shortcut for the Report Manager. When you click on the View Output Report button,
PowerStation automatically opens the output report listed in the Study Case Toolbar with the selected
format. In the picture shown below, the output report name is Harm-LF and the selected output report
format is TextRept.


21.6.2 Harmonic Analysis Report Manager
Click on the View Output File button on the Harmonic Analysis Toolbar to open the Harmonic Analysis
Report Manager. The Harmonic Analysis Report Manager consists of four pages.
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-32 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

Complete Page
From this page you can select the report format that gives you the complete output report. Both TextRept
in ASCII format and Complete in Crystal Reports are available.


Input Page
This page provides the formats for different input data. The following formats are available:

Branch
Bus
Cable
Complete
Cover
Filter
HA Source
Harmonic Library
Harmonic Source
Impedance
Line
Machine
Reactor
Results
Transformer
UPS

Operation Technology, Inc. 21-33 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports


Result Page
This page provides the formats for different calculation results. The following two formats are available:

Load Flow Report
Results

Operation Technology, Inc. 21-34 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

Summary Page
This page provides the formats for different summaries from both input data and calculation results. The
following four formats are available:

Filter Overloading
Summary
VIHD Report
VTHD Report




Operation Technology, Inc. 21-35 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

21.6.3 Harmonic Load Flow Text Report
If the last study you have run is the harmonic load flow, or you have selected the output file extension
.har, then by clicking on the View Output Report button on the Study Case Toolbar or by selecting the
TextRept format from the Harmonic Analysis Report Manager, you will be able to open and view the text
output report for the harmonic load flow study.



The harmonic load flow study text report contains the following major sections:
Cover Page
This is the first page of the harmonic load flow study text report. It includes the information from a
number of different types of buses, branches, system frequency, unit system, project file name, and the
output file name and its location.

HARMONIC ANALYSIS
=================
Harmonic Load Flow
SWING GEN. LOAD TOTAL
===== ===== ===== =====
Number of Buses: 1 1 8 10
2XFRM 3XFRM REACT. CALBE LINE IMP. C.B. UPS TOTAL
===== ===== ====== ===== ==== ===== ==== === =====
Number of Branches: 4 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 8
System Frequency: 60.0 Hz
Unit System: English
Data File Name: Example
Output File Name: E:\TEMP\EXAMPLE\HarmLF.har
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-36 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

Bus Input Data
This section reports the input data related to system buses, including their ID, type, nominal kV,
description, initial voltage, generation and/or loading, and voltage harmonic distortion limit for both total
and individual harmonics.

Bus Information & Nominal kV Ini Voltage Generation Motor Load Static Load Mvar Limits % VHD Limits
============================================= ============ ============= ============= ============= ============ ============
ID Type kV Description % Mag. Ang. MW Mvar MW Mvar MW Mvar Max. Min. Total Single
------------ ---- ------ -------------------- ------ ----- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ----- ------
Bus1 Load 0.480 100.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.5 1.5
Bus2 Load 0.480 100.0 0.000 0.647 0.370 0.000 0.000 2.5 1.5
Bus3 Load 13.800 101.5 -1.232 3.239 1.355 0.000 0.000 2.5 1.5
LVBus Load 0.480 97.1 -3.491 0.426 0.114 0.391 0.207 2.5 1.5
Main Bus SWNG 34.500 100.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.5 1.5
MCC1 Load 0.480 97.9 -3.063 0.421 0.190 0.200 0.000 2.5 1.5
Sub2A Load 13.800 101.5 -1.207 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.5 1.5
Sub2B Gen. 13.800 100.0 1.431 6.300 0.000 0.998 -0.616 0.000 0.000 4.650 -2.000 2.5 1.5
Sub 3 Load 4.160 99.8 -0.476 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.450 2.5 1.5
Sub3 Swgr Load 4.160 99.6 -0.501 0.396 0.193 0.000 0.000 2.5 1.5
--------------------------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
10 Buses Total 6.300 6.127 1.606 0.591 -0.243
Machine Data
This section reports the input data related to system machines, which include power grid (utility),
synchronous generator, synchronous motor, and induction machine. The input data reported are machine
connected bus ID, machine ID and type, machine rating in MVA, kV and RPM, machine negative and
zero sequence impedance, and machine winding connection and grounding.

Conned Bus Machine Info. Rating (Base) Negative Seq. Imp. Grounding Zero Seq. Imp.
============ ================= ==================== ==================== ================== =====================
Bus ID Machine ID Type MVA kV RPM X/R % R % X2 Conn. Type Amp X/R % Ro % Xo
------------ ------------ ---- ------- ------ ----- ----- ------ ------- ----- ----- ------ ----- ------- -------
Main Bus Utility Uty. 2500.000 34.50 0. 45.00 2.222 99.98 Wye Solid 45.00 0.764 34.37
Sub 2B Gen1 Gen. 8.824 13.80 1800. 48.00 0.250 12.00 Wye Solid 48.00 0.250 12.00
Bus3 Syn4 SynM 2.982 13.20 1800. 46.07 0.334 15.38 Wye Open
LVBus Syn2 SynM 0.134 0.46 1800. 9.54 2.097 20.00 Wye Open
Sub 2B Syn1 SynM 1.170 13.20 1800. 27.53 0.559 15.38 Wye Open
Bus3 Mtr2 IndM 0.660 13.20 1800. 6.34 3.830 18.50 Wye Open
MCC1 Mtr6 IndM 0.107 0.46 1800. 6.03 3.315 20.00 Wye Open
MCC1 Mtr4 IndM 0.110 0.46 1800. 8.71 2.297 20.00 Wye Open
MCC1 Mtr3 IndM 0.199 0.46 1800. 6.74 2.965 20.00 Wye Open
MCC1 Mtr5 IndM 0.045 0.46 1800. 5.51 3.632 20.00 Wye Open
Sub3 Swgr Pump 1 IndM 0.440 4.00 1800. 6.27 3.830 18.46 Wye Open
Branch Input Data
This section reports the input data related to system branches, which include cables, transmission lines,
impedances, reactors, 2-winding and 3-winding transformers. The input data reported are branch ID,
library information (if any), positive and zero sequence impedances and shunt susceptances in both ohms
and 100 MVA base.

CKT / Branch Ohms/1000 ft per Conductor (Cable) or per Phase (Line) Impedance
============ ===================================================================== =================================
ID Library Size L(ft) #/ T C R1 X1 Y1 Ro Xo MVAb % R1 % X1 % Y1
------------ -------- ---- ------ --- ---- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ----- ------- ------- -----------
Cable2 5MCUS3 4/0 250. 1 0 0.0650 0.0446 0.00000 0.2048 0.1097 100.0 9.39 6.44 0.0000000
Cable11 15MCUS1 350 1350. 2 0 0.0386 0.0562 0.00000 0.1216 0.1382 100.0 1.37 1.99 0.0000000
Cable14 1MCUN3 250 100. 2 0 0.0552 0.0379 0.00000 0.1739 0.0932 100.0 119.79 82.25 0.0000000
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-37 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

If the branch is a transformer, then its tap setting, LTC information (if any), winding connection, and
grounding type are also reported.

CKT / Branch Transformer %Tap Setting XFRM Grounding Imped.
============ ======================================= ============= ==================== ======
ID MVA kV kV % Z X/R From To Conn. Type Amp % Tol.
------------ ------- ------ ------ ------- ----- ------ ------ ----- ----- ------ ------
T2 10.000 34.500 13.800 6.900 23.0 -2.500 0.000 D-Y Solid 0.00
T3 1.000 4.160 0.480 6.500 18.0 0.000 0.000 D-Y Restr 10.0 0.00
T4 1.500 4.160 0.480 5.750 7.1 0.000 0.000 D-Y Solid 0.00
XFMR 3 1.000 4.160 0.480 7.200 28.0 0.000 0.000 D-Y Restr 20.0 0.00
Branch Connection
This section reports branch connection information for all branches in the system. It shows the branch
ID, from which bus and to which bus it is connected, and positive sequence impedance converted to the
system base.

CKT / Branch Connected Bus ID %Impedance (100 MVA Base)
======================== ========================== =========================
ID Type From To R X Z
------------ ---------- ------------ ------------ ------- ------- -------
Cable2 Cable Sub 3 Sub3 Swgr 9.4 6.4 11.4
Cable11 Cable Sub 2A Bus3 1.4 2.0 2.4
Cable14 Cable Bus1 Bus2 119.8 82.2 145.3
T2 2W Xfmr Main Bus Sub 2A 2.9 67.2 67.3
T3 2W Xfmr Sub3 Swgr LVBus 36.1 649.0 650.0
T4 2W Xfmr Sub 3 Bus1 53.5 379.6 383.3
XFMR 3 2W Xfmr Sub3 Swgr MCC1 25.7 719.5 720.0
T1 3W XFMR Main Bus Sub 2B 1.2 48.0 48.0
Main Bus Sub 3 1.2 48.7 48.7
Sub 2B Sub 3 324.1 3383.4 3398.9
Harmonic Library Data
This section lists harmonic library data, including all harmonic libraries used in the current study with
their model ID and manufacturer ID, harmonic spectrum up to 73
rd
harmonic in % of the device rated
current. Note that each harmonic library can be used by multiple devices; however, each library will be
reported only once.

Device % Harmonic Source Current
========================= =====================================================================================================
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 23
Manufacturer Model 25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 53 55 59 61 65 67 71 73
------------ ------------ ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Harmonic 12 Pulse1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.10 0.00 7.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.30
4.00 0.00 0.00 3.90 2.70 0.00 0.00 2.10 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Harmonic 6 Pulse1 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 14.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.10 0.00 7.70 0.00 0.00 5.90 5.30 4.30
4.00 3.40 3.20 2.80 2.70 2.40 2.30 2.10 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Harmonic Source Data
This section lists harmonic sources existing in the system, including bus ID, where the source is
connected to, source type, and reference to the harmonic library.

Connected Bus Harmonic Library Info
============= =====================================
ID Type Manufacturer Model
------------ --------- ------------ ------------
Bus2 Current Harmonic 12 Pulse1
Bus2 Current Harmonic 6 Pulse1
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-38 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

Fundamental Load Flow Report
This section reports the fundamental load flow. The fundamental load flow establishes a base for all bus
voltages and branch currents, which are later used for calculating harmonic voltage, current percentages,
and other harmonic indices. The format of the fundamental harmonic load flow report is identical to that
of the regular load flow report.

Bus Information & Nom kV Voltage Generation Motor Load Static Load Load Flow XFRM
======================== =========== ============ ============ ============ ====================================== =====
ID Type kV % Mag. Ang. MW Mvar MW Mvar MW Mvar To Bus ID MW Mvar Amp %PF % Tap
------------ ---- ----- ------ ---- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ------------ ----- ----- ---- ----- -----
Bus1 Load 0.48 97.77 -2.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Bus2 0.65 0.38 928 86.7
Sub 3 -0.65 -0.38 928 86.7
Bus2 Load 0.48 96.65 -2.1 0.00 0.00 0.65 0.37 0.00 0.00 Bus1 -0.65 -0.37 928 86.8
Bus3 Load 13.80 101.45 28.8 0.00 0.00 3.24 1.35 0.00 0.00 Sub2A -3.24 -1.35 144 92.3
LVBus Load 0.48 96.89 -3.7 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.11 0.37 0.19 Sub3 Swgr -0.79 -0.31 1056 93.2
*Main Bus Swng 34.50 100.00 0.0 0.41 2.39 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Sub2A 3.25 1.44 59 91.4 -2.500
Sub2B -2.83 0.95 49 -94.8
& Sub 3
MCC1 Load 0.48 97.73 -3.2 0.00 0.00 0.42 0.19 0.19 0.00 Sub3 Swgr -0.61 -0.19 788 95.5
Sub2A Load 13.80 101.52 28.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Bus3 3.24 1.36 144 92.3
Main Bus -3.24 -1.36 144 92.3
*Sub2B Gen. 13.80 100.00 1.4 6.30 -0.68 1.00 -0.62 0.00 0.00 Sub 3 5.30 -0.06 221-100.0
& Main Bus
Sub 3 Load 4.16 99.61-30.7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.45 Sub3 Swgr 1.81 0.78 274 91.9
Bus1 0.66 0.40 107 85.6
Main Bus -2.47 -0.73 358 95.9
& Sub2B
Sub3 Swgr Load 4.16 99.39-30.7 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.19 0.00 0.00 Sub 3 -1.80 -0.77 274 91.9
LVBus 0.80 0.36 121 91.1
MCC1 0.61 0.22 90 94.1
Harmonic Information Report
Following the fundamental load flow section, system harmonic information is reported. This section has
three parts. In the Bus Info. & Rated kV part, the bus ID and its nominal voltage are reported. In the
Voltage Distortion part, the fundamental bus voltage value, RMS value, ASUM value, THD value, and
TIF value are reported. The fundamental voltage value, RMS value, and ASUM value are all on the base
of nominal voltage of bus. The Current Distortion part shows the connected bus ID, fundamental current
value, RMS value, ASUM value, THD value, TIF value, and I*T value. The fundamental current value,
RMS value, and ASUM value are all in amperes. Also, in this section of the report, a * sign will be
placed next to the bus if its total harmonic voltage distortion exceeds the limit, and a # sign will be
placed next to the bus whose individual harmonic voltage distortion exceeds the limit.
Bus Info. & Rated kV Voltage Distortion Current Distortion
==================== ===================================== ================================================================
ID kV Fund(%) RMS(%) ASUM(%) THD(%) TIF To Bus ID Fund.(A) RMS(A) ASUM(A) THD(%) TIF IT
------------ ------ ------- ------ ------- ------ ------- ------------ -------- -------- -------- ------ ------- --------
* # Bus1 0.48 97.77 98.12 130.36 8.51 571.16 Bus2 928.07 944.70 1425.02 19.01 480.44 0.45E+06
Sub 3 928.07 944.70 1425.02 19.01 480.44 0.45E+06
* # Bus2 0.48 96.65 97.10 133.21 9.69 633.31 Bus1 928.07 944.70 1425.02 19.01 480.44 0.45E+06
Bus3 13.80 101.46 101.46 101.75 0.10 5.21 Sub2A 144.68 144.68 144.68 0.00 0.50 0.72E+02
LVBus 0.48 96.89 96.89 99.96 1.07 53.85 Sub3 Swgr 1056.39 1056.43 1082.37 0.83 41.46 0.44E+05
Main Bus 34.50 100.00 100.00 100.35 0.11 6.19 Sub2A 59.37 59.37 59.37 0.00 0.50 0.30E+02
Sub2B 49.99 49.99 49.99 0.00 0.50 0.25E+02
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-39 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

Sub 3
MCC1 0.48 97.73 97.74 101.42 1.26 67.08 Sub3 Swgr 788.25 788.26 800.39 0.51 23.82 0.19E+05
Sub2A 13.80 101.53 101.53 101.82 0.10 5.23 Bus3 144.68 144.68 144.68 0.00 0.50 0.72E+02
Main Bus 144.72 144.72 144.72 0.05 0.50 0.72E+02
Sub2B 13.80 100.00 100.00 100.29 0.09 5.18 Main Bus 221.84 221.84 221.84 0.00 0.50 0.11E+03
Sub 3
Sub 3 4.16 99.61 99.62 104.28 1.54 83.61 Sub3 Swgr 274.13 274.13 279.28 0.63 30.12 0.83E+04
Bus1 107.09 109.00 164.43 19.01 480.44 0.52E+05
Main Bus 358.17 358.17 358.17 0.00 0.50 0.18E+03
Sub2B
Sub3 Swgr 4.16 99.39 99.40 104.02 1.54 83.22 Sub 3 274.13 274.13 279.28 0.63 30.12 0.83E+04
LVBus 121.89 121.90 124.87 0.83 41.44 0.51E+04
MCC1 90.95 90.95 92.32 0.50 23.72 0.22E+04
* - THD ( Total Harmonic Distortion exceeds the limit)
# - IHD (Individual Harmonic Distortion exceeds the limit)
Bus Tabulation
In the Bus Tabulation section, the bus ID, fundamental kV, and voltage harmonics up to the 73
rd
harmonic
in percent of fundamental voltage are reported. Note that only the buses that are selected for plotting in
the Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor are tabulated.

Bus Harmonic Voltages (% of fundamental voltage)
===================== =====================================================================================================
ID Fund. kV 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 23
25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 53 55 59 61 65 67 71 73
------------ -------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Bus1 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.10 0.00 1.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.93 0.00 2.81 0.00 0.00 1.26 1.39 1.31
1.09 0.92 0.95 1.96 1.46 0.97 0.98 2.42 2.55 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Bus2 0.46 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.30 0.00 1.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.40 0.00 3.23 0.00 0.00 1.42 1.54 1.45
1.23 1.04 1.06 2.16 1.60 1.06 1.06 2.61 2.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
LVBus 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.28 0.35
0.16 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
MCC1 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.38 0.00 0.00 0.24 0.36 0.49
0.24 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Sub 3 4.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.29 0.44 0.62
0.30 0.11 0.08 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

For your convenience, the bus voltage harmonics converted to the bus nominal voltage are also tabulated.

Bus Harmonic Voltages (% of nominal voltage)
===================== =====================================================================================================
ID Nom. kV 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 23
25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 53 55 59 61 65 67 71 73
------------ -------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Bus1 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.07 0.00 1.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.87 0.00 2.74 0.00 0.00 1.24 1.36 1.28
1.07 0.90 0.93 1.92 1.43 0.95 0.96 2.37 2.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Bus2 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.26 0.00 1.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.29 0.00 3.12 0.00 0.00 1.38 1.49 1.40
1.19 1.00 1.02 2.09 1.55 1.02 1.03 2.52 2.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
LVBus 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.27 0.34
0.16 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
MCC1 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.24 0.35 0.48
0.23 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Sub 3 4.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.29 0.44 0.61
0.30 0.11 0.08 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-40 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

Branch Tabulation
In this section, branch currents are tabulated on 1 MVA base for harmonics up to the 73
rd
harmonic. Note
that only the branches that are selected for plotting in the Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor are
tabulated.
Branch % Harmonic Current Contents in 1 MVA Base
============ =====================================================================================================
ID 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 23
25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 53 55 59 61 65 67 71 73
------------ ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Cable2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44 0.00 0.44 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.35 0.44
0.20 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cable11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cable14 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.90 0.00 3.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.60 0.00 4.37 0.00 0.00 1.32 1.12 1.25
1.03 0.68 0.62 1.06 0.72 0.41 0.38 0.81 0.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.27 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.22 0.28
0.13 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T4 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.90 0.00 3.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.60 0.00 4.37 0.00 0.00 1.32 1.12 1.25
1.03 0.68 0.62 1.06 0.72 0.41 0.38 0.81 0.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
XFMR 3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.08 0.11
0.05 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

For your convenience, the branch currents are also tabulated on the base of fundamental current.

Branch % Harmonic Currents (% of fundamental current)
==================== =====================================================================================================
ID Fund(A) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 23
25 29 31 35 37 41 43 47 49 53 55 59 61 65 67 71 73
------------ ------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Cable2 274. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.18 0.22
0.10 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cable11 145. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cable14 928. 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.35 0.00 4.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.26 0.00 5.67 0.00 0.00 1.71 1.46 1.62
1.33 0.88 0.81 1.37 0.94 0.53 0.49 1.05 1.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T2 59. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T3 122. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.18 0.26 0.31
0.15 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T4 107. 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.35 0.00 4.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.26 0.00 5.67 0.00 0.00 1.71 1.46 1.62
1.33 0.88 0.81 1.37 0.94 0.53 0.49 1.05 1.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
XFMR 3 91. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.13 0.17
0.08 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
21.6.4 Harmonic Frequency Scan Report
If the last study you have run is the harmonic frequency scan, or you have selected the output file
extension .fsr, then by clicking on the View Output Report button on the Study Case Toolbar or selecting
the TextRept format from the Harmonic Analysis Report Manager, you will be able to open and view the
text output report for the harmonic frequency scan study.

The harmonic frequency scan text report shares the same sections for Summary Page, Bus Input Data,
Machine Data, Branch Input Data, Branch Connection, and Fundamental Load Flow Report with the
harmonic load flow text report. It does not have Harmonic Library Data and Harmonic Source Data,
since the harmonic frequency scan does not actually use any harmonic source information.
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-41 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Output Reports

Frequency Scan
This section reports the driving point impedance, and its magnitude and phase angle, at each frequency
specified in the Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor. Note that only the buses that are selected for
plotting are tabulated.

Bus1 Bus2 LVBus MCC1 Sub 3
------ ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- ------------------- -------------------
Freq Mag. Angle Mag. Angle Mag. Angle Mag. Angle Mag. Angle
(Hz) (ohm) (rad) (ohm) (rad) (ohm) (rad) (ohm) (rad) (ohm) (rad)
------ --------- -------- --------- -------- --------- -------- --------- -------- --------- --------
60 0.01 1.43 0.01 1.23 0.02 1.45 0.02 1.49 0.09 1.54
120 0.02 1.45 0.02 1.33 0.03 1.41 0.03 1.50 0.18 1.54
180 0.03 1.43 0.04 1.35 0.05 1.35 0.04 1.49 0.27 1.53
240 0.04 1.40 0.05 1.34 0.06 1.30 0.06 1.48 0.36 1.52
300 0.05 1.37 0.06 1.32 0.08 1.24 0.07 1.46 0.46 1.51
360 0.06 1.34 0.07 1.30 0.09 1.18 0.09 1.45 0.57 1.50
420 0.07 1.31 0.08 1.28 0.10 1.12 0.10 1.43 0.68 1.49
480 0.08 1.28 0.09 1.25 0.11 1.07 0.12 1.41 0.81 1.48
540 0.09 1.25 0.11 1.23 0.12 1.02 0.13 1.39 0.95 1.47
600 0.10 1.21 0.12 1.20 0.13 0.97 0.15 1.37 1.10 1.45
660 0.11 1.18 0.13 1.17 0.14 0.92 0.16 1.35 1.29 1.43
720 0.13 1.15 0.14 1.14 0.15 0.87 0.18 1.33 1.50 1.41
780 0.14 1.12 0.16 1.11 0.16 0.83 0.20 1.31 1.76 1.39
840 0.15 1.09 0.17 1.08 0.17 0.79 0.21 1.29 2.08 1.36
900 0.16 1.05 0.18 1.05 0.18 0.74 0.23 1.27 2.49 1.32
960 0.18 1.02 0.20 1.02 0.18 0.70 0.24 1.24 3.03 1.27
1020 0.20 0.97 0.22 0.98 0.19 0.65 0.26 1.21 3.76 1.20
1080 0.22 0.92 0.24 0.93 0.20 0.60 0.28 1.17 4.83 1.10
1140 0.24 0.84 0.26 0.85 0.20 0.53 0.30 1.11 6.43 0.93
1200 0.27 0.71 0.29 0.72 0.20 0.44 0.31 1.01 8.74 0.63
1260 0.27 0.50 0.29 0.53 0.18 0.37 0.30 0.90 10.87 0.15
1320 0.23 0.36 0.24 0.42 0.16 0.43 0.27 0.89 10.30 -0.39
1380 0.20 0.42 0.21 0.49 0.17 0.52 0.26 1.00 8.10 -0.77
1440 0.19 0.52 0.21 0.59 0.18 0.55 0.27 1.06 6.27 -0.99
1500 0.20 0.59 0.22 0.64 0.18 0.54 0.29 1.09 5.04 -1.12
1560 0.21 0.62 0.24 0.66 0.19 0.53 0.31 1.09 4.19 -1.20
1620 0.23 0.63 0.25 0.67 0.20 0.51 0.32 1.08 3.59 -1.26
1680 0.24 0.63 0.26 0.67 0.20 0.50 0.34 1.08 3.14 -1.30
1740 0.25 0.62 0.28 0.66 0.20 0.48 0.35 1.06 2.80 -1.34
1800 0.26 0.61 0.29 0.65 0.21 0.46 0.36 1.05 2.52 -1.36
1860 0.27 0.60 0.30 0.63 0.21 0.45 0.38 1.04 2.30 -1.38
1920 0.28 0.59 0.31 0.62 0.21 0.43 0.39 1.03 2.12 -1.40
1980 0.29 0.58 0.32 0.60 0.21 0.42 0.40 1.01 1.97 -1.41
2040 0.30 0.56 0.33 0.59 0.22 0.40 0.41 1.00 1.84 -1.42
2100 0.31 0.55 0.34 0.57 0.22 0.39 0.42 0.99 1.72 -1.44
2160 0.32 0.54 0.35 0.56 0.22 0.38 0.43 0.97 1.63 -1.44
2220 0.33 0.52 0.36 0.54 0.22 0.37 0.44 0.96 1.54 -1.45
2280 0.34 0.51 0.37 0.53 0.22 0.36 0.45 0.95 1.46 -1.46
2340 0.35 0.50 0.38 0.51 0.22 0.34 0.46 0.93 1.39 -1.46
2400 0.36 0.48 0.39 0.50 0.23 0.33 0.47 0.92 1.33 -1.47
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-42 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

21.7 One-Line Diagram Displayed Results
The one-line diagram displays the study results after the current calculation is complete. Based on the
study type and selected options from the Display Options, different results are displayed.
21.7.1 Harmonic Load Flow Display
By using the Harmonic Load Flow Slider and the Harmonic Analysis Display Options Editor, you can
choose different results to be displayed on the one-line diagram for the harmonic load flow analysis study.
Harmonic Load Flow Slider
The Harmonic Load Flow Slider is located on the top of the PowerStation window. To make it visible,
you need to select the Harmonic Load Flow Slider option. This slider has three sections. They are Total,
1 (fundamental frequency), and h (a harmonic order from 2 to 73). To set the slider to different positions,
put your mouse pointer on top of the indicator, hold the left mouse button down, then drag it to the
desired location on the slider.
Total



At this position, harmonic information of buses and branches is displayed. The information displayed is:

Bus Voltage RMS or ASUM Bus Voltage THD or TIF
Branch Current RMS or ASUM
Branch Current THD or TIF
1 (Fundamental Frequency)



At this position, the fundamental load flow results are displayed. The information displayed is:

Bus Voltage Magnitude in kV or in Percent
Bus Voltage Phase Angle in Degree
Branch Current in Amperes
Branch Current in Percent of Fundamental Current Base
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-43 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

Harmonic Order n (n from 2 to 73)



At this position, the bus voltages and branch currents for the given harmonic order are displayed. The
information displayed is:

Bus Voltage Magnitude in kV or in Percent
Bus Voltage in Percent of the Fundamental Voltage
Branch Current in Amperes
Branch Current in Percent of the Fundamental Current Base

The following screen capture shows a one-line diagram display with the slide position at Total.


Operation Technology, Inc. 21-44 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

21.7.2 Harmonic Frequency Display
By using the Harmonic Frequency Scan Slider and the Harmonic Analysis Display Options Editor, you
can choose different results to display on the one-line diagram for the harmonic frequency scan analysis
study.
Harmonic Frequency Scan Slider
The Harmonic Frequency Scan Slider is located on the top of the PowerStation window. To make it
visible, you need to check the Harmonic Frequency Scan Slider option. This slider goes from the From
frequency to the To frequency with the Plot Step specified by the user. The values of From frequency, To
frequency, and Plot Step are all specified in the Harmonic Analysis Study Case Editor. You can use the
same technique as described for the Harmonic Load Flow Slider to move the pointer to any frequency and
see the one-line diagram display changes.



The Harmonic Frequency Scan Slider displays the magnitude and phase angle of the bus driving point
impedance for the selected frequency. Only those buses, which are selected in the Harmonic Study Case
Editor for plotting, are available to display. The following is a screen capture of a Harmonic Frequency
Scan one-line display.

Operation Technology, Inc. 21-45 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Plots

21.8 Plots
Plots are available for both the harmonic load flow study and the harmonic frequency scan study.
21.8.1 Harmonic Analysis Plot Selection
The plot files share the same name as the text output files, so the procedure for selecting plot files is the
same as that described in Section 20.6. To select a plot, click on the Harmonic Analysis Plots button
located on the Harmonic Analysis Toolbar.



Harmonic Load Flow
Check this radio button for plots of the harmonic load flow study.
Frequency Scan
Check this radio button for plots of the harmonic frequency scan study.
Device Type
Select a device type.
Device ID
Select the devices that you want to plot. This box lists all the devices, which are selected in the Harmonic
Study Case Editor, Plot page, for the selected device type. Multiple devices can be selected.
Operation Technology, Inc. 21-46 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Plots

Plot Type
For Harmonic Load Flow plot, following curves are available.
Waveform
Plot voltage or current waveforms for the selected devices. Curves are plotted in the time domain for one
cycle duration. The scale for voltage waveform is in percent of the nominal bus voltage. The scale for
current waveform is in percent of the fundamental branch current.
Spectrum
Plot voltage or current harmonic spectrum. Both voltage and current harmonics in spectrum charts are in
percent of their fundamental values.

For harmonic frequency scan plots, the following curves are available.
Z Magnitude
Plot the driving point impedance magnitudes for buses in Ohms.
Z Angle
Plot the driving point impedance angles for buses in radians.
21.8.2 Harmonic Load Flow Plots
A set of sample plots for a harmonic load flow study is shown below.



Operation Technology, Inc. 21-47 ETAP PowerStation 4.0
Harmonic Analysis Plots


21.8.3 Harmonic Frequency Scan Plots
A set of sample plots for a harmonic frequency scan study is shown below.




Operation Technology, Inc. 21-48 ETAP PowerStation 4.0