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BWD30203

(FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY II)


Lecture Week 1
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO FOOD PRESERVATION
Pn. Norazlin Abdullah
Cont.
FOOD FIT FOR CONSUMPTION
DETERIORATION OF FOOD QUALITY
Cont.
WHAT IS SHELF LIFE?
time during which the food product will:
remain safe;
be certain to retain desired sensory, chemical, physical and
microbiological characteristics;
comply with any label declaration of nutritional data,
when stored under the recommended conditions
FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD SHELF LIFE
AND STABILITY
Intrinsic factors
Water activity
pH value and total acidity
Redox potential
Available oxygen
Nutrients
Natural microflora and surviving
microbiological counts
Natural biochemistry of the product
formulation (enzymes, chemical reactants)
Use of preservatives in product formulation
(e.g. salt)
Extrinsic factors
Time-temperature profile during processing;
pressure in the headspace
Temperature control during storage and
distribution
Relative humidity (RH) during processing,
storage and distribution
Exposure to light (UV and IR) during
processing, storage and distribution
Environmental microbial counts during
processing, storage and distribution
Composition of atmosphere within packaging
Subsequent heat treatment (e.g. reheating or
cooking before consumption)
Consumer handling
EXTENDING SHELF LIFE
Raw material selection and quality
Product formulation and assembly
Processing environment
Processing and preservation techniques
Packaging
Storage and distribution
Consumer handling
CAUSES OF FOOD SPOILAGE
Microorganisms, their growth and activity
Action of native enzymes
Insects, rodents and parasites
Chemical reactions of the constituents of food
Environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, air and light
Time
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
Cont.
Cont.
1) ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS
2) ACTION OF NATIVE ENZYMES
3) INSECTS, PARASITES AND RODENTS
4) CHEMICAL REACTIONS
5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Temperature
Moisture and
humidity
Cont.
5) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Air
Light
Cont.
6) TIME
FOOD PRESERVATION
WHY PRESERVATION?
The agricultural industry produces raw food materials in different sectors.
Inadequate management or improper planning in agricultural production can be
overcome by avoiding inappropriate areas, times, and amounts of raw food materials
as well as by increasing storage life using simple methods of preservation.
To overcome inappropriate planning in agriculture
Value-added food products can give better-quality foods in terms of improved
nutritional, functional, convenience, and sensory properties.
Consumer demand for healthier and more convenient foods also affects the way food is
preserved.
To produce value-added products
Eating should be pleasurable to the consumer and not boring.
People like to eat wide varieties of foods with different tastes and flavors.
Variation in the diet is important, particularly in underdeveloped countries to reduce
reliance on a specific type of grain (i.e. rice or wheat)
To provide variation in diet
FOR WHOM TO PRESERVE?
Nutritional requirements and food restrictions apply differently
to different population groups.
Food poisoning can be fatal, especially in infants, pregnant
women, the elderly, and those with depressed immune
systems.
The legal aspects of food preservation are different in case of
foods produced for human and for animal consumption.
Thus, it is necessary to consider the group for whom the
products are being manufactured.